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  • 251.
    Hellmer, Stefan
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Competitive strength in iron ore production1997Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about competitive strength in the global markets for iron ore. Its focus is on the Swedish iron ore producer, LKAB, and its role in this global market. The finding of new vast deposits of iron ore in Brazil and Australia, together with falling transportation costs, meant that LKAB started to meet fierce competition in the 1970s. The company went into a deep crisis in the late 1970s and early 1980s, but has, in spite of underground mining above the Arctic Circle, survived and is now, in 1996, operating at a profit. The paper shows that a number of factors made this possible. Government grants provided to the company in the early 1980s made it possible for LKAB to reduce its operation, from a capacity around 30 million tons to 15 million tons, to better meet the market’s requirements. Introduction of higher sub-level caving and new, higher capacity machinery, increased the company’s productivity by almost 100% during the 1980s. The most important factor behind the company’s survival and sustained competitiveness is, however, its product development. The former core of LKAB, the high- phosphorus fines, is now replaced by the olivine pellet, developed in early 1980s. It is shown that an important precondition for LKAB’s development of the pellets, is its unique deposit of high grade magnetite ore. LKAB’s mining cost is shown to be relatively high, but the high grade magnetite ore means that LKAB has one of the lowest pelletizing costs in the world, which gives LKAB a favorable position on the supply curve for pellets. One of LKAB competitive advantages is therefore its rich deposit of high grade magnetite, which gives the company a special advantage in the market for pellets. The analysis in the paper also shows that the market for pellets is more price- and business cycle sensitive compared to the market for fines. These sensitivities in the pellet market, have, however, decreased over time and is now only marginally different from the market for fines, at least from a global, world market, point of view. The market for pellets, now LKAB’s major market, has therefore become more mature and pellets have become a more accepted product, used on a regular basis, and not just a product used during peaks. LKAB is shown to have a strong position in both the European pellets market and the markets for Direct Reduction-pellets (DR-pellets) in Asia and the Middle East. It is primarily Brazil and Canada that are the swing producers in Europe, LKAB is more stable, only marginally affected by business cycle swings and price changes. LKAB and companies in Brazil have a very strong position in the market for DR-pellets in Asia and the Middle East, they are basically the sole suppliers to these markets. The potentials for growth for LKAB is within the distant market for DR- pellets, a market i which it already has a strong position. The number of Electric Arc Furnaces using DRI as their primary feed is expected to grow in Asia and the Middle East opening the possibilities for this growth. The major obstacles for this growth are the opening of new DR-pellet plants in Brazil, Venezuela, and India, and of course LKAB’s own capacity limitation.

  • 252.
    Hellmer, Stefan
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    How LKAB gained competitive strength1997Ingår i: Raw Materials Report : Journal of Mineral Policy, Business and Environment, ISSN 0349-6287, Vol. 12, nr 4, s. 2-14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    LKAB (Luossavaara-Kirunavaara AB), the iron ore producer in the north of Sweden, has its comparative advantage in the market for pellets. A large deposit of magnetic ore gives LKAB a competitive cost structrue in this market and a strong market position in this market. Although the market for pellets is more sensitive compared to the market for fines, LKAB seems less sensitive than its major competitors. The rise of new steel making technologies and their impact on iron ore has, in addition, worked in favor of LKAB. The paper focuses on LKAB and identifies and analyzes the internal and external factors that made the successful focusing on the pellet market possible. The paper is based on official statistics, statistics provided by LKAB, and on personal interviews with researchers, managers, and workers within the company

  • 253.
    Hellmer, Stefan
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Iron ore production and trade in Russia1999Ingår i: Minerals & Energy - Raw Materials Report, ISSN 1404-1049, E-ISSN 1651-2286, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 21-29Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main question put forward in the paper is: Will Russia become a major competitor in the European iron ore market? The main purpose is to put the former world's largest producer of iron ore, Russia, back on the "iron ore map." Using production and trade figures for 1990 and 1995 and mine-specific data on capacity, production, products, geographic position and foreign trade for every mine in Russia, it is generally concluded that while some facts favor Russia, others do not. The long distances between the mines and foreign customers, with the accompanying freight costs, certainly do not favor Russia. Among those that do is the fact that ore at the seven exporting mines is of high quality magnetite with an iron content generally well above 60%. As magnetite ore is cheaper to pelletize than hematite ore, Russia might possess a still unexplored competitive advantage.

  • 254.
    Hellmer, Stefan
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    The role of product differentiation in the iron ore industry: the case of LKAB1996Ingår i: Resources policy, ISSN 0301-4207, E-ISSN 1873-7641, Vol. 22, nr 1-2, s. 49-60Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The analysis shows how the Swedish iron ore producer, LKAB, in spite of mining its ore underground in an arctic climate at relatively high costs, has remained internationally competitive thanks to its large-scale operation with high grade magnetite ore, pelletization and relatively short distance to both its shipping harbour and its international markets. LKAB starts at a relatively high level on the supply curve with respect to mining costs, but as the analysis continues to describe, LKAB moves gradually downwards on the supply curve on delivered pellet costs. The analysis clearly shows that LKAB has successfully managed to find its comparative advantage and that its competitive strength is sustainable, primarily thanks to its rich deposits of magnetite ore.

  • 255. Hellmer, Stefan
    et al.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Visualization of costs - the case of iron ore in Russia2000Ingår i: Resources policy, ISSN 0301-4207, E-ISSN 1873-7641, nr 3, s. 145-155Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 1990s prices have come to play an increasingly important role in Russia, and the overall question posed in the paper is in what way this will alter the production decisions in Russia. The focus is especially on the natural resources sector since these industries are located throughout most of Russia. The purpose of the study is to assess the magnitude of the expected changes in the area of iron ore production in Russia. This is an interesting case since iron ore production has increased almost everywhere in the world, but the problems in Russia have led to a decrease in the Russian production of iron ore. To assess the expected changes, the authors used a linear programming model and minimized the total costs of producing iron ore in Russia.

  • 256.
    Hellmer, Stefan
    et al.
    Blekinge tekniska högskola.
    Wårell, Linda
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    On the evaluation of market power and market dominance: the Nordic electricity market2009Ingår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 37, nr 8, s. 3235-3241Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies different concentration and dominance measures using structural indexes used to initially screen the competitive situation in a market. The Nordic and Swedish electricity markets are used as the empirical cases. Market concentration issues in the Nordic electricity market in general and in Sweden in particular have been, at least in initial screenings, approached by the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI). This article uses an alternative measure to HHI, which is based on market shares of the two largest firms in the market. The results shows that only the Swedish wholesale market has a firm that can be regarded as dominant, but only during very short periods. The results from a hypothetical merger between the second and third largest company in the Swedish wholesale market shows that when the dominant position of the largest firm is reduced, by increasing the size of the second largest firm, the threshold value indicates that competition actually will increase (contradicting to the HHI).

  • 257.
    Hellsmark, Hans
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Division of Environmental Systems Analysis.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    The Role of Pilot and Demonstration Plants in Technology Development and Innovation Policy2016Ingår i: Research Policy, ISSN 0048-7333, E-ISSN 1873-7625, Vol. 45, nr 9, s. 1743-1761Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pilot- and demonstration plants (PDPs) represent bridges between generating basic knowledge and technological breakthroughs on the one hand, and industrial applications and commercial adoption on the other. This paper reports on a longitudinal study of how two technological fields that received significant public funding evolved—biochemical conversion of biomass and thermal conversion of black liquor. In doing so, this study makes two contributions. First, it provides a framework for analyzing the roles of various types of PDPs in developing new technology. The framework highlights the learning processes taking place at and around these plants and how they contribute to reducing different types of risks. It also elaborates on the importance of actor networks and institutional preconditions, and how both network performance and institutions can be influenced through various strategies. Second, the article contributes with new insights into the challenges of innovation policy in a PDP context. A policy mix is often required because policy cannot be considered meaningfully at a single level of government and will therefore be influenced heavily by limited foresight and politics (both nationally and locally). Therefore, policy must address both the need for parallel and iterative public funding of R&D and different types of plants, as well as attempts to directly influence collaborative processes in actor networks.

  • 258.
    Hellsmark, Hans
    et al.
    SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energiteknik.
    Mossberg, Johanna
    Chalmers Industriteknik.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Innovation System Strengths and Weaknesses in Progressing Sustainable Technology: The Case of Swedish Biorefinery Development2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 259.
    Hellsmark, Hans
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Mossberg, Johanna
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Chalmers Industriteknik.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Innovation System Strengths and Weaknesses in Progressing Sustainable Technology: The Case of Swedish Biorefinery Development2016Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 131, s. 702-715Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the combination of economic challenges and uncertain policy conditions in the United States, European Union, and elsewhere, the development of advanced biorefineries has progressed slower than anticipated. This has delayed the transition to a more sustainable and less carbon-intensive economy. In this article, we adopt the technological innovation system (TIS) approach to analyze advanced biorefinery development in Sweden, a front-runner country in current development. The analysis highlights a number of system strengths (e.g., long-term research funding; significant research infrastructure; strong actor networks) that have contributed to developing the Swedish TIS, but also important system weaknesses (e.g., weak coordination among ministries; lack of industrial absorptive capacity; unclear roles) inhibiting it. The article highlights a combination of four policy measures that build on the system strengths to address the system weaknesses: (a) the implementation of a deployment policy for creating domestic niche markets; (b) improved policy timing and more structured coordination among different governmental agencies; (c) the provision of stronger incentives for mature industries to invest in R&D and improve their absorptive capacity; and (d) improved organization and financing of existing research infrastructure. In addition to the empirical contribution, the article contributes with novel insights into the TIS framework by highlighting the dynamics between system strengths and weaknesses, and suggests that system strengths should be better emphasized in future TIS studies

  • 260.
    Hellsmark, Hans
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Innovation policies for advanced biorefinery development: key considerations and lessons from Sweden2017Ingår i: Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, ISSN 1932-104X, E-ISSN 1932-1031, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 28-40Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides an innovation systems perspective on the combination of policy instrumentsthat will be required to stimulate technological development in the advanced biorefi nery fi eld.We fi rst consult the established innovation policy literature, and provide a general framework that canbe used to identify the type of policy instruments needed to develop new sustainable technology. In asecond step, we illustrate how these general principles can be applied in the context of future biorefineries based on either the thermochemical or biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomassfeedstocks. We draw heavily on the experiences of biorefi nery development in Sweden. A central conclusionis that in Sweden, and elsewhere, there are few niche markets for advanced biorefi neries and alack of long-term policy instruments for the more established renewable fuels. For this reason, there isa need for innovation policy instruments that create markets for renewable fuels and green chemicals,thus supporting technology development during a niche market phase and allowing for the fi rst commercial-scale plants to be built. The aim of such a policy would be to stimulate learning, form valuechains, and experiment with various design options on a larger scale; this complements the use oftechnology-neutral policy instruments such as carbon pricing, which primarily promotes the diffusionof mature technologies. The policy instruments that are candidates for the niche market phase include,for example, public procurement and various types of price guarantees.

  • 261.
    Hellsmark, Hans
    et al.
    SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Styrmedel och innovationspolitik för framtidens bioraffinaderier2016Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 262. Henningsson, Marianne
    et al.
    Jönsson, Sofia
    Ryberg, Johanna Bengtsson
    Bluhm, Gösta
    Bolin, Karl
    Bodén, Bosse
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Hammarlund, Karin
    Hannukka, Inga-Lena
    Johansson, Carina
    Mels, Sanna
    Mels, Tom
    Nilsson, Mats
    Skärbäck, Erik
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Waldo, Åsa
    Widerström, Ingegärd
    Åkerman, Niklas
    Vindkraftens påverkan på människors intressen2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 263.
    Henriksson, Eva
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Assessing the competitive effects of convergence mergers: the case of the gas-electricity industries2005Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this thesis has been to evaluate how the competitive effects following a convergence merger and in particular a gas-electricity merger, should be detected. This was done by employing and critically evaluating two methods proposed by Brennan (2001) and Hunger (2003), both specially designed for analysing convergence mergers and between gas and electricity utilities. The guidelines proposed by these methods were first employed on a merger in the context of a hypothetical gas-electricity market situations and secondly on the European merger between E.ON Energie AG and Ruhrgas. The German competition authority has already approved this latter merger. The analyses came to different conclusions regarding one of the hypothetical merger cases. The difference in outcome stems from a change in pre-merger market power between the gas supplier and the acquiring generator, and such a change is not recognised in the guidelines proposed by Hunger (2003). The analysis did not allow us to draw any conclusions about what guideline led to the correct conclusion regarding the competitive impacts of the merger. We can only stress the fact that these guidelines are more or less sensitive to changes in different relations in the markets where the merger takes place. The two methods also, at least partly, rely on different types of data, some of which can be more or less hard to obtain. This latter point became obvious in the analysis of the E.ON/Ruhrgas merger since some information needed to perform the analysis as proposed by Brennan (2001) was not available for the German market. This forced us to build the merger analysis on several assumptions based on the available information. However, given the information at hand the results in general suggest that the E.ON/Ruhrgas merger gives rise to anticompetitive concerns. Still, additional information about the markets and its would have allowed us to pinpoint in more detail areas where the risk for anticompetitive concerns was particular large. This indicates that one should be careful in basing convergence merger analysis on one single method.

  • 264.
    Henriksson, Eva
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Convergence mergers in the energy sector: methodological issues2005Ingår i: 28th Annual IAEE international conference: conference proceedings : globalization of energy : markets, technology, and sustainability., International Association for Energy Economics (IAEE) , 2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 265.
    Henriksson, Eva
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Industrial electricity demand and energy efficiency policy2010Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation consists of an introduction and five self-contained papers addressing the issues of industrial electricity demand and the role of energy efficiency policy. An important context for the study is the increased interest in so-called voluntary energy efficiency programs in which different types of tax exemptions are granted if the participating firms carry out energy efficiency measures following an energy audit. Paper 1 conceptually analyses the cost-effectiveness of voluntary energy efficiency programs targeted at the industrial sector. A broad methodological framework is outlined, and discussed in the empirical context of the Swedish PFE program. The results show that the presence of information inefficiencies and asymmetries represents one of the major motives for policy intervention in the industrial energy efficiency field, but the substitution of energy management systems for electricity taxes, such as that achieved in the Swedish PFE program, does not necessarily address these market failures cost-effectively. Paper II provides an empirical assessment of the electricity efficiency improvement potential in the Swedish pulp and paper industry by employing data envelopment analysis (DEA) and mill-specific input and output data for the years 1995, 2000 and 2005. The estimated electricity efficiency gap is relatively stable over time, and it equals about 1 TWh for the sample mills. This result is largely a reflection of the fact that in the pulp and paper industry electricity efficiency improvements are typically embodied in the diffusion of new capital equipment, and there is a risk that some of the reported energy efficiency measures in PFE simply constitute an inefficient speed-up of capital turnover. Overall the analysis suggests that future energy efficiency programs could be better targeted at explicitly promoting technological progress as well as at addressing the most important information and behaviour-related failures. In Paper III the electricity demand behaviour in the Swedish pulp and paper industry is analysed. A panel data set of 19 pulp and paper firms is employed within a Translog cost function, and the own- and cross-price elasticities of electricity demand as well as the impact of knowledge accumulation following private R&D on electricity use are estimated. The empirical results show that electricity use in the Swedish pulp and paper industry is relatively own-price insensitive, but they also display that already in a baseline setting firms tend to invest in private R&D that have electricity saving impacts. The objectives of Paper IV are to: (a) analyse long-run electricity demand behaviour in the Swedish mining industry; and (b) contrast this to the reported outcomes of PFE. Methodologically, a Generalized Leontief variable cost function covering a panel data set of nine mining operations over the time period 1990-2005 is used. The empirical results indicate that long-run electricity demand in the mining industry is sensitive to changes in the own-price, but the estimated electricity use increases following the tax reduction in PFE do not overweigh the self-reported electricity savings of the program. Finally, Paper V analyses the presence of structural changes in the Swedish pulp and paper industry, and we pay particular attention to altering energy demand patterns and factor substitution possibilities over time. The paper employs a flexible Translog cost function, and an unbalanced panel data set covering 32 pulp and paper mills over the time period 1974-2005. The results show evidence of more significant factor substitution possibilities over time, not the least between electricity and fossil fuels. In addition, fuel and labour demands have overall become more sensitive to short-run changes in relative prices.

  • 266.
    Henriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Structural changes in industrial electricity use: the case of the pulp and paper industry in Sweden2013Ingår i: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 305-314Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse altering energy demand patterns and energy factor substitution possibilities over time in the pulp and paper industry in order to increase our understanding of suitable policy options for increasing energy efficiency. The investigation employs a flexible translog cost function and an unbalanced panel data set covering 32 pulp and paper mills over the time period 1974-2005 in Sweden. Specifically, we test whether energy factor demand patterns in the industry for the period 1974-1990 differ from those during the latter period, 1991-2005. The empirical results reveal that even though the Swedish pulp and paper industry is relatively insensitive to changes in energy factor input prices in the short run, we find evidence of significant changes over time. According to the results, the own-price sensitivity of fuel has increased since the 1970s and the 1980s, thus indicating that fuel demand has become more sensitive to short-run changes in relative prices. The estimated cross-price elasticities between electricity and fuel also support the hypothesis of increased substitutability over time. However, the null hypothesis of an equal own-price elasticity of electricity demand across the two time periods cannot be rejected

  • 267.
    Henriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    The cost-effectiveness of voluntary energy efficiency programs2009Ingår i: Energy for Sustainable Development, ISSN 0973-0826, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 235-243Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to conceptually analyze the cost-effectiveness of voluntary energy efficiency programs targeted at the industrial sector. In the paper a broad methodological framework for such an assessment is outlined, and this is applied empirically to discuss the potential cost-effectiveness of the ongoing Swedish energy efficiency program PFE. The focus lies on the presence of asymmetric information and bounded rationality, and the paper discusses how these factors may influence the cost-effectiveness of these types of programs. We also highlight the impact of the self-selection mechanism on the program's cost-effectiveness. The results show that the presence of information inefficiencies and asymmetries represents one of the major motives for policy intervention in the industrial energy efficiency field, but the substitution of energy management systems for electricity taxes-such as that achieved in the Swedish PFE program-does not necessarily address these asymmetries entirely cost-effectively. First, the presence of firm-government information asymmetries implies that electricity taxes could do a better job in energy-intensive companies while an energy management system could be more effective in companies with a low energy-intensive production process due to the lack of prior experience of energy efficiency measures. The current set-up of PFE induces the reverse situation. Second, although firm-internal information asymmetries may well exist in the participating energy-intensive companies-implying that energy management systems could do a good job in detecting cost-effective measures-this is likely to be even more true for the non-participating companies (again due to their comparatively low accumulated knowledge in the energy efficiency field). It should however also be acknowledged that this analysis is static, and in the long-run voluntary energy efficiency programs may lead to significant learning impacts and-given the public good characteristics of this new knowledge-to important spillover effects.

  • 268.
    Henriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Wårell, Linda
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Industrial electricity demand and energy efficiency policy: the case of the Swedish mining industry2014Ingår i: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 477-491Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze long-run electricity demand behavior in the Swedish mining industry with special emphasis on the impact of energy prices and private research and development (R & D) on electricity use. Methodologically, we estimate a generalized Leontief variable cost function using a panel data set of nine mining operations over the time period 1990-2005. Since the lower boundary of a set of short-run cost functions confines the long-run cost function, we can compute the long-run own- and cross-price elasticities of electricity demand. The empirical results indicate that long-run electricity demand in the mining industry is sensitive to changes in the own price, and already in a baseline setting Swedish mining companies tend to allocate significant efforts towards improving energy efficiency, in part through private R & D. From a policy perspective, the results imply that taxes (and tax exemptions) on electricity can have significant long-run impacts on electricity use. Moreover, future evaluations of so-called voluntary energy efficiency programs must increasingly recognize the already existing incentives to reduce energy use in energy-intensive industries

  • 269.
    Henriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Wårell, Linda
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Industrial electricity demand and energy efficiency policy: The role of price changes and private R&D in the Swedish pulp and paper industry2012Ingår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 47, s. 437-446Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to analyze electricity demand behaviour in the Swedish pulp and paper industry in the context of the increased interest in so-called voluntary energy efficiency programs. In these programs tax exemptions are granted if the participating firms carry out energy efficiency measures following an energy audit. We employ a panel data set of 19 pulp and paper firms, and estimate both the own- and cross-price elasticities of electricity demand as well as the impact of knowledge accumulation following private R&D on electricity use. The empirical results show that electricity use in the Swedish pulp and paper industry is relatively own-price insensitive, and the self-reported electricity savings following the voluntary so-called PFE program support the notion of important information asymmetries at the company level. However, the results display that already in a baseline setting pulp and paper firms tend to invest in private R&D that have electricity saving impacts, and our model simulations suggest that up to about one-third of the industry sector's self-reported electricity savings in PFE could be attributable to pure baseline effects. Future evaluations of voluntary energy efficiency programs must increasingly recognize the already existing incentives to reduce energy use in energy-intensive industries.

  • 270.
    Henriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Wårell, Linda
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Electricity demand and factor substitution in the Swedish mining industry: an econometric approach2009Ingår i: 8th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (ICARD) and Securing the Future: Mining, Metals & the Environment in a Sustainable Society 2009: Skelleftea, Sweden, 22 - 26 June 2009, Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 271. Holmström, Michael
    et al.
    Jakobsson, Fredrik
    Adoption av det balanserade styrkortet: en kvalitativ och kvantitativ studie av kommuners beslut att adoptera det balanserade styrkortet samt om motiven till adoption påverkar modellens upplevda nytta2009Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 272.
    Hultman, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Olsson, Viktor
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Miljöeffekterna av den svenska flygskatten?: En analys av olika styrmedels miljöeffekter på flygmarknaden2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I april 2018 realiserade den svenska regeringen förslaget om skatt på flygresor. Den empiriska undersökningen som samlat material från andra länder inom EU med liknande flygskatter visar på varierande effekter på miljön. Syftet med studien är att undersöka vilket styrmedel mellan en flygskatt och en kvotplikt som medför störst klimatreducering för den svenska flygmarknadens koldioxidutsläpp. Studien tillämpar efterfrågeelasticiteter, korspriselasticiteter och sekundärdata från internationella och nationella institutioner för att estimera flygskattens samt en kvotplikts miljöeffekter på det svenska flyget. Resultatet visar på att en kvotplikt reducerar koldioxidutsläppen till en högre grad än dagens flygskatt. Flygskattens komparerade miljöeffekt härleds till resenärernas förutsättningar gällande substitut, geografiskt läge och överflyttningseffekt på den internationella flygmarknaden.

  • 273.
    Hultman, Magnus
    et al.
    The University of Leeds.
    Strandberg, Carola
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Destination personality fit: When and how does it matter?2017Ingår i: 2017 GIKA Conference Proceedings, 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 274.
    Humavindu, Michael Nokokure
    et al.
    Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap. Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Community based wildlife management failing to link conservation and financial viability2015Ingår i: Animal Conservation, ISSN 1367-9430, E-ISSN 1469-1795, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 4-13Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the considerable popularity of community-based wildlife management as a conservation tool, it is of interest to assess the long-run sustainability of this policy not only in conservation terms, but also in financial terms. In this paper, we use cost–benefit analysis to study the social and financial sustainability of a large set of community conservancies in Namibia, one of the few countries where community-based wildlife management policies have been in place long enough to assess their long-term viability. We find that, although the social sustainability is generally good, the financial sustainability is problematic – especially for the younger conservancies: there is no real link between conservation achievements and financial success. This calls into question the long-term sustainability of many of these conservancies: if they are unable to generate enough revenue to pay for their running expenditure, they will eventually fail – even if they are successful from a conservation point of view. Similar problems, linked to the way in which external funders have pushed for additional conservancies to be established regardless of financial considerations, are likely to be present in other countries that have implemented such programmes.

  • 275.
    Humavindu, Michael Nokokure
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap. Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Continuous financial support will be needed2015Ingår i: Animal Conservation, ISSN 1367-9430, E-ISSN 1469-1795, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 18-19Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 276.
    Humavindu, Michael Nokokure
    et al.
    Namibian Competition Commission, Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Key sector analysis of the Namibian economy2013Ingår i: Journal of Economic Structures, ISSN 2193-2409, Vol. 2, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper presents key sector research for the Namibian economy, based on input–output and Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) analyzes. The analyses were derived from a Namibian SAM for the 2004 period, using 28 economic sectors. We find that mining and government services are currently key sectors. Some manufacturing and services sectors have important linkages in terms of output effects, whilst for employment and income effects, the agriculture sector is paramount. The results obtained are useful for policy purposes in terms of identifying those sectors where interventions are likely to have the greatest impact on the Namibian economy.

  • 277.
    Häggquist, Elisabeth
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Added value of hydrogeological information in the case of PFA's contamination2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 278.
    Häggquist, Elisabeth
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Hur upplevs geologisk information & vad kan göra det mer användbart?2014Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Svenska myndigheter arbetar med att skapa en effektivare samhällsförvaltning med e-tjänster som ska ge bättre service. I den svenska nationella geodatastrategin finns mål som ska leda till ökad användarvänlighet, tillgänglighet och som ska tillgodose behov från användarna. Som en del av forskningsprojektet ”Det samhällsekonomiska värdet av geologisk information” undersöktes användningen av geologisk information inom svenska kommuner. Enkätresultaten gav insikt i hur geologisk information upplevs i termer av fördelar och nackdelar. Vidare ger enkäten en insikt i vad respondenterna anser skulle kunna göra den geologiska informationen mer användbar.

  • 279.
    Häggquist, Elisabeth
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    The Adoption of Geological Information in the Public Sector: A Joint Estimation with Related Information2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to examine the impacts of individual, social and organizational effects on the adoption of geological information in the public sector, and to test if this information is jointly adopted with related information. Variables covering the motivation to adopt, perceived skills, perceived usefulness, gender, working unit and collegial advice are included in the estimation. The related information considered in this paper includes map data, demographic information and building information. The empirical results build in data from Swedish municipalities, and suggest that the adoption of geological and related information is a joint and complementary decision. Officials tend to adopt both geological and related information, which supports the idea for combined geoinformation products. The results also indicate that collegial advice, perceived skills from education, motivation to adopt, perceived usefulness, gender and working unit affiliation affect the adoption of geological information. Perceived usefulness has the largest effect on the likelihood of adopting, followed by motivation to adopt and perceived skills from education. This confirms the importance of potential adopters’ perception of the characteristics of the information. Moreover, the results also suggest that interpersonal contacts act as an important source of information that can affect the level of individual involvement with the information.

  • 280.
    Häggquist, Elisabeth
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    The Economic Value and Adoption of Geological Information in Sweden2015Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purposes of this thesis are to: (a) provide a review of previous research on the economic value of geological information, including the identification of important lessons from such work: and (b) assess the current use and non-use of geological information in Swedish municipalities. The thesis consists of three papers all related to the assessment or adoption of geological information.Paper I provides a review of previous research on the economic value of geological information and other earth observations as well as related products, services and infrastructure. Furthermore, the paper identifies important lessons and issues that require increased attention in future research. The review of prior research shows that significant economic benefits are attached to the use of geological information. The value of geological information has typically been measured in terms of avoided costs. Still, it is difficult to compare results across studies since they differ in scope and make alternative assumptions concerning which sectors to cover. Furthermore, previous research is not uniform in its treatment of potential (rather than only existing) users, and it employs varying conceptions of avoided costs. The paper concludes that future research should devote more attention to the public and experience good characteristics of this type of information, thus highlighting the preconditions for information adoption as well as addressing the role of potential users. A number of specific methodological challenges also deserve further scrutiny in future research, such as the use of discount rates and benefit-transfer approaches in the empirical context of geological information.Based on the results of Paper I it is important to also analyze what, beyond technological advances, influences the adoption of geological information. Paper II and III investigate the determinants of adopting geological information in the public sector with an emphasis on Swedish municipalities. Paper II contributes to the literature by theoretical explanations and empirical findings on individual and organizational effects influencing the adoption of geological information. In this paper an information adoption model is proposed and tested against data collected from 677 officials in Swedish municipalities. The model is estimated using linear probability (LPM) and instrument variable generalized method of moment (IV-GMM) approaches. The results suggest that perceived advantages have the largest effect on the likelihood of adopting geological information, but also follow-up education (motivation) and gender are found to affect adoption behavior. In addition, the results also indicate a group effect within working units. Some implications of the findings and future research areas are discussed.Paper III further investigates the adoption of geological information in the public sector by considering social effects (collegial advice), and whether the information is jointly adopted with related information. The related information considered in this paper is other geoinformation such as map data, demographic information concerning population or building information. The empirical analysis builds on the survey sent out to officials at Swedish municipalities. The information adoption model is estimated using probit and bivariate probits. The results suggest that the adoption of geological and related information is a joint and complementary decision. It is also found that collegial advice, perceived skills from education, motivation to adopt, perceived advantage, gender and working unit affect the likelihood of adopting geological information.

  • 281.
    Häggquist, Elisabeth
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    The Economic Value and Use of Geological Information2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this thesis is to investigate the economic value and use of geological information. Earthobservations of a geological nature, may have profound impacts on peoples everyday lives. Geological informationplays a key role in addressing the challenges of sustainable development, and contributes to improved decisionmakingprocesses related to, for instance, land degradation and water protection. Still, few have researched theeconomic values attached to such information. This thesis contains an introduction and five self-contained papers.Paper (I) provides a review of previous research addressing the economic value of geological information andother earth observations, as well as, related products, services and infrastructure. The paper also identifiesimportant lessons and topics that require increased attention in future research. The review of prior research showsthat significant economic benefits can be attached to the use of geological information. Still, it is often difficult tocompare results across studies since they differ in scope and make alternative assumptions concerning whichsectors to cover. Furthermore, previous research is not uniform in its treatment of potential (rather than onlyexisting) users, and it employs varying conceptions of avoided costs. The paper concludes that future researchshould devote more attention to the public and experience good characteristics of geological information and othertypes of earth observations, thus highlighting the preconditions for information adoption as well as addressing therole of potential users.Papers (II) and (III) investigate the determinants of adopting geological information in the public sector, with anemphasis on Swedish municipalities. Paper (II) contributes to the literature by providing theoretical explanationsand empirical findings on various individual and organizational factors influencing the adoption of geologicalinformation. The paper employs an information adoption model based on literature on diffusion of innovation. Itis estimated using data collected from 677 officials in all Swedish municipalities. The results indicate thatperceived usefulness and educational efforts have the largest influence on the adoption decision followed by agender effect. Furthermore, the results also show that organizational effects exist at the working unit level, butthere appear to be no spatial interactions across municipal boundaries.Paper (III) further investigates the adoption of geological information in the public sector by considering whetheranalyses of user patterns can be improved by considering an interrelated model estimation involving two types ofgeoinformation. The empirical tests focus on whether there are gender differences in how peer advice affects theuse of geoinformation. The information adoption model is estimated using probit and bivariate probits. Overall theresults indicate a more accurate prediction pattern when a secondary geoinformation decision was included, thussuggesting that different types of geoinformation should be analyzed jointly. The officials at Swedishmunicipalities tend to use both types of geoinformation, thus alluding to a demand for combined geoinformationproducts among the target population. Finally, there is evidence of women’s decisions to use geoinformation beingaffected by peer advice.Paper (IV) focuses on the economic value of hydrogeological information, namely water quality. The willingnessto pay (WTP) for reduced health risks following the exposure to emerging contaminants and microbial outbreaksin drinking water is assessed. Emerging contaminants, such as highly fluorinated substances (e..g., PFOA andPFOS), have been found in drinking water post treatment on a global level. The drinking water is the main sourceof exposure for humans. The WTP is assessed through a choice experiment approach, which also accounts fordifferences in perceptions between PFASs and microbial outbreaks due to parasites or bacteria. Knowledge aboutpublic preferences across different health threats is key to assessing support for policies aimed at reducing suchhealth risks. A majority of the respondents were found to have a higher WTP for reducing the risk of chemicalexposure to PFASs than reducing the corresponding risk of microbial outbreaks.In Paper (IV) it is evident that risk adverse individuals have a higher WTP for reducing health risks of drinkingwater, compared with individuals with other risk preferences. However, there is no consensus in the literature onhow to accurately capture risk preferences beyond financial decisions. Paper (V) therefore discusses thetheoretical assumptions used when measuring risk preferences and whether it is necessary to address domain riskspecific preferences. In order to test if a general risk preference is enough we present a hypothetical experimenton risk preferences for the health and financial domains, respectively. We also consider the design of theexperiment and compare the format with a reduced form to control for potential framing effects. The riskpreferences were elicited using switch multiple price list lotteries with hypothetical payments, and the questionswere adapted to the health domain by framing the lotteries as improvements in current health status using a visualanalogue scale as the reference point. The results show that individual risk preferences tend to be relativelyinconsistent across the two studied domains, and that the respondents appear to be more risk averse in the healthdomain than in the financial. The majority of the respondents tend to give too much weight to low-probabilityevents, which is consistent with cumulative prospect theory.

  • 282.
    Häggquist, Elisabeth
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    The interrelated use of geological information and other types of geoinformation in local governments2017Ingår i: Transactions on GIS, ISSN 1361-1682, E-ISSN 1467-9671, Vol. 21, nr 5, s. 1010-1022Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing interest in the use of geoinformation in government decision-making. Studies on the usability of geological information, which is one type of geoinformation, have however been scarce in the literature. A system built for an efficient organization may, therefore, not be catering to the needs of the individual user and understanding the perceived barriers to using geological information should be an important goal of geodata implementation. The objectives of this article are to: (1) investigate whether the analyses of user patterns are improved by considering an interrelated estimation with two types of geoinformation, and (2) explore whether there are gender differences in how peer advice affects the use of geoinformation. The data were collected in 2014 through a web survey, and the sample consisted of 390 women and 287 men working in Swedish municipalities. The results indicates a more accurate prediction pattern when a secondary geoinformation decision was included, thus suggesting that different types of geoinformation should be jointly analyzed. The officials tend to use both types of geoinformation, alluding to a demand for combined geoinformation products among the target population. Finally, there is evidence of women's decision to use geoinformation being affected by peer advice

  • 283.
    Häggquist, Elisabeth
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Valuation of health risk reduction in municipal drinking water2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Prioritization of policy measures concerning health risks is required in modern water management. In this project we elicit individuals willingness to pay (WTP) for health risk reduction through a choice experiment based on users of the municipal drinking water. The commodity tap water is descried as a bundle of attributes, each describing some valuable characteristics. We are looking at the public’s preferences with respect to reducing water-soluble perfluorinated alkylate substances (PFASs) in their tap water. PFASs have been used in commercial products such as fire-fighting foams and paints, yet is mostly known as a main ingredient in Scotchgard and Teflon. PFASs are interesting environmental risks to study since they are emerging persistent organic pollutions that bioaccumulate in humans and nature. Moreover, high exposure of PFASs are connected to an increased risk of infertility. To our knowledge, this paper is the first effort to elicit willingness to pay (WTP) for health risk reductions from PFASs, focusing of the trade-offs between infertility and microbial risks.

  • 284.
    Häggquist, Elisabeth
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Willingness to pay for reduction in the health risks posed by emerging contaminants (PFASs) and microbial outbreaks in drinking waterManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 285.
    Häggquist, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Risk preferences in Health and Financial choicesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 286.
    Häggquist, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Nilsson, Isabelle
    Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC.
    Factors influencing the adoption of geological information in Swedish municipalities2017Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 60, nr 6, s. 1112-1126Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A geological map includes a description (e.g., geological composition and structures) as well as an interpretation of materials (e.g., porosity or extraction capacity). Geological maps are pertinent to city planning, infrastructure projects and environmental impact assessments. While the maps are identified in the literature as beneficial to society, few have discussed the adoption of geological maps. By investigating factors influencing information adoption, one can identify barriers for potential users. We consider the literature on diffusion of innovation and discuss the effects of information being a so-called ‘experience good,’ which implies high opportunity costs and sunk costs. The framework is empirically tested on survey data collected from officials in Swedish municipalities. The results suggest that perceived usefulness and educational effort have the largest influence on the adoption decision. Furthermore, the results indicate that organizational effects exist on the working unit level, but there are no spatial interactions across municipal boundaries.

  • 287.
    Häggquist, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    The economic value of geological information: Synthesis and directions for future research2015Ingår i: Resources policy, ISSN 0301-4207, E-ISSN 1873-7641, Vol. 43, s. 91-100Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Geological information can play a key role in addressing challenges of sustainable development such as land degradation and groundwater protection, and contribute to improved decision-making processes. In this paper we: (a) provide a review of previous research on the economic value of geological information and other earth observations as well as related products, services and infrastructure; and (b) identify important lessons from this work as well as methodological challenges that require increased attention in future research. The review of prior research shows significant economic benefits attached to the generation of this type of public information. The value of geological information has typically been measured in terms of avoided costs. Still, it is difficult to compare results across studies since they differ in scope and make alternative assumptions concerning which sectors to cover. Furthermore, previous research is not uniform in their treatment of potential (rather than only existing) users, and employ varying conceptions of avoided costs. The paper concludes that future research should devote more attention to the public and experience good characteristics of this type of information, thus highlighting the preconditions for information adoption as well as addressing the role of potential users. A number of specific methodological challenges also deserve further scrutiny in future research, such as the use of discount rates and benefit-transfer approaches. We also provide some thoughts on how to proceed with such research.

  • 288.
    Häggquist, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Wårell, Linda
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Challenges and opportunities with charging for geological information in land use planning2016Ingår i: European Geologist Magazine, ISSN 1028-267X, nr 41, s. 31-34Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Land use should meet current and future societal needs while keeping conflicts bounded and functional (e.g. at a minimum). Analysis of mapped data has become an important part of understanding and managing land use. This paper discusses the economic characteristics of geological information in relation to land use conflicts and the impact of adopting different pricing models for the provision of geological information. Moreover, we highlight some aspects that may make geological maps less pertinent than other geoinformation sources, given the often scarce data, slow diffusion and the high cost of investing in additional information.

  • 289.
    Hübbert, Alexander
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Lindström, Linda
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Could confidence predict households’ debt growth?2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats har analyserat om hushållens förtroende är en signifikant variabel för attförutse hushållens skuldtillväxt i Sverige. De svenska hushållens skulder har ensignifikant betydelse för den svenska ekonomin. Men sårbarheten för dessa skulder harökat med tiden. För att testa om hushållens förtroende är en signifikant variabel för attförutse hushållens skuldtillväxt i Sverige har en ekonometrisk modell med förändringeni hushållens skulder som en beroende variabel och förändringen i reporäntan,arbetslöshet, bruttonationalprodukten och konsumentförtroendeindex som oberoendevariabler. Konsumentförtroendeindex användes som en ersättare för att mäta hushållensförtroende används. Den var fördröjd med en tidsperiod för att kunna testa omhushållens föregående uppfattningar påverkade framtida skuldtillväxt för hushållen.Resultaten från regressionsanalysen antyder på att hushållens förtroende inte är ensignifikant variabel för att kunna förutse hushållens skuldtillväxt.

  • 290.
    Ilstedt, U.
    et al.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences—SLU.
    Tobella, A. Bargues
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences—SLU.
    Bazie, H.R.
    Institut de l'Environnement et de Recherches Agricoles, Departement Productions.
    Bayala, J.H.
    World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), West and Central Africa Regional Office, Sahel.
    Verbeeten, E.
    Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam.
    Nyberg, Gert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Sanou, J.
    Institut de l'Environnement et de Recherches Agricoles, Departement Productions.
    Benegas, L.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences—SLU.
    Murdiyarso, D.
    Department of Geophysics and Meteorology, Bogor Agricultural University, Jl..
    Laudon, H.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences—SLU.
    Sheil, D.
    Center for International Forestry Research, Jl. CIFOR, Situgede, Bogor.
    Malmer, A.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences—SLU.
    Intermediate tree cover can maximize groundwater recharge in the seasonally dry tropics2016Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, artikel-id 21930Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Water scarcity contributes to the poverty of around one-third of the world's people. Despite many benefits, tree planting in dry regions is often discouraged by concerns that trees reduce water availability. Yet relevant studies from the tropics are scarce, and the impacts of intermediate tree cover remain unexplored. We developed and tested an optimum tree cover theory in which groundwater recharge is maximized at an intermediate tree density. Below this optimal tree density the benefits from any additional trees on water percolation exceed their extra water use, leading to increased groundwater recharge, while above the optimum the opposite occurs. Our results, based on groundwater budgets calibrated with measurements of drainage and transpiration in a cultivated woodland in West Africa, demonstrate that groundwater recharge was maximised at intermediate tree densities. In contrast to the prevailing view, we therefore find that moderate tree cover can increase groundwater recharge, and that tree planting and various tree management options can improve groundwater resources. We evaluate the necessary conditions for these results to hold and suggest that they are likely to be common in the seasonally dry tropics, offering potential for widespread tree establishment and increased benefits for hundreds of millions of people

  • 291.
    Jaunky, Vishal
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Are shocks to copper consumption persistent?2013Ingår i: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 26, nr 1-2, s. 29-38Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates whether shocks to copper consumption for 37 countries over the period 1967-2010 are transitory or persistent. A variety of time-series unit root tests is first employed. This is followed by several generations of panel data unit root tests. The presence of structural breaks is taken into account while performing those tests. In addition, cross-sectional dependence is detected and effectively controlled when applying some new generations of panel unit root tests. Copper consumption is found to follow a non-stationary process for about 86% of the countries. There is also overwhelming evidence of similar process when panel unit root tests are applied. Generally, shocks to copper consumption are found to be persistent.

  • 292.
    Jaunky, Vishal
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Divergence in technical efficiency of electric utilities: evidence from the SAPP2013Ingår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 62, s. 419-430Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the convergence pattern of technical efficiency of the South Africa Power Pool (SAPP) utilities over the period April 2003–March 2010 by means of parametric and non-parametric techniques. Technical efficiency scores are computed via both stochastic frontier analysis and data envelopment analysis. Mixed results are obtained from the neoclassical convergence approaches. In addition, distribution dynamics methods reveal some evidence of club-formation and this result is supported with the occurrence of γ-divergence. Taken as a whole, technical efficiency is found to diverge among the utilities operating in the power pool.

  • 293.
    Jaunky, Vishal Chandr
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    A cointegration and causality analysis of copper consumption and economic growth in rich countries2013Ingår i: Resources policy, ISSN 0301-4207, E-ISSN 1873-7641, Vol. 38, nr 4, s. 628-639Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper examines the copper consumption-economic growth nexus for 16 rich economies from the period 1966 to 2010. Various generations of panel unit root and cointegration tests are applied. Both series are found to be integrated of order one. Evidence of cointegration is found especially when controlling for breaks and long-run cross-sectional dependence. Causality is investigated using a vector error-correction mechanism (VECM) framework. At individual level, unidirectional causality running from economic growth to copper consumption is unraveled for Finland, France and UK in the long-run. Unidirectional causality is also found running from copper consumption to economic growth for Spain. Long-run bi-directionality between economic growth and copper consumption is found for Belgium, Greece, Italy, Japan and South Korea. The neutrality hypothesis holds for Australia, Austria, Canada, Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden and USA in the long-run. Taken as a whole, panel causality test reveals a long-run unidirectional causality running from economic growth to copper consumption.

  • 294.
    Jaunky, Vishal Chandr
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Are Shocks to Aluminium Consumption Transitory or Permanent?2013Ingår i: Review of Applied Economics, ISSN 0973-1687, Vol. 9, nr 1-2, s. 21-37Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates whether shocks to aluminium consumption for 36 countries over the period 1967-2010 are transitory or permanent. A variety of time-series and panel data unit root tests are employed. The presence of structural breaks is taken into account when performing those tests. Following the Narayan-Popp univariate unit root test, aluminium consumption series for approximately 77.8% of countries is found to follow a non-stationary process. However unit root tests tend to have low power when the time span is relatively short and the results should be treated with some caution. Most of the panel unit root tests also point towards similar process. While these shocks can be transmitted to other economic sectors, past behaviours of aluminium consumption cannot be used for forecasting purposes. Mineral policies will have a permanent impact on the long-run trend of aluminium consumption

  • 295.
    Jaunky, Vishal Chandr
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Does a Material Kuznets Curve Exist for Copper?2014Ingår i: Economic Papers - Economic Society of Australia, ISSN 0812-0439, E-ISSN 1759-3441, Vol. 33, nr 4, s. 374-390Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The material Kuznets curve (MKC) hypothesis with reference to copper for 16 high-income countries over the period 1966 to 2010 is investigated. The Narayan and Narayan (2010) testing framework is applied. Recent generations of panel unit root and cointegration tests are performed. The variables are found to be I(1) and cointegrated. Unidirectional causality running from real gross domestic product per capita to copper intensity is uncovered in the long-run. While controlling for technological development, the MKC hypothesis is found to hold at individual levels for Austria, Italy and Portugal as well as for the whole panel.

  • 296.
    Jaunky, Vishal Chandr
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Jeetoo, Jamiil
    Faculty of Social Science and Humanities, Department of Economics and Statistics, University of Mauritius, Reduit, Mauritius.
    Bajah, Caitanyadass
    School of Business, Management and Finance, University of Technology, Mauritius, La Tour Koenig, Pointe Aux Sables, Mauritius.
    Ramesh, Vani
    Department of Commerce and Management, REVA University, Bangalore, India.
    The Importance of Understanding the Anti-Corruption Legislation to Promote Corruption Reporting: Lessons from Mauritius2019Ingår i: International Journal of Public Administration, ISSN 0190-0692, E-ISSN 1532-4265Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Anti-corruption campaigns usually focus on educating the population. However, little is known about the impact of knowledge, especially understanding of the anti-corruption legislation and the function of Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC) body in practice. This study sheds light on the factors influencing the likelihood of reporting a case of corruption in Mauritius. Cross-sectional data are compiled from a household survey with a sample size of 380 observations. To perform the investigation, an ordered probit model is employed. Knowledge about the Prevention of Corruption Act (PoCA) is found to be a crucial variable in determining the functional form of the empirical model. In general, media consumption and knowledge about the PoCA increases the probability of reporting an act of corruption, while Interest in politics decreases the likelihood of reporting  a case of corruption to the ICAC. In addition, age, educational attainment, income level, family size and civil status are found to be important predictors of corruption reporting.

  • 297.
    Jaunky, Vishal Chandr
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Jeetoo, Jamiil
    Department of Economics and StatisticsUniversity of Mauritius, Reduit, Mauritius.
    Rampersad, Shreya
    Department of Economics and StatisticsUniversity of Mauritius, Reduit, Mauritius.
    Happiness and Consumption in Mauritius: An Exploratory Study of Socio-Economic Dimensions, Basic Needs, Luxuries and Personality Traits2019Ingår i: Journal of Happiness Studies, ISSN 1389-4978, E-ISSN 1573-7780Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mainstream economics perceive an individual as highly individualistic, presuming that he/she consumes goods in the most efficient way to optimize his/her level of happiness. This study attempts to explore the nexus between socio-economic dimensions, basic needs, luxuries and personality traits and happiness in Mauritius. Material consumption and happiness are projected to be positively and strongly related. This is usually illuminated in terms of the increased possibilities to satisfy basic needs and luxuries along with other motives which additional spending provides. Other instrumental aspects of consumption, such as its relative, community-based and hedonic magnitudes are accounted. Cross-sectional data are compiled from a household survey with a sample size of 1015 observations. To conduct the analysis, an ordered probit model is applied. The general conclusion is drawn upon the results that socio-economic indicators like educational attainment, residential location, family size, income in addition to the intermediate needs deprivation index, brand consciousness, fashion innovativeness, commercial interest, shopping enjoyment, hedonism, bandwagon effect and personality traits are significantly related to people’s happiness.

  • 298.
    Jaunky, Vishal Chandr
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Are Shocks to Wood Fuel Production Permanent? Evidence from the EU2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 299.
    Jaunky, Vishal Chandr
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Are Shocks to Wood Fuel Production Permanent? Evidence from the EU2015Ingår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 8, nr 11, s. 12718-12728Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates whether shocks (economic effects) to wood fuel production for 18 countries of the European Union (EU) over the period 1961–2012 are temporary or persistent. A variety of time-series and panel data unit root tests are employed. The presence of structural breaks is taken into account when performing those tests. Wood production in approximately 78% of the countries is found to follow a non-stationary process supported by the result that most of the panel unit root tests also point towards a non-stationary process. This indicates that the economic effect will tend to be persistent and suggests that policies affecting wood fuel production, implicitly or explicitly, will have enduring effects. For instance, forest conservation policies will persistently reduce the wood fuel production level.

  • 300.
    Jaunky, Vishal Chandr
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Dynamics of Timber Market Integration in Sweden2015Ingår i: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 6, nr 12, s. 4617-4633, artikel-id 17Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the performance of the timber markets (Scots pine, Pinus silvestris L. and Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) Karst.) by evaluating the order of market integration in three Swedish regions (Central, Northern, and Southern). Quarterly data of delivery prices are employed over the period 1999Q1–2012Q4. Various unit root and cointegration tests have been computed. The results indicate that the variables are integrated of first order and co-integrated, especially after controlling for structural breaks. This supports the law-of-one-price hypothesis (LOP). However, the effects of structural shocks on forestry are arguably significant and these are controlled for while performing a vector error-correction mechanism (VECM)-based Granger-causality test. Bi-directional causality between the Northern and central markets is uncovered in the short-run. In the long-run, a similar causal effect is detected between Northern and Southern markets while the central market emerges as the price leader. Further investigation is carried out using variance decompositions and impulse response functions and these approaches also tend to confirm the existence of a single market well, as price interdependence between markets.

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