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  • 251. Vyatkin, Valeriy
    et al.
    Peniche, Carlo
    Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenherg.
    How does the IEC61499 architecture fit the requirements of intelligent automation systems?2004Ingår i: Collaborative automation - one key for intelligent industrial environments: 2004 2nd IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, [INDIN '04], 24th - 26th June, 2004, Berlin, Germany / [ed] Ronald Schoop, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2004, s. 575-580Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper attempts to illustrate the development of software for intelligent automation systems using the reference architecture of new international standard IEC61499. In particular, it is shown how to encapsulate the code that determines the agent-based behavior of autonomous automated machines into IEC61499 function blocks and how to connect the corresponding software capsules to each other via the underlying communication media

  • 252. Vyatkin, Valeriy
    et al.
    Salčič, Zoran A.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Roop, Partha S.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Fitzgerald, John S.
    Glidepath.
    Now that's smart!2007Ingår i: IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine, ISSN 1932-4529, E-ISSN 1941-0115, Vol. 1, nr 4, s. 17-29Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to encapsulate knowledge into function blocks, have more configurability of devices and features and apply models as a network of function blocks, the function block architecture of IEC 61499 has bee developed. IEC 61499 provides a new degree of flexibility in managing embedded control and information processing systems. IEC 61499 can also be used in a network of function blocks wherein an application is distributed across different computing devices. IEC 61499 provides a mechanism for creating new device types as a set of resource types and function block libraries and uses an Open XML-based device management protocol, which in turn enables configurability of compliant devices by compliant software tools. As such, IEC 61499 is a far better solution that existing PLC systems, not to mention the fact that it allows creation and deletion of resources which are containers for applications. IEC 61499 function blocks have enabled features such as reconfigurability, PnP, independence of target execution platforms and independence of control strategy.

  • 253.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Shalyto, Anatoly
    ITMO University, Sankt-Petersburg ITMO University.
    Message from the DIAS 2015 Workshop Chairs2015Ingår i: IEEE TrustCom-BigDataSE-ISPA 2015: Helsinki, 20-22 Aug. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, Vol. 3, s. xvii-, artikel-id 7345620Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 254. Vyatkin, Valeriy
    et al.
    Yang, ChiaHan
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Automated model transformation between MATLAB Simulink/Stateflow and IEC 61499 Function Blocks2009Ingår i: Elsevier IFAC Publications / IFAC Proceedings series, ISSN 1474-6670, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 205-210Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new method of modelling automation systems based on the combination and mutual transformation of Function Blocks of IEC 61499 and MATLAB Simulink/Stateflow. The ultimate goal of this development is to have a fully automated transformation between models built in the two platforms. The reasons for such transformation are due to the need for a proper validation environment for Function Blocks models and the difficulty in obtaining industrial acceptance in this new design approach. MATLAB Simulink/Stateflow provides a nice environment for modelling and simulation of control and embedded systems. Function Blocks are good for designing control application for complex physically distributed systems. An integrated software environment with transformation ability between these two tools will lead to a solution for the validation need for Function Blocks and also the adoption problems. This paper demonstrates a transformation practice where a Simulink model is transformed into a Function Block model in FBDK. The transformed model still requires some manual modifications to be executed because of the missing algorithm translation from MATLAB language to a language that can be used for algorithms in Function Blocks. This paper also discusses important issues of model transformation, such as semantics mapping, data type mappings and transformation rules

  • 255. Vyatkin, Valeriy
    et al.
    Yang, ChiaHan
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Design and validation of distributed control with decentralized intelligence in process industries: A survey2008Ingår i: Proceedings, IEEE INDIN 2008: 6th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics : July 13-16, 2008, Daejeon Convention Center, Daejeon, Korea, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2008, s. 1395-1400Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an overview of the works on design and validation of distributed control in process industry. Due to the significant market demand for distributed reconfigurable systems, not just in manufacturing industry but also in process industry, several researches are undertaken to look at the design techniques in implementation of such a decentralized control approach. It has shown that a distributed control can bring benefits such as flexibility, reconfigurability and software reusability. International standards such as IEC61499 and IEC61804 are established for such distributed application with newly introduced Function Block (FB) concepts. Intelligent control and multi-agents approach are emerging techniques for distributed control application. In particular, a process control system is generally considered as a hybrid system because it usually contains both discrete and continuous dynamics. Therefore when handling validation of distributed systems, hybrid verification and simulation will have an important role.©

  • 256. Vyatkin, Valeriy
    et al.
    Zhabelova, Gulnara
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Higgins, Neil
    Energex, Brisbane.
    Ulieru, Michaela
    Department of Computer Science, University of New Brunswick.
    Schwarz, Karlheinz
    Schwarz Consulting Company, SCC, Karlsruhe.
    Niar, Nirmal Kumar C
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Standards-enabled smart grid for the future EnergyWeb2010Ingår i: Innovative smart grid technologies (ISGT), 2010: 19 - 21 Jan. 2010, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An intelligent control architecture for the Smart Grid is proposed which combines two recently developed industrial standards. The utility network is modelled as IEC 61850-compliant logical nodes, embedded in an IEC 61499 distributed automation framework. We make the case that an incremental approach is required for the transition to the future EnergyWeb by bringing intelligence down to the level of substation automation devices to enrich the applications that can be created using interoperable Smart Grid devices. Using Matlab-based simulation environment we demonstrate that the collaborative environment achieves self-healing through simple fault location and power restoration

  • 257. Vyatkin, Valeriy
    et al.
    Zhabelova, Gulnara
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Higgins, Neil
    Energex, Brisbane.
    Schwarz, Karlheinz
    Schwarz Consulting Company, SCC, Karlsruhe.
    Nair, Nirmal-Kumar C
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Towards intelligent smart grid devices with IEC 61850 interoperability and IEC 61499 open control architecture2010Ingår i: 2010 IEEE PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition: T & D 2010; New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, 19 - 22 April 2010, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we report on developments and experiments conducted to prove the feasibility of using decentralized multi-agent control logic in the automation of power distribution networks. The utility network is modelled as communicating logical nodes following IEC 61850 standard's architecture, implemented by means of IEC 61499 distributed automation architecture. The system is simulated in an IEC 61499 execution environment combined with Matlab and proven to achieve simple fault location and power restoration goals through collaborative behaviour and interoperable devices

  • 258. Vyatkin, Valeriy
    et al.
    Zhabelova, Gulnara
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Uliru, Mihaela
    Department of Computer Science, University of New Brunswick.
    McComas, Donald
    Eaton Corporation.
    Toward digital ecologies: Intelligent agent networks controlling interdependent infrastructures2010Ingår i: 2010 First IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communications: [SmartGridComm 2010] ; Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA, 4 - 6 October 2010, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2010, s. 589-594Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Universal, intelligent and multifunctional devices controlling power distribution and measurement will become the enabling technology of the ICT-driven SmartGrid. In this paper we discuss a design and simulation environment which provides a virtual model of such devices and at the same time enables their interoperability and configurability. The solution is based on the combination of IEC 61850 interoperable communication and IEC 61499 executable specification. Using the simulation environment we demonstrate the possibility of multi-agent control to achieve self-healing through fault location and power restoration.

  • 259. Vyatkin, Valeriy
    et al.
    Zhabelova, Gulnara
    University of Auckland.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    University of Auckland.
    McComas, Don
    Eaton Corporation.
    Chouinard, Julien
    Intelligent IEC 61850/61499 logical nodes for smart metering2012Ingår i: 2012 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2012, s. 1220-1227Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a prototypical smart metering infrastructure (MI) as part of the “distributed nervous system of SmartGrid”. Proposed MI is enabled with distributed programming infrastructure of the international standards IEC 61499, communication and design infrastructure of IEC 61850. The paper introduces IEC 61850 logical device for the smart meter. Based on this definition, the intelligent logical nodes architecture (iLN) is used to organize the distributed intelligence of a “swarm” of such smart meters. The proposed architecture has been applied to the novel Eaton PowerXpert intelligent commercial grade meter and tested in co-simulation environment.

  • 260.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Zoitl, Alois
    fortiss GmbH, Munich.
    Advanced software engineering in industrial automation2013Ingår i: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 21, nr 11, s. 1606-1607Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 261.
    Väänänen, Eero
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University Espoo.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Estimation, measurement and improvement of distributed automation applications performance10.1109/IECON.2017.82169402017Ingår i: Proceedings IECON 2017: 43rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 5426-5431Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the problem of how to estimate performance of distributed IEC 61499 automation systems and optionally, how to improve end-to-end response times in general. In order to make the process of distributed automation system design and deployment more streamlined, a software tool which could reliably estimate end-to-end response times within a system offline would be very beneficial. Focusing on possibilities to develop such a tool, there is a need for researching ways to determine end-to-end response times within distributed IEC 61499 systems. Based on the findings a model is created which can be used in the future software tool. The tool can either be a stand-alone application or as a plugin to some existing automation software development environment. This tool could be used already in the software development phase in order to compensate for the delays occurring in the physical system and thus, the actual work resulting from fine tuning while deploying the system could be minimized.

  • 262.
    Wang, Jia
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm.
    Pang, Zhibo
    ABB AB, Corporate research.
    Pang, Cheng
    Department of Electrical and Computer System Engineering, University of Auckland, University of Auckland, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Industry-friendly engineering tools for wireless home automation devices2015Ingår i: IEEE 13th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), 2015: Cambridge, United Kingdom, 22-24 July 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, s. 1174-1179, artikel-id 7281902Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although home automation (HA) systems in the wired domain are widely accepted by consumers, in today's industry, the mega trend is steering HA systems along a wireless way. Theoretically, wireless solutions are able to provide HA systems with more flexibility and thus reducing engineering costs. In practice, however, deploying wireless HA systems actually requires more costs and efforts due to the lack of versatile software tools to support the whole engineering process. This paper defines and evaluates the engineering workflow and architecture for home automation systems. The proposed architecture is studied and implemented based on web technologies and graphical configuration environments, with the aim of reducing workloads of HA engineers at every stage. A prototype has been implemented to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the proposed architecture

  • 263.
    Xu, Jiang
    et al.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Yang, Chenwei
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Zhabelova, Gulnara
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Berber, Stevan Mirko
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Towards implementation of IEC 61850 GOOSE messaging in IEC 61499 environment2013Ingår i: 2013 11th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN 2012): Bochum, Germany 29 July - 31 July 2013, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013, s. 464-470Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    IEC 61850 is the new standard for substation automation. One of the IEC 61850 communication services, designed specifically for protection within the substation automation system is GOOSE messaging. GOOSE messaging is a peer to peer communication protocol aiming to satisfy the stringent communication requirements within protection systems operating over the Ethernet communication framework. One of the on-going research topics in this area is extending capabilities of IEC 61850 to represent control logic by combining it with component software architecture of the IEC 61499 standard. The Intelligent Logical Nodes (iLN) architecture is one such solution which combines the two standards. This development led to the need to implement communication services of IEC 61850 by means of IEC 61499. This paper presents such an implementation of IEC 61850 GOOSE messaging using IEC 61499 Service Interface Function Blocks implemented by means of the WinPCap library.

  • 264.
    Yan, Jeffrey
    et al.
    Department of Electrical and Computer System Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Pang, Cheng
    Department of Electrical and Computer System Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Yang, Chenwei
    Department of Electrical and Computer System Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Towards automated visualization for distributed automation applications2013Ingår i: Proceedings of 2013 IEEE 18th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2013): Cagliari, Italy, 10-13 September 2013, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013, artikel-id 6648135Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a visualization architecture to facilitate automated design for distributed automation applications. CAD is used as a source of software models as it was found to provide detailed physical information, particularly for visualization. The approach assumes a fully distributed control architecture, with each system component functionally encapsulated into IEC 61499 Function Block. A baggage handling system is used as a running example throughout this work. Simulation models of the plant were executed in closed-loop with controllers. A corresponding 3D visualization was generated and parameterized based on CAD drawing, then linked to the simulation for a live view of the plant model

  • 265.
    Yan, Jeffrey
    et al.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Distributed execution and cyber-physical design of Baggage Handling automation with IEC 614992011Ingår i: INDIN 2011: 2011 9th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics : Campus of Faculty of Science and Technology, New University of Lisbon, Caparica, Lisbon, Portugal : 26- 29 July, 2011, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2011, s. 573-578Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proves feasibility of a fully distributed automation design of Baggage Handling Systems automation. The proposed design methodology leverages IEC 61499 Function Blocks as a supporting architecture. Each physical element of the BHS, such as a conveyor is represented by a Function Block that encapsulates functionality into a single re-usable module. The proposed solution demonstrates such benefits as flexibility, fault resilience and design re-use. A graph based representation of the system layout was used for rendering of the visualisation. The solution was prototyped using ISaGRAF the first commercial implementation of IEC 61499 and tested on a network of 50 networked control nodes, each representing an embedded controller of a single conveyor or of a group of conveyors. The Ethernet communications framework was tested to confirm the appropriate levels of network utilisation and potential sources of delay were identified. This design approach can be regarded as cyber-physical since it naturally combines simulation models into the design life-cycle, providing ready to use simulation within the design framework.

  • 266.
    Yan, Jeffrey
    et al.
    University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Distributed software architecture enabling peer-to-peer communicating controllers2013Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 2200-2209Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel model-driven software architecture for systems with high degree of redundancy and modularity of the equipment. The architecture is based on totally decentralized control. It combines adaptability and robustness of multi-agent control architectures with portability and interoperability benefits of IEC 61499 function block architecture. The architecture has been successfully proven feasible on a number of field trials, including modeling and implementation of a medium-scale airport baggage handling control. Deployment was done on distributed networks consisting of configurations ranging from a few to dozens of communicating control nodes. The work confirmed the ability to deliver similar functional characteristics as centralized systems but in a distributed implementation. Performance testing and development verified sufficient performance and software life-cycle benefits

  • 267.
    Yan, Jeffrey
    et al.
    University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Extension of reconfigurability provisions in IEC 614992013Ingår i: Proceedings of 2013 IEEE 18th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2013): Cagliari, Italy, 10-13 September 2013, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013, artikel-id 6648026Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an investigation into the implementation of reconfigurable industrial applications using the IEC 61499 standard. An architecture and design methodology is proposed to allow for the addition of reconfigurable elements to existing IEC 61499 applications. The commercially available NxtForte IEC 61499 platform was chosen for experiments. The notion of state resumption is discussed along with a corresponding application level implementation. Deficiencies of the standard for promoting reconfiguration are outlined and some extensions are then proposed to streamline the development of reconfigurable applications.

  • 268.
    Yan, Jeffrey
    et al.
    Department of Electrical and Computer System Engineering, University of Auckland, University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Time-Complemented Event-Driven Reconfigurable Systems2014Ingår i: Proceedings of 2014 IEEE 19th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2014): Barcelona, Spain, 16-19 Sept. 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, s. 1-8, artikel-id 7005125Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The complexity of modern industrial automation systems means that designing with change in mind is a necessity. Event-driven and time-driven programming paradigms each have their own benefits for the development of distributed systems control. However, flexibility and reconfiguration will always be required as new technologies are introduced and increased distribution results in greater chances for point failures. Dynamic runtime based reconfiguration is desired to reduce any experienced downtime. Implementation of reconfiguration is problematic, particularly as the system grows in size. System behavior arises from complex interactions between distributed modules, making their reconfiguration inherently difficult. This paper proposes the unification of time-driven and event-driven control paradigms for the purpose of unification. A formal model discussing the suitability of this architecture for reconfiguration purposes is introduced. Each reconfiguration mechanism for the architecture and design patterns is then implemented in the IEC 61499 function block standard.

  • 269.
    Yan, Jeffrey
    et al.
    University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Weber, Gerald A.
    University of Auckland.
    Beach, Nigel
    Compacsort Limited, Auckland.
    Control and hardware-in-the-loop simulation of fruit packing machine with IEC 614992012Ingår i: 10th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), IEEE Communications Society, 2012, s. 923-928Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an investigation into the migration from standard centralized control to modular, distributed control for a fruit packing machine. Along with control that was developed using IEC 61499, a simulation model of the plant was developed in parallel. Both were deployed to hardware to demonstrate seamless testing using a single underlying architecture. A visualization of the simulation model was created to view the simulation live. Comparisons between IEC 61499 and traditional techniques were outlined during the implementation. Difficulties in applying commonly used traditional design elements to the IEC 61499 standard were addressed

  • 270.
    Yan, Jeffrey
    et al.
    Department of Electrical and Computer System Engineering, University of Auckland, University of Auckland.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Adaptable Software Components: Towards Digital Ecosystems and Software Evolution in the Industrial Automation Domain2015Ingår i: IECON 2014: 40th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Dallas, TX, USA , Oct. 29 2014 - Nov. 1 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, s. 2512-2518Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 271.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    Department of Computer Science, Penza State University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Ontology Driven Approach to Generate Distributed Automation Control from Substation Automation Design2017Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 668-679, artikel-id 7762918Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a method for the automatic generation of smart-grid automation systems software from specifications that includes physical system layout and domain-specific functional “recipes.” The generated software has component organization and implements a decentralized approach to smart grid control, which reduces complexity of automation systems design and modification. The proposed method relies on synergies of two industrial standards IEC 61850 and IEC 61499, which are used to represent a part of the specification and the resulting software model, respectively. Then, the specification model is created in a form of ontology and the generation is based on ontology transformation. The proposed method requires an extension to the Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) to support the change of an ontology axioms set for the purpose of ontology transformation. The proposed transformation language, called extended SWRL, is introduced and illustrated in use. The result shows the viability of eSWRL as an ontology transformation language when demonstrated in a power distribution case study system.

  • 272.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Dubinin, Victor
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Penza, Penza region Russian Federation.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Automatic Generation of Control Flow from Requirements for Distributed Smart Grid Automation Control2019Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart grid is a Cyber-Physical System with a high level of complexity due to its de-centralized infrastructure. IEC 61850 and IEC 61499 are two industrial standards which can address the challenges introduced by the Smart Grid on the substation automation level. Development of Smart Grid automation software is very time consuming process due to the need to address many requirements and high degree of customisation in every new substation. This limits the adoption of such smart grid technologies as digital substation. This paper aims at addressing this limitation by applying a semi-formal boilerplates model of functional requirements originally presented in informal natural language. The boilerplates are then modelled formally in an ontology for MDE model transformation. The contribution of this paper is the development of the semi-formal and formal boilerplate representation in the form of ontology to formulate Smart Grid requirements and demonstrating how functional requirements can be translated to IEC 61499 control codes using MDE to auto-generate an IEC 61499 PAC control system with structure and control flow. The MDE framework augmented with the requirements models is illustrated on a case study from CIGRE representing different stages of modelling in the proposed framework.

  • 273.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Gulzar, Kashif
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Sierla, Seppo
    Department of Automation and Systems Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Fuzzy Logic Based Prosumer Agent in a Modular Smart Grid Prosumer Architecture2015Ingår i: IEEE TrustCom-BigDataSE-ISPA 2015: Helsinki, 20-22 Aug. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, Vol. 3, s. 261-268, artikel-id 7345658Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The investment to DERs (Distributed Energy Resources) in the emerging smart energy grids are critical to achieving goals for environmental protection, reducing energy costs and coping with failures. An architecture and market mechanism is needed to support the participation of owners of DERs that aim to maximize the profit from this investment within a system that is also able to achieve grid level objectives. Due to privacy requirements, owners of DERs should not be requested to divulge information such as the state of charge of a local energy store, and yet such information is very relevant for operating the grid in such a way that meets the objectives of the owner of the grid, who may operate a large power plant that is ultimately responsible for satisfying the load that cannot be covered by DERs. This paper builds on previous work to propose a modular multi-agent architecture in which prosumer agents represent DER owners and an auctioneer agent represents the power plant operator. The architecture allows the different agents to use different algorithms aiming at satisfying local and grid level objectives while meeting the privacy requirement. In particular, a fuzzy logic based algorithm is developed for the distributed automation platform that supports the architecture. The capability of the architecture to flexibly evaluate the performance of various algorithms from the DER owner and plant operator perspective is demonstrated with a case study in the district heating domain.

  • 274.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Modelling of IEC 61850 message passing for automatic generation of distributed control2016Ingår i: Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2015: Yokohama, Japan, 9-12 Nov. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016, s. 1524-1529, artikel-id 7392317Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The future distribution grid known as the smart grid will become more distributed in both infrastructure and control. IEC 61850 and IEC 61499 are two industrial standards addressing the challenges presented by a decentralized infrastructure. This paper contributes to system engineering of smart grid automation by enabling automatic generation of IEC 61499 control systems from IEC 61850 specifications. The areas which this paper fills is proposing a method to formally capture the logical node to logical node message passing which is lacking in the IEC 61850 standard. The proposed method is to represent an IEC 61850 protection scheme as a graph and then integrate it into the IEC 61850 ontology developed previously. The case study used is a sympathetic tripping protection scenario which demonstrates how the process of developing the graph model from the protection scheme and applying ontology rules to automatically generate the resultant IEC 61499 function blocks with meaningful connections between the logical nodes.

  • 275.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    On automated co-simulation testing of functional requirements for distributed substation automation systems2018Ingår i: IECON 2018: 44th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 276.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    On requirements-driven design of distributed smart grid automation control2017Ingår i: Proceedings: 2017 IEEE 15th International Conference on Industrial Informatics, INDIN 2017, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 738-745, artikel-id 8104864Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a novel method of modelling requirements for smart grid automation systems that fits and complements the leading standards used for software development in smart grid: IEC 61850 and IEC 61499. Ontological representation is used to formally model the systems requirements and the integration of the requirement modelling to be used in conjunction with IEC 61850 specifications and IEC 61499 implementation. The proposed model is illustrated on a case study presented by the CIGRE working group where the system requirement in natural language was firstly modelled in ontology, then implemented in IEC 61499. Lastly, the resulting IEC 61499 control system was tested and validated against the system requirement by signal testing of the end control system.

  • 277.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    University of Auckland, Penza State University, Department of Computer Science, University of Penza, Computer Science Department, Penza State University, Penza.
    Automatic generation of cyber-physical software applications based on physical to cyber transformation using ontologies2016Ingår i: Technological innovation for cyber-physical systems: 7th IFIP WG 5.5/SOCOLNET Advanced Doctoral Conference on Computing, Electrical and Industrial Systems, DoCEIS 2016, Costa de Caparica, Portugal, April 11-13, 2016, Proceedings / [ed] Luis M. Camarinha-Matos ; Antonio Falcao; Nazanin Vafaei; Shirin Nadji, New York: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2016, s. 37-45Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the aim of automatically generating a cyber-physical control system (more precisely, an IEC61499 control system) is discussed. The method is enabled by ontology models, specifically the source plant ontology model and the target control model for the CPS system implemented in the preferred programming language. The transforming of ontologies is enabled by an extension of SWRL (called eSWRL) and it is introduced here. There interpreter of eSWRL is developed using the Prolog language. A case study Baggage Handling System is used to demonstrate how the ontology models are transformed and the corresponding transforming rules that are developed

  • 278.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    Penza State University.
    On development of execution model for model transforming distributed substation automation control with ontology2017Ingår i: 2017 IEEE 26th International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE), Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 1219-1225, artikel-id 8001419Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The so called Smart Grid is said to be enabled with bi-direction communication networks and energy flow. IEC 61850 is a substation communication standard which improves interoperability of the substation design. IEC 61499 is an automation standard which can be used for implementation of control in IEC 61850 models. This work is utilizing Model Driven Engineering techniques for substation automation systems, specifically using ontology models to automatically generate IEC 61499 distributed automation control systems. eSWRL is the proposed ontology transformation and it is necessary to develop an execution model for executing the transformation rules. This paper explores the use of several execution semantic models for eSWRL and illustrates the use of the most suitable execution model for the context of this work. In the case study, eSWRL rules are written using the execution models discussed in this paper to generate a distributed automation control library in IEC 61499.

  • 279.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Mousavi, Arash
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    University of Auckland, Penza State University, Department of Computer Science, University of Penza.
    On Automatic Generation of IEC61850/IEC61499 Substation Automation Systems Enabled by Ontology2015Ingår i: IECON 2014: 40th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Dallas, TX, USA , Oct. 29 2014 - Nov. 1 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, s. 3577-3583Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an introductory step in theautomatic generation of distributed control software for powerdistribution automation systems based on Ontology DrivenEngineering enabled by industrial standards IEC61850 andIEC61499. The novelty of this approach is the ability ofautomatically generating the logical connections between thelogical nodes. The paper covers the several stages of thetransformation process, such as developing the IEC61850ontology and the ontology transformation rules. The developed IEC61850 ontology includes the logical nodes descriptions and additional contextual relations between the logical nodes which is lacking in the IEC61850 SCL configuration language. Then, the IEC61850 ontology is transformed to an existing IEC61499 ontology, adding classes of IEC61850 logical nodes as IEC61499 function blocks in the IEC61499 ontology. The means of the transformation of the ontologies is based on the eSWRL sematic web rules language, an extension to the rule language SWRL. The end result is the development of an IEC61850 ontology and a set of eSWRL rules which facilitates the ontology transformation.

  • 280.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    et al.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Nair, Nirmal-Kumar
    University of Auckland.
    Chouinard, Julien
    Programmable Logic for IEC 61850 Logical Nodes by means of IEC 614992011Ingår i: IECON 2011: 37th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society : Melbourne, VIC; 7 November 2011 - 10 November 2011, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2011, s. 2717-2723Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    IEC61850 is a recent standard in substation automation system (SAS) aiming mainly at interoperability. Interoperability is achieved by standardizing communications and data between intelligent electronic devices (IEDs). Data inintelligent electronic devices are modelled in IEC61850 using an object orientated approach as logical nodes. Although the IEC61850 standardizes the data and communication in substation design, the implementation of control is intentionally left out of the standard. IEC61499 function blocks has been proposed tofill the logic void of the IEC61850 standard. In this paper, intelligent logical node (iLN) architecture is used, which combines both description and control within IEC61850 logical nodes. An IEC61850 application presented at the IEC TC57WG10 has been modelled using the iLN architecture with the addition of editable logics within the iLN architecture by means of IEC61499 function blocks implemented in the ISaGRAF development platform.

  • 281.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Pang, Cheng
    Goobotics Research Institute, Zhuxi Wisdom Valley, Jiangmen.
    Service-oriented extension of IEC 61850 for model-driven smart grid automation design2017Ingår i: Proceedings IECON 2017: 43rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 5489-5496Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a design pattern based on the service-oriented architecture for the design of flexible distributed automation control system for substation automation systems. The design pattern is intended to be applied to control systems based on the leading standards for software development of smart grid: IEC 61850 and IEC 61499. The proposed design pattern models system requirements as orchestrators and IEC 61850 logical node specification is used as the basis for the design of smart grid services. The proposed design pattern is illustrated on a case study of a distribution system which consists of one transformer and five feeder sections. The design pattern is used to design the control system for the feeder section of the case study distribution system which includes the development of the orchestrator from the system requirement to the resultant IEC 61499 control system.

  • 282.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Xu, Jiang
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Towards Implementation of IEC 61850 GOOSE Messaging in Event-Driven IEC 61499 Environment2014Ingår i: Proceedings of 2014 IEEE 19th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2014): Barcelona, Spain, 16-19 Sept. 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, s. 464-470, artikel-id 7005253Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    IEC 61850 is a new standard for substation automation which attempts to standardize communication within substations by introducing a set of new communication services operating over the Ethernet framework. The communication of interest for protection is IEC 61850 GOOSE messaging. GOOSE messaging is a peer to peer service designed for protection applications within substations. There is a growing interest in filling the void of control in the IEC 61850 standard. The Intelligent Logical Nodes (iLN) architecture is one such solution which uses IEC 61499 as the complimentary control system for IEC 61850. The missing component in the iLN architecture is the various communication profiles introduced in the IEC 61850 standard. This paper presents an implementation of IEC 61850 GOOSE messaging for the IEC 61499 IDE that implements event-driven execution semantics by means of the SharpPcap library.

  • 283.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    et al.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Yan, Jeffery
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Towards implementation of Plug-and-Play and distributed HMI for the FREEDM system with IEC 614992013Ingår i: IECON 2013: 39th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013, s. 5347-5353Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an implementation of Plug-and-Play for the FREEDM system with IEC61499 function blocks. The FREEDM system is the envisioned next generation power distribution infrastructure which integrates DRER/ER with the legacy grid and is enabled by novel power electronics and distributed control. Plug-and-Play device integration is one of the key features of the FREEDM system that allows distributed renewable energy resources and distributed energy storage devices to be added or removed from the FREEDM distributed intelligent devices seamlessly. IEC61499 is an open standard for designing distributed control systems, which is investigated in the FREEDM project as an underlying system-level software architecture. Plug-and-Play is achieved by dynamic reconfiguration in IEC61499 to create the necessary function blocks during runtime for enabling Plug-and-Play between the DRER and the DGI devices. The developed Plug-and-Play technology is incorporated into the FREEDM infrastructure implemented in IEC61499

  • 284.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    et al.
    Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Zhabelova, Gulnara
    Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Auckland.
    Nair, Nirmal Kumar C
    Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Apostolov, Alexander P.
    Omicron Electronics Corp.
    Smart grid automation: Distributed protection application with IEC61850/IEC614992013Ingår i: IEEE 10th International Conference on Industrial Informatics: 25-27 July, 2012, Beijing, China., Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013, s. 1067-1072Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes solutions for distributed protection applications, to improve current and design of future protection schemes. This solution utilises advantages of fast and reliable peer-to-peer communication of IEC 61850 and interoperability and configurability of IEC 61499. The integration of the two standards improves protection schemes by decreasing fault clearing times and minimizes the effect of short circuit faults on sensitive loads. Additional advantages include the reductions of the number of hard-wired connections, especially in a large substation where all protection IEDs has a significant number of binary inputs and relay outputs. IEC 61499 is an open standard for designing distributed control systems to promote portability, interoperability and configurability, i.e. vendor independent, flexible and robust solutions. IEC 61499 can be used to represent programmable logic of power system devices, in a standard form and in a vendor independent way. The proposed distributed protection system is implemented and simulated using the developed co-simulation environment.

  • 285. Yang, Chia-han
    et al.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Model transformation between MATLAB simulink and function blocks2010Ingår i: INDIN 2010: proceedings : 8th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics : Osaka University Nakanoshima Center, Osaka, Japan, 13-16 July, 2010, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2010, s. 1130-1135Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new approach to modelling automation systems based on the combination and mutual transformation of IEC61499 Function Blocks and MATLAB Simulink. The reason for such transformation is the natural complementarity of these two models: MATLAB Simulink/Stateflow provides a nice environment for modelling and simulation of control and embedded systems, while Function Blocks are good for designing distributed control systems. An integrated software simulation environment with this transformation ability between these two tools will lead to a solution for the validation need for Function Blocks. This paper uses a motor example to demonstrate the transformation from a Simulink model to a Function Block model in Function Block Development Kit (FBDK). We discuss important issues of model transformation, such as semantics mapping, execution priorities and some guidelines for this transformation approach. An observer approach is introduced in order to make comparison of the results. This approach can also be used as part of the software simulation environment with the transformation approach.

  • 286.
    Yang, Chia-Han
    et al.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Transformation of Simulink models to IEC 61499 Function Blocks for verification of distributed control systems2012Ingår i: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 20, nr 12, s. 1259-1269Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a new model-based engineering approach is introduced by bridging MATLAB Simulink with IEC61499 Function Block models. This is achieved by a transformation between the two block-diagram languages. The transformation supported by the developed tools sets the cornerstone of the verification and validation framework for IEC 61499 Function Blocks in closed-loop with the models of the plant. The framework also paves the way to running distributed simulations of complex hybrid (i.e., continuous-discrete) closed-loop plant-controller systems and building complex models using the efficient object instantiation techniques of IEC 61499.

  • 287.
    Yang, Chia-Han
    et al.
    Centre for Autonomous System (CAS), University of Technology Sydney.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Pang, Cheng
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Model-Driven Development of Control Software for Distributed Automation: A Survey and an Approach2014Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man & Cybernetics. Systems, ISSN 2168-2216, Vol. 44, nr 3, s. 292-305Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a survey on model-driven design and validation approaches for distributed automation and control systems with essentially decentralized logic. Driven by the goals of flexibility and performance improvement, researchers have explored several approaches to distributed systems design, including multiagent systems, middleware, and distributed component architectures. This also results in several international standards and reference architectures, such as IEC 61499, OpenRTM, IEC 61804, etc. Verification and validation of distributed systems is another grand challenge. This survey presents methods of using traditional and novel modeling and simulation tools in the context of distributed systems. In particular, this paper then focuses on the developments related to IEC 61499 standard, which displays a range of research directions that aim to fill the gaps in the distributed systems modeling, implementation, and validation.

  • 288.
    Yang, Chia-Han
    et al.
    Centre for Autonomous System (CAS), University of Technology Sydney, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Zhabelova, Gulnara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Cosimulation environment for event-driven distributed controls of smart grid2013Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 1423-1435Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a co-simulation environment for “hardware in the loop” or “software in the loop” validation of distributed controls in Smart Grid. The controls are designed using model-driven engineering with the IEC 61499 Function Block architecture. These are connected with plant models, for example in MATLAB/Simulink, through communication channels such as UDP or TCP sockets. This solution enables multi-closed-loop plant-controller simulation. The communication between plant and controller is event-driven. In order to perform realistic simulation, the proposed solution takes into account computation and communication delays on the controller side in Function Blocks and compensates model time on the plant side in MATLAB model accordingly. Causality and accuracy of the method have been formally addressed. This approach has been tested and demonstrated with several Smart Grid-related examples.

  • 289.
    Yli-Ojanperä, Matti
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Sierla, Seppo
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Papakonstantinou, Nikolaos
    VTT Technical Research Centre, Espoo, Finland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Adapting an agile manufacturing concept to the reference architecture model industry 4.0: A survey and case study2019Ingår i: Journal of Industrial Information Integration, ISSN 2452-414X, Vol. 15, s. 147-160Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry 4.0 architecture has been studied in a large number of publications in the fields of Industrial Internet of Things, Cyber Physical Production Systems, Enterprise Architectures, Enterprise Integration and Cloud Manufacturing. A large number of architectures have been proposed, but none of them has been adopted by a large number of research groups. Two major Industry 4.0 reference architectures have been developed by industry-driven initiatives, namely the German Industry 4.0 and the US-led Industrial Internet Consortium. These are the Reference Architecture Model Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet Reference Architecture, which are being standardized by the International Electrotechnical Commission and the Object Management Group, respectively. The first research goal of this article is to survey the literature on Industry 4.0 architectures in a factory context and assess awareness and compatibility with Reference Architecture Model Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet Reference Architecture. The second research goal is to adapt a previously proposed advanced manufacturing concept to Reference Architecture Model Industry 4.0. With respect to the first research goal, it was discovered that only a minority of researchers were aware of the said reference architectures and that in general authors offered no discussion about the compatibility of their proposals with any internationally standardized reference architecture for Industry 4.0. With respect to the second research goal, it was discovered that Reference Architecture Model Industry 4.0 was mature with respect to communication and information sharing in the scope of the connected world, that further standardization enabling interoperability of different vendors’ technology is still under development and that technology standardization enabling executable business processes between networked enterprises was lacking.

  • 290. Yoong, Li Hsien
    et al.
    Roop, Partha S.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Salcic, Zoran A.
    A Synchronous approach for IEC 61499 function block implementation2009Ingår i: I.E.E.E. transactions on computers (Print), ISSN 0018-9340, E-ISSN 1557-9956, Vol. 58, nr 12, s. 1599-1614Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    IEC 61499 has been endorsed as the standard for modeling and implementing distributed industrial process measurement and control systems. The standard prescribes the use of function blocks for designing systems in a component-oriented approach. The execution model of a basic function block and the manner for event/data connections between blocks are described therein. Unfortunately, the standard does not provide exhaustive specifications for function block execution. Consequently, multiple standard-compliant implementations exhibiting different behaviors are possible. This not only defeats the purpose of having a standard but also makes verification of function block systems difficult. To overcome this, we propose synchronous semantics for function blocks and show its feasibility by translating function blocks into a subset of Esterel, a well-known synchronous language. The proposed semantics avoids causal cycles common in Esterel and is proved to be reactive and deterministic under any composition. Moreover, verification techniques developed for synchronous systems can now be applied to function blocks.

  • 291.
    Young, Li Hsien
    et al.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Roop, Partha S.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Salčič, Zoran A.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Synchronous execution of IEC 61499 function blocks using esterel2007Ingår i: INDIN 2007: 5th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, [July 23-27 2007, Vienna, Austria], Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2007, Vol. 2, s. 1189-1194Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The IEC 61499 standard proposes a component-oriented approach for specifying industrial-process measurement and control systems using function blocks. Unfortunately, the standard does not provide rigorous semantics for the execution of function blocks, resulting in different behaviours on different implementations. The differences arise mostly as a result of the various event handling and scheduling mechanisms employed. To overcome such ambiguities, this paper proposes synchronous semantics for function block execution by translating function block programs into Esterel, a well-known synchronous language. The mathematical foundation of synchronous languages will not only precisely define the execution semantics, but also open up the pathway for formal verification of function blocks

  • 292.
    Zhabelova, G.
    et al.
    University of Auckland.
    Patil, Sandeep
    University of Auckland.
    Yang, C-W
    University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Smart Grid applications with IEC 61499 reference architecture2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the 11th IEEE Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN 2013): Bochum; Germany; 29 July 2013 through 31 July 2013, IEEE Communications Society, 2013, s. 458-463, artikel-id 6622928Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents implementation of the Distributed Grid Intelligence (DGI) applications such as Intelligent Fault Management and Load Balancing using IEC61499 reference architecture. This enables system level design of distributed applications with a direct pathway to deployment to hardware. The use of IEC 61499 improves scalability, re-configurability and maintainability of automation software. Both applications were verified using co-simulation approach: control and power system simulated on PCs, and power system simulation on a PC networked with the number of distributed hardware running control algorithm. Both DGI applications were deployed to commercial programmable automation devices and embedded controllers. The use of IEC 61499 facilitates deployment of hardware independent function block model to the variety of compliant hardware. The paper also discusses distributed SCADA concept with IEC61499 implemented with the so-called Composite Automation Type (CAT) function blocks which combine functional and visual components. These blocks are used to implement human-machine interface of the FREEDM Smart Grid demonstrator reacting on plugging and unplugging of energy resources

  • 293.
    Zhabelova, G.
    et al.
    University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Multiagent smart grid automation architecture based on IEC 61850/61499 intelligent logical nodes2012Ingår i: IEEE transactions on industrial electronics (1982. Print), ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 59, nr 5, s. 2351-2362Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Universal, intelligent, and multifunctional devices controlling power distribution and measurement will become the enabling technology of the Smart Grid ICT. In this paper, we report on a novel automation architecture which supports distributed multiagent intelligence, interoperability, and configurability and enables efficient simulation of distributed automation systems. The solution is based on the combination of IEC 61850 object-based modeling and interoperable communication with IEC 61499 function block executable specification. Using the developed simulation environment, we demonstrate the possibility of multiagent control to achieve self-healing grid through collaborative fault location and power restoration.

  • 294. Zhabelova, G.
    et al.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Nair, N.C.
    Standard-based engineering and distributed execution framework for intelligent fault management for FREEDM system2011Ingår i: IECON 2011 - 37th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IEEE Communications Society, 2011, s. 2724-2729Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 295.
    Zhabelova, Gulnara
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vesterlund, Mattias
    RISE SICS North, 973 47, Luleå.
    Eschmann, Sascha
    National Institute of Applied Sciences, Strasbourg, France.
    Berezovskaya, Yulia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Helsinki .
    Flieller, Damien
    National Institute of Applied Sciences, Strasbourg, France.
    A Comprehensive Model of Data Center: from CPU to Cooling Tower2018Ingår i: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 6, s. 2169-3536Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aiming at addressing environmental challenges, large data centers such as Facebook, Google, Yahoo, etc., are increasing share of green power in their daily energy consumption. Such trends drive research into new directions, e.g. sustainable data centers. The research often relies on expressive models that provides sufficient details however practical to re-use and expand. There is a lack of available data center models that capture internal operating states of the facility from the CPU to the cooling tower. It is a challenge to develop a model that allows to describe complete data center of any scale including its connection to the grid. This paper proposes such a model building on existing work. The challenge was to put the pieces of data center together and model behavior of each element so that interdependencies between components and parameters and operating states are captured correctly and in sufficient details. The proposed model was used in the project “Data center microgrid integration” and proven to be adequate and important to support such study.

  • 296.
    Zhabelova, Gulnara
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Towards a Design Methodology for Agent-Based Automation of Smart Grid2015Ingår i: Industrial Applications of Holonic and Multi-Agent Systems: 7th International Conference, HoloMAS 2015, Valencia, Spain, September 2-3, 2015, Proceedings / [ed] Vladimír Mařík ; Arnd Schirrmann; Damien Trentesaux ; Pavel Vrba, New York: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2015, s. 181-194Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes an agent-oriented design methodology specific to power system automation domain. The existing agent-oriented methodologies have some deficiencies when applied in industrial automation. Besides, there is lack of models, methods and guidelines for their systematic application. The proposed methodology combines familiar to domain engineer design process of the IEC 61850 standard and design flow of agent-oriented methodologies. The resultant agent-based system is modelled and implemented with IEC 61499. The transformation of IEC 61850 models into the IEC 61499 solution models is guided by the set of rules and supported by automated transformation tool. The methodology has a set of models, their transformation methods and well defined steps that enable systematic design of the agent-based solutions for power system. The methodology is exemplified here on a Smart Grid protection application

  • 297.
    Zhabelova, Gulnara
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Towards an open model for data center research: From CPU to cooling tower2018Ingår i: IECON 2018: 44th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 298.
    Zhabelova, Gulnara
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Towards software metrics for evaluating quality of IEC 61499 automation software2015Ingår i: Proceedings of 2015 IEEE 20th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2015): Luxembourg, 8-11 Sept. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, artikel-id 7301502Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The quality of the software has an increasing impact on the performance, operation and ultimately the cost of industrial automation systems. Software metrics are necessary to assess the quality and to identify modules that impact cost of testing and maintenance. There is a number of software metrics available within a software engineering domain. However, there is a gap when it comes to evaluating IEC 61499 automation software. It is a challenging task too. IEC 61499 architecture embraces several software development techniques such as imperative languages, state machines and object oriented programming. This paper proposes the method for calculating metrics for IEC 61499 function blocks. These metrics were used to analyze power system protection software. Metrics confirmed expected results and reasonably described quality of software modules. With further improvement and expansion of the proposed set of metrics, it will be possible to accurately analyze and therefore improve automation software design and reduce cost.

  • 299.
    Zhabelova, Gulnara
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    University of Auckland, Penza State University, Department of Computer Science, University of Penza.
    Decision making for industrial agents in Smart Grid applications2015Ingår i: IECON 2014: 40th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Dallas, TX, USA , Oct. 29 2014 - Nov. 1 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, s. 3584-3590Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Agent technology in the power system domain isthe realm of theory and laboratory simulation. Agent-basedsystems, due to their complexity of concept and design, mayappear difficult to implement and maintain, and hence moreexpensive, which is a prohibiting factor against using the newtechnology. Designing a decision-making system for an agent isone of the most complex tasks in the development of agent-basedsystems. Designing a decision-making system enabling proactivebehaviours while maintaining reasonable complexity is achallenge. This paper proposes an deliberative decision makingsystem for an industrial agent which allows pro-active behaviourof the agent while maintaining reasonable complexity. It employsa combination of practical and procedural reasoning principles.The formal definition of the proposed deliberative layer isderived in the paper. The procedural reasoning is based on IEC61850 Logical Node concept and implemented with IEC 61499reference architecture. The proposed agent architecture isdemonstrated on the Fault Location Isolation and SupplyRestoration application and validated via so-simulation withMatlab model of the sample distribution network.

  • 300.
    Zhabelova, Gulnara
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    Penza State University, Department of Computer Science, University of Penza.
    Towards industrially usable agent technology for Smart Grid automation2015Ingår i: IEEE transactions on industrial electronics (1982. Print), ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 62, nr 4, s. 2629-2641Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This work is aimed at facilitating industrial adoption of agent technology. The paper proposes the hybrid agent architecture specific to the power system automation domain. The architecture builds on the Logical Node concept of IEC 61850 and comprises of a deliberative and a reactive layers; combining advantages of both. By relying on the underlined industrial standards IEC 61850 and IEC 61499, the architecture ensures practical applicability and captures domain specific concepts in the agent-based system design. Developed agentbased system was validated in the co-simulation framework. The architecture provides for rapid system development, reducing the software development life cycle. The benefits are in trace-ability of the software requirements, re-use of software components, ease of re-design, and direct deployment of the system model.

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