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  • 301.
    Dai, Wenbai
    et al.
    Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.
    Wang, Peng
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Shenyang, China.
    Sun, Weiqi
    Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.
    Wu, Xian
    Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.
    Zhang, Hualiang
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Shenyang, China.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Yang, Genke
    Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.
    Semantic Integration of Plug-and-Play Software Components for Industrial Edges Based on Microservices2019In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, p. 125882-125892Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial cyber-physical system enables collaboration between distributed nodes across industrial clouds and edge devices. Flexibility and interoperability could be enhanced significantly by introducing the service-oriented architecture to industrial edge devices. From the industrial edge computing perspective, software components shall be dynamically composed across heterogeneous edge devices to perform various functionalities. In this paper, a knowledge-driven Microservice-based architecture to enable plug-and-play software components is proposed for industrial edges. These software components can be dynamically configured based on the orchestration of microservices with the support of the knowledge base and the reasoning process. These semantically enhanced plug-and-play microservices could provide rapid online reconfiguration without any programming efforts. The use of the plug-and-play software components is demonstrated by an assembly line example.

  • 302.
    Dai, Wenbin
    et al.
    University of Auckland, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    University of Auckland, Penza State University, Department of Computer Science, University of Penza, Computer Science Department, Penza State University, Penza.
    Christensen, James H.
    Rockwell Automation Advanced Technologies, Mayfield Heights, Holobloc Inc., Cleveland Heigths.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Guan, Xinping
    Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China, Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Towards Self-Manageable and Adaptive Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems with Knowledge-Driven Autonomic Service Management2017In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 725-736, article id 7523919Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasingly important goal of industrial automation systems is to continuously optimize physical resource utilization such as materials. Distributed automation is seen as one enabling technology for achieving this goal, in which networking controller nodes collaborate in a peer to peer way to form a new paradigm, namely industrial cyber-physical systems (iCPS). In order to achieve rapid response to changes from both high level control systems and plant environment, the proposed self-manageable agent relies on the use of the Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) that improves flexibility and interoperability. It is enhanced by the autonomic service management (ASM) to implement software modifications in a fully automatic manner, thus achieving self-manageable and adaptive industrial cyberphysical systems. The architecture design of the autonomic service manager is provided and integration with SOA based execution environment is illustrated. Preliminary tests on selfmanagement are completed using a case study of airport baggage handling system.

  • 303.
    Dai, Wenbin
    et al.
    University of Auckland.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    University of Penza.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    University of Auckland.
    Automatically generated layered ontological models for semantic analysis of component-based control systems2013In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 2124-2136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The IEC 61499 standard is designed for distributed control and proposes new visual form of programming using block diagrams with embedded state machines and unlimited hierarchical nesting and distribution across networking devices. Such visual programs require new methods of automatic syntactic and semantic analysis. This paper proposes a new approach to semantic analysis using multiple-layered ontological knowledge representation and rule-based inference engine. Its working is demonstrated on example.

  • 304.
    Dai, Wenbin
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China, Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Huang, Wanqi
    Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China, Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Enabling plug-and-play software components in industrial cyber-physical systems by adopting service-oriented architecture paradigm2016In: IECON Proceedings (Industrial Electronics Conference), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Computer Society, 2016, p. 5253-5258, article id 7793834Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial cyber-physical systems provide a vision of collaborative industrial automation systems with maximized flexibility and interoperability. Service-oriented architecture is considered as the key to enabling collaboration in industrial cyber-physical systems. On the device level, software components are expected to act as services that can be published and accessed from other distributed nodes. In this paper, a plug-and-play service component approach is proposed based on web service description language (WSDL) and IEC 61499 function blocks. Those services are able to be discovered by adopting device profiles for web services (DPWS). Plug-and-play software services are demonstrated on a building automation system example and future works on automatic service orchestration are discussed

  • 305.
    Dai, Wenbin
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China, Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Huang, Wanqi
    Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China, Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Knowledge-driven service orchestration engine for flexible information acquisition in industrial cyber-physical systems2016In: IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, ISIE 2016, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, p. 1055-1060, article id 7745038Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-physical systems attract attentions from many domains including industrial automation recently. Cyber-physical production system or industrial cyber-physical system is considered as key to achieve collaborative automation systems. The service-oriented architecture is often linked with industrial cyber-physical systems to lift flexibility and interoperability. By adopting service-oriented architecture in industrial cyber-physical systems, a new way of information acquisition is enabled by dynamically composing services according to requests. In this paper, a knowledge-driven service orchestration engine is introduced for process requests from human or devices and collect information automatically by assembling services dynamically. The service composition process is described using a room lighting system example. Tools required by the service orchestration engine and future development plan are provided

  • 306.
    Dai, Wenbin
    et al.
    University of Auckland, Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China, Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Pang, Cheng
    Department of Electrical and Computer System Engineering, University of Auckland, University of Auckland, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Aalto University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Reconfigurable elements of execution semantics for industrial cyber-physical systems2016In: Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2015: Yokohama, Japan, 9-12 Nov. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016, p. 2252-2257, article id 7392437Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increasing computing power and network capacity, distributed automation systems are facing new challenges of handling massive amounts of distributed nodes within tight real-time constraints. The industrial cyber-physical systems is considered as the key to solve these complexities. In distributed industrial automation systems, there exists several execution semantics. In this paper, all existing execution semantics are summarized as a set of rules which are described by reconfigurable elements. During the simulation and verification of industrial cyber-physical systems, those rules are helpful to provide a generic runtime environment which can perform various execution semantics. This reconfigurable execution environment is demonstrated using a case study of a room lighting system.

  • 307.
    Dai, Wenbin
    et al.
    Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Pang, Cheng
    Googol Technology (Shenzhen) Ltd..
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Christensen, James H.
    Department of Research and Development, Holobloc Inc., Cleveland, OH.
    Guan, Xinping
    Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai.
    Discrete-Event-Based Deterministic Execution Semantics With Timestamps for Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems2017In: IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man & Cybernetics. Systems, ISSN 2168-2216, E-ISSN 1349-2543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-physical systems (CPSs) are becoming common in the industrial automation domain. In industrial CPS, distributed programmable logic controllers collaborate to control manufacturing plants. Design and analysis of such systems require a system model that covers control, computation, and communication with physical plant dynamics. This paper focuses on execution semantics for industrial CPS with the aim of providing a deterministic and platform-independent execution environment. A discrete-event-based execution semantics augmented with timestamp mechanism is proposed for IEC 61499 to provide deterministic behavior and guarantee compliance with real-time constraints for industrial CPS. The timestamped discrete-event-based execution semantics is implemented in an IEC 61499 runtime with service-enabled features. A case study of building automation system is used to prove the proposed semantics.

  • 308.
    Dai, Wenbin
    et al.
    Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Automation.
    Riliskis, Laurynas
    Stanford University, Department of Computer Science.
    Wang, Peng
    Shenyang Institute of Automation, China Academy of Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Aalto University, Espoo.
    Guan, Xinping
    Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai.
    A Cloud-Based Decision Support System for Self-Healing in Distributed Automation Systems Using Fault Tree Analysis2018In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 989-1000Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Downtime is a key performance index for industrial automation systems. An industrial automation system achieves maximum productivity when its downtime is reduced to the minimum. One approach to minimize downtime is to predict system faults and recover from them automatically. A cloud-based decision support system is proposed for rapid problem identifications and to assist the self-management processes. By running multiple parallel simulations of control software with real-time inputs ahead of system time, faults could be detected and corrected automatically using autonomous industrial software agents. Fault trees, as well as control algorithms, are modeled using IEC 61499 function blocks that can be directly executed on both physical controllers and cloud services. A case study of water heating process is used to demonstrate the self-healing process supported by the cloud-based decision support system.

  • 309.
    Dai, Wenbin
    et al.
    Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China.
    Song, Yineng
    Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China.
    Zhang, Zhijie
    Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China.
    Wang, Peng
    Chinese Academy of Science, Shenyang Institute of Automation.
    Pang, Cheng
    Zhuxi Wisdom Valley, Jiangmen Goobotics Research Institute, Jiangmen, China.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Modelling Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems using IEC 61499 and OPC UA2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems (iCPS) are considered as the enabling technology for achieve Industry 4.0. One main characteristic of the iCPS is the information transparency to allow interoperability among various devices and systems. The OPC UA provides a common information model for connecting Industry 4.0 components. On the other hand, the IEC 61499 is commonly used as an executable modeling language for iCPS. The IEC 61499 function block network provides an abstract view of the system configuration. By combining IEC 61499 and OPC UA, a visual executable model for iCPS is completed. In this paper, the mapping between two standards are provided and a case study of the proposed mapping is given.

  • 310.
    Dai, Wenbin
    et al.
    University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Redesign distributed PLC control systems using IEC 61499 function blocks2012In: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, ISSN 1545-5955, E-ISSN 1558-3783, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 390-401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The IEC 61499 Function Block architecture is considered as the next generation of programmable control technology promoting distributed control in automation. In this paper, the redesign methodologies from the PLC control to the event-driven architecture of IEC 61499 function blocks are proposed. A general set of translation steps and mapping rules for redesigning applications from IEC 61131-3 PLC to IEC 61499 Function Blocks is provided. Three different redesign approaches are proposed: object-oriented conversion approach, object-oriented reuse approach, and class-oriented approach. These approaches are to be applied for different design styles of the source PLC code. The data handling efficiency of all approaches is investigated. An airport baggage handling system is chosen as the case study for the redesign process. The rules and limitations are summarized and guidelines for the redesign process are provided.

  • 311.
    Dai, Wenbin
    et al.
    University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Transformation from PLC to distributed control using ontology mapping2012In: 10th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), IEEE Communications Society, 2012, p. 436-441Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new methodology of transformation from IEC 61131-3 PLCs to IEC 61499 function blocks is proposed in this paper. The aim of this process is to recreate IEC 61131-3 programs in the IEC 61499 format automatically. The original PLC cyclical execution is fulfilled in the IEC 61499 function blocks. Definitions of IEC 61131-3 and IEC 61499 ontology model are provided. Also the ontology mapping between those two standards is also achieved by using the SQWRL. A small airport baggage handling system implemented in the IEC 61131-3 PLC is converted to the IEC 61499 function block as a demonstration

  • 312.
    Dai, Wenbin
    et al.
    University of Auckland, Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China, Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Chen, Cailian
    Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China, Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Guan, Xinping
    Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China, Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Modeling distributed automation systems in cyber-physical view2015In: 10th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications: ICIEA 2015, Auckland. New Zealand; 15 - 17 June 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, p. 984-989, article id 7334251Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With increasing complexity of automation processes, distributed automation systems are required to meet real-time constraints of control and communication for processes. On the other hand, cyber-physical system is committed for solving complexities of networked embedded systems. In the cyber-physical view, distributed systems are combination of control, computation and communication. One key research topic is to solve design complexities of industrial cyber-physical systems by applying modeling techniques. In this paper, an IEC 61499-based modeling language is propsed for industrial cyber-physical systems. Furthermore, how these modeling techniques could be beneficial for industrial cyber-physical systems are investigated. Finally, an industrial cyber-physical system design tool is implemented by applying the proposed IEC 61499-based modeling language

  • 313.
    Dai, Wenbin
    et al.
    Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Christensen, James H.
    Holobloc Inc., Cleveland.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    Department of Computer Science, University of Penza, Penza, Russia.
    Response to “Comments on Bridging Service-Oriented Architecture and IEC 61499 for Flexibility and Interoperability”2017In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 1497-1502, article id 7931583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service-oriented architecture is increasingly applied in industrial cyber-physical systems to provide better flexibility and interoperability between various systems and devices. In the previous work (IEEE Trans. On Industrial Informatics, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp 771 – 781, June 2015), a service-based execution environment for IEC 61499 is proposed to enhance flexibility and interoperability in distributed automation systems. In this paper we discuss questions raised by some readers, for example performance overhead of the proposed method. Also other clarifications are made in order to address possible confusions expressed in the received comments

  • 314.
    Dai, Wenbin
    et al.
    University of Auckland, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Pang, Cheng
    Department of Electrical and Computer System Engineering, University of Auckland, University of Auckland, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Christensen, James H.
    Rockwell Automation Advanced Technologies, Mayfield Heights, Holobloc Inc., Cleveland Heigths.
    Time-stamped event based execution semantics for industrial cyber-physical systems2015In: IEEE 13th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), 2015: Cambridge, United Kingdom, 22-24 July 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, p. 1263-1268, article id 7281916Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-physical systems show their impacts in many areas including industrial automation. Design and analysis of cyber-physical automation systems requires an integral model that takes into account tight coordination of control, communication and physical plants dynamics, thus creating a new research domain, namely industrial cyber-physical systems. This paper proposes a new execution semantics for the IEC 61499 standard that is based on the concepts of discrete-event systems augmented with timestamping of events to guarantee real-time constraints for industrial cyber-physical systems. The proposed execution semantics is implemented in an IEC 61499 execution environment and a case study on building automation systems is used to verify the results.

  • 315.
    Dai, Wenbin
    et al.
    Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Zhang, Zhijie
    Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Wang, Peng
    Shenyang Institute of Automation, China Academy of Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Christensen, James H.
    Department of Research and Development, Holobloc Inc., Cleveland, OH.
    Service-oriented data acquisition and management for industrial cyber-physical systems2017In: Proceedings: 2017 IEEE 15th International Conference on Industrial Informatics, INDIN 2017, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 759-764, article id 8104867Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     With rapid improvement in information and communication technologies, industrial automation systems are under the revolution. Legacy industrial automation systems lack flexibility and interoperability due to multi-layered architecture. From industrial cyber-physical system point of view, a new system architecture is needed to allow vertical and horizontal integration between all devices and systems from enterprise level to sensor level. In this paper, a RESTful service-oriented architecture is proposed for industrial controllers. By adopting RESTful services over HTTP methods, better efficiency for data acquisition from sensors, actuators, and controllers is achieved. In addition, service-oriented device management for industrial controllers is also implemented along with data acquisition. The reference architecture experiments on a car manufacturing demonstration line

  • 316.
    Dai, William
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    University of Penza.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Migration From PLC to IEC 61499 Using Semantic Web Technologies2014In: IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man & Cybernetics. Systems, ISSN 2168-2216, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 277-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a new methodology of migration from IEC 61131-3 PLCs to IEC 61499 function blocks. The aim of this migration process is to recreate IEC 61131-3 applications in IEC 61499 implementations with equivalent execution behavior. The formal model of the IEC 61131-3 standard for migration and cyclical execution model is defined. This method also creates a foundation for correct-by-design development tools and automatic migration between the IEC 61131-3 and IEC 61499 standard. Formal migration rules based on ontology mappings, restoring execution model including tasks and programs scheduling and variables mapping with different access levels, are provided. A transformation engine for importing PLC code, mapping from PLC ontology model to function block model and code generation is implemented based on the ontological knowledge base and semantic query-enhanced web rule language. The migration approach is demonstrated on a simple airport baggage handling system.

  • 317.
    Dai, William
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Peltola, Jukka
    Aalto University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Pang, Cheng
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Service-Oriented Distributed Control Software Design for Process Automation Systems2014In: Conference Proceedings / IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, ISSN 1062-922X, p. 3637-3642Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving software development efficiency and reusability of existing programs is an important topic for industrial automation. Recently, modern software paradigms have been introduced into the automation domain such as object-oriented programming using the IEC 61131-3 standard and component-based design based on the IEC 61499 standard. In this paper, another software paradigm – service-oriented architecture is applied to the software design for automation programs. The proposed SOA pattern is based on a multi-layered structure with enhanced reusability and flexibility. A case study of water heating system is implemented to prove the concept of SOA paradigm.

  • 318.
    Dai, William
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Riliskis, Laurynas
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    A Configurable Cloud-Based Testing Infrastructure for Interoperable Distributed Automation Systems2015In: IECON 2014: 40th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Dallas, TX, USA , Oct. 29 2014-Nov. 1 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, p. 2492-2498Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interoperability between various automation systems is considered as one of the major character of future automation systems. Service-oriented Architecture is a possible interoperability enabler between legacy and future automation systems. In order to prove the interoperability between those systems, a verification framework is essential. This paper proposes a configurable cloud-based validation environment for interoperability tests between various distributed automation systems. The testing framework is implemented in a multi-layer structure which provides automated closed-loop testing from the protocol level to the system level. The testing infrastructure is also capable for simulating automation systems as well as wireless sensor networks in the cloud. Test cases could be automatically generated and executed by the framework.

  • 319.
    Dai, William
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    A component-based design pattern for improving reusability of automation programs2013In: 39th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2013, IEEE Communications Society, 2013, p. 4328-4333Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a component-based design pattern for distributed automation programs. This design pattern aims to improve reusability of programs and reduce redevelopment time. Component-based design issues in both IEC 61131-3 and IEC 61499 platforms are analyzed. Then the design pattern is proposed in a form of a set of rules. The pattern combines properties of service-oriented architecture (SOA) with multi-layered organization and engineering benefits of component organization. This design pattern is applied to both IEC 61131-3 and IEC 61499 on example of a real airport baggage handling automation system. The result proves that the design pattern brings convenience for developers of automation programs and improves reusability of software components.

  • 320.
    Dai, William
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Christensen, James
    The Application of Service-Oriented Architectures in Distributed Automation Systems2014In: 2014 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, p. 252-257Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The complexity and scale of automation industry applications have increased substantially in recent years, posing new challenges to fulfill growing requirements for reusability, interoperability, flexibility and reconfigurability. The adoption of service-oriented architectures (SOAs) could be a feasible solution to meeting these challenges. Based on a comparison between the conceptual frameworks of SOAs versus modern standards for distributed automation, a methodology is proposed for the application of SOAs in the distributed automation domain. The implementation of the Service-Oriented Architecture based PLC execution environment is demonstrated on a case study.

  • 321.
    Dai, William
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Christensen, James H.
    Holobloc Inc.
    Essential elements for programming of distributed automation and control systems2013In: Proceedings of 2013 IEEE 18th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2013): Cagliari, Italy, 10-13 September 2013, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013, article id 6647942Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distributed control systems are widely deployed to all areas in industrial automation. However, a systematic approach to the design and programming of distributed automation and control systems is not clearly defined. This paper analyzes the differences between two control system architectures defined in IEC Standards - IEC 61131-3 for centralized control with programmable controllers (PLCs) vs. IEC 61499 for the use of function blocks (FBs) in distributed automation and control - in an attempt to identify the essential elements - the sine qua non - for such programming. Through this analysis, two indispensable elements - software modularity and the use of communication services - are identified. Guidelines are given for the use of these elements in both PLC and FB systems, and the application of these guidelines is illustrated in a case study of airport baggage handling systems

  • 322.
    Dai, William
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Dubinin, Victor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Christensen, James
    Enhancing Distributed Automation Systems with Efficiency and Reliability by Applying Autonomic Service Management2014In: Proceedings of 2014 IEEE 19th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2014): Barcelona, Spain, 16-19 Sept. 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, p. 1-8, article id 7005123Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improvement of flexibility and interoperability is a usual concern of industrial automation systems developers. Service-oriented architecture is one approach promising improvement of flexibility and interoperability in existing distributed automation systems. However, the intelligent self-managing features cannot be fully achieved by just applying the service-oriented architecture. In order to improve efficiency and reliability of distributed automation systems, the service-oriented architecture is extended in this paper by autonomic service management. The design of the autonomic service manager is provided and some key features such as self-configuration, self-healing and self-optimization are demonstrated. The design of a flexible and interoperable execution environment is also illustrated. Some preliminary tests are completed with a case study.

  • 323.
    Dai, William
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Dubinin, Victor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Christensen, James
    Function Block Implementation of Service Oriented Architecture: Case Study2014In: IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, IEEE Communications Society, 2014, p. 112-117Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), initially developed for general purpose computing, is becoming increasingly popular in industrial automation, especially due to the growing importance of distributed measurement and control systems, Internet of Things and wireless sensor network infrastructures. There are two serious gaps in the current implementations of SOA for automation: the lack of a proper standard form for representing the logical relation between services at the system level, and, in particular, lack for a proper visual representation format enabling intuitive understanding and reconfiguration of services during the system lifecycle. In this paper, it is shown how these gaps can be filled using the IEC 61499 function block architecture in the most intuitive and natural way. The ideas are illustrated on example of systems, composed form intelligent mechatronic devices. Such features, as software reuse, flexibility, reconfigurability and scalability are demonstrated. The paper shows complementarity of the SOA and IEC 61499.

  • 324.
    Danielsson, Linn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Gamified Mobile Application and Stairstep Counter for Stair Walking2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Gamification is an area that has attracted a substantial amount of interest in recent years and is something that can be applied almost everywhere. Health is also an area that is frequently discussed regarding how a person's health and daily exercise can be improved. Applying gamification to motivate people to exercise more is something that has been done before although they are usually marketed as health application. What if an application's main purpose was not to count the amount calories burnt but instead the exercise is an additional part? In this thesis you will find the development of a prototype that is a gamified Android application with the purpose to motivate people to walk more in stairs. In order to develop an application there was a need for a stairstep counter to count the number of steps a person has taken in a stair. Hence a stairstep counter was developed using the open source machine learning framework, TensorFlow, with classification and neural networks. The counter uses the y- and z-axis of the mobile accelerometer to classify if a movement of a person was a step or not. It was trained with a custom dataset that was created using data from walking in a stair and data collected from other movements. Resulting stairstep counter used in the application is a counter that counts stairsteps rather accurately. The final result of this thesis was a mobile application that uses animation and competition elements to enhance a person's stair walk experience.

  • 325.
    Danjuma, Kwetishe Joro
    et al.
    Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola.
    Oyelere, Solomon Sunday
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Oyelere, Elisha Sunday
    Obafemi Awolowo University.
    Laine, Teemu H.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Mobile application for Ebola virus disease diagnosis (EbolaDiag)2018In: Mobile Technologies and Socio-Economic Development in Emerging Nations / [ed] Fredrick Mtenzi; George S Oreku; Dennis M Lupiana; Jim James Yonazi, Hershey, Pennsylvania: IGI Global, 2018, p. 64-80Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter describes how the Ebola virus is considered extremely infectious with a series of physical and psychological traumas on the victims. Common clinical signs associated with the disease include a sudden fever, severe headaches, muscle pain, fatigue, diarrhea, vomiting, and unexplained hemorrhages. In Africa, with strained medical facilities and remote localities, prompt identification and diagnosis of the symptoms of Ebola in a suspected patient are important to the control of the epidemic and in curtailing further spread. This chapter presents the development of an Android mobile application called EbolaDiag (Ebola Diagnosis), which is capable of supporting the diagnosis, screening, and healthcare experts working on the frontline in contact tracing and monitoring of the spread of Ebola. Furthermore, EbolaDiag is suitable for aiding the strained medical facilities in endemic areas. In addressing this gap, the application provided a model for implementing such solutions in pandemic environments. Such a solution becomes more relevant and useful to combat Ebola and several other diseases in similar environments.

  • 326.
    DaSilva, Luiz
    et al.
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
    Midkiff, Scott
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
    Park, Jahng
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
    Phanse, Kaustubh
    Lin, Tao
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
    Hadjichristofi, George
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
    Davis, Davis, Nathaniel
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
    Network mobility and protocol interoperability in ad hoc networks2004In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 42, no 11, p. 88-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The integration of various network-level functions, including routing, management, and security, is critical to the efficient operation of a mobile ad hoc network. In this article we focus on network mobility (rather than node mobility), implying the movement of entire subnetworks with respect to one another, while individual users initially associated with one such subnetwork may also move to other domains. One example is a battlefield network that includes ships, aircraft, and ground troops. In this "network of networks", subnets (e.g. shipboard networks) may be interconnected via a terrestrial mobile wireless network (e.g., between moving ships). We discuss the design and implementation of a new ad hoc routing protocol, a suite of solutions for policy-based network management, and approaches for key management and deployment of IPsec in a MANET. These solutions, in turn, are integrated with real-time middleware, a secure radio link, and a topology monitoring tool. We briefly describe each component of the solution, and focus on the challenges and approaches to integrating these components into a cohesive system to support network mobility. We evaluate the effectiveness of the system through experiments conducted in a wireless ad hoc testbed.

  • 327.
    Davidsson, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    IoT för samhällsnyttiga tjänster: Designprinciper i praktiken2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Många samhällsnyttiga tjänster är idag manuella och med låg digitaliseringsgrad. Samhällsnyttiga tjänster finns i olika delar av samhället till exempel inom skola, äldreomsorg, vägnätet, vatten och avlopp och avfallshantering. Vissa av dessa tjänster är geografiskt spridda och behöver regelbundet övervakas eller hanteras på plats som till exempel vägnätet, vatten-och avlopp och avfallshantering. Detta sker förnärvarande till stor del manuellt och skulle kunna effektiviseras med hjälp av automatisering och digitalisering.

    Syftet med detta examensarbetet är att skapa förståelse för hur värdet av samhällsnyttiga tjänster skulle kunna höjas med hjälp av digitalisering och automatisering med IoT. Som en del i att samla in data för detta kommer en IT artefakt för hantering av hushållens sopkärl att tas fram.

    I examensarbetet har ett antal designprinciper framkommit som viktiga att ta hänsyn till vid design och utveckling av samhälssnyttiga tjänster. Dessa är energikonsumtion, informationssäkerhet, användaren och andra aktörer som medskapare av värde, robusthet, Öppen Data och API:er och IoT-lösningens arkitektur.

  • 328. de Lange, Michiel
    et al.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Leindecker, Gerald
    Smart Citizens in the Hackable City: On the Datafication, Playfulness, and Making of Urban Public Spaces Through Digital Art2019In: CyberParks – The Interface Between People, Places and Technology: New Approaches and Perspectives / [ed] Carlos Smaniotta Costa, Springer, 2019, p. 157-166Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution explores concepts, approaches and technologies used to make urban public spaces more playful and artful. Through a variety of compelling narratives involving play and art it assists in the design of new cyberparks, public spaces where digitally mediated interactions are an inherent part. How can play and interactive art be used to strengthen urban public spaces by fostering citizen engagement and participation? We propose to not only utilise interactive media for designing urban (public) spaces, but also for social innovation for the benefit of citizens. in cyberparks. The contribution connects urbanity, play and games, as well as concepts of active and passive interactive digital art as part of trends towards pervasive urban interaction, gameful design and artification. We position this as an important part of developing human-centred smart cities where social capital is central, and where citizens engaging in play and art are prerequisites for sustainable communities. Using art, play and games to foster citizen engagement and collaboration is a means to develop social technologies and support the development of collective intelligence in cyberparks. This is studied in concrete cases, such as the Ice Castle in Luleå, Sweden and the Ars Electronica in Linz, from a multi-disciplinary stance involving interaction design, digital art, landscape design, architecture, and health proficiencies. We will analyse two cases of gameful design and one case of digital interactive art being used to address urban issues. Rezone the game is an interactive multimedia game developed to tackle vacancy in the city of Den Bosch in the Netherlands. The Neighbourhood is a board game developed to involve various stakeholders in making their neighbourhood using water as a collective resource.

  • 329.
    de Silva, D.
    et al.
    Research Centre for Data Analytics and Cognition, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Australia.
    Pang, Z.
    ABB Corporate Research, Västeras, Sweden.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Guest Editorial: Special Section on Developments in Artificial Intelligence for Industrial Informatics2019In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 3690-3692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emergence of artificial intelligence (AI), empowered by robust computing infrastructure and abundance of data, maintains potential for radical transformation of human society, essentially a third phase in evolution. Numerous research endeavor, policy development, and thought-leadership are presently in progress aimed at discovering data-driven intelligent decision-making solutions for smart cities, smart grids, smart homes, and informed citizens as well as addressing potential risks posed by AI workplace automation. Joining this broad effort, this Special Section contributes six research articles that consolidate recent developments in AI for industrial informatics.

  • 330.
    De Silva, Daswin
    et al.
    Research Centre for Data Analytics and Cognition, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia..
    Ranasinghe, Weranja
    Research Centre for Data Analytics and Cognition, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia..
    Bandaragoda, Tharindu
    Research Centre for Data Analytics and Cognition, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia..
    Adikari, Achini
    Research Centre for Data Analytics and Cognition, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia..
    Mills, Nishan
    Research Centre for Data Analytics and Cognition, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia..
    Iddamalgoda, Lahiru
    Research Centre for Data Analytics and Cognition, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia..
    Alahakoon, Damminda
    Research Centre for Data Analytics and Cognition, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia..
    Lawrentschuk, Nathan
    Austin Hospital, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia..
    Persad, Raj
    North Bristol, NHS Trust, Bristol, United Kingdom..
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Gray, Richard
    School of Nursing and Midwifery, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia..
    Bolton, Damien
    Austin Hospital, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia..
    Machine learning to support social media empowered patients in cancer care and cancer treatment decisions2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 10, article id e0205855Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    A primary variant of social media, online support groups (OSG) extend beyond the standard definition to incorporate a dimension of advice, support and guidance for patients. OSG are complementary, yet significant adjunct to patient journeys. Machine learning and natural language processing techniques can be applied to these large volumes of unstructured text discussions accumulated in OSG for intelligent extraction of patient-reported demographics, behaviours, decisions, treatment, side effects and expressions of emotions. New insights from the fusion and synthesis of such diverse patient-reported information, as expressed throughout the patient journey from diagnosis to treatment and recovery, can contribute towards informed decision-making on personalized healthcare delivery and the development of healthcare policy guidelines.

    METHODS AND FINDINGS

    We have designed and developed an artificial intelligence based analytics framework using machine learning and natural language processing techniques for intelligent analysis and automated aggregation of patient information and interaction trajectories in online support groups. Alongside the social interactions aspect, patient behaviours, decisions, demographics, clinical factors, emotions, as subsequently expressed over time, are extracted and analysed. More specifically, we utilised this platform to investigate the impact of online social influences on the intimate decision scenario of selecting a treatment type, recovery after treatment, side effects and emotions expressed over time, using prostate cancer as a model. Results manifest the three major decision-making behaviours among patients, Paternalistic group, Autonomous group and Shared group. Furthermore, each group demonstrated diverse behaviours in post-decision discussions on clinical outcomes, advice and expressions of emotion during the twelve months following treatment. Over time, the transition of patients from information and emotional support seeking behaviours to providers of information and emotional support to other patients was also observed.

    CONCLUSIONS

    Findings from this study are a rigorous indication of the expectations of social media empowered patients, their potential for individualised decision-making, clinical and emotional needs. The increasing popularity of OSG further confirms that it is timely for clinicians to consider patient voices as expressed in OSG. We have successfully demonstrated that the proposed platform can be utilised to investigate, analyse and derive actionable insights from patient-reported information on prostate cancer, in support of patient focused healthcare delivery. The platform can be extended and applied just as effectively to any other medical condition.

  • 331.
    Degefa, Merkebu Z.
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Alahäivälä, Antti
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Kilkki, Olli
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Humayun, Muhammad
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Seilonen, Ilkka
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Lehtonen, Matti
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    MAS-Based Modeling of Active Distribution Network: The Simulation of Emerging Behaviors2016In: IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, ISSN 1949-3053, E-ISSN 1949-3061, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 2615-2623Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agent-based modeling of active distribution network helps to understand the dynamics and to design the control strategies for overall system efficiency. There is, however, a lack of generic and multipurpose agent definitions in existing studies. In this paper, a multi-agent system-based modeling of an active distribution network is presented using cooperative agents. A method to solve a network-wise objective of state estimation is explained with the proposed model. The network component agents are defined to be cooperative to meet the overall objectives and greedy to fulfil individual objectives such as energy cost minimization. A token-ring protocol is deployed for the agent communication among themselves, as well as with market and network operator agents. Furthermore, a MATLAB/Simulink model of active distribution network is used to simulate the emerging stochastic loading scenario, while the autonomous prosumer agents optimize their total energy cost responding to market price variations.

  • 332.
    Degermark, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Brodnik, Andrej
    Carlsson, Svante
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Small forwarding tables for fast routing lookups1997In: Computer communication review, ISSN 0146-4833, E-ISSN 1943-5819, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 3-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For some time, the networking community has assumed that it is impossible to do IP routing lookups in software fast enough to support gigabit speeds. IP routing lookups must find the routing entry with the longest matching prefix, a task that has been thought to require hardware support at lookup frequencies of millions per second.We present a forwarding table data structure designed for quick routing lookups. Forwarding tables are small enough to fit in the cache of a conventional general purpose processor. With the table in cache, a 200 MHz Pentium Pro or a 333 MHz Alpha 21164 can perform a few million lookups per second. This means that it is feasible to do a full routing lookup for each IP packet at gigabit speeds without special hardware.The forwarding tables are very small, a large routing table with 40,000 routing entries can be compacted to a forwarding table of 150-160 Kbytes. A lookup typically requires less than 100 instructions on an Alpha, using eight memory references accessing a total of 14 bytes.

  • 333.
    Degermark, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Brodnik, Andrej
    Carlsson, Svante
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Small forwarding tables for fast routing lookups1997Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For some time, the Internet community has believed that it is impossible to do IP routing lookups in software fast enough to support gigabit speeds. IP routing lookups must find the routing entry with the longest matching prefix, a task that has been thought to require hardware support at lookup frequencies of millions per second. We present a forwarding table data structure designed for quick routing lookups. Forwarding tables are small enough to fit in the cache of a conventional general purpose processor. With the table in cache, a 200 MHz Pentium Pro or a 333 MHz Alpha 21164 can perform a few million lookups per second. This means that it is feasible to do a full routing lookup for each IP packet at gigabit speeds without special hardware. The forwarding tables are very small, a large routing table with 40,000 routing entries can be compacted to a forwarding table of 150--160 Kbytes. A lookup typically requires less than 100 instructions on an Alpha, using eight memory references accessing a total of 14 bytes.

  • 334.
    Degermark, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Engan, Mathias
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Nordgren, Björn
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Low-loss TCP/IP header compression for wireless networks1997In: Wireless networks, ISSN 1022-0038, E-ISSN 1572-8196, Vol. 3, no 5, p. 375-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless is becoming a popular way to connect mobile computers to the Internet and other networks. The bandwidth of wireless links will probably always be limited due to properties of the physical medium and regulatory limits on the use of frequencies for radio communication. Therefore, it is necessary for network protocols to utilize the available bandwidth efficiently. Headers of IP packets are growing and the bandwidth required for transmitting headers is increasing. With the coming of IPv6 the address size increases from 4 to 16 bytes and the basic IP header increases from 20 to 40 bytes. Moreover, most mobility schemes tunnel packets addressed to mobile hosts by adding an extra IP header or extra routing information, typically increasing the size of TCP/IPv4 headers to 60 bytes and TCP/IPv6 headers to 100 bytes. In this paper, we provide new header compression schemes for UDP/IP and TCP/IP protocols. We show how to reduce the size of UDP/IP headers by an order of magnitude, down to four to five bytes. Our method works over simplex links, lossy links, multi-access links, and supports multicast communication. We also show how to generalize the most commonly used method for header compression for TCP/IPv4, developed by Jacobson, to IPv6 and multiple IP headers. The resulting scheme unfortunately reduces TCP throughput over lossy links due to unfavorable interaction with TCP's congestion control mechanisms. However, by adding two simple mechanisms the potential gain from header compression can be realized over lossy wireless networks as well as point-to-point modem links.

  • 335.
    Degermark, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology.
    Engan, Mathias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology.
    Nordgren, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology. Swedish Institute of Copmuter Science, Kista, Sweden.
    Low-loss TCP/IP header compression for wireless networks1996In: Proceedings of the annual international conference on mobile computing and networking ; 2nd: MOBICOM'96, IEEE Communications Society, 1996, p. 1-14Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless is becoming a popular way to connect mobile computers to the Internet and other networks. The bandwidth of wireless links will probably always be limited due to properties of the physical medium and regulatory limits on the use of frequencies for radio communication. Therefore, it is necessary for network protocols to utilize the available bandwidth efficiently. Headers of IP packets are growing and the bandwidth required for transmitting headers is increasing. With the coming of IPv6 the address size increases from 4 to 16 bytes and the basic IP header increases from 20 to 40 bytes. Moreover, most mobility schemes tunnel packets addressed to mobile hosts by adding an extra IP header or extra routing information, typically increasing the size of TCP/IPv4 headers to 60 bytes and TCP/IPv6 headers to 100 bytes. In this paper, we provide new header compression schemes for UDP/IP and TCP/IP protocols. We show how to reduce the size of UDP/IP headers by an order of magnitude, down t...

  • 336.
    Degermark, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Hannu, Hans
    Ericson Erisoft AB.
    Jonsson, Lars-Erik
    Ericson Erisoft AB.
    Svanbro, Krister
    Ericson Erisoft AB.
    Evaluation of CRTP performance over cellular radio links2000In: IEEE personal communications, ISSN 1070-9916, E-ISSN 1558-0652, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 20-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To make mobile IP telephony over cellular radio systems an economically viable alternative to circuit-switched voice, it is an absolute requirement that the 40-octet IP/UDP/RTP headers on IP telephony packets be reduced in size to conserve bandwidth and radio spectrum. We evaluate the performance of the default header compression scheme for IP/UDP/RTP, CRTP (RFC-2508), over links built on cellular radio access technology. We find that CRTP does not perform adequately over such links, and suggest that a more robust header compression scheme must be developed to make IP telephony over cellular economically viable.

  • 337.
    Degermark, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Köhler, Torsten
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Advance reservations for predictive service1995In: Network and Operating Systems Support for Digital Audio and Video: Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Network and Operating System Support for Digital Audio and Video / [ed] Thomas D C Little; Riccardo Gusella, Berlin: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 1995, p. 1-15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We extend a measurement-based admission control algorithm suggested for predictive service to provide advance reservations for guaranteed and predictive service while keeping the attractive features of predictive service. The admission decision for advance reservations is based on information about flows that overlap in time. For flows that have not yet started, the requested values are used, and for those that have already started measurements are used. This allows us to estimate the network load accurately for the near future. To provide advance reservations we ask users to include durations in their requests. We provide simulation results to show that predictive service with advance reservations provides utilization levels significantly higher than those for guaranteed service.

  • 338.
    Degermark, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Köhler, Torsten
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Advance reservations for predictive service in the Internet1997In: Multimedia Systems, ISSN 0942-4962, E-ISSN 1432-1882, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 177-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We extend a measurement-based admission control algorithm suggested for predictive service to provideadvance reservations for guaranteed and predictive service.while retaining the attractive features of predictive service.The admission decision for advance reservations is based oninformation about flows that overlap in time. For flows thathave not yet started, the requested values are used, and forthose that have already started measurements are used. Thisallows us to estimate the network load accurately for thenear future. To provide advance reservations we ask usersto include durations in their requests. We present simulationresults to show that predictive service with advance reservations provides utilization levels significantly higher thanthose for guaranteed service, and comparable to those forpredicted service without advance reservations. Those utilization levels are reached without any preemption of otheradmitted flows. Finally, we discuss how to setup advancereservations over multiple hops in the Internet using resourcereservation setup protocols.

  • 339.
    Degermark, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Nordgren, B.
    Telia Research.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå University of Technology.
    RFC 2507: IP header compression1999Report (Other academic)
  • 340.
    Degermark, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology. Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Kista, Sweden.
    Issues in the design of a new network protocol1996In: Multimedia Telecommunications and Applications: Third International COST 237 Workshop Barcelona, Spain, November 25-27, 1996 Proceedings / [ed] Giorgio Ventre, Berlin: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 1996, p. 169-182Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe some of the issues in the design of a new packet switched network protocol. Adaptation to various network technologies along the dimensions of speed, error model, robustness, etc., is a goal for this new protocol. We look at the adaption in size of the packet header to the speed and robustness of the underlying network to allow efficient communication on low-speed wireless networks, for example. We also explore issues in resource reservation and multicast for real-time multimedia, the notion of a network "flow", a hybrid of datagrams and virtual circuits, and suggest common solutions for both mobile and multicast routing. The authors are engaged in the design of a network protocol, NP++, whose goal is flexibility over a wide dynamic range of speeds and varying kinds of hardware switching elements.

  • 341.
    Degermark, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology.
    Pink, Stephen
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Kista, Sweden.
    Soft state header compression for wireless networks1996Report (Refereed)
  • 342.
    Dehkhoda, Dorna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Combining IRAM2 with Cost-BenefitAnalysis for Risk Management: Creating a hybrid method with traditional and economic aspects2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to contribute to the risk methodology field by introducing a method

    that covers both economic and information security aspects. The aim is to provide a way for

    practitioners to get results that is enough for decision makers to make valid and well-grounded

    decisions. There are a lot of traditional risk assessment methods that focus on information

    security. There are also CBA (Cost-Benefit Analysis) methods that are used to make sure

    investments are cost-effective and provide value for the organization. The aim of this thesis is to

    combine those and see if they can be merged to one risk assessment method to increase the

    value of the result. CBA will be added to a more traditional risk assessment method called

    IRAM2. The thesis will evaluate if they are suited to be used together and if it provides a more

    valuable result when combining them than only using one of them. The research method that

    has been used in this study is ADR. It has been used as a way of working when producing a new

    hybrid method together with some design principles regarding how to combine traditional risk

    management with economic equations.

  • 343.
    Delehag, Rebecka
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Video Remix Tool: Implementing the Graphical User Interface of a YouTube Remix Editor2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At NUITEQ, a company based in Skellefteå that develops multitouch touchscreen software including educational tools and applications, they are interested in exploring the capability of producing aggregated YouTube clips on a mobile device. The idea was that this could be used in education as a tool for summarizing subjects in a fun and easy way.

    This project includes using the YouTube API to import parts of existing YouTube videos and being able to merge, edit, and export the result so it can be shared with teachers and classmates.

    The result is a web-based application that has all the necessary functionalities to cover that goal. This paper will cover how this application works, and also go into more details about how the graphical user interface of this application has been implemented.

  • 344.
    Demin, Evgenii
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    University of Auckland, Penza State University, Department of Computer Science, University of Penza, Computer Science Department, Penza State University, Penza.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Automation services orchestration with function blocks: Web-service implementation and performance evaluation2016In: Service Orientation in Holonic and Multi-Agent Manufacturing: [International Workshop on Service Orientation in Holonic and Multi-agent Manufacturing, SOHOMA 2015, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 5-6 November 2015 / [ed] Theodor Borangiu ; Damien Trentesaux; André Thomas; Duncan McFarlane, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2016, p. 213-221Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents service-oriented implementation of distributed automation systems and the results of a practical performance measurement of Web-services deployed on different platforms. In the experiments we used a technique that allows one to separate the characteristics of the Web-service, such as the delays introduced by the medium of communication. It is shown that the technology development and deployment of Web-services significantly affect their performance

  • 345.
    Demin, Evgenii
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Dubinin, Victor
    Computer Science Department, Penza State University, Penza.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    IEC 61499 distributed control enhanced with cloud-based web-services2015In: 2015 IEEE 10th Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA): Auckland, 15-17 June 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, p. 972-977, article id 7334249Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a framework for employing cloud- deployable web services in the design of distributed control systems in industrial automation. The paper demonstrates how a part of the control logic can be developed as a web service and deployed in the cloud to improve reusability and flexibility. In order to demonstrate the use of the framework we consider an example of Pick-and-Place Manipulator, which was originally designed as IEC 61499 function block application with a distributed control consisting of a high level and a low-level control logic. Firstly the high level control and its functionality is converted to a web services and deployed to a cloud. Secondly the application is modified such that the low level control interacts with these newly developed web services. The paper also presents an interface between low level control and web service using dynamic linked library that bridges communication between the two components It concludes with the simulation results of the of Pick-and-Place Manipulator implemented using the proposed framework.

  • 346.
    Deng, Ruilong
    et al.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton.
    Xiao, Gaoxi
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
    Lu, Rongxing
    Faculty of Computer Science, University of New Brunswick,.
    Liang, Hao
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    False data injection on state estimation in power systems - attacks, impacts, and defense: a survey2017In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 411-423, article id 7579185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The accurately estimated state is of great importance for maintaining a stable running condition of power systems. To maintain the accuracy of the estimated state, bad data detection (BDD) is utilized by power systems to get rid of erroneous measurements due to meter failures or outside attacks. However, false data injection (FDI) attacks, as recently revealed, can circumvent BDD and insert any bias into the value of the estimated state. Continuous works on constructing and/or protecting power systems from such attacks have been done in recent years. This survey comprehensively overviews three major aspects: constructing FDI attacks; impacts of FDI attacks on electricity market; and defending against FDI attacks. Specifically, we first explore the problem of constructing FDI attacks, and further show their associated impacts on electricity market operations, from the adversary's point of view. Then, from the perspective of the system operator, we present countermeasures against FDI attacks. We also outline the future research directions and potential challenges based on the above overview, in the context of FDI attacks, impacts, and defense.

  • 347.
    Deng, Yinbai
    et al.
    University of Auckland.
    Sorouri, Majid
    University of Auckland.
    Pang, Cheng
    University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    A distributed automation architecture enabling simulation-in-the-loop of energy-efficient buildings2013In: 15th International Conference on Computer Modelling and Simulation (UKSim 2013): Cambridge, United Kingdom, 10 - 12 April 2013 ; [proceedings], Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013, p. 542-547Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel framework for designing and simulating the decentralized control of Building Management Systems (BMSs) based on the concept of virtual smart meters. The proposed approach uses simulation in realtime to allow building managers and users to have a thorough perception of the power consumption, which establishes the basis of Demand Side Management for energy-efficient buildings. It will be demonstrated that predefined power usage scenarios can be simulated in the closed-loop model and the results can be intuitively analyzed. More importantly, the decentralized control logics of the BMS subsystems can be developed independently from the deployment configurations

  • 348.
    Derhamy, Hasan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Drozdov, Dmitrii
    Computer Science Department, Penza State University, Penza.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    van Deventer, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Orchestration of Arrowhead services using IEC 61499: Distributed Automation Case Study2016In: Proceedings of 2016 IEEE 20th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2016), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016, article id 7733650Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel approach to automationof flexible manufacturing systems with mechatronic intelligenceand distributed control. The mechatronic intelligence layer isimplemented using a combination of wireless sensor/actuatornetworks with service-oriented architecture, where services arelocated at the device level, as well as in local and global Cloudsfollowing the Arrowhead framework.The machine/floor level coordination is implemented using thedistributed automation architecture of IEC 61499, which is alsoused as a graphical tool for orchestration of services.The paper discusses the enablers developed in-order to combineIEC 61499 and Arrowhead and the use is illustrated ona laboratory scale flexible factory example. By integration ofIndustrial IoT with IEC 61499, we envision that large gains interms of engineering effort and system operation performancecan be made.

  • 349.
    Diavidescu, George
    et al.
    IMT School for Advanced Studies Lucca.
    Stürzle, Thomas
    IRIDIA, CODE, Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Network planning in smart grids via a local search heuristic for spanning forest problems2017In: 2017 IEEE 26th International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE), Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 1212-1218, article id 8001418Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart grids are automated, distributed energy exchange networks that, in contrast to traditional electricity grids, feature reconfigurable network topologies. Network planning is an essential function of smart grids that connects customers to energy sources using available physical links in the network. We model this as the problem of creating a spanning forest with a capacity constraint on each tree bounding its total weight. Each tree of the forest corresponds to a set of customers, rooted at a source. We call this the Capacitated Spanning Forest (CSF) problem. CSF is NP-complete even on unweighted graphs with two sources. We present a solution to this problem using a Local Search heuristic and demonstrate its performance on square grids and on a real-world sample grid topology.

  • 350.
    Diewald, Stefan
    et al.
    Technische Unviersität München.
    Leinmüller, Tim
    DENSO Automotive Deutschland GmbH, Info-Safety Engineering Department.
    Atanassow, Boris
    DENSO Automotive Deutschland GmbH, Info-Safety Engineering Department.
    Breyer, Lutz-Peter
    DENSO Automotive Deutschland GmbH, Info-Safety Engineering Department.
    Kranz, Matthias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Mobile device integration and interaction with V2X communication2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a V2X environment, message processing and data visualization are key technologies influencing both real and perceived performance and usability of a system. V2X safety applications require frequent exchange of position information by means of so called Cooperative Awareness Messages (CAMs) or Basic Safety Messages (BSMs). These messages are generated, encoded and sent by all vehicles and corresponding actions have to be executed on receiving vehicles. The in-vehicle V2X system can be divided into several components. Our approach is based on a “two-component” system, consisting of a vehicle-integrated V2X communication unit (onboard unit, OBU) and a personal portable device (PPD), such as a smart phone or tablet PC. Subject of this work is the investigation how to distribute the workload and functionality between the two components. Our goal is to find a flexible solution that maximizes the overall performance and reliability of the system. We investigate and compare several message processing approaches and try to combine the strengths of both components. As a result, we present our final setup that can handle an up to 40 timeshigher message rate compared to other investigated solutions.

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