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  • 301.
    Jing, Wang
    et al.
    Department of Computer science, Baoji Universi ty of Arts and Sciences, Baoji, China. Faculty of Computer Systems & Software Engineering, University Malaysia Pahang, Pahang, Malaysia .
    Naji, Hafeth Ibrahem
    Department of civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Diyala, Diyala, Iraq.
    Zehawi, Raquim Nihad
    Department of civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Diyala, Diyala, Iraq.
    Ali, Zainab Hasan
    Department of civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Diyala, Diyala, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Yaseen, Zaher
    Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam .
    System Dynamics Modeling Strategy for Civil Construction Projects: The Concept of Successive Legislation Periods2019In: Symmetry, ISSN 2073-8994, E-ISSN 2073-8994, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 1-18, article id 677Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost and time performance are considered to be the most important aspects in the construction industry. The exceptional conditions that took place in Iraq since the beginning of the third millennia had a huge vicious impact on the cost and time performance of local constructionprojects. This may represent the principal motivation for the local authorities to enact some four successive legislations in order to control the performance of the construction industry. In this research, an evaluation is made to the cost and time performance of local construction projects and their variation due to the multiple changes in the internal factors that affect project performance,and changes in the surrounding events include legislative, economic, and security environment during the period that lasted from 2003 to 2014. Data is collected from 30 governmental projects to conduct the evaluation. A comprehensive questionnaire is performed to estimate a quantitative value for the impact of several factors that concern both the owner and the contractor, with special consideration to their variation through the successive legislation periods. These estimates are, in turn, utilized in a system dynamics model, in which the project development process is simulated.

    The final cost and duration changes in the project are accumulated in the form of stocks to give an indication of the cost and time performance of the project. The developed model returned a progressive reduction of 10.9% for the change in project cost and 135.37% for the change in project schedule throughout the eleven years period.

  • 302.
    Jing, Wang
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, Baoji University of Arts and Sciences, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China. Faculty of Computer Systems & Software Engineering, University Malaysia Pahang, Pahang, Malaysia.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Shahid, Shamsuddin
    School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
    Saggi, Mandeep Kaur
    Department of Computer Science, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala, India.
    Tao, Hai
    Department of Computer Science, Baoji University of Arts and Sciences, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China.
    Kisi, Ozgur
    Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Ilia State University, Tbilisi, Georgia.
    Salih, Sinan Q.
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Chau, Kwok-Wing
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China.
    Implementation of evolutionary computing models for reference evapotranspiration modeling: short review, assessment and possible future research directions2019In: Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 1994-2060, E-ISSN 1997-003X, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 811-823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evapotranspiration is one of the most important components of the hydrological cycle as it accounts for more than two-thirds of the global precipitation losses. Indeed, the accurate prediction of reference evapotranspiration (ETo) is highly significant for many watershed activities, including agriculture, water management, crop production and several other applications. Therefore, reliable estimation of ETo is a major concern in hydrology. ETo can be estimated using different approaches, including field measurement, empirical formulation and mathematical equations. Most recently, advanced machine learning models have been developed for the estimation of ETo. Among several machine learning models, evolutionary computing (EC) has demonstrated a remarkable progression in the modeling of ETo. The current research is devoted to providing a new milestone in the implementation of the EC algorithm for the modeling of ETo. A comprehensive review is conducted to recognize the feasibility of EC models and their potential in simulating ETo in a wide range of environments. Evaluation and assessment of the models are also presented based on the review. Finally, several possible future research directions are proposed for the investigations of ETo using EC.

  • 303.
    Karim, Kamal
    et al.
    Sulaimani University.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Effect of the Sun Radiation on the Asymmetry of Valleys in Iraqi Zagros Mountain Belt (Kurdistan Region)2014In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 23-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The geomorphological feature of the valley's asymmetry is described in the Western Zagros in Iraqi Kurdistan; in terms of facing of the valley sides relative to the position of the sun. The asymmetry is represented by steeper northwest facing valley sides; as compared to the southeast facing sides. This feature shows clear valley's asymmetry in cross section is a new geomorphological characteristic for the Western Zagros Mountain Belt. The asymmetry of valleys, in the present study, is proved to exist in different rock types and areas, which is developed by more chemical weathering of one facing sides relative to the other side. The weathering is attributed to the remaining of the moisture for longer time than the southeastern sides, which are stroke by sun radiation for longer time and are dried more rapidly. A simple method was established for indicating the steeper side of the valleys. The method consists of drawing two parallel lines across the photo of the valley, then connecting the bottom of the valley with the left and right deflection points on the inter-valleys ridges by lines. Finally the angles between the lower horiozontal line and inclined lines are measured, which indicates the asymmetry of the valleys.

  • 304.
    Kheiralipour, Kamran
    et al.
    Mechanical Engineering of Biosystems Department, Ilam University.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    Department of Natural Resources, Engineering and Management. University of Kurdistan, Hewler, KRG, Iraq.
    Dust determination methods and instrumentations2018In: 2nd InternationalConference on Dust: 2nd InternationalConference on Dust, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, different aspects of dust storm, as one of the environmental problems, have been investigated by

    many researchers. One of the main goals in this regard is controlling of the dust and its subsequent hazards. The

    first step in the controlling process of dust or its hazards is detection of dust as well as determination of dust

    concentration. There are different methods and devices to determine dust concentration. In the work, the

    existing methods and devices to measure the dust concentration in the environment have been presented and

    explained. Furthermore, the potential application of image processing technique as a low cost method to

    determine dust concentration has been discussed.

  • 305.
    Li, Jing
    et al.
    Business School, Lanzhou City University, Lanzhou, China.
    Ameen, Ameen Mohammed Salih
    Department of Water Resources, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Mohammad, Thamer Ahmad
    Department of Water Resources, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Yaseen, Zaher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    A Systematic Operation Program of a Hydropower Plant Based on Minimizing the Principal Stress: Haditha Dam Case Study2018In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, no 1270, p. 2-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dam operation and management have become more complex recently because of the need for considering hydraulic structure sustainability and environmental protect on. An Earthfill dam that includes a powerhouse system is considered as a significant multipurpose hydraulic structure. Understanding the effects of running hydropower plant turbines on the dam body is one of the major safety concerns for earthfill dams. In this research, dynamic analysis of earthfill dam, integrated with a hydropower plant system containing six vertical Kaplan turbines (i.e., Haditha dam), is investigated.In the first stage of the study, ANSYS-CFX was used to represent one vertical Kaplan turbine unit by designing a three-dimensional (3-D) finite element (FE) model. This model was used to differentiate between the effect of turbine units’ operation on dam stability in accordance to maximum and minimum reservoir upstream water levels, and the varying flowrates in a fully open gate condition. In the second stage of the analysis, an ANSYS-static modeling approach was used to develop a 3-D FE earthfill dam model. The water pressure pattern determined on the boundary of the running turbine model is transformed into the pressure at the common area of the dam body with turbines. The model is inspected for maximum and minimum upstream water levels. Findings indicate that the water stress fluctuations on the dam body are proportional to the inverse distance from the turbine region. Also, it was found that the cone and outlet of the hydropower turbine system are the most affected regions when turbine is running. Based on the attained results, a systematic operation program was proposed in order to control the running hydropower plant with minimized principal stress atselected nodes on the dam model and the six turbines.

  • 306.
    Lindblom, Jenny
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Al-Madhlom, Qais
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Possibilities of reducing energy consumption by Optimization of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems in Babylon, Iraq2016In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 130-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is located in the Middle East with an area that reaches 437072 km2 and a population of about 36 million. This country is suffering from severe electricity shortage problems which are expected to increase with time. In this research, an attempt is made to minimize this problem by combining the borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) with a heat pump, the indoor temperature of a residential building or other facility may be increased or reduced beyond the temperature interval of the heat carrier fluid.Due to the relatively high ground temperature in Middle Eastern countries, the Seasonal thermal energy storages (STES) and Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) systems have a remarkable potential, partly because the reduced thermal losses from the underground storage and the expected high COP (ratio of thermal energy gain to required driving energy (electricity)) of a heat pump, partly because of the potential for using STES directly for heating and cooling. In this research, groundwater conditions of Babylon city in Iraq were investigated to evaluate the possibility of using GSHP to reduce energy consumption. It is believed that such system will reduce consumed energy by about 60%.

  • 307.
    Loffill, Ed
    et al.
    Liverpool JM University.
    Alkhaddar, Rafid
    Liverpool JM University.
    Phipps, David
    Liverpool JM University.
    Andoh, Robert
    Hydro International UK.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Aerated CoUFS: A pilot scale study into the impacts of changing variables on nitrication performance2013In: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Vol. 21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the findings of a long term study of the nitrification performance of apurpose built, large-scale, pilot plant consisting of two mirrored, aerated, continuouslyoperated upflow filters (ACoUFs) operating under realistic conditions. The effect oftemperature, liquid flow rate, aeration rate and media types on the performance of each ofthese filters is reported. After a start-up period of 2-3 weeks each plant performed consistentlyand the performance, expressed as a concentration change between influent and effluent, wasfound to depend directly on temperature and aeration but inversely on flow rate, with littleinteraction between the variables. The introduction of these aerated CoUF variants can havea considerable role to play in increasing effluent quality.

  • 308.
    Lundberg, Angela
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Feiccabrino, James
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Westerlund, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Urban snow deposits versus snow cooling plants in northern Sweden: A quantitative analysis of snow melt pollutant releases2014In: Water quality research journal of Canada, ISSN 1201-3080, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 32-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-velocity runoff from snow deposit transports suspended grain-attached contaminants while underground snow storages trapped these contaminants within the storage. The aim here is to quantify pollutant masses from an urban snow deposit and to investigate the conditions when pollutant control was increased by turning a snow deposit into a snow cooling plant with permeable underground snow storage. Pollutant masses in an urban snow deposit in northern Sweden were: Cu = 67, Pb = 17, Zn = 160, P = 170, SS = 620, 000, Cl = 1, 200, N = 380 kg. A theoretical analysis showed that the fraction of surface runoff from a surface deposit largely depends on the hydraulic conductivity (K, m s-1) of the soil. For a melt rate of 30 mm, day-1, surface runoff would be about 97% for a soil with K = 10-8, while nonexistent for K>10-6. Similar soil conductivities are needed to ensure that all snow melt could be transported as groundwater from an underground storage. The largest pollution-control advantage with underground snow storage compared to a surface deposit would thus be that piping and filters for operation of the plant could be used to filter surface snow melt runoff before rejection

  • 309.
    Madhloom, Huda M.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Department of Civil Engineering, Al-Mustansiriayah University, Baghdad 1001, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Chabuk, Ali
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Department of Environment Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Babylon, Babylon 51002, Iraq.
    Modeling Spatial Distribution of Some Contamination within the Lower Reaches of Diyala River Using IDW Interpolation2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this research was to simulate the water quality along the lower course of theDiyala River using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques. For this purpose, the samples were taken at 24 sites along the study area.  The parameters:  total dissolved solids (T.D.S), total suspended solids (T.S.S), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), and manganese (Mn) were considered. Water samples were collected on a monthly basis for a duration of five years. The adopted analyzing approach was tested by calculating the mean absolute error (MAE) and the correlation coefficient(R) between observed water samples and predicted results. The result showed a percentage error less than 10% and significant correlation at R > 89% for all pollutant indicators.  It was concluded that the accuracy of the applied model to simulate the river pollutants can decrease the number of monitoring station to 50%. Additionally, a distribution map for the concentrations’ results indicatedthat many of the major pollution indicators did not satisfy the river water quality standards.

  • 310.
    Malik, Anurag
    et al.
    Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, College of Technology, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India.
    Kumar, Anil
    Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, College of Technology, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India.
    Kim, Sungwon
    Department of Railroad Construction and Safety Engineering, Dongyang University, Yeongju, Republic of Korea.
    Kashani, Mahsa H.
    Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.
    Karim, Vahid
    Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
    Sharafati, Ahmad
    Department of Civil Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
    Ghorban, Mohammad Ali
    Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Salih, Sinan Q.
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Chau, Kwok-Wing
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China.
    Modeling monthly pan evaporation process over the Indian central Himalayas: application of multiple learning artificial intelligence model2020In: Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 1994-2060, E-ISSN 1997-003X, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 323-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of several predictive models including multiple model-artificial neural network (MM-ANN), multivariate adaptive regression spline (MARS), support vector machine (SVM), multi-gene genetic programming (MGGP), and ‘M5Tree’ were assessed to simulate the pan evaporation in monthly scale (EPm) at two stations (e.g. Ranichauri and Pantnagar) in India. Monthly climatological information were used for simulating the pan evaporation. The utmost effective input-variables for the MM-ANN, MGGP, MARS, SVM, and M5Tree were determined using the Gamma test (GT). The predictive models were compared to each other using several statistical criteria (e.g. mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), Willmott's Index of agreement (WI), root mean squared error (RMSE), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), and Legate and McCabe’s Index (LM)) and visual inspection. The results showed that the MM-ANN-1 and MGGP-1 models (NSE, WI, LM, RMSE, MAPE are 0.954, 0.988, 0.801, 0.536 mm/month, 9.988% at Pantnagar station, and 0.911, 0.975, 0.724, and 0.364 mm/month, 12.297% at Ranichauri station, respectively) with input variables equal to six were more successful than the other techniques during testing period to simulate the monthly pan evaporation at both Ranichauri and Pantnagar stations. Thus, the results of proposed MM-ANN-1 and MGGP-1 models will help to the local stakeholders in terms of water resources management.

  • 311.
    Malik, Anurag
    et al.
    Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, College of Technology, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India.
    Kumar, Anil
    Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, College of Technology, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India.
    Kushwaha, Daniel Prakash
    Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, College of Technology, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India.
    Kisi, Ozgur
    School of Business, Technology and Education, Ilia State University, Tbilisi, Georgia.
    Salih, Sinan Q.
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Yaseen, Zaher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    The Implementation of a Hybrid Model for Hilly Sub-Watershed Prioritization Using Morphometric Variables: Case Study in India2019In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 1-19, article id 1138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Among several components of watershed prioritization, morphometric parameters are considered to be essential elements for appropriate water resource planning and anagement. In the current study, nine hilly sub-watersheds are prioritized using novel hybrid model ased on morphometric variables analysis at Bino Watershed (BW) located in the upper Ramganga basin, India. The proposed model is based on the hybridization of principal component analysis (PCA) with weighted-sum approach (WSA), presenting a single-frame methodology (PCWSA) for sub-watershed prioritization. The prioritization process was conducted based on several morphometric parameters including linear, areal, and shape. The PCA was performed to identify the significant correlated factor-loading matrix whereas WSA was established to provide the weights for the morphometric parameters and fix their priority ranking (PR) to be categorized based on compound factor value. The findings showed that 37.81% of total area is under highly susceptible zone sub-watersheds (SW-6 and SW-7). This is verifying the necessity for appropriate soil and water conservation measures for the area. The proposed hybrid methodology demonstrated a reliable approach for water resource planning and management, agriculture, and irrigation activities in the study region.

  • 312.
    Mohammad, M. E.
    et al.
    Department of Dams and Water Resources Engineering, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Application of SWAT model to estimate the annual runoff and sediment of Duhok reservoir watershed2016In: Icse 2016 Scour and Erosion Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Scour and Erosion: Oxford, Uk< 12-15 September 2016 / [ed] Harris, John; Whitehouse, Richard; Moxon, Sarah, London: Taylor & Francis Group, 2016, p. 1129-1136Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimation of runoff volume and sediment load is a problem that directly affects the performance of dams due to the reduction in the storage capacity of their reservoirs and their effect on dam efficiency and operation schedule. The simulation models can be considered for evaluation of sediment potential if the continuous field measurements are not available. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to estimate the annual runoff volume and sediment load for Duhok Dam Reservoir in north of Duhok/Iraq for the period 1988–2011. The estimated annual runoff volume varied from2.6 to 34.7 MCM. Those values are affected by rainfall depth, intensity and runoff coefficient, while the annual runoff coefficient for the studied area ranged from 0.06 to 0.33 (average is 0.19) causing an average runoff volume of 14.3 MCM. The sediment routing indicated that the values of sediment yields varied from 50 to 1400 t/km2/year depending on sub basin properties. The average annual sediment load from the whole watershed was 124.6 *103 ton. The estimated total sediment arrived to Duhok Reservoir for the considered period 1988–2011 was about 2.99*106 ton.

  • 313.
    Mohammad, Mohammad E.
    et al.
    Department Dams and Water Resources Engineering, University of Mosul.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering - Swedish Blasting Research Centre.
    Issa, Issa E.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sediment in Mosul Dam reservoir using the HEC-RAS model: Sediment in Mosul Dam reservoir using the HEC-RAS model2016In: Lakes & Reservoirs: Research and Management, ISSN 1320-5331, E-ISSN 1440-1770, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 235-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul Dam, located on the Tigris River north of Iraq, is experiencing sedimentation problems, especially near the Al-Jazeera pumping station that supplies the irrigation water for the Al-Jazeera project. The sources of the sediment accumulated within the reservoir are from the Tigris River, as well as ten side valleys on both sides of the reservoir. The sediment inflow rate into the reservoir and the released values are considered on the basis of the operation schedule of the dam for the considered period from 1986 to 2011. The sediment loads were estimated on the basis of available measurements and estimated literature values. The HEC-RAS 4.1 model was used for flows and sediments in the main river and  reservoir. The model was calibrated for flow simulations (coefficient of determination r2 = 0.87) and sediment routing based on bed level, (with resultant r2 = 0.98 and Mean Absolute Deviation of 0.95). The Ackers–White equation was used in the HEC-RAS model for sediment routing because of the wide range of sediment sizes in the study case. The resultant total accumulated sediment load volume was 1.13 km3, a value that is very close to the measured values (1.143 km3) obtained from a previous bathymetric survey. Furthermore, the model indicated most of the sediment (80.7%) was deposited during the first five of the dam operation.

  • 314.
    Mohammad, Mohammad E.
    et al.
    Department of Dams and Water Resources Engineering, University of Mosul.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Annual Runoff and Sediment in Duhok Reservoir Watershed Using SWAT and WEPP Models2016In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 8, no 7, p. 410-422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimation of runoff volume and sediment load is the main problem that affects the performance of dams due to the reduction in the storage capacity of their reservoirs and their effect on dam efficiency and operation schedule. The simulation models can be considered for this purpose if the continuous field measurements are not available. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) andWater Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) models were applied to estimate the annual runoff volume and sediment load for Duhok Dam Reservoir in north of Duhok/Iraq for the period 1988-2011. The estimated annual runoff volume varied from 2.3 to 34.7 MCM for considered period.Those values were affected by rainfall depth, intensity and runoff coefficient. The resultant annual runoff coefficient for the studied area ranged from 0.05 to 0.35 (average was 0.18) causing an average runoff volume of about 14 MCM. The results of sediment routing indicated that the values of sediment yields varied from 50 to 1400 t/km2/year depending on sub basin properties. The average annual sediment load from the whole watershed is about 120 × 103 ton. The estimated total sediment arrived to Duhok Reservoir for the considered period 1988-2011 was about 2.9 × 106 ton. The results indicate that both models gave reasonable results in comparison with measured values. Based on statistical criteria, the results of both models are close to gather.

  • 315.
    Mohammad, Mohammad E.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    A numerical study of pumping effects on flow velocity distributions in Mosul Dam reservoir using the HEC‐RAS model2020In: Lakes & Reservoirs: Research and Management, ISSN 1320-5331, E-ISSN 1440-1770, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 72-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water flow direction and velocity affect and controls erosion, transport and deposi- tion of sediment in rivers, reservoirs and different hydraulic structures. One of the main structures affected is pumping stations within the dams wherein the velocity distribution near the station intake is disturbed. The two-dimensional (2-D) HEC-RAS 5.01 model was utilized to study, analyse and evaluate the effects of pumping rates and flow depth on the flow velocity distribution, flow stream power and their effects in the Mosul Dam reservoir. The pumping station was considered as a case study. The station is suffering from sediment accumulation around, and in, its intake and suction pipes. The main inflow sources to the reservoir are the Tigris River and run-off from the valleys within its basin. The reservoir was divided into two parts for the present study, including the upper part near the pumping station (analysed as a two-dimen- sional zone), while the lower part was analysed as a one-dimensional flow to reduce the simulation period computation time (1986–2011). Different operation plans (i.e. pumping rate and water depth) were considered. The results of the depth-averaged velocity model indicated that when the pumping station was working at a range from the designed full capacity (100% to 25% of its full capacity), the maximum flow ve- locity increased from 75 to 4 times the normal velocity when there is no pumping dependent on pumping rate and flow depth. For the same operation plans, the flow stream power varied from around zero values to 400 times at full pumping capacity and low flow depth. For sediment routing along the reservoir, the considered statisti- cal criteria indicated the model performance in estimating the total sediment load deposition and invert bed level is much better than in the case of erosion and deposition areas for different considered bed sections of the reservoir.

  • 316.
    Mohammed, Mariamme
    et al.
    College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Sharafati, Ahmad
    Department of Civil Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Yaseen, Zaher
    Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Shallow Foundation Settlement Quantification: Application of Hybridized Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System Model2020In: Advances in Civil Engineering / Hindawi, ISSN 1687-8086, E-ISSN 1687-8094, Vol. 2020, article id 7381617Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Settlement simulating in cohesion materials is a crucial issue due to complexity of cohesion soil texture. This research emphasis on the implementation of newly developed machine learning models called hybridized Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, Ant Colony optimizer (ACO), Differential Evolution (DE), and Genetic Algorithm (GA) as efficient approaches to predict settlement of shallow foundation over cohesion soil properties. The width of footing (B), pressure of footing (qa), geometry of footing (L/B), count of SPT blow (N), and ratio of footing embedment (Df/B) are considered as predictive variables. Nonhomogeneity and inconsistency of employed dataset is a major concern during prediction modeling. Hence, two different modeling scenarios (i) preprocessed dataset (PP) and (ii) nonprocessed (initial) dataset (NP) were inspected. To assess the accuracy of the applied hybrid models and standalone one, multiple statistical metrics were computed and analyzed over the training and testing phases. Results indicated ANFIS-PSO model exhibited an accurate and reliable prediction data intelligent and had the highest predictability performance against all employed models. In addition, results demonstrated that data preprocessing is highly essential to be performed prior to building the predictive models. Overall, ANFIS-PSO model showed a robust machine learning for settlement prediction.

  • 317.
    Naganna, Sujay Raghavendra
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Shri Madhwa Vadiraja Institute of Technology and Management, Bantakal, Udupi, India. Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belagavi, Karnataka, India.
    Deka, Paresh Chandra
    Department of Applied Mechanics and Hydraulics, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, Mangalore, India.
    Ghorbani, Mohammad Ali
    Department of Civil Engineering, Near East University, Nicosia, Turkey. Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
    Biazar, Seyed Mostafa
    Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Dew Point Temperature Estimation: Application of Artificial Intelligence Model Integrated with Nature-Inspired Optimization Algorithms2019In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, water, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 742Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dew point temperature (DPT) is known to fluctuate in space and time regardless of the climatic zone considered. The accurate estimation of the DPT is highly significant for various applications of hydro and agro–climatological researches. The current research investigated the hybridization of a multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network with nature-inspired optimization algorithms (i.e., gravitational search (GSA) and firefly (FFA)) to model the DPT of two climatically contrasted (humid and semi-arid) regions in India. Daily time scale measured weather information, such as wet bulb temperature (WBT), vapor pressure (VP), relative humidity (RH), and dew point temperature, was used to build the proposed predictive models. The efficiencies of the proposed hybrid MLP networks (MLP–FFA and MLP–GSA) were authenticated against standard MLP tuned by a Levenberg–Marquardt back-propagation algorithm, extreme learning machine (ELM), and support vector machine (SVM) models. Statistical evaluation metrics such as Nash Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), root mean square error (RMSE), and mean absolute error (MAE) were used to validate the model efficiency. The proposed hybrid MLP models exhibited excellent estimation accuracy. The hybridization of MLP with nature-inspired optimization algorithms boosted the estimation accuracy that is clearly owing to the tuning robustness. In general, the applied methodology showed very convincing results for both inspected climate zones.

  • 318.
    Naji, Laith A.
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Iraq.
    Jassam, Salim H.
    Department of Building and Construction Technology Engineering, Technical College Baghdad, Middle Technical University.
    Yaseen, Mohammed J.
    Department of Environmental Engineering, Mustansiriayah University, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Faisal, Ayad A. H.
    Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Modification of Langmuir model for simulating initial pH and temperature effects on sorption process2019In: Separation science and technology (Print), ISSN 0149-6395, E-ISSN 1520-5754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study modifies the sorption isothermfor simulating the influences of initial pH and temperature variations on thecadmium sorption from contaminated water using waste foundry sand based on Langmuir,Freundlich and Temkin models. Results proved that the Langmuir expression is ableto adopt these effects by relating sorption capacity and affinity constantswith pH and temperature of aqueous solution through exponential relationships (determinationcoefficient = 0.9375). The present model is assumed that the sorption process occursthrough acidic functional groups and this is consistent with FTIR outputs. Interactionof cadmium/WFS is found to be exothermic by thermodynamic analysis.

  • 319.
    Nasrin Baby, Sultana
    et al.
    School of Mathematical and Geospatial Sciences, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Australia.
    Arrowsmith, Colin
    School of Mathematical and Geospatial Sciences, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Australia.
    Abbas, Nahla
    School of Engineering and Technology, Central Queensland, University, Australia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources of AryCreek, Inverloch, Victoria2018In: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 12, no 10, p. 727-740Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding urban wetland ecosystem services structure allows managers to base restoration efforts on multiple user end-benefits. Ary Creek can provide the coupled function of improving water quality and mitigating floods through delayed stormwater flow. It is fundamental to identify areas surrounded by water for the safety of individual should in case the water level raise beyond areasonable doubt and might cause a flood. For many years, the Ary Creek catchment in Inverloch has been flooding and causing great problems for the inhabitants as well as the environment. The procedure is to develop models of the area around the catchment or watershed using Victorian Coastal LiDAR and other input data from the GIS (geographic information system). This study uses the real-time simulation in ArcSWAT—ArcGIS 10.3 and 3D in ArcScene 10.3, and the variables obtained from the soil and water assessment tool ArcSWAT such as the land use, soil and slope are the parameters measured to induce the flood. When certain portions of the Hydrologic response unit HRU, land use, soil or slope is changed due to temporal adjustment and climate change, then the model can predict zones of low, moderate and high flood risk. The 3D simulations appear to produce a visual model for decision-making, planning, management, and mitigation. The simulation helps in determining the extent of the flood by using animation.

  • 320.
    Nguyen, Phong Tung
    et al.
    Vietnam Academy for Water Resources, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam.
    Ha, Duong Hai
    Institute for Water and Environment, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam.
    Nguyen, Huu Duy
    Faculty of Geography, VNU University of Science, Vietnam National University, 334 Nguyen Trai, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam.
    Phong, Tran Van
    Institute of Geological Sciences, Vietnam Academy of Sciences and Technology, 84 Chua Lang Street, Dong da, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam.
    Trinh, Phan Trong
    Institute of Geological Sciences, Vietnam Academy of Sciences and Technology, 84 Chua Lang Street, Dong da, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Le, Hiep Van
    University of Transport Technology, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam.
    Pham, Binh Thai
    University of Transport Technology, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam.
    Ho, Lanh Si
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam.
    Prakash, Indra
    Department of Science & Technology, Bhaskarcharya Institute for Space Applications and Geo-Informatics (BISAG), Government of Gujarat, Gandhinagar 382002, India.
    Improvement of Credal Decision Trees Using Ensemble Frameworks for Groundwater Potential Modeling2020In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 7, article id 2622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater is one of the most important sources of fresh water all over the world, especially in those countries where rainfall is erratic, such as Vietnam. Nowadays, machine learning (ML) models are being used for the assessment of groundwater potential of the region. Credal decision trees (CDT) is one of the ML models which has been used in such studies. In the present study, the performance of the CDT has been improved using various ensemble frameworks such as Bagging, Dagging, Decorate, Multiboost, and Random SubSpace. Based on these methods, five hybrid models, namely BCDT, Dagging-CDT, Decorate-CDT, MBCDT, and RSSCDT, were developed and applied for groundwater potential mapping of DakLak province of Vietnam. Data of 227 groundwater wells of the study area were utilized for the construction and validation of the models. Twelve groundwater potential conditioning factors, namely rainfall, slope, elevation, river density, Sediment Transport Index (STI), curvature, flow direction, aspect, soil, land use, Topographic Wetness Index (TWI), and geology, were considered for the model studies. Various statistical measures, including area under receiver operating characteristic (AUC) curve, were applied to validate and compare the performance of the models. The results show that performance of the hybrid CDT ensemble models MBCDT (AUC = 0.770), BCDT (AUC = 0.731), Dagging-CDT (AUC = 0.763), Decorate-CDT (AUC = 0.750), and RSSCDT (AUC = 0.766) improved significantly in comparison to the single CDT (AUC = 0.722) model. Therefore, these developed hybrid models can be applied for better ground water potential mapping and groundwater resources management of the study area as well as other regions of the world.

  • 321.
    Nguyen, Viet-Tien
    et al.
    Institute of Geological Sciences, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Dong da, Hanoi, Vietnam. Graduate University of Science and Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Cau Giay, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Tran, Trong Hien
    Institute of Geological Sciences, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Dong da, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Ha, Ngoc Anh
    Institute of Geological Sciences, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Dong da, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Ngo, Van Liem
    Faculty of Geography, VNU University of Science, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Tran, Van Phong
    Institute of Geological Sciences, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Dong da, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Nguyen, Huu Duy
    Faculty of Geography, VNU University of Science, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Malek, M. A.
    Institute of Sustainable Energy, University Tenaga Nasional, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Amini, Ata
    Kurdistan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Sanandaj, Iran.
    Prakash, Indra
    Department of Science and Technology, Bhaskarcharya Institute for Space Applications and Geo-Informatics (BISAG), Government of Gujarat, Gandhinagar, India.
    Ho, Lanh Si
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    Pham, Binh Thai
    University of Transport Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    GIS Based Novel Hybrid Computational Intelligence Models for Mapping Landslide Susceptibility: A Case Study at Da Lat City, Vietnam2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 24, article id 7118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landslides affect properties and the lives of a large number of people in many hilly parts of Vietnam and in the world. Damages caused by landslides can be reduced by understanding distribution, nature, mechanisms and causes of landslides with the help of model studies for better planning and risk management of the area. Development of landslide susceptibility maps is one of the main steps in landslide management. In this study, the main objective is to develop GIS based hybrid computational intelligence models to generate landslide susceptibility maps of the Da Lat province, which is one of the landslide prone regions of Vietnam. Novel hybrid models of alternating decision trees (ADT) with various ensemble methods, namely bagging, dagging, MultiBoostAB, and RealAdaBoost, were developed namely B-ADT, D-ADT, MBAB-ADT, RAB-ADT, respectively. Data of 72 past landslide events was used in conjunction with 11 landslide conditioning factors (curvature, distance from geological boundaries, elevation, land use, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), relief amplitude, stream density, slope, lithology, weathering crust and soil) in the development and validation of the models. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC), and several statistical measures were applied to validate these models. Results indicated that performance of all the models was good (AUC value greater than 0.8) but B-ADT model performed the best (AUC= 0.856). Landslide susceptibility maps generated using the proposed models would be helpful to decision makers in the risk management for land use planning and infrastructure development.

  • 322.
    O. Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Groundwater Directorate of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
    S. Ali, Salahalddin
    Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq;Komar University of Science and Technology, Sulaimani, Iraqi Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Assessment of Groundwater Vulnerability to Pollution Using VLDA and COP Models in Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq2018In: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 12, no 11, p. 798-809, article id 003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater aquifer in the Halabja and Saidsadiq Basin considered being one of the most important aquifers in terms of water supplying in Kurdistan Region, NE of Iraq. The growing of economics, irrigation and agricultural activities inside the basin makes it of the main essentials to the region. Therefore, pollution of groundwater is of specific worry as groundwater resources are the principal source of water for drinking, agriculture, irrigation and industrial activities. Thus, the best and practical arrangement is to keep the pollution of groundwater through. The current study aims the evaluation of the vulnerability of groundwater aquifers of the study area. Two models were applied, to be specific VLDA and COP to develop maps of groundwater vulnerability for contamination. The VLDA model classified the area into four classes of vulnerability with each covered area: low (2%), moderate (44%), high (53%) and very high (1%). While four vulnerability classes were accomplished dependent on COP model including very low, low, moderate and high vulnerability classes with coverage areas of (1%, 37%, 2% and 60%) respectively. To confirm the suitability of each map for assessment of groundwater vulnerability in the area, it required to be validated of the theoretical sympathetic of current hydrogeological conditions. In this study, groundwater age evaluated utilizing tritium isotopes investigation and applied it to validate the vulnerability results. Based on this validation, the outcome exhibits that the vulnerability classes acquired utilizing VLDA model are more predictable contrasted with the COP model.

  • 323.
    Osman, Yasin
    et al.
    University of Bolton.
    Abdellatif, Mawada
    Liverpool JM University.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Jawad, Sadeq
    Iraqi Government, Prime Minister Advisory Commission.
    Climate Change and Future Precipitation in Arid Environment of Middle East: Case study of Iraq2017In: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Vol. 25, p. 1-18, article id 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper impact of climate change on precipitation in the arid environment of Iraq is examined.  LARS-WG weather generator was applied to 5 representative regions to model current and future precipitation under climate change. Seven Global Climate Models (GCMs) have been employed to account for any uncertainty on future projection for three selected periods, 2011-2030, 2046-2065 and 2080-2099. Performance of LARS-WG in each site was first evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistical test for fitting wet/dry days in each site, as well as comparison of the mean and standard deviation between the observed and simulated precipitation. The developed LARS-WG models were found to perform well and skilful in simulating precipitation in the arid regions of Iraq as evidenced by the tests carried and the comparison made. The precipitation models were then used to obtain future projections for precipitation using the IPCC scenario SRES A2. Future precipitation results show that most of the Iraq regions are projected to suffer a reduction in annual mean precipitation, especially by the end of the 21st century, while on a seasonal basis most of the regions are anticipated to be wetter in autumn and winter.

     

  • 324.
    Osman, Yasin
    et al.
    Faculty of Advanced Engineering and Sciences, University of Bolton.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Abdellatif, Mawada
    Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Liverpool JM University .
    Climate change model as a decision support tool for water resources management in northern Iraq: a case studyof Greater Zab River2017In: Journal of Water and Climate, ISSN 2040-2244, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 197-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The northern region of Iraq heavily depends on rivers, such as the Greater Zab, for water supply and irrigation. Thus, river water management in light of future climate change is of paramount importance in the region. In this study, daily rainfall and temperature obtained from the Greater Zab catchment, for 1961 –2008, were used in building rainfall and evapotranspiration models using LARSWG and multiple linear regressions, respectively. A rainfall –runoff model, in the form of autoregressive model with exogenous factors, has been developed using observed flow, rainfall and evapotranspiration data. The calibrated rainfall

    –runoff model was subsequently used to investigate the impacts of climate change on the Greater Zab flows for the near (2011–2030), medium (2046–2065), and far (2080–2099) futures. Results from the impacts model showed that the catchment is projected to suffer a significant reduction in total annual flow in the far future; with more severe drop during the winter and spring seasons in the range of 25 to 65%. This would have serious ramifications for the current agricultural activities in the catchment. The results could be of significant benefits for water management planners in the catchment as they can be used in allocating water for different users in the catchment.

  • 325. Osman, Yassin
    et al.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Adbellatif, Mawada
    Al-Jawad, Sadeq
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Expected Future Precipitation in Central Iraq Using LARS-WG Stochastic Weather Generator2014In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 6, no 13, p. 948-959Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Middle East (ME) is characterized by its water shortage problem. This region with its arid climate is expected to be the most vulnerable in the world to the potential impacts of climate change. Iraq (located in ME) is seriously experiencing water shortage problem. To overcome this problem rain water harvesting can be used. In this study the applicability of the long-term weather generator model in downscaling daily precipitation Central Iraq is used to project future changes of precipitation based on scenario of seven General Circulation Models (GCMs) outputs for the periods of 2011-2030, 2046-2065, and 2080-2099. The results indicated that December-February and September-November periods, based on the ensemble mean of seven GCMs, showed an increasing trend in the periods considered; however, a decreasing trend can be found in March, April, and May in the future.

  • 326.
    Penghui, Liu
    et al.
    Computer Science Department, Baoji University of Arts and Sciences, Baoji, China.
    Ewees, Ahmed A.
    Computer Department, Damietta University, Damietta, Egypt.
    Hamiye Beyaztas, Beste
    Department of Statistics, Istanbul Medeniyet University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Qi, Chongchong
    School of Resources and Safety Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, China.
    Salih, Sinan Q.
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam. Computer Science Department, College of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Anbar, Ramadi, Iraq .
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Bhagat, Suraj Kumar
    Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Yaseen, Zaher Munher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Singh, Vijay P.
    Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, USA. Zachry Department of Civil Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, USA.
    Metaheuristic Optimization Algorithms Hybridized With Artificial Intelligence Model for Soil Temperature Prediction: Novel Model2020In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, p. 51884-51904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An enhanced hybrid articial intelligence model was developed for soil temperature (ST) prediction. Among several soil characteristics, soil temperature is one of the essential elements impacting the biological, physical and chemical processes of the terrestrial ecosystem. Reliable ST prediction is signicant for multiple geo-science and agricultural applications. The proposed model is a hybridization of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system with optimization methods using mutation Salp Swarm Algorithm and Grasshopper Optimization Algorithm (ANFIS-mSG). Daily weather and soil temperature data for nine years (1 of January 2010 - 31 of December 2018) from ve meteorological stations (i.e., Baker, Beach, Cando, Crary and Fingal) in North Dakota, USA, were used for modeling. For validation, the proposed ANFIS-mSG model was compared with seven models, including classical ANFIS, hybridized ANFIS model with grasshopper optimization algorithm (ANFIS-GOA), salp swarm algorithm (ANFIS-SSA), grey wolf optimizer (ANFIS-GWO), particle swarm optimization (ANFIS-PSO), genetic algorithm (ANFIS-GA),and Dragon y Algorithm (ANFIS-DA). The ST prediction was conducted based on maximum, mean and minimum air temperature (AT). The modeling results evidenced the capability of optimization algorithms for building ANFIS models for simulating soil temperature. Based on the statistical evaluation; for instance, the root mean square error (RMSE) was reduced by 73%, 74.4%, 71.2%, 76.7% and 80.7% for Baker, Beach, Cando, Crary and Fingal meteorological stations, respectively, throughout the testing phase when ANFIS-mSG was used over the standalone ANFIS models. In conclusion, the ANFIS-mSG model was demonstrated as an effective and simple hybrid articial intelligence model for predicting soil temperature based on univariate air temperature scenario.

  • 327.
    Pham, Binh Thai
    et al.
    University of Transport Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Avand, Mohammadtaghi
    Department of Watershed Management Engineering, College of Natural Resources, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
    Janizadeh, Saeid
    Department of Watershed Management Engineering, College of Natural Resources, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
    Phong, Tran Van
    Institute of Geological Sciences, Vietnam Academy of Sciences and Technology, Dong da, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Ho, Lanh Si
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    Das, Sumit
    Department of Geography, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, India.
    Le, Hiep Van
    University of Transport Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Amini, Ata
    Kurdistan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Iran.
    Bozchaloei, Saeid Khosrobeigi
    Department of Watershed Management Engineering, College of Natural Resources, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran.
    Jafari, Faeze
    Department of Watershed Management Engineering, College of Natural Resources, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
    Prakash, Indra
    Department of Science & Technology, Bhaskarcharya Institute for Space Applications and Geo-Informatics (BISAG), Government of Gujarat, Gandhinag, India.
    GIS Based Hybrid Computational Approaches for Flash Flood Susceptibility Assessment2020In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 1-29, article id 683Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flash floods are one of the most devastating natural hazards; they occur within a catchment (region) where the response time of the drainage basin is short. Identification of probable flash flood locations and development of accurate flash flood susceptibility maps are important for proper flash flood management of a region. With this objective, we proposed and compared several novel hybrid computational approaches of machine learning methods for flash flood susceptibility mapping, namely AdaBoostM1 based Credal Decision Tree (ABM-CDT); Bagging based Credal Decision Tree (Bag-CDT); Dagging based Credal Decision Tree (Dag-CDT); MultiBoostAB based Credal Decision Tree (MBAB-CDT), and single Credal Decision Tree (CDT). These models were applied at a catchment of Markazi state in Iran. About 320 past flash flood events and nine flash flood influencing factors, namely distance from rivers, aspect, elevation, slope, rainfall, distance from faults, soil, land use, and lithology were considered and analyzed for the development of flash flood susceptibility maps. Correlation based feature selection method was used to validate and select the important factors for modeling of flash floods. Based on this feature selection analysis, only eight factors (distance from rivers, aspect, elevation, slope, rainfall, soil, land use, and lithology) were selected for the modeling, where distance to rivers is the most important factor for modeling of flash flood in this area. Performance of the models was validated and compared by using several robust metrics such as statistical measures and Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (AUC) curve. The results of this study suggested that ABM-CDT (AUC = 0.957) has the best predictive capability in terms of accuracy, followed by Dag-CDT (AUC = 0.947), MBAB-CDT (AUC = 0.933), Bag-CDT (AUC = 0.932), and CDT (0.900), respectively. The proposed methods presented in this study would help in the development of accurate flash flood susceptible maps of watershed areas not only in Iran but also other parts of the world.

  • 328.
    Pham, Binh Thai
    et al.
    University of Transport Technology, Hanoi, Viet Nam.
    Phong, Tran Van
    Institute of Geological Sciences, Vietnam Academy of Sciences and Technology, Dong da, Hanoi, Viet Nam.
    Nguyen, Huu Duy
    Faculty of Geography, VNU University of Science, Hanoi, Viet Nam.
    Qi, Chongchong
    School of Resources and Safety Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, China.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Amini, Ata
    Kurdistan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Sanandaj, Iran.
    Ho, Lanh Si
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    Tuyen, Tran Thi
    Department of Resource and Environment Management, School of Agriculture and Resources, Vinh University, Vietnam.
    Yen, Hoang Phan Hai
    Department of Geography, School of Social Education, Vinh University, Vietnam.
    Ly, Hai‐Bang
    University of Transport Technology, Hanoi, Viet Nam.
    Prakash, Indra
    Department of Science & Technology, Bhaskarcharya Institute for Space Applications and Geo-Informatics (BISAG), Government of Gujarat, Gandhinagar, India.
    Bui, Dieu Tien
    Geographic Information System group, Department of Business and IT, University of South-Eastern Norway, Notodden, Norway.
    A Comparative Study of Kernel Logistic Regression, Radial Basis Function Classifier, Multinomial Naïve Bayes, and Logistic Model Tree for Flash Flood Susceptibility Mapping2020In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 1-21, article id 239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk of flash floods is currently an important problem in many parts of Vietnam. In this study, we used four machine-learning methods, namely Kernel Logistic Regression (KLR), Radial Basis Function Classifier (RBFC), Multinomial Naïve Bayes (NBM), and Logistic Model Tree (LMT) to generate flash flood susceptibility maps at the minor part of Nghe An province of the Center region (Vietnam) where recurrent flood problems are being experienced. Performance of these four methods was evaluated to select the best method for flash flood susceptibility mapping. In the model studies, ten flash flood conditioning factors, namely soil, slope, curvature, river density, flow direction, distance from rivers, elevation, aspect, land use, and geology, were chosen based on topography and geo-environmental conditions of the site. For the validation of models, the area under Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC), Area Under Curve (AUC), and various statistical indices were used. The results indicated that performance of all the models is good for generating flash flood susceptibility maps (AUC = 0.983–0.988). However, performance of LMT model is the best among the four methods (LMT: AUC = 0.988; KLR: AUC = 0.985; RBFC: AUC = 0.984; and NBM: AUC = 0.983). The present study would be useful for the construction of accurate flash flood susceptibility maps with the objectives of identifying flood-susceptible areas/zones for proper flash flood risk management.

  • 329.
    Pham, Binh Thai
    et al.
    Division of Computational Mathematics and Engineering, Institute for Computational Science, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam.Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam.
    Qi, Chongchong
    School of Resources and Safety Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, China.
    Ho, Lanh Si
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan.
    Nguyen-Thoi, Trung
    Division of Computational Mathematics and Engineering, Institute for Computational Science, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam.Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nguyen, Manh Duc
    University of Transport and Communications, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Nguyen, Huu Duy
    Faculty of Geography, VNU University of Science, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Ly, Hai-Bang
    University of Transport and Technology, Hanoi , Vietnam.
    Le, Hiep Van
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    Prakash, Indra
    Department of Science & Technology, Bhaskarcharya Institute for Space Applications and Geo-Informatics (BISAG), Government of Gujarat, Gandhinagar, India.
    A Novel Hybrid Soft Computing Model Using Random Forest and Particle Swarm Optimization for Estimation of Undrained Shear Strength of Soil2020In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 6, article id 2218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Determination of shear strength of soil is very important in civilengineering for foundation design, earth and rock fill dam design, highway and airfield design,stability of slopes and cuts, and in the design of coastal structures. In this study, a novel hybrid softcomputing model (RF-PSO) of random forest (RF) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) wasdeveloped and used to estimate the undrained shear strength of soil based on the clay content (%),moisture content (%), specific gravity (%), void ratio (%), liquid limit (%), and plastic limit (%). Inthis study, the experimental results of 127 soil samples from national highway project Hai Phong-Thai Binh of Vietnam were used to generate datasets for training and validating models. Pearsoncorrelation coefficient (R) method was used to evaluate and compare performance of the proposedmodel with single RF model. The results show that the proposed hybrid model (RF-PSO) achieveda high accuracy performance (R = 0.89) in the prediction of shear strength of soil. Validation of themodels also indicated that RF-PSO model (R = 0.89 and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) = 0.453) issuperior to the single RF model without optimization (R = 0.87 and RMSE = 0.48). Thus, theproposed hybrid model (RF-PSO) can be used for accurate estimation of shear strength which canbe used for the suitable designing of civil engineering structures.

  • 330.
    Pusch, Roland
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Kasbohm, Jörn
    Institute of Geography and Geology, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University of Greifswald, University of Greifswald, GeoENcon Ltd.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Yang, Ting
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Comparison of two genuinely geological alternatives for disposal of highly radioactive waste (HLW)2016In: Comunicações Geológicas, ISSN 0873-948X, E-ISSN 1647-581XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disposal of highly radioactive waste (HLW) can be environmentally acceptable if radionuclides are kept isolated from the groundwater, which has inspired planners of repositories to work out multibarrier concepts that postulate defined functions of the host rock and engineered waste confinements. Assessment of the role of the host rock involves groundwater flow modelling and rock mechanical analysis, which are both highly speculative and ignore future changes in rock structure, stress conditions, and groundwater flow. Widening the perspective by considering the integrated physical performance of interacting geological strata respecting groundwater flow conditions can provide excellent isolation of HLW with a minimum of engineered barriers as illustrated by the principle of very deep boreholes (VDH) for which the very high salt content of deep water is the primary barrier by maintaining possibly contaminated groundwater at depth. Such isolation of groundwater regimes can also be obtained by constructing repositories in crystalline rock covered by clay-containing sedimentary rock in regions with no or very low hydraulic gradients, particularly if the two principles are combined. The paper describes a possible case of this type, showing that effective isolation of HLW in repositories of commonly discussed types, KBS-3H and VDH, can be achieved under present and foreseeable climatic conditions. The paper compares the short- and long-term functions of repositories located at the southern end of the Swedish island Gotland, being an example of desired geological conditions that are found also in other parts of Sweden and in Lithuania, Germany, Holland and the UK. Here, 500 m of sediment rock series cover gneiss bedrock in which a KBS-3H repository of SKB-type can be built under virtually “dry” conditions because of the tightness of the overlying sedimentary rock and lack of hydraulic gradients in the crystalline rock. Shafts leading down from the ground surface to the repository level are constructed by use of freezing technique and lined with low-pH concrete before installation of waste after which they have to be sealed with expanding clay. Use of initially largely water-saturated clay provides suitable physical properties of the embedment of waste containers. Alternatively, a VDH repository consisting of a number of steep 4 km deep boreholes with about 800 mm diameter can be driven for installing waste below 2 km depth, leaving the upper 2 km for sealing with clay. The geological conditions, which are also believed to provide acceptable rock pressure conditions for construction of a KBS-3H repository at about 600 m depth, are believed to be suitable for the construction and short- and long-term performance of either repository type.

  • 331.
    Pusch, Roland
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Kasbohm, Jörn
    GeoENconLtd, Institute of Geography and Geology, Univ. of Greifswald, Germany.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Yang, Ting
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Two genuinely geological alternatives for disposal of highly radioactive waste (HLW)2016In: Communicacaoes Geologicas, ISSN 0873-948X, Vol. 103, p. 25-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disposal of highly radioactive waste (HLW) can be environmentally acceptable if radionuclides are kept isolated from the groundwater, which has inspired planners of repositories to work out multibarrier concepts that postulate defined functions of the host rock and engineered waste confinements. Assessment of the role of the host rock involves groundwater flow modelling and rock mechanical analysis, which are both highly speculative and ignore future changes in rock structure, stress conditions, and groundwater flow. Widening the perspective by considering the integrated physical performance of contacting geological strata respecting groundwater flow conditions can provide excellent isolation of HLW with a minimum of engineered barriers as illustrated by the principle of very deep boreholes (VDH) for which the very high salt content of deep water is the primary barrier by maintaining possibly contaminated groundwater at depth. Such isolation of groundwater regimes can also be obtained by constructing relatively shallow repositories in crystalline rock covered by clay-containing sedimentary rock in regions with no or very low hydraulic gradients. The paper describes a possible case of this type, showing that effective isolation of HLW in repositories of commonly discussed types, KBS-3H and VDH, can be achieved under present climatic conditions.

    The paper compares the short- and long-term functions of repositories located at the southern end of the Swedish island Gotland, being an example of desired geological conditions that are found also in other parts of Sweden and in Lithuania, Germany, Holland and the UK. Here, 500 m of sediment rock series cover gneiss bedrock in which a KBS-3H repository of SKB-type can be built under virtually “dry” conditions because of the tightness of the overlying sedimentary rock and lack of hydraulic gradients in the crystalline rock. Shafts leading down from the ground surface to the repository level are constructed by use of freezing technique and lined with low-pH concrete before installation of waste after which they have to be sealed with expanding clay. Use of initially largely water-saturated clay provides suitable physical properties of the embedment of waste containers. Alternatively, a VDH repository consisting of a number of steep 4 km deep boreholes with about 8oo mm diameter can be driven for installing waste below 2 km depth, leaving the upper 2 km for sealing with clay. The geological conditions, which are also believed to provide acceptable rock pressure conditions for construction of a KBS-3H repository at about 600 m depth, are believed to be suitable for the construction and short- and long-term performance of either repository type. 

  • 332.
    Qutbudin, Ishanch
    et al.
    Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
    Shiru, Mohammed Sanusi
    Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru, Malaysia. Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Federal University Dutse, Dutse, Nigeria.
    Sharafati, Ahmad
    Department of Civil Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
    Ahmed, Kamal
    Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru, Malaysia. Faculty of Water Resource Management, Lasbela University of Agriculture, Water and Marine Sciences, Balochistan, Pakistan.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Shahid, Shamsuddin
    Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
    Wang, Xiaojun
    State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute, Nanjing, China. Research Center for Climate Change, Ministry of Water Resources, Nanjing, China.
    Seasonal Drought Pattern Changes Due to Climate Variability: Case Study in Afghanistan2019In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 1-20, article id 1096Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We assessed the changes in meteorological drought severity and drought return periods during cropping seasons in Afghanistan for the period of 1901 to 2010. The droughts in the country were analyzed using the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI). Global Precipitation Climatology Center rainfall and Climate Research Unit temperature data both at 0.5 resolutions were used for this purpose. Seasonal drought return periods were estimated using the values of the SPEI fitted with the best distribution function. Trends in climatic variables and SPEI were assessed using modified Mann–Kendal trend test, which has the ability to remove the influence of long-term persistence on trend significance. The study revealed increases in drought severity and frequency in Afghanistan over the study period. Temperature, which increased up to 0.14 C/decade, was the major factor influencing the decreasing trend in the SPEI values in the northwest and southwest of the country during rice- and corn-growing seasons, whereas increasing temperature and decreasing rainfall were the cause of a decrease in SPEI during wheat-growing season. We concluded that temperature plays a more significant role in decreasing the SPEI values and, therefore, more severe droughts in the future are expected due to global warming.

  • 333.
    Romelsjö, Anders
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Brahme, Anders
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Dags kräva stopp för utarmat uran i vapen2012In: Goeteborgs - Posten, ISSN 1103-9345Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vapenprojektiler och pansar dopat med uran kan orsaka cancer, missbildningar och död hos den som hanterar eller utsätts för dem. Svenska folket måste nu få veta om sådana vapen tillverkas av Bofors och om svenska soldater kommit i kontakt med dem. Det är också hög tid för riksdagen att verka för ett förbud mot dessa vapen, skriver bland andra professor Anders Romelsjö.

  • 334.
    Sadiq, Sakar
    et al.
    University of Kurdistan, Hawler.
    Muhmed, Arezh S.
    University of Kurdistan, Hawler.
    Haris, Hozan Govar K.
    University of Kurdistan, Hawler.
    Hamma, Dastan M.
    University of Kurdistan, Hawler.
    Abdwllah, Mohanad M.
    University of Kurdistan, Hawler.
    Bibani, Hozan H.
    University of Kurdistan, Hawler.
    Muhealddin, Hamza K.
    University of Kurdistan, Hawler.
    Mustafa, Hawker A.
    University of Kurdistan, Hawler.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Mechanism of Haibat Sultan Mountain Landslide in Koya, North Iraq2016In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 8, no 8, p. 535-544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Haibat Sultan Mountain is a long range with elevation of about 860 m (a.s.l.); the PilaSpi Formation forms its carapace in Koya vicinity, with relief difference of about 300 m from Koisanjaq plain. The PilaSpi Formation consists of well thickly to massively bedded dolostone and dolomitic limestone with thickness of about 120 m in Koya vicinity. The main trend is NW - SE being a limb of Bustana anticline representing part of the southwestern limb, with dip amount that ranges from (15 - 30). On 11th of November 2015 a landslide had occurred after a heavy rainfall along Koya - Dukan main road. The type of the slide was plane sliding due to daylight slope, which was formed afterthe road cut. The length of the slide area: along the road is 90 m with height of 40 m forming almost a parallelogram shape; the thickness of the slid beds is about 2.5 m. The estimated volume of the slid mass is 9000 m3. The main cause of the landslide is the presence of daylight slope, high slope angle; more than the dip angle, presence of old crack surfaces which are filled by reddish brown clayey residual soil. After the he heavy rain fall, which lasted for 20 hours, the infiltrated rain water in the bedding planes in the well bedded, cracked, and jointed beds has increased the pore pressure and decreased the internal friction angle; therefore, the sliding has occurred. The root of the slid mass is below the base of the paved road; therefore, that part which is above the paved road has slid. The remaining part is highly cracked and partly accumulated in the base of the slid mass. Fortunately, the height of the slid mass is only 40 m and the relief difference between the crown area and the toe area is about 50 m; otherwise the slid mass would be larger than the present slid mass. From the field inspection, it is very clear that the involved area is very unstable and in critical equilibrium. The presence of daylight bedding above the crown area, clayey soil in the fractures and open joints and steep slope all are very favorable conditions for triggering the unstable slope, consequently developing of another landslide with larger mass.

  • 335.
    Saleh, Sabbar A.
    et al.
    Department of Applied Geology, College of Science, Tikrit University.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Abdullah, Twana
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Groundwater Hydrology in Iraq2020In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 155-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current work, the spatial distribution of the precipitation in Iraq were reviewed, as it is considered as one of the most important parameters that controls groundwater recharging. In addition, the physiographical divisions of Iraq had been assessed as it is contributing in determining the groundwater aquifers, as well as a review of the division of the main groundwater aquifers. Subsequently, a review of the level and depths of groundwater, the regional trends of its flow, the variation of its specific quality (especially salinity), and its suitability for multipurpose, throughout of the Iraqi territory had been conducted. The characteristics of each region were highlighted separately, including the detailed aspects that relate to the groundwater recharge, quality flow of groundwater, the hydraulic characteristics of the groundwater aquifers, the problems facing the groundwater sector, and the development of recommendation in terms of the optimal investment and development of groundwater resources in each region.

  • 336.
    Salih, Sinan Q.
    et al.
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    Aldlemy, Mohammed Suleman
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Collage of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Benghazi, Libya.
    Rasani, Mohammad Rasidi
    Centre for Integrated Design for Advanced Mechanical Systems, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia.
    Ariffin, A.K.
    Centre for Integrated Design for Advanced Mechanical Systems, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia.
    Ya, Tuan Mohammad Yusoff Shah Tuan
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Tronoh, Malaysia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Yaseen, Zaher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Chau, Kwok-Wing
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China.
    Thin and sharp edges bodies-fluid interaction simulation using cut-cell immersed boundary method2019In: Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 1994-2060, E-ISSN 1997-003X, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 860-877Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to develop an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) algorithm combined with Cut-Cell IBM using two-stage pressure–velocity corrections for thin-object FSI problems. To achieve the objective of this study, the AMR-immersed boundary method (AMR-IBM) algorithm discretizes and solves the equations of motion for the flow that involves rigid thin structures boundary layer at the interface between the structure and the fluid. The body forces are computed in proportion to the fraction of the solid volume in the IBM fluid cells to incorporate fluid and solid motions into the boundary. The corrections of the velocity and pressure is determined by using a novel simplified marker and cell scheme. The new developed AMR-IBM algorithm is validated using a benchmark data of fluid past a cylinder and the results show that there is good agreement under laminar flow. Simulations are conducted for three test cases with the purpose of demonstration the accuracy of the AMR-IBM algorithm. The validation confirms the robustness of the new algorithms in simulating flow characteristics in the boundary layers of thin structures. The algorithm is performed on a staggered grid to simulate the fluid flow around thin object and determine the computational cost.

  • 337.
    Salih, Sinan Q.
    et al.
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    Allawi, Mohammed Falah
    Department of Civil Engineering, Al-Esraa University College, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Yousif, Ali A.
    Water Resources Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Duhok, Duhok, Iraq.
    Armanuos, Asaad M.
    Irrigation and Hydraulics Engineering Department, Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.
    Saggi, Mandeep Kaur
    Department of Computer Science, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patalia, India.
    Ali, Mumtaz
    Deakin-SWU Joit Research Centre on Big Data, School of Information Techonology, Deakin University, Victoria, Australia.
    Shahid, Shamsuddin
    School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM).
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Chau, Kwok-Wing
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.
    Viability of the advanced adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system model on reservoir evaporation process simulation: case study of Nasser Lake in Egypt2019In: Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 1994-2060, E-ISSN 1997-003X, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 878-891Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliable prediction of evaporative losses from reservoirs is an essential component of reservoir management and operation. Conventional models generally used for evaporation prediction have a number of drawbacks as they are based on several assumptions. A novel approach called the co-active neuro-fuzzy inference system (CANFIS) is proposed in this study for the modeling of evaporation from meteorological variables. CANFIS provides a center-weighted set rather than global weight sets for predictor–predictand relationship mapping and thus it can provide a higher prediction accuracy. In the present study, adjustments are made in the back-propagation algorithm of CANFIS for automatic updating of membership rules and further enhancement of its prediction accuracy. The predictive ability of the CANFIS model is validated with three well-established artificial intelligence (AI) models. Different statistical metrics are computed to investigate the prediction efficacy. The results reveal higher accuracy of the CANFIS model in predicting evaporation compared to the other AI models. CANFIS is found to be capable of modeling evaporation from mean temperature and relative humidity only, with a Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency of 0.93, which is much higher than that of the other models. Furthermore, CANFIS improves the prediction accuracy by 9.2–55.4% compared to the other AI models.

  • 338.
    Shahabi, Himan
    et al.
    Department of Geomorphology, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran. Board Member of Department of Zrebar Lake Environmental Research, Kurdistan Studies Institute, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.
    Shirzadi, Ataollah
    Department of Rangeland and Watershed Management, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.
    Ghaderi, Kayvan
    Department of Information Technology and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.
    Omidvar, Ebrahim
    Department of Rangeland and Watershed Management, Faculty of Natural Resources and Earth Sciences, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Clague, John J.
    Department of Earth Sciences Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada.
    Geertsema, Marten
    British Columbia, Ministry of Forests, Lands, Natural Resource Operations and Rural Development, Prince George, BC, Canada.
    Khosravi, Khabat
    School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON , Canada.
    Amini, Ata
    Kurdistan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Sanandaj, Iran.
    Bahrami, Sepideh
    Department of Hydrological Sciences, University of Nevada, Reno, NV, USA.
    Rahmati, Omid
    Kurdistan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Sanandaj, Iran.
    Habibi, Kyoumars
    Department of urban and regional planning, Faculty of Art and Architecture, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.
    Mohammadi, Ayub
    Department of Geoinformation, Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
    Nguyen, Hoang
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    Melesse, Assefa M.
    Department of Earth and Environment, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA.
    Ahmad, Baharin Bin
    Department of Geoinformation, Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM),Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
    Ahmad, Anuar
    Department of Geoinformation, Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM),Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
    Flood Detection and Susceptibility Mapping Using Sentinel-1 Remote Sensing Data and a Machine Learning Approach: Hybrid Intelligence of Bagging Ensemble Based on K-Nearest Neighbor Classifier2020In: Remote Sensing, ISSN 2072-4292, E-ISSN 2072-4292, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 1-30, article id 266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mapping flood-prone areas is a key activity in flood disaster management. In this paper, we propose a new flood susceptibility mapping technique. We employ new ensemble models based on bagging as a meta-classifier and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) coarse, cosine, cubic, and weighted base classifiers to spatially forecast flooding in the Haraz watershed in northern Iran. We identified flood-prone areas using data from Sentinel-1 sensor. We then selected 10 conditioning factors to spatially predict floods and assess their predictive power using the Relief Attribute Evaluation (RFAE) method. Model validation was performed using two statistical error indices and the area under the curve (AUC). Our results show that the Bagging–Cubic–KNN ensemble model outperformed other ensemble models. It decreased the overfitting and variance problems in the training dataset and enhanced the prediction accuracy of the Cubic–KNN model (AUC=0.660). We therefore recommend that the Bagging–Cubic–KNN model be more widely applied for the sustainable management of flood-prone areas.

  • 339.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Erbil, Iraq.
    Abdul Ahad, Ayda
    Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Geomorphology, Geology and Tectonics of Jabal Sanam, Southern Iraq2017In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 97-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Jabal Sanam is an outstanding geomorphological feature in south of Iraq located50 Km southwest of Basrah city; along the border with Kuwait. It stands high in a vast flat plain with elevation of 140. 61 m (a.s.l.). The relief difference between  the highest point; on top of Jabal Sanam and the surrounding flat plain ranges  from (108 –127) m. The E – W and N- S diameters of Jabal Sanam are 355.97 m and 489.45 m, respectively, whereas, the E – W and N – S diameters of the surrounding first circular rim are 1524.11 m and1857.90 m, respectively. The exposed rocks in the surroundings belong to the Dibdibba Formation (Pliocene – Pleistocene); show clear Hogback and Cuesta forms. The rocks of the Nfayil Formation (Middle Miocene) are exposed in the near surroundings of the intruded body; they are crushed, deformed and faulted. All the exposed rocks along the  rims show clear dipping towards the outer rim forming dome like structure. Beds of gypsum and black dolomite are also exposed in the central part of the dome, most probably intruded from deep lying beds. Other crushed rocks; some of them are igneous are also present, especially in the  central  part of the intruded body. The estimated age of those crushed rocks is Infra-Cambrian, as indicated from pollen and spores found in coal seams within the exposed sequence.The presence circular rims surrounding Jabal Sanam may indicate multi rising processes of the exposed sequence of the intruded body. All the previous works confirm the origin to be a salt plug; using gravity data. However, the current study hasused evidences of Neotectonic activity to support the salt plug assumption too.

  • 340. Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Abduljabbar, Mawaheb
    Iraq Geological Survey.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    The Origin and Evolution of Wadi Al-Ajeej, Al-Jazira Vicinity, NW Iraq2015In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 69-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Al-Jazira Plain is located in the northwest part of Iraq. It forms the southern slopes of Sinjar Mountain. Among the dens drainage system in Sijar Mountain, Wadi Al-Ajeej is one of the main valleys; running almost in NE – SW trend, besides Wadi Al-Thar'thar, which runs in NW – SE trend. Both valleys flow from the southern flank of themountain. Although the main trend of Wadi Al-Ajeej is NE – SW, but west of longitude 41ᴼ 40' N, the branches have NNW – SSE trend, some of them flow inside Iraqi territory from Syria. Historical books and geological evidences confirm that Wadi Al-Ajeej, which is the continuation of JaghJagh River in Syria was flowing much far from its nowadays course, starting almost from extreme northeastern parts of Syria; crossing Sinjar Mountain within the nowadays Syrian territory, and then running southeast to merge in the Euphrates River. The old crossing site (water gap) along Sinjar anticline is slightly towards west of the Iraqi – Syrian border. Even now, it forms a low land where it is occupied as unpaved truck to cross the mountain; inside Syria. The estimated age of abandoning Wadi Al-Ajeej to its original course is most probably during the Late Pleistocene.

  • 341. Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Abduljab'bar, Mawahib
    Iraq Geological Survey.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Meandering of Tributaries of the Tigris River Due to Mass Movements within Iraq2014In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 6, no 11, p. 712-730Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tigris and Euphrates are the main rivers in Iraq. The former has 5 main tributaries while the latter has no tributaries within Iraq. All these rivers exhibit meandering and/ or shifting of their courses due to many reasons; such as mass movements and alluvial fan's development. The meandering and shifting of river courses due to mass movements is dealt with in this study. Many examples are given from different parts of Iraq within different rivers and streams. In each case, the geology of the involved area is described; the reasons of the shifting and/ or meandering of the river course are given. GIS technique was used to determine the coverage of the involved area. Landsat, Google Earth and DEM images were used to indicate the suffered areas from shifting and meandering of the rivers and streams. When possible, age of the shifting and/ or meandering of the river and stream courses was estimated; using exposure age determination; mainly depending on the presence of river terraces, erosional forms, vegetation cover and the maturity of the involved area. Some of the given examples of shifting of river courses were found to be still active; others are inactive. In many cases, indications for very large mass movement phenomena were seen. Moreover, some of the large involved areas are highly populated, others includes few houses and/ or farms. The majority of the meanders are developed due to mass movement phenomena; others are caused by alluvial fans and/ or tectonic features, lime plunging of anticlines.

  • 342. Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    AbdulJabbar, Mawahib
    State Company of Geological Survey and Mining, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    The Origin of Tar Al-Say’ed and Tar Al-Najaf, Karbala-Najaf Vicinity, Central Iraq2015In: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 446-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In central part of Iraq within the vicinity of Karbala-Najaf, two cliffs called “Tar Al-Say’ed” and “Tar Al-Najaf” form conspicuous geomorphological forms between the Mesopotamia Plain and the Western and Southern Deserts. The top surface between the two cliffs (tars) is covered by alluvial fan sediments, laid down by Al-Khir Valley when merging in a large depression due to the drop in the gradient of the valley. Consequently, the depression was divided into two parts, to the left is called Al-Razzazah Depression, whereas to the right is called Bahir Al-Najaf. This affected the course of the River Euphrates. The deposition stopped due to an uplift movement which caused the elevation of the two cliffs which are covered by alluvial fansediments. The two cliffs had and are still suffering from retreating, due to lateral erosion by wave actions in Al-RazzazahDepression. Springs located along a straight line, sag pond, deflected drainage, shutter ridges and pressure ridges can be noticed in the area. The age of both cliffs is estimated to be upper Late Pleistocene—early Holocene.

  • 343.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    University of Kurdistan Hewler, Erbil, Iraq Erbil, Iraq.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    Norrköping, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    The Role of Geological Investigations for Dam Siting: Mosul Dam a Case Study2020In: Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, ISSN 0960-3182, E-ISSN 1573-1529, Vol. 38, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dams are engineering structures constructed for different purposes. They are of differentsizes, shapes and types. In all cases, many essentialstudies should be carried out before deciding thelocation, type and size of the dam. Among thosestudies is the geological investigations which shouldbe carried out to deduce the geological conditions inthe most relevant site, depth of the foundations andtheir types, cut-off depth, type of the availableconstruction materials, and type of the expectedgeological hazards. Without proper geological investigations, the siting of a dam will cause serious hazardsduring construction and during commissioning of thedam. In this study, Mosul Dam case is considered asthe consequences of inadequate geological investigations which were carried out by the contractor andsupervised by Swiss Consultant. The location of thedam site and its foundations are built over a highlykarstified area, where gypsum and limestone beds areexposed and exist deep under the ground surface, andeven deeper than the foundations. Accordingly,grouting treatment was carried out and still on going,but all the attempts to have a safe and relevant damwere in vain. In this study we have provided theessential studies which should be included during thegeological investigation to have a safe and sound dam.

  • 344.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    University of Kurdistan, Iraq.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Geological and Geotechnical Study of Badush Dam, Iraq2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Badush Dam is a combined earthfill and concrete buttress dam; uncompleted, it is planned to be a protection dam downstream of Mosul Dam, which impounds the Tigris River. Mosul Dam is also an earthfill dam; it is the largest dam in Iraq. The safety of Mosul Dam is a matter of debate since its commissioning in 1986. This is attributed to the geological conditions at the dam site are not suitable due to thick exposures of karstified gypsum rocks, which extend

    , deep down, into the foundations. Therefore, Badush Dam was planned and designed to protect the population and present infrastructures downstream of Mosul Dam, if the latter would collapse. The geological conditions at Badush Dam site are similar to those at Mosul Dam site, which means; the foundations of the dam, are located on karstified gypsum beds also. Grouting works were planned and designed, and they were partly performed simultaneously with the beginning of the construction of Badush Dam in 1988 and continued until the suspension of the construction in 1991. The constructed parts attained about (30 – 40)% of the work items. The design of the Badush Dam indicates clearly the temporary nature of its use, which is reflected in the thin inclined clay core and other embankment details. The basic design considerations of the dam were to have a dam, which is high enough to contain the full volume of Mosul Dam wave of 10 X 109 m3 when routed through its reservoir, and to limit at the same time the released discharge within the capacity across the downstream reach of the river without causing flooding. In this study, we have presented and discussed the geological and engineering geological conditions; whether Badush Dam can function as a protection dam or can it be remodeled to become a normal storage dam to replace Mosul Dam.

  • 345. Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Ahad, Ayda Abdul
    Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hassan, Rebwar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    The Regional Geology of Dokan Area, NE Iraq2016In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 35-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The northern and northeastern part of Iraq, which includes the Iraqi Kurdistan Region, is characterized by mountainous area with very rugged relief. The difference in relief may reach up to 1000 m and locally more when the height reaches up to 3600 m (a.s.l.). The mountains usually represent anticlines, whereas the depressions are represented by synclines. The Lower Cretaceous rocks usually form the carapace of the mountains, whereas the soft clastics of Upper Cretaceous and Paleocene form the synclines. However, some exceptions occur when the area is affected structurally by main faults. The main trend of the anticlines in the study area is NW – SE, which are dissected by either NE – SW normal faults or by reverse and/ or thrust faults oriented in NW – SE trend; however, some exceptions occur too. The Dokan area is characterized by a large depression in which the Lesser Zab River was flowing; before construction of Dokan dam (1954 – 1959). The depression is a big one with surface area of about 260 Km2. The height at the surface of the reservoir when filled to normal operational level is 511 m (a.s.l.); however, the depression is surrounded; almost from all sides by high mountains that range from (800 – 1300) m (a.s.l.).he depression is believed to be structurally controlled, a normal fault with NE – SW trend had dissected the southwestern limb of Ranya anticline, the eastern block being the down thrown one that had formed the depression, besides the exposure of soft rocks of Sarmord, Chis Gara, Barsarin and Naokelekan formations that form the core of Ranya anticline. The regional geology of Dokan area including structure and tectonics, stratigraphy and geomorphology is discussed aiming to explain the development of the large and wide depression in a mountainous area.

  • 346.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Ahad, Ayda Abdul
    Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Geology of the Archeological Hills and Monuments: Examples from Iraq2016In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 1-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is the cradle of many civilizations; therefore, it is very rich in archeological sites, which are represented in different forms; among them are the archeological hills and monuments. Hundreds of archeological hills and monuments are located in different parts of Iraq, but the majority of the hills are located in the Mesopotamia and Low Mountainous Province; with less abundant in the Jazira Province. The isolated archeological hills are of two different forms: Either are in form of dumping soil to a certain height to build the hill, or has gained their heights due to the presence of multi stories of civilizations. In both cases, the geological setting has played a big role in the formation of the isolated archeological hills. The archeological isolated hills, which are built by soil dumping are usually of conical shape; flat topped and limited sizes; with heights not more than 10 m and base diameter of (20 – 100) m. They can be seen from far distances that attain to few kilometers. Since they are usually built in flat areas and are believed to be used as watching towers. However, those which are present in the Mesopotamia Province are smaller in size; not more than (3 – 5) m in height and about 10 m in base diameter; also with conical shape, they are called as "Ishan". The isolated archeological sites, which are built by multi stories, are either in form of citadels (castles) like Arbeel and Kirkuk castles, or built as a certain form and used for religious purposes; called "Zaqoorah", like Aqarqoof and Ur Zaqooras. Tens of monuments were discovered in different parts of Iraq witnessing different civilizations. Some of the monuments are built and/ or sculptured from rocks. Usually, the nearby exposed rocks were used; however, locally rocks were transported from few tens of kilometers. The most common used rocks are gypsum and limestone; however, very rarely basalt was used too. In certain locations, the geology of the quarried rocks is given too.

  • 347.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Erbil, Iraq.
    Ahad, Ayda Abdul
    Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Geology of Wadi Hauran, the Largest Valley in Iraqi Western Desert2017In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 103-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wadi (valley) Hauran is the largest valley not only in the Iraqi Western Desert but the whole Iraqi Territory. The length of the valley inside Iraq is about 420 Km, whereas the drainage basin area inside Iraq is 16550 Km2. The valley exhibits different forms along its course; like shallow and wide, deep and wide, and canyon. The valley starts from the Iraqi – Saudi Arabian international borders and even inside Saudi Arabia and runs generally northeast wards; with slight changes in its main course trend, exhibiting many right angle meanders. The oldest exposed rocks along the course and banks of wadi Hauran belong to the Upper Triassic Zor Hauran Formation, whereas the youngest exposed rocks belong to the Middle Miocene Nfayil Formation. Different Quaternary sediments occur in the valleys course and banks. The main structural elements along the course of wadi Hauran are a set of NW – SE trending faults, beside extensive jointing of the rocks, especially in the left bank northwest of Rutbah town. Different geomorphological units and forms are developed along the course of the valley and on its banks. From economical point of view, enormous amounts of sand and gravel are developed as valley fill sediments. Limestone for cement industry and many other metallurgical industries with huge geological reserves is available in different formations, like Ratga and Euphrates. Pure silica for glass and crystal industry is available in Rutbah Formation. Bauxite and sedimentary iron are available in Hussainiyat Formation. Clays for different industrial uses are available in different formations; like Ubaid, Hussainiyat, Muhaiwir, Hartha, Tayarat and Akashat formations. The different forms of wadi Hauran along its course with different exposed rocks and developed different slopes along its banks have developed different mass wasting phenomena in different parts. Among the most common forms are: Toppling, rock fall, slumping, creep and very rare sliding.

  • 348. Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Ahad, Ayda Abdul
    Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Origin of a Circular Morphological Form in Lolan Valley, Khwakoork Area, North Iraq2016In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 121-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The northern and north-eastern parts of Iraq are mountainous area with very rugged topography that includes high and steep cliffs, deep valleys; locally canyon shape, and rare wide and flat plains. The main exposed rocks over all the area are the carbonates, especially limestone and dolostone of different varieties. Tens of geological formations consist of very think limestones and/ or dolostone.This article deals with the origin of a circular form developed in one of the main valleys called Lolan Valley in Khwakurk area, northern part of Iraq. Different geomorphological, lithological, structural and stratigraphical indications are used to conclude the origin of the circular form, which is confirmed to be a sinkhole due to karstification of thick carbonate rocks.The outer diameter of the circular form is 386 m; the width of the valley ranges from (35 – 150) m, the length of the circular form is 1045 m, which means the length to valley width ration is 20.9 times, the ratio of the radius to the width is 4 times. These two ratios are other indications that the meander of Lolan valley is not a normal meander, but a meander formed due to the collapse of existed sinkhole alongside the valley.

  • 349. Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Ahad, Ayda Abdul
    Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Tourism in North and Northeastern Parts of Iraq2016In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 90-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism Geology in Iraq is not common yet, although many sites do exist inthe northern and northeastern parts of Iraq, which are mountainous areas attaining 3600 m (a.s.l.) providing spectacular scenes. Majority of those sites are used by the local people and those coming from other parts of Iraq, all of them are linked by paved roads with a lot of facilities of relevant accommodation. However, all of those sites are abandoned in winter season due to very cold and rainy season; occasionally are covered by snow. Majority of those sites include fresh drinkable water; usually supplied from springs that yield enormous amount of water; some of them are controlled by structural elements and karst morphology. The exposed rocks in those sites are mainly of sedimentary dominated by carbonate rocks and very rarely some igneous and metamorphic rocks occur too.

  • 350.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Ahad, Ayda D. Abdul
    Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Drainage Indications on the Growth of Anah Anticline, West of Iraq2016In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 29-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anah anticline is a conspicuous structural and geomorphological feature in the central western part of Iraq, which is a flat plain dissected by dense drainage net, some of the valleys cross the anticline; whereas others run on both sides, the axis not being the water divide. The anticline trends almost E – W with length of about 90 km, the northern limb is steep, whereas the southern lomb is very gentle; giving monoclinal shape to the anticline. The oldest exposed rocks in the core of the anticline belong to the Baba Formation of Middle Oligocene age, whereas the carapace is built of the Euphrates Formation of Early Miocene age and partly by the Anah Formation of Late Oligocene age, all formations consist mainly of limestone, those of the Anah Formation are very hard to extremely hard, splintery; locally silicified and karstified.Anah anticline forms the extreme western part of the contact between the Inner and Outer Platforms of the Arabian Plate. Towards the north is the Jazira Zone, whereas towards the south is the Western Desert Zone. The continuation of the contact; towards southeast is the active Abu Jir – Euphrates Fault Zone. Anah anticline was originally a subsurface graben, which was inverted to anticline during Late Cretaceous – Paleocene, as many others towards north of the anticline; within the Jazira Zone. Many valleys cross the anticline in S – N trend; the largest one is Chab'bab valley, which exhibits canyon form in some parts with sharp knick point. Many other valleys exhibit knick points too along their courses; through crossing the anticline. The height of the knick points ranges from (3 – 8) m, all are located along one lineament, which is almost parallel to the axis of the anticline. The knick points along the courses of the valleys and the crossing of the anticline by many valleys; forming wind gaps are clear indications for the lateral and vertical growths of the anticline.

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