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  • 301.
    Norman, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Clementson, Viveca
    Förhandling: kamp eller arbete1991Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 302.
    Norman, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Öhman, Lina
    Medling och andra former av konflikthantering2011 (ed. 2)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 303.
    Norsten, Sara
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Moderskap inom samkönade äktenskap: Kan faderskapspresumtionen kvarstå när regleringen av assisterad befruktning förändras?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kvinnans förutsättningar inom familj och arbetsliv har genomgått stora förändringar genom historien. Uppsatsen har skrivits med utgångspunkt från kvinnans rättigheter och skyldigheter inom föräldraskapets område både som moder och som medförälder. Genom en historisk tillbakablick och genomgång fram till aktuell reglering visar uppsatsen hur lagar som omfattat kvinnan i stort, samt kvinnan i rollen som mor, har haft en särskild position i svensk lagstiftning. Utvecklingen ifrån att alla kvinnor var omyndiga till att kvinnan omyndigförklarades i samband med giftermål och slutligen fram till gällande rätt där två kvinnor kan gifta sig och åtnjuta samma rättigheter och skyldigheter som olikkönade par inom äktenskapets område. Äktenskapsbalkens och Föräldrabalkens regleringar har genom åren påverkat varandra vilket visar hur samhället förhållit sig till personer i olika samlevnadsformers möjligheter till föräldraskap. Den 1 januari 2019 ändrades lagstiftningen som rör assisterad befruktning. Uppsatsen syftar till att utreda om den nu aktuella regleringen är jämställd för alla par. Arbetet har genomförts med en rättsdogmatisk metod och med normkritiskt synsätt för att analysera de normer som legat som underlag för de regleringar som funnits. Slutligen har förslaget om att införa en föräldraskapspresumtion utretts och satts i förhållande till den sen länge gällande faderskapspresumtionen.

  • 304.
    Nuottila, Jouko
    et al.
    University of Oulu.
    Kauppila, Osmo
    University of Oulu.
    Nysten-Haarala, Soili
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Proactive Contracting: Emerging Changes in attitudes towards project contracts and lawyers' contribution2016In: Journal of strategic Contracting and Negotiation, Vol. 2, no 1-2, p. 150-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Proactive contracting is a practice-oriented research stream, and scholars focused on proactive contracting have suggested fundamental changes for corporate contracting. Researchers have proposed that companies should improve their contracting capabilities and corporate lawyers should serve business objectives instead of preparing for possible litigation. The research reported in this paper focuses on two key areas of proactive contracting: the purpose of the project contracts; and the role of lawyers contributing to project contracts. The research goal was to find out whether business managers and corporate lawyers recognize a need for evolution in project contracting as suggested by the proactive contracting literature. The research data were collected using a survey of commercial contracting professionals, and the research results indicate that managers and lawyers share the same view – that contracts are made for business objectives and benefits. However, it was found that the perspectives of managers and lawyers differ with regard to the role of lawyers in preventing and resolving disputes.

  • 305.
    Nuottila, Jouko
    et al.
    University of Oulu.
    Kujala, Jaakko
    University of Oulu.
    Nysten-Haarala, Soili
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Flexible Contracting in Software Project Business: What Can we learn from agile methods in the Software industry2015In: Lapland Law Review, no 2, p. 29-54Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 306.
    Nyberg Altman, Sophia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Avtalsbunden genom emojis?: Om digitala uttryckssymboler som tolkningsdata för avtalsbundenhet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I uppsatsen har behandlats vilka förutsättningar det finns enligt svensk rätt för avtalsbundenhetatt uppstå genom kommunikation baserat på emojier. För att uppnå uppsatsens syfte har utretts(1) hur avtalsmekanismen fungerar traditionellt och digitalt, (2) om det finns tillbörligaalternativa former för avtalsslut, (3) hur emojin ter sig som tolkningsdata för avtalsbundenhetoch (4) om avtalstolkning kan reda ut eventuella svårigheter i att tolka emojin. Eftersom svaretpå uppsatsens syfte ej har gått att finna direkt i rättskällorna har endast svarsförslag kunnatpresenteras. I diskussonen har redogjorts för att att emojin som bärare av data, med en vissosäkerhet för tydlighetsrekvisitet, tycks kunna uppfylla rekvisiten för rättshandlingar. Vidarehar föreslagits att avtalstolkning hjälpa till att fylla ut eventuella hål i förståelsen. Vidare harsvarsförslaget beskrivit att det verkar finnas utrymme för att kommunikation med emojier kanleda till avtalsbundenhet och att om konkludent handlande eller konkludent handlande ikombination med passivitet föreligger ökar den möjligheten ytterligare.

  • 307.
    Nysten-Haarala, Soili
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Aktivitet: IACCM Americas 20132013Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 308.
    Nysten-Haarala, Soili
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Aktivitet: Retfaerd2013Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Nordisk juridisk tidskrift

  • 309.
    Nysten-Haarala, Soili
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Creating trust in institutions in Russian forest localities2013In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 31, p. 12-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Russia is a country with a low level of trust. In consequence, companies working in Russia have to emphasize the development and maintenance of trust with all their interest groups. In this paper we study how trust is built up at the local level with municipalities and local communities. Local level interest groups, however, seem to be less significant for companies in contemporary Russian countryside. This paper will provide an analysis of why local level interest groups are weak and what the consequences are. The paper also discusses legislation and regulations affecting social structures in the Russian countryside showing why and how much social responsibility is transferred to companies. In addition, the paper discusses whether private governance regulation, such as forest certification, will help local communities to be heard. The paper applies Douglass North's approach to economic development with formal and informal institutions, and also the literature on trust and the social responsibility of enterprises. Formal institutions such as national legislation and international privately controlled rules of FSC certification are compared with informal practices at the local level. Cooperation with companies and environmental organizations has complemented traditional Russian social responsibility and increased cooperation between the different interest groups. NGOs can also help local communities to be heard, but since companies are more concerned with the trust of their clients, weak municipalities remain humble receivers of aid. Globalization also makes companies pay more attention to their competitiveness, which will exert pressure on the government to arrange social security and strengthen municipalities. Structural changes in Russia will, however, take time, since Russia not only has to tackle the construction of new formal institutions but it must also deal with the increasing effects of globalization as it changes the traditional structures of democracy and a market economy.

  • 310.
    Nysten-Haarala, Soili
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ennakoivan sopimisen tutkimusmenetelmät2017In: Lakimies, ISSN 0023-7353, no 7-8, p. 1015-1035Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 311.
    Nysten-Haarala, Soili
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Johdanto2013Other (Other academic)
  • 312.
    Nysten-Haarala, Soili
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Legal Pluralism and Globalizing Business Contracts2016In: Scandinavian Studies in Law, ISSN 0085-5944, Vol. 62, p. 297-316Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 313.
    Nysten-Haarala, Soili
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Oletussäännöt rakennusprojektien sopimussuunnittelussa2013In: Sopimusten ja häiriötilanteiden hallinta rakennusprojekteissa, Helsingfors: Tietosanoma , 2013, p. 250-281Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 314.
    Nysten-Haarala, Soili
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Protecting networked innovations in contracts2011In: Proceedings of the 2011 IACCM Academic Symposium for Contract and Commercial Management / [ed] René Franz Henschel, Ridgefield, CT: International Association for Contract and Commercial Management , 2011, p. 68-79Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 315.
    Nysten-Haarala, Soili
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sopimuksen irtisanominen muuttuneissa olosuhteissa - KKO 2010:69 sopimusoikeuden ja sopimuskäytännön näkökulmasta2013In: Oikeuden avantgarde. Juhlajulkaisu Juha Karhu 1953 - 6/4 - 2013, Helsingfors: Talentum, 2013, p. 283-302Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 316.
    Nysten-Haarala, Soili
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sopimurikkomukset ja niiden seuraamukset2013In: Sopimusoikeus Suomessa ja Venäjällä, Helsingfors: Helsingfors universitet - Forum Iuris - Juridiska fakulteten , 2013, p. 133-145Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 317.
    Nysten-Haarala, Soili
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sopimusoikeus Venäjällä ja Suomessa2013Other (Other academic)
  • 318.
    Nysten-Haarala, Soili
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sopimustyypit2013In: Sopimusoikeus Suomessa ja Venäjällä, Helsingfors: Helsingfors universitet - Forum Iuris - Juridiska fakulteten , 2013, p. 156-159Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 319.
    Nysten-Haarala, Soili
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Uusien instituutioiden kehittäminen ja luottamus Venäjällä: Esimerkkinä metsäkylien kunnallinen itsehallinto ja infrastruktuuri2013In: Vero ja finanssi: Matti Myrsky 60 år, Jyväskylä: Edita Pulishing Oy , 2013, p. 193-209Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 320.
    Nysten-Haarala, Soili
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Venäjän ja Pohjoismaiden sopimusoikeuden yleisten oppien joustavuus2014In: Lakimies, ISSN 0023-7353, Vol. 2014, no 7-8, p. 1022-1041Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 321.
    Nysten-Haarala, Soili
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Weak Property Rights and Unequal Distribution of Weath as Obstacles for Development: An institutional analysis on Russian Transition2015In: Scandinavian Studies in Law, ISSN 0085-5944, Vol. 60, p. 221-251Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 322.
    Nysten-Haarala, Soili
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Bogdanova, Elena
    Center for Indipendent Social Research, St. Petersburg.
    Kondakov, Aleksandr
    Center for Indipendent Social Research, St. petersburg.
    Makarova, Olga
    St. Petersburg State University.
    The Interplay of Flexibility and Rigidity in Russian Business Contracting: The Formal and Informal Framework in Contracting2015In: Lapland Law Review, no 2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 323.
    Nysten-Haarala, Soili
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Klyuchnikova, Elena
    Kola Science Center.
    Helenius, Heidi
    University of Lapland, Rovaniemi.
    Law and self-regulation: Substitutes or complements in gaining social acceptance?2015In: Resources policy, ISSN 0301-4207, E-ISSN 1873-7641, Vol. 45, p. 52-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mining industry needs a social license to operate (SLO) on local, national and global levels. In this research we study six companies in three different countries in the Kolarctic Area. All except one company seem to focus on getting the social license at the local level with agreements with other land users and local communities. For new companies a local social license seems to be more difficult to earn, but the old ones have gained it with their earlier behavior. In Sweden and Finland companies also focus on global standards, mostly because of the pressure from financers. In the mining branch, endusers are not yet interested in social responsibility of the companies. Globally functioning multinationals have, however, been alerted to develop industrial standards under the pressure of NGOs. In some mining sectors such as gold mining, international standards already play a significant role. In gaining the social license, the involvement of NGOs, which now is rather modest, might be one way to develop global standards and improve reputation. Companies, which are successfully focusing on the local level, might also gain from NGO cooperation on the national level, where the reputation of the mining industry in Sweden and especially in Finland has suffered from sporadic bad performers. Russian companies have their own challenges because of the weak formal institutions of the country. There both good national relations with the power structures and a strong role in developing the surrounding areas are fundamental

  • 324. Nysten-Haarala, Soili
    et al.
    Kujala, Jaakko
    University of Oulu.
    Nuottila, Jouko
    University of Oulu.
    Flexible contracting in project business2013In: 22nd Nordic Academy of Management Conference Reykjavik 21-23 Aug 2013: On Practice and Knowledge Eruption, University of Iceland, School of Business , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 325.
    Nysten-Haarala, Soili
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Kulyasova, Antonina
    Center for Independent Social Research. St. Petersburg.
    Rights to traditional use of resources in conflict with legislation: A case study of Pomor fishing villages in the White Sea Coast2012In: Politics of Development in the Barents Region, Rovaniemi: Lapland university press, 2012, p. 316-339Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 326.
    Nysten-Haarala, Soili
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Pappila, Minna
    University of Turku.
    Osallistumisoikeudet osana yritysvastuuta: Tarkastelussa venäläiset öljy-yhtiöt2017In: p. 169-223Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 327.
    Nysten-Haarala, Soili
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Pappila, Minna
    University of Turku.
    Britcyna, Ekaterina
    University of Lapland.
    Extractive Industries and public participation in russia: The case of the oil industry in Izhemskii District, Komi Republic2017In: The Yearbook of Polar Law, ISSN 1876-8814, E-ISSN 2211-6427Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 328.
    Nyström, Louise
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Det förstärkta laglottsskyddet: Ett ytterligare skydd för bröstarvingars rätt till laglott2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen har varit att utreda varför det förstärkta laglottskyddet i 7 kap. 4§ Ärvdabalken kom till, vad bestämmelsen innebär och hur den tillämpas i praktiken. För att uppnå syftet har en rättsdogmatisk metod använts som innebär att man utreder gällande rätt utifrån rättskällorna såsom lagstiftning, förarbeten, rättspraxis och doktrin. I svensk rätt har en bröstarvinge alltid rätt till något som kallas för laglott vid fördelningen av kvarlåtenskapen efter sin förälders frånfälle. Laglotten är något som inte kan testamenteras bort av en arvlåtare. Det har därför förekommit fall där arvlåtaren istället gett bort delar av sin egendom för att på så sätt kunna styra fördelningen av sin kvarlåtenskap. Just därför tillkom det förstärkta laglottsskyddet, som utgör ett ytterligare skydd för bröstarvingars rätt till laglott genom att även innefatta gåvor som en arvlåtare bortgivit i ett syfte som kan likställas med testamente. Att syftet med gåvan kan likställas med testamente innebär att arvlåtaren ska ha haft samma syfte som med ett testamente, vilket är att ordna med sin arvsföljd före sin död. Ett testamente är gjort för dödsfall skull, vilket betyder att även gåvor som bortgivits för dödsfalls skull kan komma att återbäras på grund av det förstärkta laglottsskyddet.

  • 329.
    Olli, Vanessa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Miljöbedömning och miljökonsekvensbedömning: En teoretisk jämförelse mellan de olika processerna2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 330.
    Olofsson, Annelie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Den nya Dataskyddsförordningen: Om småföretagares compliance med GDPR2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    På grund av brister i lagstiftningen beslöt Europaparlamentet och EU:s ministerråd år 2016 att en ny förordning rörande hantering av personuppgifter skulle råda i Europeiska unionen från och med den 25 maj 2018. Denna förordning kallas GDPR och kommer ersätta PUL. Förordningen innehåller bland annat krav på principer som måste följas vid behandling av personuppgifter, de rättsliga grunder som användas för laglig personuppgiftsbehandling så som samtycke från den registrerade samt redogörelse för de olika ansvarsrollernars skyldigheter. GDPR kommer innebära att Datainspektionen får ett utökat uppdrag som bland annat kan resultera i utdömandet av höga sanktioner om behandlingen inte utförs i enlighet med förordningen. Uppsatsen fastställer gällande rätt vid behandling av personuppgifter efter GDPR, samt undersöker hur företag kan förbereda sig inför förändringen och hur många småföretag som faktiskt är förberedda en månad innan införandet. För att besvara syftet har i första hand en rättsdogmatisk metod använts. Denna har kompletterats med en kvalitativ undersökning. Den nya förordningen kommer att påverka alla företag, därav måste alla småföretag sätta in sig i de nya reglerna och undersöka hur de hanterar personuppgifter och hur de ska gå till väga för att hanteringen ska vara laglig. Två olika undersökningar presenteras, dels en undersökning utförd av Visma två månader innan GDPR träder i kraft, dels undersökning inom ramen för denna uppsats utförd en månad innan införandet av förordningen. Båda studierna pekar på att många småföretagare är dåligt förberedda och resultatet från den undersökning som utförts inom ramen för uppsatsen visar att många företag inte har satt sig in i de nya reglerna.

  • 331.
    Olofsson, Annelie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    EU:s nya engångsplastdirektiv: Ett effektivt miljöstyrmedel?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den ökande kortvariga användningen av plast i kombination med plastens långa nedbrytningstid samt bristande utformning för återanvändning/återvinning har bidragit till att dagens plastanvändande är ineffektivt och ohållbart. För att driva på utvecklingen mot en cirkulär ekonomi har EU-parlamentet röstat fram ett nytt direktiv som särskilt angriper det globalt erkända problemet med plastnedskräpning i marina miljöer. Direktivet, som heter ”minskning av vissa plastprodukters inverkan på miljön”, innehåller bland annat bestämmelser för att minska, alternativt förbjuda, användandet av vissa typer av engångsplast, produktkrav, märkningskrav samt utökat producentansvar. Uppsatsen syftar till att redogöra för plast och plastens negativa effekter på människors hälsa och miljön, fastställa den i framtiden gällande rätten med utgångspunkt i direktivets nuvarande form samt analysera direktivets syfte och huruvida detta sannolikt kommer att uppnås. För att besvara uppsatsens syfte har i huvudsak den rättsdogmatiska metoden använts. Rättskällorna har kompletterats med naturvetenskapliga källor i de delar som rör plastens egenskaper och miljöeffekter. Resultatet visar bland annat att EU inte har presenterat några konkreta förslag på substitut för engångsplasten, vilket gör det svårt att fastställa direktivets totala förväntade effekter på miljön, människors hälsa och arbetet mot en cirkulär ekonomi.

  • 332.
    Oskar, Johansson
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Fastighetsöverlåtelse - parternas prekontraktuella ansvar2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Avtalsförhandlingar innebär skyldigheter för avtalsparterna, detta är delvis ett utfall av lojalitetsplikten. Parterna måste ta hänsyn till varandras intressen, någon som handlar vårdslöst eller illojalt under avtalsförhandlingarna kan ådra sig skadeståndsskyldighet. Vid fastighetsköp har denna grundtanke länge varit undantagen genom praxis. Motiveringen för undantaget har hittills varit att prekontraktuella skadestånd innebär att formkravet urholkas. Genom ett obiter dictum uttalande, vid sidan av huvudfrågan i domen, från 2012 har HD yttrat ett försiktigt stöd för pre-kontraktuellt ansvar vid fastighetsköp. För att undersöka rättsläget tillämpas rättsdogmatisk metod. I skrivande stund har inget nytt mål prövats av HD och rättsläget förblir oklart.

  • 333.
    Paasi, Jaakko
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.
    Valkokari, Katri
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.
    Hytönen, Henri
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.
    Huhtilainen, Laura
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.
    Nysten-Haarala, Soili
    Workbook for opening innovation: bridging networked business, intellectual property and contracting2012Report (Other academic)
  • 334.
    Paasi, Jaakko
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.
    Valkokari, Katri
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.
    Rantala, Tuija
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.
    Nysten-Haarala, Soili
    Lee, Nari
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Huhtilainen, Laura
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Bazaar of opportunities for new business development: bridging networked innovation, intellectual property and business2012Report (Refereed)
  • 335.
    Palo, Hilda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Förvar i väntan på utvisning: Placering i kriminalvårdsanstalt, häkte eller polisarrest2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 336.
    Pappila, Minna
    et al.
    University of Turku.
    Nysten-Haarala, Soili
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Bricyna, Ekaterina
    University of Lapland.
    Participation in Benefit Sharing arrangements in the Komi Republic2017In: Russian Analytical Digest, ISSN 1863-0421, E-ISSN 1863-0421, no 202, p. 6-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The oil industry is vital for the economy of the Komi Republic in Russia. It also benefits the municipalities

    near oil production sites in terms of benefit-sharing agreements between oil companies and local authorities.

    These agreements compose an important part of the corporate social responsibility (CSR) of oil companies

    working in the Komi Republic, and in Russia in general. While this financial support is essential for

    local communities, local people also primarily bear the negative environmental impacts of oil operations.

    Yet, they rarely have a chance to participate either in environmental decision-making or in formulating benefit-

    sharing agreements. This paper discusses why this is problematic, and demonstrates new developments

    in Russian CSR practices: in 2015, the oil company Lukoil-Komi concluded a new type of benefit-sharing

    agreement with the indigenous peoples’ association Izvatas. In addition to traditional social benefits, the

    company agreed to consult the communities on new projects and committed to disclose information about

    oil leaks publicly. This more recent type of benefit-sharing arrangement incorporates elements of local participation

    in environmental issues into the prevailing form of philanthropic and paternalistic CSR practices.

  • 337. Paschalidi, Charikleia
    Data Governance: A conceptual framework in order to prevent your Data Lake from becoming a Data Swamp2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Information Security nowadays is becoming a very popular subject of discussion among both academics and organizations. Proper Data Governance is the first step to an effective Information Security policy. As a consequence, more and more organizations are now switching their approach to data, considering them as assets, in order to get as much value as possible out of it. Living in an IT-driven world makes a lot of researchers to approach Data Governance by borrowing IT Governance frameworks.The aim of this thesis is to contribute to this research by doing an Action Research in a big Financial Institution in the Netherlands that is currently releasing a Data Lake where all the data will be gathered and stored in a secure way. During this research a framework on implementing a proper Data Governance into the Data Lake is introduced.The results were promising and indicate that under specific circumstances, this framework could be very beneficial not only for this specific institution, but for every organisation that would like to avoid confusions and apply Data Governance into their tasks.

  • 338.
    Petersson, Anna Fatima Charlotte
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Att skapa utökad abstrakt normkontroll och lagprövning.: En rättsvetenskaplig studie utifrån svensk juridisk rättstradition2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work shows a possible path for the inception of an expanded norm / law review by increasing the powers for Council of law and its independence, where the legislative government and the judging law reviewing parts will have a clearer boundary than before, where legal reviewing is in focus. This is done on the basis of Swedish legal tradition, where previous laws have been revised and repositioned based on traditional legal reviewing method. The law council has been given its own staff budget, which was previously under the Supreme Court, and it has been given a separate chapter in The (1974:152) Instrument of government- RF. The council's powers and composition have been expanding and their appointment has been transferred from political appointment to the judicial committee, which is covered by several groups from society, not just by politicians. These aggregated measures give a total increase in pressure on parties to do right from the start, but also give the opportunity to retrospectively review and rework errors that have proven themselves in court’s rulings. This systematic way of working provides increased transparency and legal certainty of reviewing and creating of new law in a positive economic way.

  • 339.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Activity: CIGSAC-seminar, the Capability of International Governance Systems to Contribute to the Mitigation of Climate Change and Adjust to its Consequenses: an arctic perspective2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 340.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Energy legal challenges in the Arctic: implications of a changing climate2008In: The Borderless North: publication of the Fourth Northern Research Forum / [ed] Lassi Heininen; Kari Laine, Oulu: University of Oulu, 2008, p. 189-191Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 341.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Energy resources in the arctic: some implications of the Kyoto protocol and its flexible mechanisms2005In: Third Annual Norsel Seminar: Climate Change in the Arctic - Environmental and Indigenous Issues, Nordic Research Network for Saami and Environmental Law , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 342.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Kontroll av främmande arter (i skogsmiljöer): Behovet av rättsliga reformer2013In: Europarättslig tidskrift, ISSN 1403-8722, no 3, p. 417-433Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 343.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Legal preconditions for wind power implementation in Sweden and Denmark2006Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish energy policy relies heavily on the promotion of renewable energy resources, in particular wind energy and in 2002 the Swedish Government adopted a national planning goal of a yearly wind power generation of 10 TWh by 2015, which implies a substantial increase from the current 0.6 TWh level. The main purpose of this study is to analyse relevant functions of the Swedish law with reference to the im-plementation of wind power; the overarching question at issue being in what respects the law impedes respectively facilitates the development of wind power, and to compare the results from the Swedish analysis with the corresponding functions in Danish law, and b) to present some implications for the choice between different legislative measures to meet the Swedish wind power planning goal. The results are based on in-depth studies of relevant legal rules and case law, and the overall indi-cations are: a) on one hand, that several of the Swedish legal rules in connection with the overarching management and use of land and water areas are vaguely formulated and provide an extensive room for discretion, which makes the outcomes unpredictable and increase the uncertainties associated with wind power investments, b) on the other hand, that certain specific rules regarding the location of the wind-mills, together with the requirement to objectively assess alternative sites for the installation have shown to seriously hamper the establishment of windmills in Sweden, c) that the strong support for the munici-pal self- governance in connection with the system for physical planning in Sweden implies that great stress is laid on the existence of territorial plans for wind power, which in turn implies that windmills are unlikely to be established without municipal consent, and finally d) that the installation of windmills on Swedish territory may require as many as five different permits, which imply time-consuming (and hence costly) processes with unpredictable outcomes. The results from the analysis of the corresponding Danish system reveal a quite different situation; the specific and precise regulations regarding the installation of windmills in Denmark imply a lot less room for discretion which reduce the uncertainty in connection with the investment decision. Moreover, that the vertically integrated planning system in Denmark greatly enhances the possibilities to implement national planning objectives on the regional, municipal and local level.

  • 344.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Mitigation possibilities in the energy sector: an Arctic perspective2009In: Climate Governance in the Arctic, Dordrecht: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2009, p. 303-326Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 345.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Path dependence in the legal system?: Implications for the development of wind power2011In: Nordisk miljörättslig tidskrift, ISSN 2000-4273, E-ISSN 2000-4273, Vol. 2011, no 2, p. 35-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Institutional path dependence means that decisions made in the past affect future choices. The core of the formal institutional framework – the legal system – reflects choices already made, while the result of today’s legal application is the basis for future rulings. Since the planning and location of energy installations, such as windmills, typically involves application of legal rules that to various extents are coloured by path dependence, the transformation of the energy system may prove difficult. A more sustainable energy system thus depends e.g. on the design of the institutional framework and whether the law is promoting or counteracting the diffusion of renewable energy technology such as wind power. The aim of this paper has been to analyse the legal implementation of wind power in Sweden on the basis of presumed path dependence. The paper illustrates that the path dependence of the legal regimes affecting wind power development in some instances is significant and that policy implementation therefore may be seriously hampered. The purposes for which expropriation of land is possible in Sweden were for example founded in the early 20th century, a time in which very few thought of producing energy by harnessing wind. Although time has changed, the regulation remains and the rules are – if not hampering – at best neutral vis-à-vis wind power development. The resource management provisions under the Environmental Code also show clear signs of institutional path dependence; regardless of repeated criticism from e.g. the Council of Legislation (Swe: Lagrådet) regarding the rules’ applicability the system persists and continues to confuse both legal scholars and practitioners. The municipal planning monopoly and right of veto is another feature of the Swedish institutional framework that produces self-reinforcing sequences that are hard to breach. And without municipal consent, energy policy, and particularly wind power policy, is very difficult to implement. Although the institutional path dependence suggests a complex and complicated situation, the norms, expectations, traditions, customs etc. that constitute the social structure in which the law is embedded can change, and so can the law. The more recent legal application demonstrates that the law can in fact be applied in favour of wind power development even facing strong preservation interests. This may be a sign of a necessary change happening.

  • 346.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Renewable energy and the function of law: a comparative study of legal rules related to the planning, location and installation of windmills2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish energy policy relies heavily on the promotion of renewable energy, in particu-lar wind power. Notwithstanding a substantial political and economic support for this development, the installed capacity of wind power in Sweden remains fairly small both in relation to the corresponding development in other countries and in absolute num-bers. The starting point for this study is that the implementation of a planning policy, such as the Swedish development goal for wind power, is partly dependent on the re- quirements of the law. In other words, in the face of supposedly strong economic incen-tives to promote wind power, barriers to the implementation might be found embedded in the institutional system. The purpose of this study is thus, primarily, to describe and analyse the function of Swedish law with reference to the implementation of renewable energy policy objectives, with focus on the development of wind power. This involves legal rules related to planning, location and operation of windmills. The legal system is evaluated in respect of its capacity to facilitate or impede the development of wind power. Secondly, the study includes a comparative analysis of the corresponding legal functions in Denmark, Norway and England. The result of the analysis of Swedish law indicates that the legal system governing the implementation process encompasses bar- riers to the development of wind power. The main obstacles are found in the system for physical planning and the concession system, although quite a few hindering individual provisions have also been disclosed. The lack of sufficient control functions together with an extensive municipal power creates an unpredictable and ineffective planning system that basically lacks confidence for an efficient implementation of wind power. The installation of windmills may further require as many as five different types of permits, which risks to seriously hamper the development due to lengthy processes and appeals. Among the individual rules, the location requirement in the Swedish Environ-mental Code strikes as notably hindering; the requirement to objectively assess alterna-tive sites has in several cases obstructed the installation of windmills. Overall, the im- plementation deficits are considerable. The examination of the corresponding legal functions in Denmark, Norway and the United Kingdom presents some very important differences with respect to planning control and permit requirements, as well as regard-ing substantial provisions. Generally, it looks as if there is a correlation between the level of overarching control over the physical planning on the one hand, and the poten-tial to successfully implement renewable energy policy objectives on the other. Time-limits for permit procedures, legal standards for emissions, explicit rules for the balanc-ing of opposite interests and so forth, are other interesting features that may be em-ployed in Sweden. A realization of the Swedish wind power planning goal will thus presumably require changes of the law. The most important issue is perhaps to reduce the implementation deficits by improving the legal framework governing the planning and installation processes. A few of the discussed factors emerge as crucial in this re-spect and that is roughly: to remove the general permit requirement, and thus leave the entire trial to the planning system; and to breach the municipal planning monopoly.

  • 347.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Renewable energy in the Arctic: regulatory frameworks2013In: Polar Law Textbook II, Köpenhamn: Nordic Council of Ministers , 2013, p. 155-173Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 348.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Rättsliga förutsättningar för en gemensam europeisk energipolitik2008In: EU och den globala klimatfrågan, Stockholm: Santérus Förlag, 2008, p. 137-161Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 349.
    Pettersson, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wind power planning and permitting: comparative perspectives from the Nordic countries2010In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 14, no 9, p. 3116-3123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze and compare some important institutional and legal preconditions for wind power development in three Nordic countries: Denmark, Norway and Sweden. In the paper a number of historical, institutional and policy-related differences across these countries are highlighted, but most attention is paid to the various territorial planning procedures. The analysis suggests that although public economic support to wind power is necessary to promote its diffusion in the electricity system, similar policy instruments - in terms of both size and design - can induce significantly different developments depending on the legal preconditions for the location and environmental assessment of windmills. The success and failure stories of technology support policies can thus not easily be transferred across country borders. An important conclusion is that in comparison to Sweden the physical planning systems in both Denmark and Norway provide greater scope for implementing a national wind power policy at the local level. For instance, the Danish planning system is vertically integrated, and involves a designation of areas for wind power purposes in the local plans, while the municipalities in Sweden must in some way assent to (i.e., plan for) the establishment of windmills at a certain location in order for the installation to actually take place. Compared to its competitors, wind power is one of the power-generating technologies that tend to have the most to lose from the uncertainties created by planning regulations that leave much discretion to local authorities.

  • 350.
    Pettersson, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Goytia, Susana
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The role of the precautionary principle and property rights in the governance of natural resources in Sweden2016In: Nordisk miljörättslig tidskrift, ISSN 2000-4273, E-ISSN 2000-4273, Vol. 2016, no 1, p. 107-121Article in journal (Refereed)
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