Change search
Refine search result
45678910 301 - 350 of 854
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 301. Johansson, Staffan
    Filmindustrin i Norrbotten: framväxt, nuläge och ekonomisk betydelse2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I föreliggande rapport har jag gjort en genomlysning av filmproduktionen i Norrbotten för perioden 1992 till och med 2003 avseende branschens framväxt och nuläge. Filmpool Nords roll har analyserats och nätverket av företag och yrkesverksamma inom filmområdet har kartlagts. Rapporten har främst inriktats på de ekonomiska aspekterna av filmproduktionen och särskilt då effekterna för länet och i kommunerna. Uppgifterna i rapporten har hämtats från tillgängliga dokument från olika aktörer med anknytning till filmområdet. En enkät har gått ut till samtliga kända företagare inom filmområdet i länet och i de flesta fall har enkäten kompletterats med muntlig information. Därutöver har samma enkät besvarats av ett antal filmarbetare som ofta är anställda inom filmindustrin. Resultatet visar att det under perioden gjorts 25 långfilmer som helt eller delvis inspelats i länet. Därutöver närmare 160 kort- och dokumentärfilmer varav de flesta delvis har finansierats av Filmpool Nord. Verksamheten har eskalerat under senare delen av perioden och den har finansierats med såväl privata som offentliga medel. Pengar från den offentliga sektorn har kanaliserats till filmproduktionerna via Filmpool Nord. Före år 1996 finansierades filmverksamheten i huvudsak av Länsstyrelsen med från och med 1996 gick landstinget och Norrbottenskommunerna in som delägare. Från 1996 och framåt har de två länsmyndigheterna Länsstyrelsen och Länsarbetsnämnden lämnat bidrag till Filmpool Nord med 20 mkr och Eu har hittills betalat 33 mkr. Länets skattebetalare har via landstinget bidragit med 14,7 mkr och via kommunerna 11,9 mkr. Sammantaget har det i länet spelats in film för i runt tal en halv miljard kronor under perioden. Därutöver har det producerats en hel del kommersiell film. Tillsammans med den kommersiella filmen och inspelningspersonalens konsumtion har det med anledning av filminspelningarna spenderats uppskattningsvis 220 miljoner i Norrbotten under den här perioden. I länet finns nu åtminstone 56 företag som i varierande grad är involverade i filmproduktionen varav flertalet företag är mycket små. Därutöver finns för närvarande ungefär 90 filmarbetare förutom de som är anställda i dessa företag. Det finns filmföretag och/eller filmarbetare i hela länet med en markant koncentration främst inom Luleåområdet och i någon utsträckning även till Kiruna. I Luleåområdet gör man all sorts film men andelen kommersiell film är mindre här än i övriga länet. I Kirunaområdet är företagen mer inriktade mot serviceverksamhet till filminspelningar och Kirunaföretagarna har även det starkaste nätverket med internationella filmföretag. Filmverksamhetens integration med kulturlivet i övrigt är svagt bland filmföretagarna förutom i Tornedalen. Filmpool Nord har en central roll och utgör något av ett nav för länets icke kommersiella filmproduktion. Bland företagarna såväl som bland de anställda är man eniga om att Filmpool Nord fyller en viktig funktion för filmverksamheten i Norrbotten och man anser att dess betydelse ökat under senare år. När det gäller filmverksamhetens långsiktiga effekter för länets utveckling så är filmens roll som kunskapskälla och åsiktsbildare förmodligen viktigare än de ekonomiska flöden som uppstår i samband med inspelningarna. Sammantaget har spelfilmerna visats för miljontals biobesökare främst i Sverige. Lägger vi därtill de kommersiella filmerna så har det visats film från Norrbotten för hundratals miljoner människor i många länder. Det här är en utveckling som är av ganska sent datum och effekterna av detta har ännu inte analyserats.

  • 302. Johansson, Staffan
    Fria bussresor i Övertorneå: uppföljning2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den 1 januari 2001 infördes fria bussresor inom Övertorneå kommun. Efter 6 månader utvärderades verksamheten och i den undersökningen gjordes en kartläggning av de förändringar i människors resvanor som uppkommit på grund av taxeomläggningen. De samhällsekonomiska effekterna och vissa fördelningseffekter som berodde av trafikomläggning analyserades. När verksamheten nu pågått så länge att man kan överblicka ett helt kalenderår vill kommunen ånyo utvärdera verksamheten. Det statistiska underlaget är större och borde därför medge bättre överblick så att man med större säkerhet kan förutsäga de troliga långsiktiga förändringar som uppstår om verksamheten skulle permanentas. Utredningsuppdraget omfattar en kartläggning av trafikflödena. En samhällsekonomisk analys av förändringarna. Vidare ingår i uppdraget att diskutera möjliga trafikförändringar som skulle kunna ytterligare öka nyttjandegraden i busstrafiken. Analys av en eventuell prisdifferentierings effekter på samhällsekonomin och på kommunens ekonomi.

  • 303. Johansson, Staffan
    Länsmusiken i Luleå: kommunalekonomiskt utfall av en regional lokalisering2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I föreliggande rapport studeras utfallet för den kommunala ekonomin som kan hänföras till Länsmusikens lokalisering till kommunen. Undersökningen bygger på förhållanden för år 1999 och som grund för beräkningarna har använts kända data från verksamheten. Med utgångspunkt härifrån har penningflödena kartlagts och ekonomiska spridningseffekter inom kommunens område beräknats. Inga mätningar har gjorts utan resultatet vilar i sin helhet på antaganden som gjorts beträffande förändringar i skatteflöden, förändringar i konsumtion förändringar i kommunala utgifter etc. Resultatet av undersökningen blev, utifrån kända data och gjorda antaganden, att befolkningen ökat med 23 personer. Det ekonomiska resultatet tyder på att länsmusiken spenderat något mer än 11 mkr inom kommunen och att kommunen som en direkt följd därav spenderat ytterligare pengar för service till medborgarna. Totalt 11,5 mkr. Med multiplikatoreffekt bidrar dessa tillskott till att öka den ekonomiska aktiviteten i kommunen till ungefär 16 mkr. Den ökade ekonomiska aktiviteten beräknas ge sysselsättning åt 34 personer. Kommunens skatteintäkter ökar som en följd härav med 1,6 mkr. Kommunens kostnader för Länsmusiken är 1,25 mkr. Som en följd av inflyttningen till kommunen och den ökade förvärvsfrekvensen så ökade de kommunala kostnaderna för skola och barnomsorg men å andra sidan minskade kostnaderna för arbetsmarknadspolitiska åtgärder och socialförsäkringssystemet. En ytterligare effekt av inflyttningen var att kommunens ekonomi även påverkats via systemet för inkomst och kostnadsutjämning mellan kommuner. Efter att hänsyn tagits till dessa effekter blev slutresultatet att lokaliseringen genererat ett överskott i den kommunala budgeten på 0,17 mkr. Eftersom resultatet vilar på antaganden där framförallt importandel är osäker är även resultatet osäkert. Det krävs dock så pass stor förändring i den ekonomiska aktiviteten som två mkr för att kommunens skatteutfall ska bli 0. Resultatet är därmed tämligen stabilt. Uppdragsgivare: Länsmusiken i Norrbotten

  • 304. Johansson, Staffan
    Nolltaxa för busstrafiken i Övertorneå: konsekvensanalys2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I januari 2001 införde Övertorneå kommun fria bussresor inom kommunens gränser och den uttalade avsikten var att öka bussarnas nyttjandegrad för att på så sätt minska biltrafiken. I mitten av maj gjordes en första avstämning av resultatet och erfarenheterna var då mycket goda. Bussarnas kapacitet utnyttjades bättre och omläggningen bemöttes positivt av befolkningen. Antalet vuxna som valde att ta buss till arbete eller utbildning hade ökat från 35 till 150 personer per dag vilket procentuellt sett ändå bara betydde att 5 % av de vuxna tog bussen i stället för tidigare 1%. Inför kommande beslut om eventuell förlängning av 0-taxan beslutade kommunstyrelsen att närmare granska utfallet. Framförallt ville man ha en genomlysning av välfärdseffekterna för befolkningen men man ville även få en uppfattning det ekonomiska utfallet för kommunens egen budget. Som med alla offentliga satsningar så är även i det här fallet för och nackdelar ojämnt fördelade mellan medborgarna. Man ville därför även granska fördelningseffekterna.

  • 305. Johansson, Staffan
    Näringslivets förutsättningar på Nordkalotten: delrapport i utredning om aktivitetssonen2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Näringslivet påverkas av de ekonomiska spelregler som råder i samhället och för de perifera delarna av de nordiska länderna uppmärksammas ofta regionalpolitiskt betingade instrument. Deras inverkan kan emellertid ibland överskuggas av andra mera generella regelverk som har större inverkan på företagandets förutsättningar. Nationella skillnader i regler blir tydligast i gränsområdena och allra tydligast blir effekten i det område där flera nationsgränser möts. I föreliggande rapport har situationen därför analyserats ur företagens perspektiv. Analysen har avgränsats till tre branscher som alla förekommer i Norge, Sverige och Finland, och som fungerar på samma sätt i de tre länderna. För att undersöka om det finns några skillnader i ekonomiska spelregler mellan företag som är utsatta för utrikeshandelskonkurrens och sådana som är skyddade från sådan har urvalet gjorts utifrån det perspektivet. De branscher som utvalts är revisorer, turistföretag med skidliftar samt lastbilsåkerier. Åkeriernas förutsättningar har även jämförts även med de förutsättningar som råder för åkerier på kontinenten. Jag har tagit del av befintligt informationsmaterial från banschorganisationer och övriga företrädare för respektive bransch samt från myndigheternas informationsmaterial. Stor vikt har lagts på utformningen av skatteregler. Jag har talat med såväl företagare som företrädare för företagarnas organisationer och skickat ut en enkät till 15 företag inom varje bransch inom respektive land. Slutsatsen som dragits är att skatter och avgifter påverkar företag på olika sätt beroende på marknadssituation. Skatter och avgifter är inte viktiga för företag som är relativt skyddade från konkurrens. Motsatsen gäller för företag under prispress. Fördelningen av de samlade skatterna skiljer sig åt mellan länderna vilket i sig är en källa till olikformig inverkan på de olika nationernas näringsliv. Höga arbetsgivaravgifter drabbar i princip arbetsintensiva företag hårdare än kapitalintensiva företag. Den förväntade skillnaden kan dock helt upphävas av konkurrenssituationen. Regelverket i de olika länderna är till stor del harmonierad men det finns skillnader i regler vilket förhindrar konkurrensneutraliteten. Det gäller i första hand utformning av arbetsgivaravgifter och mervärdesskatt. För lastbilsåkerierna finns även skillnader i fordonsregler och drivmedelspriser.

  • 306. Johansson, Staffan
    et al.
    Eikeland, Sveinung
    Lie, Ivar
    Aktivitetssone på Nordkalotten?: det regionale Nordkalotten, ekonomisk styring og regionalpolitiskt virkemiddel2002Report (Other academic)
  • 307. Johansson, Staffan
    et al.
    Lundgren, Nils-Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Utbildning Nord: utvärdering av en utbildning för tre länder2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Enligt beslut 2002-09-26 uppdrog näringsdepartementet åt Centrum för forskning och utbildning i samhällsvetenskap (CUFS) vid Luleå tekniska universitet, att göra en utvärdering av verksamheten vid Stiftelsen Utbildning Nordkalotten, nedan benämnd "Utbildning Nord." Vårt utvärderingsuppdrag omfattade en analys av organisationens ändamålsenlighet i förhållande till kraven på verksamheten avseende såväl form som innehåll. I utredningen skulle ingå en beskrivning av hur utbildning Nord följt upp och genomfört de rekommendationer som följde av överenskommelsen för perioden 2000 -2002. Vidare ingick i uppdraget att redovisa antalet kursdeltagare per lärare fördelat per lärare i genomsnitt per utbildningsområde samt att redovisa lärarnas språkkunskaper i förhållande till elevernas behov. I uppdraget ingick även uppföljning av statistik med avseende på andelen studerande och arbetsplacering efter avslutad utbildning.

  • 308. Johansson, Staffan
    et al.
    Lundgren, Nils-Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Vad kostar en ren?: en ekonomisk och politisk analys : rapport till Expertgruppen för studier i offentlig ekonomi - [ESO]1998Report (Other academic)
  • 309. Johansson, Staffan
    et al.
    Lundgren, Nils-Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Reinholdt, Sofia
    Paradoxen Haparanda: ett gränsfall2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande rapport beskriver och analyserar Haparanda utifrån iakttagelsen att kommunen länge utmärkt sig på ett i många fall "negativt" eller "problematiskt" sätt. Det handlar om mycket höga ohälsotal, hög arbetslöshet, lågt arbetsmarknadsdeltagande, låg utbildningsnivå och indikationer på ett flertal folkhälsoproblem. Studiens syfte har varit att analysera kommunen mot denna bakgrund och inför den expansion som IKEAS etablering utlöst. Den grundläggande frågan är alltså om, när och på vilket sätt denna dramatiska förändring på Haparandas och Torneås arbetsmarknad kommer att påverka dessa negativa särdrag. Den frågan kan dock givetvis inte besvaras här, utan först när den ekonomiska expansionen pågått ett antal år. Här har alltså "Haparanda före IKEA" beskrivits och analyserats. Sammanfattningsvis är det uppenbart att Haparanda sedan lång tid präglats av motsägande drag, uppenbara paradoxer, som måste förstås och analyseras i en finsk-svensk kontext. Rapporten visar att Haparandas befolkning har en låg utbildningsnivå samtidigt som kommunens skola uppvisar hög effektivitet och mycket goda studieresultat. Haparanda har ett av landets högsta ohälsotal, men samtidigt en låg sjukfrånvaro. Vi har också konstaterat att Haparanda kännetecknas av låga inkomster, men samtidigt inte visar några tecken på låg materiell levnadsnivå och har landets högsta tillväxt liksom snabbt stigande småhuspriser. För att alls begripa Haparandas välfärdsnyttjande, bostadsmarknad, inkomst- och förmögenhetsbildning, såväl som arbetsmarknadsbeteende bland kvinnor och män i olika åldersgrupper, måste man ha en klar uppfattning om hur interaktionen med det Finska och främst nordfinska sammanhangen ser ut. Vi har endast i liten omfattning inom ramen för denna studie kunnat placera Haparanda i ett sådant sammanhang.

  • 310.
    Jonsson, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Elements of the Asia Pacific gas market: market power and efficiency1999Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural gas trade in the Asian Pacific market is heavily dependent on the demand from Japan, which imports around 75% of the gas traded as LNG (liquefied natural gas) in the region. This study argues that the buyers in Japan, through cooperation have the potential to exert the market power that their large market share provides them with. The study adopts a monopsony model, which suggests that Japanese buyers to some extent exercise their market power. The optimal price indicated by the adopted model is higher then the actual price, which would indicate that Japan, has used its market power. Given the indication of market power, the second part of the thesis analyzes the fossil fuel mix efficiency in the power sector in Japan. The analysis is based on a model that has cost minimization according to shadow prices, not actual market prices, as basic assumption. Given this assumption relative price efficiency with respect to fossil fuel mix is tested. The results from the model do not give any support to reject the hypothesis of relative price efficiency in the fossil fuel mix. Hence, if the Japanese LNG buyers exercise any market power they despite that uses natural gas efficiently, relative the price of other fossil fuel, in their electricity generation.

  • 311.
    Jonsson, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Fossil-fuel use in the Japanese electricity production: a restricted cost function approach2005In: 28th Annual IAEE international conference: conference proceedings : globalization of energy : markets, technology, and sustainability., International Association for Energy Economics (IAEE) , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 312.
    Jonsson, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Natural gas in the Asian Pacific region: market behavior and the Japanese electricity market2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation consists of four main chapters, all related to the Asian Pacific natural gas market, and the role of the Japanese electricity sector. The natural gas market in Asia Pacific is heavily dependent on the demand from Japan, which imports around 75% of the gas traded as LNG (liquefied natural gas) in the region. The demand for natural gas in Japan is, in turn, almost exclusively driven by the electricity industry that consumes around 70 % of the imported natural gas. On the supply side we find seller concentrations with only six countries exporting LNG in the region. The first main chapter analyzes the market structure of the Asian Pacific natural gas market, the next two relate to the usage of natural gas in the Japanese fossil-fueled electricity production, and the final study investigates the demand for electricity in the residential sector in Japan. The first chapter argues that the buyers in Japan, through cooperation, have the potential to exert the market power that their large market share provides them with. This could be offset by the monopoly power that the six present sellers have. In the chapter four, the solutions for the four imperfect competition cases of, monoposony, monopoly, bilateral monopoly, and the Cournot model are simulated. Neither of the model solutions comes close to the both the actual market price, and the actual gas volumes. The model that best mimics the actual price is the bilateral monopoly model, while the monopsony model comes closest to the actual volumes. Giving some mixed evidence of how the Asian LNG market works. Given the indication of market power, the second study analyzes the fossil-fuel mix efficiency in the power sector in Japan. If the power sector is able to exert the alleged market power, it may be the case that they minimize costs according to shadow prices instead of actual market prices. Such behavior could cause the fossil-fuel mix used for power generation to be inefficient. The analysis is based on a Translog model that assumes cost minimization according to shadow prices, instead of actual market prices. Given this assumption, relative price efficiency with respect to the fossil-fuel mix is tested. The results from the model indicate that the null hypothesis of relative price efficiency in the fossil-fuel mix cannot be rejected. Hence, if the Japanese LNG buyers exercise some market power in the LNG market the model provides no evidence for the notion that they use natural gas efficiently, relative other fossil fuel, in electricity generation. The third chapter analyzes the impact that Japanese energy policy has had on the fossil-fuel choice in the power industry in Japan. Due to energy security and environmental concerns, the energy policy in Japan has been favoring natural gas as fuel in fossil-fueled electricity production. The study uses a restricted flexible cost function approach to analyze the impact on fuel costs when the volume of natural gas is exogenous – due to the energy policy – to the electricity producer’s choice of fossil-fuel mix. By deriving the shadow price of natural gas, the optimal (cost minimizing) consumption of natural gas is estimated. The results indicate that too much gas is used. Hence, the fossil-fuel mix is inefficient from a pure cost perspective. The results also shows that short-term substitution between the unrestricted fossil-fuels – coal, crude oil, and fuel oil - have occurred, illustrated by negative own-price, and positive cross-price elasticities of reasonable magnitude. The study also shows that the combination of technological change and energy policy has been fuel-saving with respect to crude oil, and fuel-using for coal and fuel oil in fossil-fueled electricity production. The fourth chapter uses an error-correction model to estimate long- and short-run electricity demand elasticities in the residential sector in Japan. The results show low long-run price elasticities, indicating that the proposed deregulation of the electricity sector in Japan –with projected lower prices – will have a relatively low impact on the electricity demand in the residential sector.

  • 313. Jonsson, Bo
    Utvärdering av östra Norrbottenprojektet: ett regionalt arbetsmarknadspolitiskt program1989Report (Other academic)
  • 314. Jonsson, Bo
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The Russian coal industry in transition: a linear programming application2001In: OPEC Review, ISSN 0254-3958, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 53-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the restructuring of the Russian steam coal market. The main purpose is to compare the prevailing steam coal flows between mine basins and electric utilities and the actual coal prices with those that would prevail in an efficient market. The analysis is done within a short-run linear programming model. Coal demands and supplies are identified. The objective function that is minimised consists of the delivered costs, i.e. extraction plus transportation costs, subject to exogenous demand requirements and capacity restrictions. We conclude that, in spite of attempted restructuring, the Russian coal steam coal market is still highly inefficient. This is mainly due to the fact that large amounts of coal are delivered over very long distances, a pattern that often cannot be justified in economic terms. Because of cost-inefficient coal deliveries and large subsidies, coal prices are also highly distorted. Given the communist legacies of the past, the restructuring process will probably take considerable time and is unlikely to be successful until there is a fundamental change in the economic and political institutions.

  • 315.
    Karimu, Amin
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå University.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Energy Intensity and Convergence in Swedish Industry: A Combined Econometric and Decomposition Analysis2016In: Meeting Sweden's current and future energy challenges, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 316.
    Karimu, Amin
    et al.
    Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics, Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics, Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics, Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Energy Intensity and Convergence in Swedish Industry: A combined econometric and decomposition analysis2017In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 62, p. 347-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How to reduce the carbon footprint associated with energy use is still a major concern for most decision-makers. Against this background, a better understanding of energy intensity—the ratio of energy use to output and its convergence could be important in the design of policies targeting the reduction in the carbon footprint related to energy use. This paper analyzes the determinants of energy intensity and tests for energy intensity convergence across 14 Swedish industrial sectors. This analysis builds on a nonparametric regression analysis of an intensity index constructed at the industry sector level as well as indices constructed from a decomposition of this index. The latter isolates two key determinants of changes in energy intensity and convergence patterns: the efficiency channel-fundamental improvement in the use of energy and activity channel-structural shifts in the economy. The empirical analysis relies on a detailed sectorial dataset covering the period 1990–2008. The findings indicate that input prices, including the price of energy, have been significant determinants of energy intensity in the Swedish industrial sectors. This effect can primarily be attributed to the efficiency channel and with a less profound influence from the activity channel. We also find evidence of energy intensity convergence among the industrial sectors, and this primarily stems from the activity channel rather than from the efficiency channel.

  • 317.
    Karumba, Mary
    et al.
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. School of Economics, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    The impact of microhydroelectricity on household welfare indicators2018In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 663-681Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of small-scale off-grid renewable energy for rural electrification is now seen as part of the sustainable energy solutions. The expectation from such small-scale investment is that it can meet the basic energy needs of a household and subsequently improve some aspects of household welfare. However, these stated benefits remain largely hypothetical because there are data and methodological challenges in existing literature attempting to isolate such impact. This paper uses field data from microhydro schemes in Kenya, and propensity score matching technique to demonstrate such an impact. We find that on average, households connected to microhydroelectricity consume 1.5 l less of kerosene per month compared to households without any such electricity connection. In addition, non-connected households spend 0.92 USD more for recharging their cell phone batteries per month in comparison to those who were using microhydroelectricity service. Finally, school children from households that are connected to microhydroelectricity were found to devote 43 min less on evening studies compared to those without electricity. The findings provide interesting insights to some of the claims made for or against use of off grid renewable energy for rural electrification.

  • 318.
    Kassie, Menale
    et al.
    CIMMYT, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center.
    Ndiritu, Simon Wagura
    CIMMYT, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, Strathmore Business School.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    What determines gender inequality in household food security in Kenya?: Application of exogenous switching treatment regression2014In: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 153-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the link between the gender of a household head and food security in rural Kenya. The results show that the food security gap between male-headed households (MHHs) and female-headed households (FHHs) is explained by their differences in observable and unobservable characteristics. FHHs’ food security status would have been higher than it is now if the returns (coefficients) on their observed characteristics had been the same as the returns on the MHHs’ characteristics. Even if that had been the case, however, results indicate that FHHs would still have been less food-secure than the MHHs due to unobservable characteristics.

  • 319.
    Kassie, Menale
    et al.
    International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology(icipe), Nairobi.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Diiro, Gracious
    International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology(icipe), Nairobi.
    Muriithi, Beatrice
    International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology(icipe), Nairobi.
    Muricho, Geoffrey
    International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology(icipe), Nairobi.
    Ledermann, Samuel T.
    Biovision foundation, Switzerland.
    Pittchar, Jimmy
    International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology(icipe), Nairobi.
    Midega, Charles
    International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology(icipe), Nairobi.
    Khan, Zeyaur
    International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology(icipe), Nairobi.
    Push-pull farming system in Kenya: Implications for economic and social welfare2018In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 77, p. 186-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the farm-level economic benefits and aggregate welfare impacts of adopting push–pull technology (PPT)—an innovative, integrated pest and soil-fertility management strategy—with a set of household- and plot-level data collected in western Kenya. The evaluation is based on a combination of econometric and economic surplus analysis. Treatment effect estimates are used to assess the technology-induced shift in the maize supply curve, which is then used as an input to the economic surplus analysis. Finally, the aggregate poverty impact is computed using the economic surplus estimates. We observe that the adoption of PPT led to significant increases in maize yield and net maize income. The technology has significant potential benefit in terms of increasing economic surplus and reducing the number of people considered poor in western Kenya. Important factors influencing the decision to adopt PPT included access to information, household education, social capital, and social networks. We conclude that effective policies and development programmes for promoting PPT in Kenya should include information delivery and education mechanisms that are more effective.

  • 320.
    Kassie, Menale
    et al.
    CIMMYT, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Teklewold, Hailemariam
    CIMMYT, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center.
    Erenstein, Olaf
    CIMMYT, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center.
    Gendered food security in rural Malawi: Why is women’s food security status lower?2015In: Food Security, ISSN 1876-4517, E-ISSN 1876-4525, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 1299-1320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gendered food security gaps between female- and male-headed households (FHHs and MHHs) can be decomposed into two sets of components: those explained by observable differences in levels of resource use, and those due to unobserved differences affecting the returns to the resources used. Employing exogenous switching ordered probit and binary probit regression models, this paper examines the gendered food security gap and its causes in rural Malawi. We conducted a counterfactual analysis and found that the food security of FHHs would improve significantly if they had the same levels of resource use as MHHs. However, even if FHHs had the same levels of resource use as MHHs, the gendered food security gap would not be closed because of the differences in the returns to those resources. Such differences in returns to resources explain 40 % (45 %) of the observed gendered chronic (transitory) food insecurity gap and 54 % (19 %) of the food break-even (surplus) gap. Further analysis suggests that the intensity with which sustainable agricultural practices have been adopted has a greater impact on the food security of FHHs than on MHHs.

  • 321.
    Kazeminia, Azadeh
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Bäckström, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Pitt, Leyland F.
    Beedie School of Business, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver.
    Enjoy now or Later: An Explanation of Elderly Recipients’ Preferences Regarding Luxury Gifts2017In: The Customer is NOT Always Right?: Marketing Orientations in a Dynamic Business World / [ed] Campbell, Colin L, Cham, 2017, p. 425-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More than 100 billion dollars are spent annually on gifts in the U.S., which makes gift-giving behaviour an important area of study. Belk (1996) describes a perfect gift as a luxury good which is exclusively relevant to the recipient. By means of selecting and transferring gifts, the giver is aiming to convey an important symbolic massage (e.g., love, admiration, appreciation, reciprocity), which needs to be perceived precisely by the receiver. Consideration for the recipient’ perception of the luxury gift may address the need for the gift to be exclusively relevant to the recipient. Aging and demographic changing trends led to a growing number of elderly people who on average enjoy a higher level of wealth and are more capable of engaging in gift-exchange relationships. While the elderly as gift givers have received considerable attention, very little research has been done regarding the elderly as recipients, and many things are left to be said. Recent studies in the field of gerontology suggest that motivational changes in old age cause the elderly to give higher value to emotional well-being which might have some bearings on their behaviour. The current study will attempt to conceptually explain how the emotional state of the elderly affect the types of luxury brands they prefer to receive as gifts.

    Berthon et al. (2009) argue that luxury is more than a characteristic or set of attributes and therefore should be thought of as a concept consisting of three value dimensions -the functional (the physical attributes the brand possesses), the symbolic (what the brand means to others), and the experiential (what the brand means to the individual). In an ontological classification, they distinguish two categories of luxury brands: enduring and transient. Enduring luxury brands were defined as expensive lasting possessions that bring prestige and social status to the owner. The pleasure of an enduring luxury item, either one that requires only money to be bought, such as a Gucci bag, or that which requires both money and expertise, such as an antique painting, is based on a sense of valuable enduring possession. However, transient luxury brands are a kind of experience that are not possessed, rather are consumed and bring the consumer evanescent enjoyment. This can include the superficial pleasure of having dinner in a luxury restaurant or the deep taste of the moment by tasting a rare black truffle; however, what is common in consuming such luxury brands is the sense of ephemeral pleasant experience.

    According to Socio-emotional Selectivity Theory (SST), as soon as older adults perceive that the time left is limited, their goals shift from future-related goals to emotional ones such as goals related to emotional satisfaction, the feeling state, and drawing meaning from life, since these have more immediate payoffs. A focus on present-oriented goals makes them attend more to “experiences occurring in the moment” and gaining more positive feeling from life. Drawing on SST, it can be concluded that the age-related change in goals may shift the locus of luxury from symbolic and functional aspects to experiential one. Since older adults are more motivated by emotional goals and seek more emotional satisfaction by taking pleasure in each moment of their remaining life, they may place less value on the functional and symbolic aspects of the luxury brands. Instead, becoming more present oriented may lead them to prioritize the experiential aspect of luxury and assign higher value to the pleasure of experiencing a luxurious moment. Along with future-oriented goals that become less salient, gain of social prestige through possessing a luxury good becomes irrelevant. This statement might be witnessed through previous findings, which suggest that older adults are tending to give their cherished possession to their relatives. As a result, we believe it is reasonable to suggest that older people would prefer transient gifts over enduring ones. In other words, they prefer the gift that brings them a deep sense of pleasure in the moment and that improves their emotional wellbeing. As they perceive the time left to be too short to save the items to enjoy one day in the future, they may prefer to be invited for a dinner in a luxury restaurant and to have a pleasant time with their close relatives rather than receiving a Givenchy perfume or a Louis Vuitton bag. Thus, the research proposition for this study can be formulated as older adults prefer to receive a transient over an enduring gift.

  • 322.
    Kilu, Rufai Haruna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Andersson, Eira
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Sanda, Mohammed-Aminu
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Uden, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Reflections on Organizational Barriers Vis-à-Vis Women Participation in Largescale Ghanaian Mines2017In: International Journal of Business and Social Science, ISSN 2219-1933, E-ISSN 2219-6021Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Writing from gender and organizational perspectives, this article reflects consciously with nuances upon varied effort working towards resolving the long existing binary barriers in the world of work. Working towards this goal, this article raises questions as to which organizational practices, processes, and procedures function to create participatory barriers to women in Ghanaian mine jobs. Adopting a mixed method design, the paper points to the culture of male dominance, gender biases, role models and mentorship constraints, unfriendly family work policies, and the relationship among women in male-dominated settings. These outcomes, according to the study, constitute a considerable concern for organizational development, with practical implications for industry, employment, labor relation practices, and public policy in Ghana. Therefore affirmative action among others is recommended for gender deconstruction, and promotion of gender democracy, an agenda for inclusivity, and a safety valve for poverty escapes and a compact for achieving gender equality in multinational Ghanaian mines. 

  • 323. Klaassen, Ger
    et al.
    Amann, Markus
    Berglund, Christer
    The extension of the RAINS model to greenhouse gases2004Report (Other academic)
  • 324.
    Koivurova, Timo
    et al.
    The Northern Institute for Environmental and Minority Law, Arctic Centre, University of Lapland, Rovaniemi.
    Buanes, Arild
    Norut (Northern Research Institute), Tromsö.
    Riabova, Larissa
    Institute for Economic Studies of the Kola Science Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Apatity.
    Didyk, Vladimir
    Institute for Economic Studies of the Kola Science Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Apatity.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Poelzer, Gregory A
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Taavo, Päivi
    Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Lapland, Rovaniemi.
    Lesser, Pamela
    The Northern Institute for Environmental and Minority Law, Arctic Centre, University of Lapland, Rovaniemi.
    'Social license to operate': a relevant term in Northern European mining?2015In: Polar Geography, ISSN 1088-937X, E-ISSN 1939-0513, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 194-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of social license to operate (SLO) is increasingly being used throughout the world to describe a specific aspect of company–community relations in resource-extractive projects, in particular how different actors interact to resolve, or not, the social and economic impacts on local communities and other stakeholders. This article will tease out the main elements of the SLO concept and examine the degree to which both actors (mining companies and communities), verbally and in action, respond toward one another. Based on previous empirical studies of scholars in the field, we have applied an analytical framework of SLO to empirically test whether or not it can provide greater insight into the motivations both behind a community's acceptance of or opposition to a company's project, as well as the extent to which a company is willing to appease the public in order to gain their acceptance. The framework combines a set of normative criteria the company must meet as a precondition to gaining SLO, with different levels of community acceptance indicating the degree to which a community bestows SLO on the company. Eight case studies from the European north (two mining projects in each of the countries Norway, Finland, Russia, and Sweden) have been selected to test the SLO analytical framework in order to ultimately determine whether a company's specific SLO practices (i.e. active public engagement, sponsoring community projects, etc.) generate different levels of community acceptance. Although there are other contributing factors that affect company–community relations in the context of mining projects, most notably the legal and regulatory frameworks for resource-extractive projects, the goal of this article is to focus on the social and ethical dimensions of the company–community relationship.

  • 325.
    Komba, Coretha
    et al.
    Economics Department, Mzumbe University, Morogoro, Tanzania.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    An analysis of factors affecting household willingness to participate in the REDD+ programme in Tanzania2017In: Climate and Development, ISSN 1756-5529, E-ISSN 1756-5537, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 244-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tanzania has high rates of deforestation and forest degradation. Reducing deforestation and forest degradation is an important strategy for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, asking households to reduce deforestation means asking them to sacrifice direct benefits from forests, such as energy resources. The REDD+ programme provides a way to compensate households. This study estimates households’ willingness to accept forest-use restrictions governing participation in the REDD+ programme and its determinants. The results show that households would participate in REDD+ if the programme were to compensate them with an average of USD 2072 per year. The determinants of willingness to participate are analysed using the Heckman sample selection model. The results reveal that awareness about REDD+ economic incentives, and that deforestation and forest degradation is not good for the environment, and the increased time spent collecting the most important forest products increased probability of household participation. Households that earned more from forest products demanded greater compensation to participate. The results further revealed that, once a household is aware of the programme and its incentives and decides to participate, it tended to demand less compensation. The Government of Tanzania is advised to (i) collect baseline data in order to differentiate incentives for households depending on their forest reliance, (ii) educate people about the relationship between REDD+ and climate change to increase the cooperation of the communities.

  • 326.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ahlgren, Erik O.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ancillary benefits of climate policy in a small open economy: the case of Sweden2011In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 39, no 9, p. 4985-4998Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is increasingly recognised that GHG reduction policies can have important ancillary benefits in the form of positive local and regional environmental impacts. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the domestic ancillary pollution benefits of climate policy in Sweden, and investigate how these are affected by different climate policy designs. The latter differ primarily in terms of how the country chooses to meet a specific target and where the necessary emission reductions take place. The analysis relies on simulations within the energy system optimisation model TIMES-Sweden, and focuses on four non-GHG pollutants: Nitrogen Oxides (NOX), Non Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOC), inhalable particles (PM2.5), and Sulphur dioxide (SO2). The simulations permit detailed assessments of the respective technology and fuel choices that underlie any net changes in the estimated ancillary effects. The results indicate that the ancillary benefits constitute a far from insignificant share of total system costs, and this share appears to be highest in the scenarios that entail the largest emission reductions domestically. This result reflects the fact that carbon dioxide emission reductions abroad also implies a lost opportunity of achieving substantial domestic welfare gain from the reductions of regional and local environmental pollutants

  • 327.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Berg, Charlotte
    Ahlgren, Erik O.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Challenges in Soft-Linking: The Case of EMEC and TIMES-Sweden2013Report (Refereed)
  • 328.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Berg, Charlotte
    Konjunkturinstitutet.
    Ahlgren, Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    2030 Climate Targets in Sweden: An Integrated BU and TD Approach2015In: Our Common Future under Climate Change: International Scientific Conference - Abstract book, 2015, article id P-3322-08Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 329.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Berg, Charlotte
    National Institute of Economic Research (NIER), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ahlgren, Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Energy and Environment.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Challenges in top-down and bottom-up soft linking: Lessons from linking a Swedish energy system model with a CGE model2017In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 141, p. 803-817Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes and discusses a soft-linking procedure between a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model and an energy system model with the aim to improve national energy policy decision-making. Significant positive and negative experiences are communicated. Specifically, the process of soft-linking the EMEC and TIMES-Sweden models is presented, and unlike previous work we rely on the use of multiple direction-specific connection points. Moreover, the proposed soft-linking methodology is applied in the context of a climate policy scenario for Sweden. The results display a partly new description of the Swedish economy, which when soft-linking, generates lower CO2-emissions in the reference scenario due to a decline in industrial energy demand. These findings point at the importance of linking bottom-up and top-down models when assessing national energy and climate policies.

  • 330.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Berg, Charlotte
    National Institute of Economic Research.
    Ahlgren, Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Challenges in top-down and bottom-up soft lnking: the case of EMEC and TIMES-Sweden2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 331.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Fjärrvärmen och de långsiktiga klimatmålen: En analys av olika styrmedel och styrmedelskombinationer2013Report (Other academic)
  • 332.
    Kroén, Johannes
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    The Price of Uranium: an Econometric Analysis and Scenario Simulations2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyze: (a) the determinants of the global price of uranium; and (b) how this price could be affected by different nuclear power generation scenarios for 2030. To do this a multivariable regression analysis will be used. Within the model, the price of uranium is the dependent variable and the independent variables are generated nuclear power electricity representing demand (GWh), price of coal as a substitute to generated nuclear power electricity, and the price of oil representing uranium production costs. The empirical results show that generated nuclear electricity and the oil price, to be statistically significant at the 5 percent level. The coal price was not however a statistically significant. The scenarios for 2030 are three possible nuclear power generation demand cases; high, medium and low demand. The results for the high demand generated a price of 255 US$/kg and the medium demand 72US$/kg.

  • 333.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Antelo, Juan
    Technological Research Institute, University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Carabante, Ivan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Komárek, Michael
    Department of Environmental Geosciences, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic.
    Söderberg, Charlotta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wårell, Linda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    In situ chemical stabilization of trace element-contaminated soil: Field demonstrations and barriers to transition from laboratory to the field : A review2019In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 100, p. 335-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chemical stabilization, or immobilization, of trace elements (metals and metalloids; TE) in contaminated soil has been studied for decades. A vast number of scientific publications are available on the method performance in laboratory settings, reporting that the application of various soil amendments to contaminated soil reduces TE mobility, bioavailability and toxicity. The most commonly used soil amendments include organic matter, iron oxides, phosphates, ashes, and lately biochar, alone or in combination with each other and/or lime. Most of the implemented field studies show a certain degree of improvement in soil and/or vegetation status following amendment. Regardless the positive performance of the technique in the laboratory, field validations and demonstrations remain scarce. The establishment of a field experiment often involves permits from authorities and agreements with site owners, both of which are considerably more time-consuming than laboratory tests. Due to conservative institutional structures, public authorities have been slow to adopt alternative remediation technologies, especially when the total TE concentration in soil remains the same and all of the associated risks are not yet convincingly described. For this reason, researchers should also focus on enhancing public knowledge of alternative remediation techniques so that future projects which aim to demonstrate the effectiveness of in situ immobilization techniques under natural conditions will be supported.

  • 334.
    Kurkkio, Monika
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Mapping the Nordic mining and metal industry: for the purpose of enhancing and developing its innovative capability2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    First, a descriptive overview of the Nordic miningand metal industry is provided. It shows that thereare a number of disparities among the firms in theNordic mining and metal industry, but there are alsomany similarities. Finland and Sweden both havewell-developed mining and metal industries. The geo-logical conditions are comparable and, consequently,production and outlook are in the main relativelysimilar for firms producing minerals and metals.Norway’s mineral and metal production mostlyconsists of industrial minerals, the potential of whichis promising. Greenland has great potential in its newmineral deposits. However, there are several challenges(e.g. difficulties in accessing the new mineral deposits,and problems related to infrastructure and a shortageof skilled workers) which need to be overcomebefore the mineral deposits can be explored.Key challenges for innovation have been identifiedand categorised into (a) specific challenges for keyactors and (b) cross-border challenges involvingseveral groups of producing firms in the Nordicmining and metal industry. The major innovationchallenges specific to the mining companies arein-creased production costs,atraditional and conservativemind-setanda short-term focus on exploration.Majorinnovation challenges for the metal producers areprimarilyold production plants and technology, low profitmargins and lack of employees with the right type of skills.The equipment suppliers’ foremost challenges arethe difficulties ofconducting experiments and testsandgaining access to the right type of knowledge.The analysisshows thatdemand for sustainable mining, difficultiesrelated to the exploration of new mineral deposits, a conserv-ative attitude towards innovation in the mining industry,global competition and procurement methods that emphasisepure cost concerns and the absence of pilot and demonstra-tion plantsare at this time the foremost cross-borderchallenges for innovation within the Nordic miningand metal industry.

  • 335.
    Kvarnström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Reusing Phosphorus: Engineering Possibilities and Economic Realities1999In: Journal of Economic Issues, ISSN 0021-3624, E-ISSN 1946-326X, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 393-402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recycling is becoming increasingly important in rich societies both in a physical sense and in the perceptions about desirable changes of economic activity and behavior. In both respects, the significance of recycling is greatest for the raw materials of agricultural, forest, and mineral origins. Recycling of phosphorus, secondary phosphorus originating from wastewater is discussed in this paper. The recycling of phosphorus from wastewater currently involves the reuse of sewage sludge in agriculture. In Sweden, 84 percent of the population is connected to wastewater treatment plants where phosphorus is removed from the wastewater, hence producing sludge containing high levels of phosphorus. The phosphorus content is 6,000 metric tons per year in Swedish wastewater treatment plant sludge. This represents approximately 30 percent of the commercial phosphorus fertilizer used yearly in Sweden. The use of sewage sludge in agriculture has been discussed widely in Sweden during the 1990s. Far from resolving several important issues, such as the content of pollutants in the sludge and whether the content of phosphorus in sludge can be used by plants, the debate is still raging.

  • 336.
    Larsson, Viktoriya
    et al.
    Raw Materials Group.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    E&MJ's annual survey of global mining investment2014In: Engineering and mining journal (1926), ISSN 0095-8948, E-ISSN 0361-395X, Vol. 215, no 1, p. 26-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article focuses on the results of the 2014 annual survey of global metal-mining investment of the periodical. The survey found a reduced level of investment in the industry due to bad global economy. Topics discussed include of decline in new project, reduced capital expenditure and rise in projects cost. It also presents a table that lists several mining investment projects in the World as of December 2013

  • 337.
    Lauf, Thomas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, UFZ, Leipzig, Germany.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Gawel, Erik
    Department of Economics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, UFZ, Leipzig, Germany. Institute for Infrastructure and Resources Management, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
    Lehmann, Paul
    Department of Economics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, UFZ, Leipzig, Germany. Institute for Infrastructure and Resources Management, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The Regional Heterogeneity of Wind Power Deployment: An Empirical Investigation of Land-use Policies in Germany and Sweden2019In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, , p. 29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze and compare the impacts of land-use policies on wind power deployment at the regional levels in Germany and Sweden. We use data for the period 2008–2012, and an econometric approach in which the probability of having any wind power capacity additions and the actual level of increased capacity, given that it is positive, are permitted to be determined by different processes. The results confirm the importance of land-use policies, e.g., priority and exclusion areas, and interesting differences across the two countries are found. The impact of priority areas has been more profound in Germany, while the assignment of protected areas instead has constituted a more binding policy tool in Sweden. Cross-country differences in the relevance of various explanatory variables are linked to factors such as geographical patterns, design of wind power support schemes, and the allocation of decision-making power in planning processes.

  • 338.
    Lehmann, Paul
    et al.
    Department Ökonomie, Helmholtz- Zentrum für Umweltforschung − UFZ, Leipzig.
    Gawel, Erik
    UFZ- Departments Ökonomie und Direktor des Instituts für Infrastruktur und Ressourcen- management der Universität Leipzig.
    Purkus, Alexandra
    UFZ-Department Ökonomie.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ist eine technologiespezifische Erneuerbaren-Förderung wirklich ineffizient?2017In: Energiewirtschaftliche Tagesfragen, ISSN 0720-6240, Vol. 67, no 5, p. 19-24Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 339.
    Lehmann, Paul
    et al.
    Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Can Technology-Specific Deployment Policies Be Cost-Effective?: The Case of Renewable Energy Support Schemes2016Report (Refereed)
  • 340.
    Lehmann, Paul
    et al.
    Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Can Technology-Specific Deployment Policies Be Cost-Effective?: The Case of Renewable Energy Support Schemes2018In: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 71, no 2, p. 28p. 475-505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While there is relatively limited disagreement on the general need for supporting the deployment of renewable energy sources for electricity generation (RES-E), there are diverging views on whether the granted support levels should be technology-neutral or technology-specific. In this review paper we question the frequently stressed argument that technology-neutral schemes will promote RES-E deployment cost-effectively. We use a simple partial equilibrium model of the electricity sector with one representative investor as a vehicle to synthesize the existing literature, and review potential rationales for technology-specific RES-E support. The analysis addresses market failures associated with technological development, long-term risk taking, path dependencies as well as various external costs, all of which drive a wedge between the private and the social costs of RES-E deployment. Based on analytical insight and a review of empirical literature, we conclude that the relevance of these market failures is typically heterogeneous across different RES-E technologies. The paper also discusses a number of possible caveats to implementing cost-effective technology-specific support schemes in practice, including the role of various informational and politico-economic constraints. While these considerations involve important challenges, neither of them suggests an unambiguous plea for technology-neutral RES-E support policies either. We close by highlighting principles for careful RES-E policy design, and by outlining four important avenues for future research.

  • 341.
    Lehmann, Paul
    et al.
    Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Technology-neutral or Technology-specific?: Designing Support Schemes for Renewable Energies Cost-effectively2015In: I A E E Energy Forum, ISSN 1944-3188, no Special Issue Quarter 2015 issue, p. 13-15Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 342.
    Lesser, Pamela
    et al.
    Northern Institute for Environmental and Minority Law, Arctic Centre, University of Lapland.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Suopajärvi, Leena
    Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Lapland.
    Petrétei, Anna
    Northern Institute for Environmental and Minority Law, Arctic Centre, University of Lapland.
    Hållbar gruvnäring: nordisk kunskap, god praxis och kunskapsluckor2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    SusMinNor–projektet är ett samarbete mellan Finska Lapplands Förbund,Lapplands Universitet (Rovaniemi), och Luleå tekniska universitet.Projektet har två huvudsakliga målsättningar – att främja gränsöverskridandesamverkan kring hållbar gruvnäring i Interreg Nord-området,och att samla och syntetisera viktiga forskningsresultat från i huvudsakde samhällsvetenskapliga disciplinerna, särskilt kring konsekvenser avgruvnäring och synergier mellan gruvnäring och samhällen i nordligasteEuropa. Projektet finansieras av Interreg Nord och genomförs underperioden 2015-2016.Inom ramen för projektet har en forskningsworkshop genomförts iHaparanda, Sverige i april 2016 samt ett slutseminarium som genomfördesden 21 september 2016 i Rovaniemi, Finland. Projektet har mynnat ut iföreliggande syntesrapport som belyser de huvudsakliga teman som forskningenkring hållbar gruvnäring i norra Finland och Sverige har adresserat,samt identifierar god praxis och kunskapsluckor i litteraturen.En genomgång av viktiga internationella initiativ kring hållbar gruvnäringhar gjorts för att möjliggöra jämförelser mellan frågeställningarsom undersökts i Finland och Sverige. Sådana undersökningar och til�-lämpningar av deras resultat i utvecklingsländer skiljer sig på ett betydandesätt från de behov som finns i Finland och Sverige, men teman som”stakeholder engagement” strategier (d.v.s. hur intressenter och sakägarebemöts) samt social hållbarhet är viktiga även i de nordiska länderna.Trots viktiga skillnader finns ofta också möjligheter till lärande av internationellaerfarenheter.

  • 343.
    Lesser, Pamela
    et al.
    Northern Institute for Environmental and Minority Law, Arctic Centre, University of Lapland.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Suopajärvi, Leena
    Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Lapland.
    Petrétei, Anna
    Northern Institute for Environmental and Minority Law, Arctic Centre, University of Lapland.
    Kestävä kaivannaistoiminta: Pohjoinen osaaminen ja tietotaito2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [fi]

    Kestävä kaivannaistoiminta – pohjoinen osaaminen ja tietotaito eli Sus-MinNor-projekti (Sustainable mining in the Northernmost Europe – Lessonslearned and practices developed) on Lapin liiton, Lapin yliopiston ja Luulajanteknillisen yliopiston yhteityöprojekti, jolla on kaksi tavoitetta: (1) tehostaarajat ylittävää yhteistyötä kestävän kaivostoiminnan edistämiseksiInterreg Pohjoinen -alueella ja (2) koota yhteen yhteiskuntatieteellisen kaivostutkimuksentuloksia erityisesti kaivostoiminnan vaikutuksista sekäkaivosalan ja sitä ympäröivän yhteiskunnan välisistä suhteista Euroopanpohjoisilla alueilla. Projektia on rahoittanut Interreg Pohjoinen -ohjelma jase on ollut käynnissä vuosien 2015-2016 aikana.Tämä synteesiraportti on hankkeen päätuotos ja se valottaa kaivostoiminnankestävyyttä koskevan yhteiskuntatieteellisen tutkimuksenkeskeisiä teemoja, tutkimuksissa tunnistettuja hyviä käytäntöjä sekätietovajeita Suomessa ja Ruotsissa. Raportin lisäksi hankkeessa on järjestettytutkijatyöpaja Ruotsin Haaparannalla huhtikuussa 2016 ja päätösseminaariRovaniemellä syyskuussa 2016.Synteesiraportin alussa on luotu katsaus kestävän kaivostoiminnankansainvälisiin aloitteisiin vertailukohdaksi Suomen ja Ruotsin tutkimusaiheisiin.Vaikka kansainväliset kestävän kaivotoiminnan aloitteetovat painottuneet kehittyvien maiden kysymyksiin ja ovat siten hyvinerilaisia kuin Suomen ja Ruotsin tutkimustarpeet, myös samankaltaisiateemoja on paikannettavissa. Tällaisia ovat esimerkiksi sidosryhmätyöskentelyja sosiaalinen kestävyys. Eroista huolimatta kansainvälisenkeskustelun ja paikallisten tutkimusprojektien vertailu antaamahdollisuuden synergiseen oppimiseen.

  • 344.
    Lesser, Pamela
    et al.
    Northern Institute for Environmental and Minority Law, Arctic Centre, University of Lapland.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Suopajärvi, Leena
    Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Lapland.
    Petrétei, Anna
    Northern Institute for Environmental and Minority Law, Arctic Centre, University of Lapland.
    Sustainable mining in the Northernmost Europe: lessons learned and practices developed2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The SusMinNor project is a collaboration between the Regional Council of Lapland, the University of Lapland, and Luleå University of Technology. The project’s duration spans 2015-2016 and is funded with financial support from Interreg Nord. There have been two project workshops, one in Haparanda, Sweden in April 2016 for researchers engaged in the subject, and the closing seminar, during which the research results were disseminated, in Rovaniemi, Finland in September 2016.  The Synthesis Report is the main deliverable of the project and highlights the major research themes in the social science literature on sustainable mining in Finland and Sweden (not Norway unfortunately as the project partner dropped out), and in addition, also identifies good practices and knowledge gaps in the current research.  

  • 345.
    Lindman, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Essays on energy technology learning and voluntary carbon offsets2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of an introductory part and three self-contained papers, all related to the issue of promoting renewable energy sources. Paper I presents the results from a hypothetical market experiment of Swedish students' stated willingness to purchase emission allowances for carbon dioxide within the European emissions trading system. Methodologically we draw heavily on recent developments in the literature on integrating norm-motivated behaviour into neoclassical consumer theory, and assume that individuals have a preference for keeping a self-image as a responsible and thus norm-compliant person. The results indicate that students' willingness to purchase emission allowances is determined by both price and the presence of norms; people who feel personally responsible for contributing to reduced climate damages are also the ones who appear more inclined to purchase emission allowances. The empirical findings are also consistent with the notion that perceptions about others' stated willingness to purchase emission allowances affect individual norms and ultimately expressed behaviour. Norms are also largely activated by problem awareness and the individual's perception of her ability to contribute to solving the problem. In paper II we conduct a metaanalysis of wind power learning rates, thus permitting an assessment of some of the most important model specification and data issues that influence the estimated learning coefficients. The econometric analysis in this paper relies on over 100 learning rate estimates presented in 35 studies, all conducted during the time period 1995-2010. The empirical results indicate that the choice of the geographical domain of learning, and thus implicitly of the assumed presence of learning spillovers, is an important determinant of wind power learning rates. We also find that the use of extended learning curve concepts, thus integrating most notably public R&D effects into the analysis, tends to result in lower learning rates than those generated by so-called single-factor learning curve studies.Finally, in paper III a critical analysis of the choice of model specification in learning curve analyses of wind power costs is presented. Special attention is paid to the question of the choice of national or global learning (cumulative capacity), and the inclusion of other variables such as R&D, scale effects and the inclusion of a time trend. To illustrate the importance of these methodological choices, a data set of pooled annual time series data over five European countries - Denmark (1986-1999), Germany (1990-1999), Spain (1990-1999), Sweden (1991-2002) and the United Kingdom (1991-2000) - is used to compare the results from different types of model specifications. The empirical results support the notion that the estimates of learning-by-doing rates may differ across different model specifications. In our data set the presence of global learning for wind power appears more important than that of national learning, but the estimates of the (global) learning rate are only marginally influenced by the introduction of R&D and scale effects. The results also show, though, that the impact of cumulative capacity on wind power costs appears to be very sensitive to the inclusion of a time trend in the traditional learning curve model.

  • 346.
    Lindman, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Essays on Renewable Energy Technology Development and Voluntary Carbon Offsets2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of an introduction and five self-contained papers addressing the issues of renewable energy technology development and voluntary carbon offsets, respectively. Paper I presents the results from a semi-experimental study of Swedish students’ stated willingness to purchase emission allowances for carbon dioxide within the European emissions trading scheme. Methodologically the analysis draws on recent developments in the literature on integrating norm-motivated behaviour into neoclassical consumer theory. The results indicate that students’ willingness to purchase emission allowances is determined by both price and the presence of norms; people who feel personally responsible for contributing to reduced climate damages are also the ones who appear more inclined to purchase emission allowances. The empirical findings are also consistent with the notion that perceptions about others’ stated willingness to purchase emission allowances imply improvements in people’s self-image and ultimately behavioural change. In paper II we conduct a conceptual review and a meta-analysis of wind power learning rates, including an assessment of a number of important model specification and data issues that influence these learning rates. The econometric analysis in this paper relies on over 100 learning rate estimates presented in 35 studies. The results indicate that the choice of the geographical domain of learning, and thus implicitly of the assumed presence of learning spillovers, is an important determinant of wind power learning rates. We also find that the use of extended learning curve concepts, thus integrating, most notably, public R&D effects into the analysis, tends to result in lower learning rates than those generated by the so-called single-factor learning curve model specification. In paper III a critical analysis of the choice of model specification in learning curve analyses of wind power costs is presented. Special attention is devoted to the choice of either national or global cumulative capacities as learning indicators, as well as the inclusion of other independent variables such as public R&D, scale effects and a time trend. A data set of pooled annual time series over eight European countries is used. The empirical results indicate that the estimates of the learning rates may differ considerably across different model specifications. The presence of global learning for wind power appears more important than that of national learning. Moreover, the use of extended learning curve concepts, thus integrating either scale effects or public R&D (or both) into the analysis, adds to our understanding of cost decreases in wind power technology. In paper IV we examine how effective different public policies have been in encouraging innovation in the wind energy sector. The analysis is conducted using patent counts data on a panel of European countries over the time period 1977-2009. The contribution of the paper lies primarily in its in-depth empirical efforts to address the innovation impacts of different public policies, including tests of different model specifications and important policy interaction effects. An important result is that the marginal impact of public R&D support to wind power has a more profound effect on patenting activity when implemented jointly with a feed-in tariff scheme. Finally, paper V provides an econometric analysis of the technology development patterns in the European wind power sector. The invention, innovation and diffusion phases of wind power development are brought together to assess important interaction effects. The dataset covers the time period 1991-2008 for eight western European wind power countries. We find evidence of national and international knowledge spillovers in the invention model. The results from the innovation models show that there exists global learning, but also that the world market price of steel has been an important determinant of wind power investment costs. The diffusion model results indicate that investment cost is an important determinant of the development of installed wind power capacity. The results also identify natural gas prices and feed-in tariffs as vital factors behind the observed wind power diffusion patterns.

  • 347.
    Lindman, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Voluntary citizen participation in carbon allowance markets: the role of norm-based motivation2013In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 680-697Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The results from a semi-experimental study of Swedish students' stated willingness to purchase emission allowances for carbon dioxide are presented. Drawing heavily on recent developments in the literature on integrating norm-motivated behaviour into neoclassical consumer theory, it is assumed that individuals have a preference for maintaining a self-image as a responsible (and thus norm-compliant) person. The results indicate that students' willingness to purchase carbon allowances is determined by both price and the presence of norms: those who feel personally responsible for contributing to reducing climate damages also appear more inclined to buy allowances. The empirical findings are consistent with the notion that a person's beliefs about others' stated willingness to purchase carbon allowances imply improvements in their own self-image and ultimately behavioural change. This suggests that information campaigns that attempt to influence beliefs about others' intentions could promote 'green' consumer behaviour in the carbon allowance market. Such (stated) behaviour also appears to be influenced by a person's awareness of the problem of climate change and their beliefs about their own ability to contribute to solving it. Policy relevance Although there is a concern that public goods such as reduced climate change may be under-provided in the free market, individual concern for the environment occasionally has profound impacts on consumer choice and voluntary action. This research suggests that information campaigns that attempt to influence beliefs about others' intentions could promote 'green' consumer behaviour in carbon allowance markets. Publicly-provided information about the impacts of climate change and the ways in which these damages stem from individual choices could also induce this type of behaviour

  • 348.
    Lindman, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Avståndsskatters effekt för Norrbotten: En konsekvensanalys2018Report (Other academic)
  • 349.
    Lindman, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Uppföljning innovationsbidraget2016Report (Other academic)
  • 350.
    Lindman, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wind energy and green economy in Europe: Measuring policy-induced innovation using patent data2016In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 179, p. 1351-1359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The green economy policy discourse has devoted a lot of attention to the design of public policy addressing low-carbon technologies. In this paper we examine the impacts of public R&D support and feed-in tariff schemes on innovation in the wind energy sector. The analysis is conducted using patent application data for four western European countries over the period 1977–2009. Different model specifications are tested, and the analysis highlights important policy interaction effects. The results indicate that both public R&D support and feed-in tariffs have positively affected patent application counts in the wind power sector. The (marginal) impact on patent applications of increases in feed-tariffs has also become more profound as the wind power technology has matured. There is also some evidence of policy interaction effects in that the impact of public R&D support to wind power is greater at the margin if it is accompanied by the use of feed-in tariff schemes. These results support the notion that technological innovation requires both R&D and learning-by-doing, and for this reason public R&D programs should typically not be designed in isolation from practical applications. The paper ends by outlining some important avenues for future research.

45678910 301 - 350 of 854
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf