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  • 251.
    Derhamy, Hasan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Drozdov, Dmitrii
    Computer Science Department, Penza State University, Penza.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    van Deventer, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Orchestration of Arrowhead services using IEC 61499: Distributed Automation Case Study2016Ingår i: Proceedings of 2016 IEEE 20th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2016), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016, artikel-id 7733650Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel approach to automationof flexible manufacturing systems with mechatronic intelligenceand distributed control. The mechatronic intelligence layer isimplemented using a combination of wireless sensor/actuatornetworks with service-oriented architecture, where services arelocated at the device level, as well as in local and global Cloudsfollowing the Arrowhead framework.The machine/floor level coordination is implemented using thedistributed automation architecture of IEC 61499, which is alsoused as a graphical tool for orchestration of services.The paper discusses the enablers developed in-order to combineIEC 61499 and Arrowhead and the use is illustrated ona laboratory scale flexible factory example. By integration ofIndustrial IoT with IEC 61499, we envision that large gains interms of engineering effort and system operation performancecan be made.

  • 252.
    Derhamy, Hasan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    IoT Interoperability: On-demand and low latency Transparent Multi-protocol Translator2017Ingår i: IEEE Internet of Things Journal, ISSN 2327-4662, Vol. 4, nr 5, s. 1754-1763Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Industrial Internet of Things there is a clear need for a high level of interoperability between independently developedsystems, often from different vendors. Traditional methods of interoperability including protocol gateways and adapters, are often usedat the network layer. Recent work on application interoperability has emphasized the use of middleware or protocol proxy/gateway.However, middleware tends to move the interoperability problem rather than solving it, and there are scalability issues with increasingthe number of proxies; re-configuration effort, and required bandwidth and processing overheads.This paper proposes a secure, on-demand and transparent protocol translator for the Industrial Internet of Things. Targeting thechallenge of interoperability between IP-based communication protocols, the paper analyses current solutions and develops a set ofrequirements to be met by IoT protocol interoperability. The proposed protocol translator is not a middleware, it is a SOA-basedparticipant, it is used on-demand when needed, it does not introduce design time dependencies, it operates transparently, it supportslow-latency, and it is secured through the use of Arrowhead authorization and authentication.

  • 253.
    Derhamy, Hasan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    System of System Composition based on Decentralized Service Oriented Architecture2019Ingår i: IEEE Systems Journal, ISSN 1932-8184, E-ISSN 1937-9234Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As society has progressed through periods of evolution and revolution, technology has played a key role as an enabler. In the same manner, mechanical machines of the 1800s drove the industrial revolution, now digitalized machines are driving another industrial revolution. Manufacturers are increasing the digital footprint on the factory floor. It is challenging to harness the vast amounts of data generated, stored, analyzed, archived, and returned. Data centralization has several well-known challenges, such as collection bottlenecks, secure retrieval, single point of failure, and data scheme fragility as data heterogeneity increases. This paper proposes a method of information distribution based on the principle of data at its source. It proposes that contextual data be used at runtime through the creation of dynamic queries that build compositions of different systems. Such system of systems (SoS) compositions handle the flow of data across its life cycle and present it as information to the initiating system. The proposal starts by creating a graph model of the Arrowhead framework. Then, building on the graph model, the query-based approach for specifying, validating, and forming the SoS is proposed. The proposed graph model allows for unambiguous description of systems and their interrelations, including security relations. The proposed composer operates on the edge computing hardware and gives the production floor the ability to extract information without impacting the overall operation of the factory.

  • 254.
    Derhamy, Hasan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Priller, Peter
    AVL List GmbH, Graz.
    A survey of commercial frameworks for the Internet of Things2015Ingår i: Proceedings of 2015 IEEE 20th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2015): Luxembourg, 8-11 Sept. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, artikel-id 7301661Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2011 Ericsson and Cisco estimated 50 billion Internet connected devices by 2020, encouraged by this industry is developing application frameworks to scale the Internet of Things. This paper presents a survey of commercial frameworks and platforms designed for developing and running Internet of Things applications. The survey covers frameworks supported by big players in the software and electronics industries. The frameworks are evaluated against criteria such as architectural approach, industry support, standards based protocols and interoperability, security, hardware requirements, governance and support for rapid application development. There is a multitude of frameworks available and here a total 17 frameworks and platforms are considered. The intention of this paper is to present recent developments in commercial IoT frameworks and furthermore, identify trends in the current design of frameworks for the Internet of Things; enabling massively connected cyber physical systems.

  • 255.
    Derhamy, Hasan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    van Deventer, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    In-network Processing for Context-Aware SOA-based Manufacturing Systems2017Ingår i: Proceedings IECON 2017: 43rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, , s. 6s. 3460-3465Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To achieve flexible manufacturing, increasingly largeamounts of data are being generated, stored, analyzed, archivedand eventually fed back into the product life cycle. But whereis this data stored and how is it transported? Current methodsrely on centralized or federated databases to manage the datastorage. This approach has several challenges, such as collectionbottlenecks, secure retrieval, single point of failure and dataschemefragility as data heterogeneity increases. Additionally,manufacturers are finding the need to open their networks forservice based equipment suppliers. This means previous securityassumptions regarding network encryption and informationaccess-control must be re-evaluated.Proposed here is a method of in-network processing thatgathers information only where and when it is needed. Systemsbuild context at runtime by creating dynamic queries whichmake service composition. The service composition processes rawdata and presents it as information to the calling system. Thisreduces the movement of data/information and removes singlepoint collection bottlenecks. Furthermore, fine grained accesscontrol and shared trust can be granted between untrustedsystems. The proposed methods are demonstrated on a lab setupof an industrial use case.

  • 256.
    Derhamy, Hasan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Varga, Pal
    Budapest University of Technology and Economics.
    Punal, Pablo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Translation Error Handling for Multi-Protocol SOA Systems2015Ingår i: Proceedings of 2015 IEEE 20th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2015): Luxembourg, 8-11 Sept. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, artikel-id 7301473Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The IoT research area has evolved to incorporate aplethora of messaging protocol standards, both existing and new,emerging as preferred communications means. The variety ofprotocols and technologies enable IoT to be used in manyapplication scenarios. However, the use of incompatiblecommunication protocols also creates vertical silos and reducesinteroperability between vendors and technology platformproviders. In many applications, it is important that maximuminteroperability is enabled. This can be for reasons such asefficiency, security, end-to-end communication requirements etc.In terms of error handling each protocol has its own methods,but there is a gap for bridging the errors across protocols.Centralized software bus and integrated protocol agents are usedfor integrating different communications protocols.However, the aforementioned approaches do not fit well in allIndustrial IoT application scenarios. This paper thereforeinvestigates error handling challenges for a multi-protocol SOAbasedtranslator. A proof of concept implementation is presentedbased on MQTT and CoAP. Experimental results show thatmulti-protocol error handling is possible and furthermore anumber of areas that need more investigation have beenidentified.

  • 257.
    Derhamy, Hasan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Rönnholm, Jesper
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Deventer, Jan van
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Protocol interoperability of OPC UA in ServiceOriented Architectures2017Ingår i: Proceedings: 2017 IEEE 15th International Conference on Industrial Informatics, INDIN 2017, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 44-50, artikel-id 8104744Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract—Industrial Internet of Things covers all aspects ofnetworked intelligent manufacturing systems. This means coveringa wide array of application domains and user requirements.In such scenarios it is not feasible to define a single protocol forall situations. Hence, a multi-protocol approach is required. OPCUA has strong backing from Industry 4.0 as the protocol for theIndustrial Internet of Things. Interoperability of OPC UA hasbeen investigated in the context of migration from legacy andwith protocols such as DPWS. Additionally HTTP and CoAPhave been investigated as possible transport mediums.However, OPC UA interoperability has not been investigatedwithin a multi-protocol settings and no generic protocol translationexists. This paper proposes an OPC UA translator followingthe service translator model proposed in the Arrowhead project.Utilizing a mapping to intermediate format, it can be used alongside CoAP, HTTP and MQTT protocols.

  • 258.
    Do, J.
    et al.
    Stanford University.
    Akos, Dennis
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Enge, P.K.
    Department of Aeronautics, Stanford University.
    L and S bands spectrum survey in the San Francisco Bay area2004Ingår i: PLANS 2004: Position Location and Navigation Symposium ; Monterey, California, April 26 - 29, 2004, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2004, s. 566-572Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a radio frequency (RF) communication system that consists of transmitters on the satellites and receivers on the ground. Because of substantial path loss, the received signal power from satellites is extremely weak and even below the thermal noise floor and as such is very sensitive to changes in the underlying noise floor. The goal of this work is to investigate the radio spectrum environment in the GPS band along with two additional bands, the Unified-S band and 2.4 GHz Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) band. The spectrum survey was conducted at various locations in the San Francisco Bay area including various urban, rural areas and airports and harbors which are operational significant to GPS. The measurement data collected in this study will provide a more accurate representation of the current status and the characteristics of the spectrum environment. Geographical variation within the sites will reveal correlation between the spectrum environment and the level of urbanization and also a comparative study on the frequency bands under different level of regulations can be used to investigate the effectiveness of the current spectrum policy

  • 259.
    Dorn, R.
    et al.
    Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS, Am Wolfsmantel 33, 91058 Erlangen.
    Voelker, M.
    Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS, Am Wolfsmantel 33, 91058 Erlangen.
    Neubauer, H.
    Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS, Am Wolfsmantel 33, 91058 Erlangen.
    Hauer, H.
    Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS, Am Wolfsmantel 33, 91058 Erlangen.
    Johansson, Jonny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    A 3-channel ECG measuring system for wireless applications2006Ingår i: MeMeA 2006: 2006 IEEE International Workshop on Medical Measurement and Applications, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2006, s. 49-52Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the design and impementation of an integrated frontend for electrocardiographic (ECG) systems, realized in a 0.35 μm 2P4M CMOS process. The performance is optimized to adhere to the standard IEC60601-2-47, which defines the requirements for safety and essential performance of ambulatory ECG equipment. The system consists of three channels to measure the 3 leads of a Goldberger ECG monitoring scheme, therefore a single ended design structure was chosen to minimize the power consumption. A fourth channel is included for additional measurements. Each of the four channels contains a low power multi-bit sigma-delta modulator and a low power digital filter. Three channels are equipped with a low noise preamplifier. The supply voltage can be varied from 2.4 Volt up to 3.6 Volt. With a total power consumption of less than 2 mW the circuit is designed for battery operated equipment.

  • 260.
    Dreschler, Rolf
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, University of Bremen.
    Kerttu, Mikael
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Thornton, Mitchell
    Low-power optimization techniques for BDD mapped circuits using temporal correlation2002Ingår i: Canadian journal of electrical and computer engineering, ISSN 0840-8688, Vol. 27, nr 4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-power optimization techniques for BDD mapped circuits using temporal correlation Techniques d'optimisation pour les faibles puissances pour des diagrammes de décision binaire utilisant la corrélation temporelle Rolf Drechsler, Mikael Kerttu, Per Lindgren, and Mitchell Thornton £ In modern design flows low-power aspects should be considered as early as possible to minimize power dissipation in the resulting circuit. A new binary decision diagram-based design style that considers switching activity optimization using temporal correlation information is presented. The technique is based on an approximation method for switching activity estimation. In the case of finite state machines, the presented method extracts signal statistics by means of Markov chain analyses. Experimental results on a set of MCNC and ISCAS89 benchmarks show the estimated reduction in power dissipation. Les aspects relatifs aux faibles puissances devraient être pris en compte dès les premières phases du design en vue de minimiser la dissipation de puissance du circuit résultant. Cet article présente une méthode de design basée sur un diagramme de décision binaire qui traite l'optimisation des commutations via l'information de corrélation temporelle. L'approche repose sur une approximation de l'estimation de l'activité decommutation. Dans le cas des machines àétats finis, la méthode extrait les statistiques du signal via une analyse par chaînes de Markov. Des résultats expérimentaux obtenus avec des données de banc d'essai MCNC et ISCAS89 montrent la réduction estimée de la dissipation de puissance

  • 261. Eichenberger, Nicole
    et al.
    Garz, Angelika
    Chen, Kai
    Wei, Hao
    Ingold, Rolf
    Liwicki, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    DivaDesk: A Holistic Digital Workspace for Analyzing Historical Document Images2014Ingår i: Manuscript Cultures, ISSN 1867–9617, Vol. 7, s. 69-82Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we present the concept of DIVADesk – a Virtual Research Environment (VRE) for scholarly work on historical documents inspired by the shift toward working with digital facsimiles. The contribution of this article is three-fold. First, a review of existing tools and projects shows that a holistic workspace integrating the latest outcomes of computational Document Image Analysis (DIA) research is still a desideratum that can only be achieved by intensive interdisciplinary collaboration. Second, the underlying modular architecture of the digital workspace is presented. It consists of a set of services that can be combined according to individual scholars’ requirements. Furthermore, interoperability with existing frameworks and services allows the research data to be shared with other VREs. The proposed DIVADesk addresses specific research with historical documents, as this is one of the hardest cases in computational DIA. The outcomes of this paradigmatic research can be transferred to other use cases in the humanities. The third contribution of this article is a description of already existing services and user interfaces to be integrated in DIVADesk. They are part of ongoing research at the DIVA research group at the University of Fribourg, Switzerland. The labeling tool DIVADIA, for example, provides methods for layout analysis, script analysis, and text recognition of historical documents. These methods build on the concept of incremental learning and provide users with semi-automatic labeling of document parts, such as text, images, and initials. The conception and realization of DIVADesk promises research outcomes both in computer science and in the humanities. Therefore, an interdisciplinary approach and intensive collaboration between scholars in the two research fields are of crucial importance.

  • 262.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Activity: International Zurich Symposium Symposium & Technical Exhibition on Electromagnetic Compatibility: From theory to implementation2005Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 263.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Aktivitet: Arbetsmiljökommittén2011Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Ledamot i LTUs arbetsmiljökommitté

  • 264.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Aktivitet: Centrum för Distansöverbyggande teknik (CDT)2009Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 265.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Aktivitet: EMC Society Technical Committee 9: Computational Electromagnetics2005Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    This committee is concerned with broad aspects of Applied Computational Electromagnetic techniques which can be used to model electromagnetic interaction phenomena in circuits, devices, and systems. The primary focus is with the identification of the modeling methods that can be applied to interference (EMC) phenomena, their validation and delineating the practical limits of their applicability. Included are low and high frequency spectral-domain techniques and time-domain methods.

  • 266.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Aktivitet: Fakultetsopponent2011Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid Hanif Tavakolis disputation 15 dec. 2011 vid KTH.

  • 267.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Aktivitet: Medlem i betygskommitté2012Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Kelin Jia, KTH.

  • 268.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Aktivitet: Opponent vid licentiatseminarium2009Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Hanif Tavakoli vid KTH

  • 269.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Aktivitet: Opponent vid licentiatseminarium2012Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    "Analysis and implementation of Switch Mode Power Supplies in MHz frequency region", Abdul Majid at Mid Sweden University.

  • 270.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Aktivitet: Opponent vid licentiatseminarium2012Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Abdul Majid, Mid Sweden University

  • 271.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Aktivitet: Personalansvarsnämnden2010Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ledamot i personalansvarsnämnden.

  • 272.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Aktivitet: Rymdforskarskolan2010Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Styrelseledamot

  • 273.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Aktivitet: Svenska Nationalkommittén för Radiovetenskap (SNRV) - Sektion E2004Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Huvudman för Svenska Nationalkommittén för radiovetenskap (SNRV) är Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien, KVA. SNRV bildades som en nationalkommitté inom KVA genom ett Kungligt brev år 1931. De av akademien fastställda stadgarna anger att SNRV är en expertkommitté under Kungliga Vetenskapsakademiens huvudmannaskap med uppgift att:- främja forskning och utbildning inom det radiovetenskapliga området och att därvid representera Sverige i den internationella radiovetenskapliga unionen, Union Radio-Scientifique Internationale (URSI).- stödja planmässigt samarbete med besläktade vetenskapsgrenar.- stå till förfogande som rådgivande organ åt universiteten och andra delar av utbildningssystemet.- verka som expertorgan åt Vetenskapsakademien.

  • 274.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Electromagnetic modeling using the partial element equivalent circuit method2003Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents contributions within the field of numerical simulations of electromagnetic properties using the Partial Element Equivalent Circuit (PEEC) method. Numerical simulations of electromagnetic properties are of high industrial interest. The two major fields of use are to ensure compliance with electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) regulations and to verify functionality in electronic designs. International EMC regulations bounds companies that develop or assemble electric products to market products that are electromagnetic compatible with other products in their environment. Failure to comply with regulations can result in products withdrawal and fines. To avoid incompatibility, numerical simulations can be used to improve EMC characteristics in the development and assembly stage in a cost efficient way. Functionality of today's compact high-performance electronic systems can be affected by unwanted internal electromagnetic effects. The result can be degradation of performance, malfunction, and product damage. Numerical simulations are used to predict electromagnetic effects at the design phase, thus minimizing the need for post-production actions delaying product releases and increasing product cost. At the Embedded Internet System Laboratory (EISLAB), Luleå University of Technology, a project concerning numerical simulations of electromagnetic properties in electric systems using the PEEC method is in progress. This thesis focuses on the development of the PEEC method for practical use, thus demanding optimal performance of the basic sections within a PEEC based electromagnetic solver in terms of speed and accuracy. In the PEEC method, the two most demanding sections are the partial element calculations and the solution of the final equation system. The latter problem is a pure mathematical problem with continuous progress while the partial coefficient calculations require further research. This thesis proposes several techniques for efficient partial element calculations. First, a discretization strategy is used for one-layer structures to enable the use of fast analytic formulas and the resulting simplified PEEC models are solved using a freeware version of SPICE, exemplifying the accessibility of the PEEC method. Second, a fast multi- function method is proposed in which different order of numerical integration is used, in the calculation of the partial elements, depending on a predefined coupling factor. Third, the fast multi-function method is further developed and compared to a fast multipole method applied to partial element calculations. Fourth, the calculation of the three- dimensional node coefficients of potential is addressed and three novel approaches are presented and evaluated in terms of speed and accuracy. The thesis includes a paper dealing with nonorthogonal PEEC models. This model extension allows the use of nonorthogonal volume and surface cells in the discretization of objects. This facilitates the modeling of realistic complex structures, improves accuracy by reducing the use of staircase- approximations, and reduces the number of cells in the PEEC model discretizations. The nonorthogonal formulation excludes the use of analytical formulas thus make topical the use of fast multi-function- and multipole-methods. The fundamentals of the PEEC method makes free-space radiation analysis computationally efficient. Radiated field characterization is important in EMC processes and therefore of great interest. One paper in this thesis explore different possibilities to use PEEC model simulations to determine the electric field emissions from objects.

  • 275.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Electromagnetic simulations using the partial element equivalent circuit (PEEC) approach2003Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 276.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Experimental verification of PEEC based electric field simulations2001Ingår i: 2001 IEEE EMC International Symposium: symposium record : August 13-17, 2001, Montreal, Canada : EMC 2001 international rendez-vous, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2001, Vol. 1, s. 351-355Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Different ways to simulate the measured radiated electric field for printed circuit boards using partial element equivalent circuit (PEEC) models has been investigated. Full and simplified PEEC models have been used with post-processing algorithms and an electric field sensor directly incorporated in the PEEC simulations. Calculated and simulated field strengths for a simple PCB are compared to measurements taken in an anechoic EMC chamber. It is shown that the post-processing equations compare better to measurements then the electric field sensor

  • 277.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Internationally recognised ICT research: in close cooperation with users and industry2010Ingår i: Public Service Review. European Union, ISSN 1472-3395Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 278.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Projekt: Utveckling av stabilitetskrav för fullständig integralekvationsbaserad elektromagnetisk lösare2012Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    PostDoc projekt utfört vid Univ. of L'Aquila finansierat av Vetenskapsrådet.

  • 279.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Recent progress and applications in partial element equivalent circuit modeling2004Ingår i: Proceedings of EMB04, Gothenburg, Sweden, Oct., 2004, 2004Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 280.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Simplified PEEC models for PCB structures and comparison to experimental data2001Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 281.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    The partial element equivalent circuit method: modeling and experimental verification of PCB structures2001Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    To help products comply with international Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)regulations or as a help in a design process numerical simulation of electromagnetic (EM) characteristics are a valuable tool. With the development of high-speed computers the complexity of EM simulation programs and the systems they can simulate has increased considerable. But still, problems must be partitioned due to computer resource and/or EM simulation technique limitations. In this thesis, four different EM simulation techniques are described and the nature of these are discussed. The focus is on the partial element equivalent circuit (PEEC) method for which the following improvements and investigations have been proposed in the enclosed papers. First, a recent proposed formulation for the direct simulation of the radiated electric field from a device is compared against traditional post-processing equations and measurements. The results show that the proposed direct method, the electric field sensor, is unreliable for arbitrarily implementations since the length of the sensor strongly affects the results. Second, a technique to obtain simplified PEEC models are presented. The first step is to use a discretisation procedure where partial elements with small effect on the complete PEEC model are excluded. Then, instead of using numerical integration, closed-form equations are used to calculate the partial elements. The obtained simplified PEEC models are shown to comply well against measurements. Third, an introductory paper to the PEEC method is presented. The international interest for the method has been gaining rapidly for the past years resulting in considerable progress for the technique. But, in the Nordic countries the research effort has been low. The paper presents the technique using simple antenna examples, both printed and free space, and illustrations. For verification, simulations have been compared against analytical solutions and measurements.

  • 282.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Use of fast time domain PEEC simulations for improved frequency domain modeling2004Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 283.
    Ekman, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Antonini, G.
    University of L’Aquila.
    Ruehli, A.E.
    T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY.
    Toward improved time domain stability and passivity for full-wave PEEC models2006Ingår i: 2006 IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility: [2006 IEEE EMC] ; Portland, Oregon, USA, 14 - 18 August 2006, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2006, Vol. 2, s. 544-549Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that time domain integral equation techniques may suffer from stability problems and frequency domain models may provide non-passive results. A main source of these issues is the delay of the coupled elements. In the classical Partial Element Equivalent Circuit (PEEC) method, a single delay was used for each couple of partial element which results in a delay differential equation with reduced stability and accuracy. In this paper, we consider multiple delay coefficients which can be used for both the time and frequency domain. Also, filters are introduced which remove unwanted eigenvalues or resonances in the partial element couplings. This can substantially improve the response of the frequency domain and the time domain models. Stability improvements also means passivity improvements.

  • 284.
    Ekman, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Antonini, Giulio
    University of L’Aquila.
    On characterizing artifacts observed in PEEC based modeling2004Ingår i: EMC 2004: E2004 IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility : EMC from DC to daylight : [symposium record] : 09 August-13 [sic], 2004, Silicon Valley, California, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2004, s. 251-255Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper characterizes the different artifacts observed within time- and frequency- domain partial element equivalent circuit based electromagnetic modeling. The main focus is on frequency domain artifacts since time domain instabilities have been treated extensively in the literature. Guidelines and examples are given on how to suppress this type of artifact by showing correlation to PEEC model geometrical meshing and PEEC model complexity reduction.

  • 285.
    Ekman, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Antonini, Giulio
    Department of Electrical Engineering, University of L’Aquila.
    Tutorial on Partial Element Equivalent Circuit (PEEC) method based analysis of EMC problems2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    As a tool for prediction of electromagnetic field phenomena in electric and electronics design, the Partial Element Equivalent Circuit (PEEC) method has received a great interest over the last years. Besides being a powerful full-wave 3-d numerical method which competes with other popular techniques (FDTD, FEM,MoM) it is especially suited for mixed electromagnetic circuit problems, in both the time and frequency domains. The recent literature is confirming that the PEEC method is becoming more and more popular in EMC-EMI-Signal Integrity areas especially for its capability to combine electromagnetic fields and lumped elements in the same numerical framework [1]–[3]. Furthermore its recent extension to magnetic materials and the development of fast solvers have made it powerful and well tailored for a comprehensive treatment of EMC problems.The aim of the tutorial is to present the basic theory of the method up to the most recent advancements of the technique. Furthermore, in order to make it easier for the audience, a step-by-step implementation of the method clarifying the key points to make it fast and efficient will be presented. The tutorial will be subdivided into three sections, dealing with:1) History of PEEC. Inductance calculations from Rosa through Grover to Ruehli;2) Most recent progress of the method (acceleration techniques, dispersive dielectrics, and magnetic materials);3) Circuit and electromagnetic co-simulation for active, non-linear circuit systems.

  • 286.
    Ekman, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Antonini, Giulio
    University of L’Aquila.
    Miscione, Giuseppe
    University of L’Aquila.
    Anttu, Peter
    Electromagnetic modeling of automotive platforms based on the PEEC Method2007Ingår i: Proceedings of the Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Conference: ACES 2007, 2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 287.
    Ekman, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Antonini, Giulio
    University of L’Aquila.
    Orlandi, Antonio
    University of L’Aquila.
    3D PEEC capacitance calculations2003Ingår i: 2003 IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility: symposium record : Boston, August 18-22, 2003, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2003, s. 630-635Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The partial element equivalent circuit (PEEC) method has shown to be useful in mixed circuit and electromagnetic analysis. In PEECs, the extensions from two to three dimensional modeling are mainly in the calculation of the partial self and mutual capacitive couplings. The considerable increase in problem size for 3D PEEC models results in a larger number of partial elements that has to be calculated. This results in excessive calculation times if the capacitive calculation routines are poorly constructed. In this paper it is shown that by using local reduction matrices for the capacitive calculations, the calculation time for PEEC model capacitance matrices can be decreased while keeping the accuracy.

  • 288.
    Ekman, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Antonini, Giulio
    University of L’Aquila.
    Orlandi, Antonio
    University of L’Aquila.
    Full-wave time domain PEEC formulation using a modified nodal analysis approach2004Ingår i: EMC Europe 2004: International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility; September 6 - 10, 2004, Technische Universiteit, Eindhoven, the Netherlands / [ed] A. P. J. van Deursen, Eindhoven: Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, 2004Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 289.
    Ekman, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Antonini, Giulio
    University of L’Aquila.
    Orlandi, Antonio
    University of L’Aquila.
    Integral order selection rules for a full wave PEEC solver2003Ingår i: Electromagnetic compatibility 2003: symposium proceedings and supplement, Zürich: ETH Zentrum - IKT , 2003, s. 431-436Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a technique to re- duce the calculation time for the complex partial el- ements used in a retarded partial element equivalent circuit (rPEEC) frequency domain solver. The tech- nique utilizes a thresholding scheme where strongly coupled PEEC cells are calculated with higher accu- racy than the weakly coupled. Guidelines for limiting the order of integration used in the evaluation of the complex partial elements are presented. The trade-o® between accuracy and computation time of the par- tial elements and the resulting PEEC system solution is investigated and displayed.

  • 290.
    Ekman, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Antonini, Giulio
    University of L’Aquila.
    Orlandi, Antonio
    University of L’Aquila.
    Ruehli, Albert E.
    IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights.
    Impact of partial element accuracy on PEEC model stability2006Ingår i: IEEE transactions on electromagnetic compatibility (Print), ISSN 0018-9375, E-ISSN 1558-187X, Vol. 48, nr 1, s. 19-32Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper details the impact of partial element accuracy on quasi-static partial element equivalent circuit (PEEC) model stability in the time domain. The potential sources of inaccurate partial element values are found to be poor geometrical meshing and the use of unsuitable partial element calculation routines. The impact on PEEC model stability of erroneous partial element values, and the coefficients of potential and partial inductances, are shown as theoretical constraints and practical results. Projection meshing, which is a discretization strategy suitable for the PEEC method, is shown to improve calculated partial element values for the same number of unknowns, thus improving model stability.

  • 291.
    Ekman, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Antonini, Guilio
    University of L’Aquila.
    Orlandi, Antonio
    University of L’Aquila.
    Ruehli, Albert
    Thomas J. Watson Research Center, NY.
    Stability of PEEC models with respect to partial element accuracy2004Ingår i: EMC 2004: 2004 IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility : EMC from DC to daylight : [symposium record] : 09 August-13 [sic], 2004, Silicon Valley, California, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2004, s. 271-276Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the passivity and stability of quasi-static partial element equivalent circuit (PEEC) models. The impact of inaccuracies in the computed partial element values is considered as a possible source of time domain instabilities. Our analysis shows how existing partial element calculation routines, analytical and numerical, and the use of poor mesh generators can introduce large errors in partial element values. We also show how this affects the passivity and stability of the PEEC model. Theoretical constraints for passivity are derived which depend on accuracy of partial element values. The conditions are verified by performing practical PEEC model analysis.

  • 292.
    Ekman, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Antti, Marta-Lena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Emami, Reza
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Törlind, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Kuhn, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Nilsson, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Minami, Ichiro
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Gustafsson, Magnus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Zorzano Mier, María-Paz
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Milz, Mathias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Grahn, Mattias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Behar, Etienne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Wolf, Veronika
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Dordlofva, Christo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Mendaza de Cal, Maria Teresa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Jamali, Maryam
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Roos, Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Ottemark, Rikard
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Nieto, Chris
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Soria Salinas, Álvaro Tomás
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Vázquez Martín, Sandra
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Nyberg, Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Neikter, Magnus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Lindwall, Angelica
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Fakhardji, Wissam
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Projekt: Rymdforskarskolan2015Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The Graduate School of Space Technology

  • 293.
    Ekman, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Anttu, Peter
    Parallel implementations of the PEEC Method2007Ingår i: 2007 IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility: workshop and tutorial notes : July 8-13, 2007 Honolulu, Hawaii., Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a parallel implementation of a partial element equivalent circuit (PEEC) based electromagnetic modeling code. The parallelization is based on the GMM++ and ScaLAPACK packages. The parallel PEEC solver was successfully implemented and tested on several high performance computer systems. Large structures containing over 50 000 unknown current and voltage basis functions were successfully analyzed and memory, performance, and speedup results are presented. The numerical examples are both of orthogonal and nonorthogonal type with analysis in the time- and frequencydomain.

  • 294.
    Ekman, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Borg, Johan
    Johansson, Jonny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    De Lauretis, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Lindner, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Nilsson, Joakim
    Projekt: Frekvensomriktares funktion i beredskapskritiska system2014Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid dödnätstart av produktionsanläggningar och drift av svaga nät eller ö-drift är frekvensomriktare som driver pumpar och fläktar kritiska komponenter. Om frekvensomriktare påverkas av störningar i nätet kan elproduktion kopplas bort och det svaga nätet eller ö-driften kollapsa. Projektet ska studera frekvensomriktare ur ett antal aspekter såsom uppbyggnad, styrning och implementering i syfte att utveckla mer robusta frekvensomriktare och implementering av dessa för att säkerställa drift av svaga nät och ö-drift och minimera ytterligare driftstörningar vid svåra påfrestningar på elnätet.

  • 295.
    Ekman, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Enohnyaket, Mathias
    Project: A New Method for Combined Electric and Electromagnetic Modeling of Power Distribution Systems -High frequency models for reactors2011Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The project has the following main objectives.(i) Detail an systematic approach for the generation of equivalent circuit descriptionsfor power components in the high frequency range. Demonstration include time-and frequency- domain analysis of free space coils.(ii) Introduce, evaluate, and develop the PEEC method for combined electric andelectromagnetic (EM) modeling of power components.(iii) Transfer of knowledge from microelectronics- to power engineering- modeling and simulation.

  • 296.
    Ekman, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Enohnyaket, Mathias
    Nord, Stefan
    Volvo Technology Corporation, Sverige.
    Gäfvert, Joakim
    Volvo CE, Danmark.
    Projekt: EM Karaktärisering och Modellering av Elektriska Hybriddrivsystem2007Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 297.
    Ekman, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Holm, Magnus
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Project: Time domain field calculations using PEEC2011Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Utveckla metodik och verktyg för att simulera och undersöka sambandet mellan mjukvarudesign och elektromagnetiska fält inom inbyggda system. Mjukvaran skall skrivas i språket Timber och elektromagnetiska fält skall simuleras i PEEC. Lämpliga verktyg för att simulera hårdvara skall undersökas och tillämpas, så att ett komplett simuleringsflöde med feedback kan åstadkommas. Utveckla en designparadigm för mjukvara så att oönskade elektromagnetiska effekter och inkompatibiliteter kan undvikas.

  • 298.
    Ekman, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Johansson, Jonny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Borg, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Variable-Frequency Drives: Three perspectives2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 299.
    Ekman, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Lindgren, Tore
    Wickramanayake, Anura
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Project: Improved measurements of mining induced ground deformations using GPS and SAR techniques2011Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The LKAB SAR project is implemented to measure the subsidence and terrain deformation around the Kiruna iron ore mine and in the Kiruna city area. The LKAB SAR project has two components. One is the monitoring component in which MDA (main contractor) provides the SAR deformation maps to LKAB and the second is the technology transfer component in where MDA provides theoretical and practical knowledge to LKAB so that LKAB can produce deformation maps by their own. And Cranfield University and Luleå University of technology will carryout the LKAB SAR research. During the SAR project it is expected to use “DInSAR” and “CTM” techniques to measure the deformations. By using DInSAR and CTM techniques, LKAB can achieve the required accuracy levels during the summer season but it is likely that the quality and quantity of the measurements will largely differ during winter season (due to the thick snow cover). Similarly, areas which have thick forest cover will prevent radar waves reaching the ground and because of that it is likely the quality and quantity of the measurements will decrease in such areas during the mid summer period. Therefore LKAB is planning to carry out a research program to improve the SAR measurements.

  • 300.
    Ekman, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Lundgren, Urban
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Nemeth, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Electromagnetic shielding capabilities of conductive thermoplastic materials and three measurement methods for evaluation2002Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report summarizes the work to compare 12 conductive thermoplastics using three measurement methods. The 12 thermoplastic materials were chosen to observe the influence of variation of base polymer, variation of additives, different mechanical properties and processing and mouldability properties. Test samples were manufactured to be useful in fixtures for far field insertion loss measurements, and to load a coaxial transmission line. Boxes were made to make an enclosure for an electric field source, this arrangement was used for simple application-like near field insertion loss measurements. With all three methods data was obtained in the frequency range from 100 MHz to 1000 MHz for- far field shielding effectiveness- near field shielding effectiveness- complex permeability- complex permittivityResults were obtained showing that variations in the manufacturing process where extra heated thermoplastics or yeast additive was tested, did not improve the shielding efficiency for the particular compounds that was used. The mesurements indicates that a higher amount of additive improves both the near field SE and the far field SE. Measured far field SE is in good agreement with the numerical simulations based on the measured material data.

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