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  • 301.
    Betancourt Payán, Andrés Felipe
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Towards the Performance Assessment of aMapdrift Autofocus for a P-Band SARMission Implementation2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of the ESA BIOMASS mission in which for the first time, a P-Band SAR sensor isgoing to be mounted into a spaceborne system. With its penetration capability, it will contributeto the measurement of the biomass and carbon content in the Earth’s forests. An autofocusalgorithm is needed for the correction of phase errors introduced by the changing diffraction indexin the ionosphere. Because of the quickly changing nature of the ionosphere, defocusing has to bemeasured and corrected locally over several sections of a SAR capture.In this thesis, a deep introduction into phase errors is made having in mind that the ionosphereis expected to introduce time varying low frequency errors that can be constructed as a series ofquadratic curves. These quadratic phase errors introduce defocusing that is seen as blur and lossof contrast. An algorithm is proposed and tested for measuring this defocusing, while its strengthsand weaknesses are discussed.The idea of measuring defocusing is to try to recover the temporal phase function that introduceddefocusing in the first place. Here a method to recover this temporal phase function is introduced,and a thorough performance assessment of this retrieval is carried out. The variables involved thequality and reliability of this retrieval are studied one by one.

  • 302.
    Bethge, Matthias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Situation and Threat Comprehensionand Conduit of Action with particular reference to aFuture Technology Data Fusion System2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 303.
    Bezerra, Nibia Souza
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Åhlund, Christer
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Saguna, Saguna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    de Sousa Jr., Vicente A.
    Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte.
    Propagation Model Evaluation for LoRaWAN: Planning Tool Versus Real Case Scenario2019Inngår i: 2019 IEEE 5th World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT) / [ed] IEEE, https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8767299, 2019, s. 1-6Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    LoRa has emerged as a prominent technology for the Internet of Things (IoT), with LoRa Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN) emerging as a suitable connection solution for smartthings. The choice of the best location for the installation of gateways, as well as a robust network server configuration, are key to the deployment of a LoRaWAN. In this paper, we present an evaluation of Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI) values collected from the real-life LoRaWAN deployed in Skellefteå, Sweden, when compared with the values calculatedby a Radio Frequency (RF) planning tool for the Irregular Terrain Model (ITM), Irregular Terrain with Obstructions Model (ITWOM) and Okumura-Hata propagation models. Five sensors are configured and deployed along a wooden bridge, with different Spreading Factors (SFs), such as SF 7, 10 and 12. Our results show that the RSSI values calculated using the RF planning tool for ITWOM are closest to the values obtained from the real-life LoRaWAN. Moreover, we also show evidence that the choice of a propagation model in an RF planning tool has to be made with care, mainly due to the terrain conditions of the area where the network and the sensors are deployed.

  • 304.
    Bezerra, Nibia Souza
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Åhlund, Christer
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Saguna, Saguna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    de Sousa Jr., Vicente A.
    Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN).
    Temperature Impact in LoRaWAN: A Case Study in Northern Sweden2019Inngår i: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 19, nr 20, artikkel-id 4414Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    LoRaWAN has become popular as an IoT enabler. The low cost, ease of installation and the capacity of fine-tuning the parameters make this network a suitable candidate for the deployment of smart cities. In northern Sweden, in the smart region of Skellefteå, we have deployed a LoRaWAN to enable IoT applications to assist the lives of citizens. As Skellefteå has a subarctic climate, we investigate how the extreme changes in the weather happening during a year affect a real LoRaWAN deployment in terms of SNR, RSSI and the use of SF when ADR is enabled. Additionally, we evaluate two propagation models (Okumura-Hata and ITM) and verify if any of those models fit the measurements obtained from our real-life network. Our results regarding the weather impact show that cold weather improves the SNR while warm weather makes the sensors select lower SFs, to minimize the time-on-air. Regarding the tested propagation models, Okumura-Hata has the best fit to our data, while ITM tends to overestimate the RSSI values.

  • 305.
    Bhattacharya, Shaondip
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Multi-agent System Distributed Sensor Fusion Algorithms2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of consensus filters for sensor fusion is not an entirely new proposition but one with an internally implemented Bayesian fusion is. This work documents a novel state update algorithm for sensor fusion which works using the principle of Bayesian fusion of data with variance implemented on a single integrator consensus algorithm. Comparative demonstrations of how consensus over a pinning network is reached are presented along with a weighted Bayesian Luenberger type observer and a ’Consensus on estimates’ algorithm. This type of a filter is something that is novel and has not been encountered in previous literature related to this topic to the best of our knowledge. In this work, we also extend the proof for a distributed Luenberger type observer design to include the case where the network being considered is a strongly connected digraph.

  • 306.
    Bhoi, Bandan Kumar
    et al.
    Department of Electronics and Telecommunication, Veer Surendra Sai, University of Technology, Burla, India.
    Misa, Neeraj Kumar
    Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Bharat Institute of Engineering and Technology, Hyderabad, India.
    Chouhan, Shailesh Singh
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Acharya, Sarthak
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Analyzing Design Parameters of Nano-Magnetic Technology Based Converter Circuit2019Inngår i: VLSI Design and Test: 23rd International Symposium, VDAT 2019, Indore, India, July 4–6, 2019, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Dr. Anirban Sengupta, Dr. Sudeb Dasgupta, Virendra Singh, Rohit Sharma, Santosh Kumar Vishvakarma, Springer, 2019, s. 34-46Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital circuits need improvement in computation speed, reducing circuit complexity and power consumption. Emerging Technology NML can be such an architecture at nano-scale and thus emerges as a viable alternative for the digital CMOS VLSI. This technology has the capability to compute the logic as well as storage into the same device, which points out that it great potential for emerging technology. Since Nano-magnetic, technology fast approaches its minimal feature size, high device density and operate at room temperature. NML based circuits synthesis has to opt for novel half subtraction and Binary-to-Gray architecture for achieving minimal complexity and high-speed performance. This manuscript pro-poses area efficient binary half-subtraction and Binary-to-Gray converter architecture. Circuits’ synthesize are performed by MagCAD tool and simulate by Modelsim simulator. The circuit’s performance are estimated over other existing designs. The proposed converter consume 73.73%, and 94.49% less area than the converter designed using QCA and CMOS technique respectively. This is a significant contribution to this paper. Simulation results of converter show that the critical path delay falls within 0.15 µs.

  • 307.
    Bicaku, Ani
    et al.
    Austrian Institute of Technology, Vienna.
    Balaban, Silvia
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Center for Applied Legal Studies.
    Trauber, Markus G.
    Austrian Institute of Technology, Vienna.
    Hudic, Alaksandar
    University of Applied Science Burgenland, Eisenstad.
    Mauthe, Andreas
    Lancaster University.
    Hutchison, David
    Lancaster University.
    Harmonized Monitoring for High Assurance Clouds2016Inngår i: 2016 IEEE International Conference on Cloud Engineering Workshop (IC2EW), Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to a lack of transparency in cloud based services well-defined security levels cannot be assured within current cloud infrastructures. Hence sectors with stringent security requirements hesitate to migrate their services to the cloud. This applies especially when considering services where high security requirements are combined with legal constraints. To tackle this challenge this paper presents an extension to our existing work on assurance methodologies in cloud based environments by investigating how current state of the art monitoring solutions can be used to support assurance throughout the entire infrastructure. A case study is used in which monitoring information representing a set of relevant security properties is being collected. As result, we propose that a combination of existing tools should be used to harmonize existing monitoring artifacts. We describe and evaluate an Evidence Gathering Mechanism (EGM) that provides this harmonization and show how this can support assurance.This can also underpin legal proceedings from an evidence law perspective.

  • 308.
    Bicaku, Ani
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB. University of Applied Sciences Burgenland, Eisenstadt.
    Maksuti, Silia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB. University of Applied Sciences Burgenland.
    Hegedűs, Csaba
    AITIA International Inc., Budapest.
    Tauber, Markus G.
    University of Applied Sciences Burgenland, Eisenstad.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Interacting with the arrowhead local cloud: On-boarding procedure2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial automation systems are advancing rapidly and a wide range of standards, communication protocols and platforms supporting the integration of devices are introduced. It is therefore necessary to design and build appropriate tools and frameworks that allow the integration of devices with multiple systems and services. In this work we present the Arrow-head Framework, used to enable collaborative IoT automation and introduce two support core systems, SystemRegistry and DeviceRegistry, which are needed to create a chain of trust from a hardware device to a software system and its associated services. Furthermore, we propose an on-boarding procedure of a new device interacting with the Arrowhead local cloud. This ensures that only valid and authorized devices can host software systems within an Arrowhead local cloud.

  • 309.
    Bicaku, Ani
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB. University of Applied Sciences Burgenland.
    Maksuti, Silia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB. University of Applied Sciences Burgenland.
    Palkovits-Rauter, Silke
    University of Applied Sciences Burgenland.
    Tauber, Markus
    University of Applied Sciences Burgenland.
    Matischek, Rainer
    Infineon Technologies Austria.
    Schmittner, Christoph
    Austrian Institute of Technology.
    Mantas, Georgios
    Instituto de Telecomunicacoes.
    Thron, Mario
    Insitut for Automation und Kommunikation.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Towards Trustworthy End-to-End Communication in Industry 4.02017Inngår i: Proceedings: 2017 IEEE 15th International Conference on Industrial Informatics, INDIN 2017, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 889-896, artikkel-id 8104889Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry 4.0 considers integration of IT and control systems with physical objects, software, sensors and connectivity in order to optimize manufacturing processes. It provides advanced functionalities in control and communication for an infrastructure that handles multiple tasks in various locations automatically. Automatic actions require information from trustworthy sources. Thus, this work is focused on how to ensure trustworthy communication from the edge devices to the backend infrastructure. We derive a meta-model based on RAMI 4.0, which is used to describe an end-to-end communication use case for an Industry 4.0 application scenario and to identify dependabilities in case of security challenges. Furthermore, we evaluate secure messaging protocols and the integration of Trusted Platform Module (TPM) as a root of trust for dataexchange. We define a set of representative measurable indicator points based on existing standards and use them for automated dependability detection within the whole system.

  • 310.
    Bicaku, Ani
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB. University of Applied Sciences Burgenland, Eisenstadt.
    Schmittner, Christoph
    Austrian Institute of Technology, Vienna.
    Tauber, Markus G.
    University of Applied Sciences Burgenland, Eisenstad.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Monitoring Industry 4.0 applications for security and safety standard compliance2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Industry 4.0 independent entities shall inter-operate to allow flexible and customized production. To assure the parties that individual components are secured to inter-operate, we investigate automated standard compliance. The standard compliance is defined based on given sets of security and safety requirements from which are derived measurable indicator points. Those reflect configurations of systems recommended by security, safety or legally relevant standards and guidelines, which help to demonstrate the state of compliance. We propose in this paper an initial approach to automate such assessment when components are inter-operating with each other by using a monitoring and standard compliance verification framework. This will assure the parties that services or devices within their organizations operate in a secure and standard compliant way, without compromising the underlying infrastructure.

  • 311.
    Biello, Elia
    et al.
    Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e dell'Informazione e di Economi, Università degli Studi dell'Aquila.
    Antonini, Giulio
    Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e dell'Informazione e di Economi, Università degli Studi dell'Aquila.
    De Lauretis, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    A delay‐rational model of electromagnetic interference on multiconductor transmission lines2018Inngår i: International journal of numerical modelling, ISSN 0894-3370, E-ISSN 1099-1204, Vol. 31, nr 4, artikkel-id 2342Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiconductor transmission lines have found a wide range of applications, as power lines, as high‐speed interconnects, and as on‐chip interconnects. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) can be described in terms of plane waves that couple to these lines, leading to unwanted disturbance. This paper presents a delayed spectral formulation for the analysis of plane‐wave coupling to multiconductor transmission lines in both the frequency and time domains, called the DeRaG‐EMI model (short for “delay‐rational model based on Green's functions for electromagnetic interference”). The model is based on Green's functions and is described in terms of delayed differential equations in the time domain. The model is suitable for studying the EMI on multiconductor transmission lines in the case of incident fields. The coupling of a plane wave to a line is described in terms of equivalent sources that account for both the delay of the line and the delays of the incoming plane wave. The delay is explicitly extracted and incorporated into the model with hyperbolic functions. The DeRaG‐EMI model does not require any segmentation of the line. Numerical results confirm its accuracy and its improved performance compared with the previous spectral model and with the inverse fast Fourier transform technique.

  • 312.
    Binzel, R.P.
    et al.
    Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA; Chercheur Associé, IMCCE-Observatoire de Paris, France.
    DeMeo, F.E.
    Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.
    Bus, S.J
    Univ. Hawaii.
    Tokunaga, A.
    Univ. Hawaii.
    Burbine, T.H.
    Mount Holyoke College.
    Lantz, C.
    Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS/Université Paris Saclay, France.
    Polishook, D.
    Weizmann Institute.
    Morbidelli, A.
    Université Côte d'Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, CNRS, Lagrange, France.
    Birlan, M.
    IMCCE, Paris Observatory and Astronomical Institute of Romanian Academy, Bucharest, Romania.
    Vernazza, P.
    LAM–CNRS/AMU, Marseille, France.
    Burt, B.J
    Lowell Observatory.
    Moskovitz, N.
    Lowell Observatory.
    Slivan, S.M.
    Wellesley College.
    Thomas, C.A
    Northern Arizona University.
    Rivkin, A.S.
    Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory.
    Hicks, M.D.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
    Dunn, T.
    Colby College.
    Reddy, V.
    Univ. Arizona.
    Sanchez, J.A.
    Planetary Science Institute.
    Granvik, Mikael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Univ. Helsinki.
    Kohout, T.
    Univ. Helsinki.
    Compositional Distributions and Evolutionary Processes for the Near-Earth Object Population: Results from the MIT-Hawaii Near-Earth Object Spectroscopic Survey (MITHNEOS)2019Inngår i: Icarus (New York, N.Y. 1962), ISSN 0019-1035, E-ISSN 1090-2643, Vol. 324, s. 41-76Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Advancing technology in near-infrared instrumentation and dedicated planetary telescope facilities have enabled nearly two decades of reconnoitering the spectral properties for near-Earth objects (NEOs). We report measured spectral properties for more than 1000 NEOs, representing >5 percent of the currently discovered population. Thermal flux detected below 2.5 microns allows us to make albedo estimates for nearly 50 objects, including two comets. Additional spectral data are reported for more than 350 Mars-crossing asteroids. Most of these measurements were achieved through a collaboration between researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the University of Hawaii, with full cooperation of the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea. We call this project the MIT-Hawaii Near-Earth Object Spectroscopic Survey (MITHNEOS; myth-neos). While MITHNEOS has continuously released all spectral data for immediate use by the scientific community, our objectives for this paper are to: (1) detail the methods and limits of the survey data, (2) formally present a compilation of results including their taxonomic classification within a single internally consistent framework, (3) perform a preliminary analysis on the overall population characteristics with a concentration toward deducing key physical processes and identifying their source region for escaping the main belt. Augmenting our newly published measurements are the previously published results from the broad NEO community, including many results graciously shared by colleagues prior to formal publication. With this collective data set, we find the near-Earth population matches the diversity of the main-belt, with all main-belt taxonomic classes represented in our sample. Potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs) as well as the subset of mission accessible asteroids (ΔV≤ 7 km/s) both appear to be a representative mix of the overall NEO population, consistent with strong dynamical mixing for the population that interacts most closely with Earth. Mars crossers, however, are less diverse and appear to more closely match the inner belt population from where they have more recently diffused. The fractional distributions of major taxonomic classes (60% S, 20% C, 20% other) appear remarkably constant over two orders of magnitude in size (10 km to 100 m), which is eight orders of magnitude in mass, though we note unaccounted bias effects enter into our statistics below about 500m. Given the range of surface ages, including possible refreshment by planetary encounters, we are able to identify a very specific space weathering vector tracing the transition from Q- to Sq- to S-types that follows the natural dispersion for asteroid spectra mapped into principal component space. We also are able to interpret a shock darkening vector that may account for some objects having featureless spectra. Space weathering effects for C-types are complex; these results are described separately by Lantz, Binzel, DeMeo. (2018, Icarus 302, 10-17). Independent correlation of dynamical models with taxonomic classes map the escape zones for NEOs to main-belt regions consistent with well established heliocentric compositional gradients. We push beyond taxonomy to interpret our visible plus near-infrared spectra in terms of the olivine and pyroxene mineralogy consistent with the H, L, and LL classes of ordinary chondrites meteorites. Correlating meteorite interpretations with dynamical escape region models shows a preference for LL chondrites to arrive from the ν6 resonance and H chondrites to have a preferential signature from the mid-belt region (3:1 resonance). L chondrites show some preference toward the outer belt, but not at a significant level. We define a Space Weathering Parameter as a continuous variable and find evidence for step-wise changes in space weathering properties across different planet crossing zones in the inner solar system. Overall we hypothesize the relative roles of planetary encounters, YORP spin-up, and thermal cycling across the inner solar system.

  • 313.
    Birgersson, Christoffer
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Site to Cloud lösning i Microsoft Azure2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens samhälle så blir vi allt mer och mer beroende av den teknik vi utvecklar, därför är det av större vikt att vi alltid skall ha tillgång till den information som vi behöver för att kunna göra våra dagliga sysslor. Detta lägger större press på att de system som utvecklas skall fungera felfritt och man skall ha snabba responstider för att allt ska flyta på så bra som möjligt och om det så skulle bli en kritisk systemkrasch så skall inte informationen gå helt förlorad. Därför har det blivit populärt att ändra från att ha personliga servrar till att köra allt mer och mer applikationer och information i det så kallade ”molnet”.  Därför är det av allt större intresse att ha koll på några av de större leverantörerna av molntjänster och hur man kan använda dessa för att få en bättre verksamhet. Därför kommer denna rapport att handla om hur ett arbete utförts på TeamNorrs begäran för att göra en jämförelse mellan Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud Platform och Amazon Web Services. Den kommer även gå igenom hur responstiderna ser ut till några av världens datacenter med en utgångspunkt från TeamNorrs huvudkontor i Umeå. Rapporten går även igenom hur man själv kan testa på Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud Platform och Amazon Web Services, och hur man i Microsoft Azure kan göra en så kallad ”Site to Cloud” lösning med en VPN tunnel för att kunna skapa en MSSQL backup i molnet. Sedan diskuteras för och nackdelar med det arbete som utförts, samt vilka förbättringar som skulle kunna vara aktuella i framtiden.

  • 314.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Industry applications of multivariable control2002Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the face of environmental regulations, optimization of industrial processes becomes necessary. This doctoral thesis summarizes the results of three application-driven projects in automatic control that were aimed at process optimization in the steel industry. The objective of the projects was to apply advanced control strategies to two important processes in steel making, namely pulverized coal injection (PCI) in blast furnaces and LD converters. Firstly, an LQ multivariable controller with gas leakage detection system for PCI vessels is designed and analyzed. Secondly, a foam level control system for the LD converter process using an audio signal for measurement is designed. Thirdly, it is attempted to create a single line flow control system for PCI using a video camera. In the latter two cases the conservative approach of inferring unmeasurable physical quantities from the audio and video sources is used. Moreover, all the designs are tested through implementation or experiments at the industrial plant. The control and gas leakage detection system ended up as a full-scale industrial implementation, whereas the projects comprising audio and video information is still at an experimental stage. Work with implementation and experiments pays off in experiences and further insights in the application of control theory, and reveals weaknesses and gaps in the existing theory. Thus, application-driven projects lead to practical solutions and at the same time pose new theoretical challenges. Consequently, this chain of events is favorable to both practitioners and theoreticians, and in turn stimulates the collaboration of industry and academia. Unfortunately, in many research projects this sequence is reversed which complicates technology transfer into industry. As a spin-off effect from the multivariable control project of the PCI process two topics are addressed anew. In the problem of measurement/actuator pairs assignment for decentralized control, the geometrical background of Gramian-based interaction measures is clarified. It is shown that weighted Gramian-based interaction measures can be effectively used for control structure design. In control structure improvement of multivariable control systems, it is shown that improvement potentials can be deduced from coarse models of the closed-loop system. Finally, in the projects comprising audio and video signals in control applications, it is concluded that the theory is rather undeveloped and that these sources should be treated as a multivariable system.

  • 315.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Intelligent industrial Processes: Automatic Control Perspective2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligent Industrial Processes is an area of excellence in research and innovation at Luleå University of Technology (LTU), which was formed to promote multi-disciplinary research and innovation relating to Process Industrial Automation, also referred to as ProcessIT. LTU has a strong track record of research in close collaboration with process industries, where research results have often found their way into products and services strengthening the industries position on the global market.For this area of excellence a road mapping study with respect to Automatic Control research was conducted and is summarized in this white paper. The study shows that current research activities in Automatic Control are very relevant to Intelligent Industrial Processes, dealing with techniques for process understanding (modeling), design and implementation of control systems, and process monitoring, only to mention some.It is concluded that the design and establishment of an Open Research and Innovation Platform is essential for collaborative and multi-disciplinary research in the area. Such a software platform will enable industry partners to more efficiently work with their industrial processes and that in close collaboration with researchers and engineering businesses. At the same time researchers and innovators will have the opportunity to test and validate their results and innovations on real-life cases, enabling a swift exploitation of results. Some key principles for this software platform are the open source, open data and open innovation principles that need to be captured in the platform.The results of that study suggest initial automatic control research activities and a time line for stepping stones towards a full scale implementation of an Open Research and Innovation Platform by 2030.

  • 316.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Method for Controlling Vehicle Steering and Vehicle Behaviour: patent pendingPatent (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    A steering system (100) and a control algorithm for vehicle servo-steering which acts so that a steering-wheel torque applied by the driver is transformed to a vehicle behaviour. The steering system (100) consists of a steering rack (124), and tie rods (125) connected to the steered wheels of the vehicle (127). The vehicle's steering wheel (120) is connected to the rack (124) via a steering column (121). The steering column (121) contains a torsion bar (128) with a torque sensor in order to measure the steering torque applied by the driver. An assistance torque is given by an actuator (115) which is controlled by a control system (110). The control system (110) contains a control algorithm which translates the steering torque applied by the driver to a reference value in the form of a yaw and/or lateral vehicle state. The servo-system is controlled so that this reference value is attained

  • 317.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Multivariable control of a pneumatic conveying system1999Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate thesis deals with a multivariable controller of a pneumatic conveying system. The industrial process used to illustrate design, analysis and implementation of a multivariable controller is the injection of fine coal into a blast furnace. In the blast furnace process, coke is replaced by fine coal because of economical and environmental reasons. The coal mass flow to the blast furnace becomes a crucial parameter for its operation and hence a control system should be in place to maintain a constant flow. An optimal multivariable linear-quadratic controller has been designed in order to replace the conventional PI-controllers, which were not able to reach the desired control objectives. The design is analyzed by deriving the sensitivity functions of the closed loop system to noise, disturbances and uncertainties. The multivariable controller is then validated through experiments and test operation at the coal injection plant at SSAB Tunnplåt AB in Luleå, Sweden. The reached performance improvements compared with the conventional PI-controllers account for up to 80%. Finally, the controller is combined with a gas-leakage detection system to the commercially available product SafePCI, which is now installed and in operation at SSAB Tunnplåt AB in Luleå, Sweden.

  • 318.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Towards incremental control structure optimisation for process control2007Inngår i: Proceedings of the 46th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control: New Orleans, LA, 12 - 14 December 2007, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2007, s. 1832-1837Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the optimisation of control structures for multivariable process control systems. Incremental optimisation of control structures is the task of improving the performance of an existing control structure by incrementally introducing or removing dynamic connections in the control structure. A preliminary method for the detection of an improving structural change in an existing control structure is presented. The method is applied to the control of a pulverized coal injection process to show its validity and has proven to give good results.

  • 319.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Arvanitidis, Ioannis
    Jönsson, Per
    Department of Metallurgy, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Medvedev, Alexander
    Physical modelling and control of dynamic foaming in an LD-converter process2000Inngår i: Conference record of the 2000 IEEE Industry Applications Conference: thirty-fifth IAS Annual Meeting and World Conference on Industrial Applications of Electrical Energy, 8 - 12 October 2000, Roma (Italy), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2000, Vol. 4, s. 2584-2590Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 320.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Arvanitidis, Ioannis
    Jönsson, Pär
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Medvedev, Alexander
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Physical modeling and control of dynamic foaming in an LD-converter process2001Inngår i: IEEE transactions on industry applications, ISSN 0093-9994, E-ISSN 1939-9367, Vol. 37, nr 4, s. 1067-1073Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with physical modeling and control of dynamic foaming in the LD-converter process. An experimental setup consisting of a water model, digital signal processor, and PC hardware is built and shown to be useful for studying dynamic foaming. Furthermore, a foam height estimation algorithm is presented and validated through experiments. Finally, sound signals from the LD-converter and water model are compared and similarities between them are found.

  • 321.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Arvanitidis, Ioannis
    Medvedev, Alexander
    Jönsson, Pär
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Foam level control in a water model of the LD converter process2001Inngår i: Automation in mining, mineral, and metal processing 2001: a proceedings volume from the 10th IFAC symposium, Tokyo, Japan, 4 - 6 September 2001 / [ed] Mituhiko Araki, Oxford: Published for the International Federation of Automatic Control by Pergamon , 2001Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with estimation and control of foam level in dynamic foaming. An improved foam level estimation methodology from a microphone signal and its automatic calibration is presented. The dynamical reaction of the foam level on air lance movements is modelled using system identification. Based on the resulting mathematical model, a controller for foam level stabilisation is designed and applied to a water model, representing the LD converter process. It is shown that the foam level can be controlled using a microphone as the measurement device and air lance movement as the actuator.

  • 322.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Arvanitidis, Ioannis
    Department of Metallurgy, Royal Institute of Technology.
    Medvedev, Alexander
    Jönsson, Pär
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Foam level control in a water model of the LD converter process2001Inngår i: Elsevier IFAC Publications / IFAC Proceedings series, ISSN 1474-6670, Vol. 34, nr 18, s. 273-278Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with estimation and control of foam level in dynamic foaming. An improved foam level estimation methodology from a microphone signal and its automatic calibration is presented. The dynamical reaction of the foam level on air lance movements is modelled using system identification. Based on the resulting mathematical model, a controller for foam level stabilisation is designed and applied to a water model, representing the LD converter process. It is shown that the foam level can be controlled using a microphone as the measurement device and air lance movement as the actuator.

  • 323.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Arvanitidis, Ioannis
    Medvedev, Alexander
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Jönsson, Pär
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Foam level control in a water model of the LD converter process2003Inngår i: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 49-56Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with estimation and control of foam level in dynamic foaming. An improved foam level estimation methodology from a microphone signal and its automatic calibration is presented. The dynamical reaction of the foam level on air lance movements is modelled using system identification. Based on the resulting mathematical model, a controller for foam level stabilisation is designed and applied to a water model, representing the LD converter process. It is shown that the foam level can be controlled using a microphone as the measurement device and air lance movement as the actuator.

  • 324.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Atta, Khalid
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Towards Autonomous Synthesis of Building Substation Control Loops2016Inngår i: IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communications (SmartGridComm) 2016, Piscataway, NJ, 2016, s. 38-44, artikkel-id 7778735Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The main contribution of this paper is to study the feasibility of an automated approach to the assessment and synthesis of control loops in substations of a district heating and cooling system. The low-level controllers in substation are usually PID-type controllers and can not easily be changed. Moreover, the tuning of these controllers is often done in an ad-hoc manner and remains in the initial tuning despite changes in the substation over their operational life. Consequently, insufficient control performance due to false tuning can be misinterpreted as a hardware issue and lead to unnecessary replacement of parts.

    In order to solve this problem, the paper proposes an approach to assess the control loop performance based on logged data from substations, and to subsequently tune the current substation controllers, when no hardware issues are detected. The approach is applied to a well-known building substation model in simulation, which indicates that the approach is feasible.

    Analysis of acquired data from a number of substations in the DHC system of Luleå Energi AB, provides evidence for the problem and how the approach can be applied in its future implementation. Moreover, a number of challenges and future work are indicated.

  • 325.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Atta, Khalid
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Udén, Fredrik
    Improving District Heating System Operation through Control Configuration Selection and Adaptive Control2019Inngår i: 2019 18th European Control Conference (ECC), 2019, s. 2944-2949Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 326.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Brännström, Mattias
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Eidehall, Andreas
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Levin, Daniel
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Active safety system for a vehicle and a method for operation in an active safety systemPatent (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    An active safety system (10) for a vehicle comprising: - an external object sensor system (24) arranged on a host vehicle (12), said sensor system (24) being arranged to, within a detecting range (22) of said sensor system (24), sense objects (14 - 20) external to said host vehicle (12) and generate input data relating to said objects (14 - 20), wherein said input data include an object position ((R,È rel )(t)), - a threat indicator (26) which is arranged to assign a threat level (T k (t)) to each external object (k; 14 - 20) detected by the sensor system (24); and a method run in an active safety system.

  • 327.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Brännström, Mattias
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Jansson, Jonas
    VTI - Statens väg-och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Threat assessment for unexpected eventsPatent (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The invention relates to an onboard warning system for a host vehicle (1), a system comprising a sensor system detecting a presence of external objects (2) within a sensor detection area (3) and an external object movement determination unit (5) arranged to determine a measure of a relative movement of said external objects to said host vehicle. The invention is characterized in that the warning system further includes: a host vehicle movement determination unit (4) arranged to determine a relative movement of said host vehicle to a ground-fixed coordinate system; a unit (6) for determination of a measure of a absolute acceleration of said external objects to said ground-fixed coordinate system by transformation of the measure of the relative movement of said external objects to said host vehicle into said ground-fixed coordinate system using the relative movement of said host vehicle determined by said host vehicle movement determination unit; and a warning signal generator (7) arranged to generate a warning signal when said measure of absolute acceleration of said external objects relative to said fixed ground acceleration system in the sensor detection area exceeds a threshold value.

  • 328.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Brännström, Mattias
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Levin, Daniel
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Method for determining a measure for evaluating the behaviour of a driver of a vehiclePatent (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The invention relates to a method for determining a measure for evaluation of the behaviour of a driver of a vehicle comprising: determining the lateral position of the vehicle in relation to a lane and the state of the vehicle at a first instant (t1), determining the planned path which the vehicle would be expected follow from said first instant t1 considering the state of the vehicle at said first instant (t1), determining the planned lateral position of the vehicle in relation to a lane at a second instant (t2) being a time interval ( t PD ) after t1, if said planned path were followed, and determining a planned deviation being the difference between the planned lateral position at the second instant (t2) with the lateral position at the first instant (t1).

  • 329.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Brännström, Mattias
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Levin, Daniel
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Method for estimating a traffic situation: patent pendingPatent (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The invention relates to a method for estimating a traffic situation in relation to a vehicle comprising retrieving and storing data representative of the vehicle's state and retrieving and storing data representative of the environment surrounding the vehicle at a first instant (t1), retrieving and storing data representative of the vehicle's state and retrieving and storing data representative of environment surrounding the vehicle during an estimation period ( t TS ) following said first instant (t1), and using the data retrieved during the estimation period ( t TS ) to estimate the traffic situation at the first instant (t1).

  • 330.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Castano, Miguel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Eriksson, Tomas
    Optimation AB.
    Rönnberg, Johan
    K Algorithm Design.
    Olsson, Erik
    SCA Obbola AB.
    Ekholm, Nils-Olov
    Billerud Karlsborg AB.
    ProMoVis: a software environment for control structure selection in interconnected processes2012Inngår i: Proceedings of Reglermöte 2012, 2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 331.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Castano, Miguel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Johansson, Andreas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Projekt: Metoder för strukturell optimering av styrning i massatillverkning - MeSTA2008Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Styrsystemen i bruken består av tusentals reglerloopar och det är svårt att få en helhetssyn, och förstå de komplicerade sambanden mellan de olika processtegen. Med de nya verktygen blir det möjligt att analysera strukturen och generera helhetsstrategier för optimal styrning från ved till färdig pappersprodukt.

  • 332.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Castaño Arranz, Miguel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Moaveni, Bijan
    Control and Signaling Department, Iran University of Science and Technology.
    Perspectives and Future Directions in Control Configuration Selection (PiCCS): Workshop Notes2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The PiCCS workshop took place at Luleå University of Technology on 16th and 17th of August 2017. In total 20 researcher and engineers from industry participated in the event.

    The main aim of the workshop was to bring together expert in the field of Control Configuration Selection (CCS), which is a sub-field in the research area Automatic Control, to discuss the current state of the art and identify remaining challenges in the field. The identified challenges were formulated as future directions and are summarized in this report, together with an account of the discussion during these two days.

    The workshop explored the following topics Implementing optimal operation using simple control elements, Real time optimisation approach in control structure design and benchmarking, Data driven control configuration selection, and Reconfiguration of control structures. Based on the outcome of the discussion, a group of participants proposed an invited session for the 2018 IFAC AdChem Symposium, which has been accepted at the time of the publication of this report and consists of 6 papers addressing challenges discussed during the workshop.

  • 333.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Castaño, Miguel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Johansson, Andreas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    An Application Software For Visualization and Control Configuration Selection of Interconnected Processes2014Inngår i: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 26, s. 188-200Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new application software for control conguration selection of interconnected industrial processes,called ProMoVis. Moreover, ProMoVis is able to visualize process models and process layout at the physical leveltogether with the control system dynamics. The software consists of a builder part where the visual representationof the interconnected process is created and an analyzer part where the process is analyzed using dierent controlconguration selection tools.The conceptual idea of the software is presented and the subsequent design and implementation of ProMoVis isdiscussed. The implemented analysis methods are briey described including their usage and implementation aspects.The use of ProMoVis is demonstrated by an application study on the stock preparation process at SCA Obbola AB,Sweden. The results of this study are compared with the currently used control strategy.The study indicates that ProMoVis introduces a systematic and comprehensive way to perform control congurationselection. ProMoVis has been released under the Apache Open Source license.

  • 334.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Dudarenko, Natalia
    ITMO University.
    Evaluation of two methods for reconfiguration of multivariable controllers in process control systems2012Inngår i: Proceedings of 2012 IEEE Multi-Conference on Systems and Control, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2012, s. 627-633Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper two methods for the reconfiguration of multivariable decentralized controllers are evaluated for their feasibility in real life applications. As real-life case the air control system of a waste-to-energy plant in the pulp and paper industry is used. The first method is based on the factorization of the closed loop sensitivity transfer matrix and the second on degeneration factors of the closed loop system. The two candidate methods are evaluated by comparing their results with the results obtained from established interaction measures. Thereafter the reconfiguration of the control system is performed and subsequently re-assessed. The results show that both methods can be used to derive reasonable indications on how controllers can be reconfigured to achieve better performance of the closed loop system. It is also estimated that the performance of the air control system can be improved by 3% when a feed forward link is introduced in the current control structure

  • 335.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Dudarenko, Natalia
    Saint-Petersburg National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics.
    Reconfiguration of the air control system of a bark boiler2016Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, ISSN 1063-6536, E-ISSN 1558-0865, Vol. 24, nr 2, s. 565-577Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the problem of reconfiguration of controllers in the air control system of a bark boiler is addressed. The air control system of a bark boiler is considered as an interconnected multivariable system and the configuration of the controllers is adapted with the perspective to improve the closed loop performance of the system. The paper proposes a generic procedure for the reconfiguration of controllers using a combination of established theories together with rather recently proposed methods. The procedure is applied to a model of the air flow system, which is derived in this study. The results indicate that a significant performance improvement can be achieved by reconfiguring the control system instead of re-design the process. The improvement is quantified through theoretical assessment, simulation studies, and performance assessment of pilot tests at the bark boiler at SCA Obbola Sweden. It can be concluded that the proposed procedure is both efficient and easy to apply.

  • 336.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Eidehall, Andreas
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Brännström, Mattias
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Levin, Daniel
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    An object awareness determination system and a method for determining awareness of an objectPatent (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    An object awareness determination system comprising: - an external object sensor system (10) arranged on a host vehicle (14), said sensor system (10) being arranged to, within a detecting range (16) of said sensor system, sense objects (18) and generate input data relating to objects external to said host vehicle, wherein said input data include an object position (x,y), an object velocity ¦(x ,y )¦ and an object direction of movement ((x ,y )/¦(x ,y )¦) associated with each object in said detecting range (16), characterised in that said object awareness determination system further comprises; a controller (20) for determining awareness of the user to an object (22) that recently has entered the detecting range (16) of the external object sensor system, and a method for determining awareness of an object that recently has entered into a detecting range (16) of the external object sensor system

  • 337.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Riliskis, Laurynas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Road surface networks technology enablers for enhanced ITS2010Inngår i: 2010 IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference, VNC 2010: Jersey City, NJ ; 13-15 Dec 2010, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2010, s. 152-159Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased need for mobility has led to transportation problems like congestion, accidents and pollution. In order to provide safe and efficient transport systems great efforts are currently being put into developing Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) and cooperative systems. In this paper we extend proposed solutions with autonomous on-road sensors and actuators forming a wireless Road Surface Network (RSN). We present the RSN architecture and design methodology and demonstrate its applicability to queue-end detection. For the use case we discuss the requirements and technological solutions to sensor technology, data processing and communication. In particular the MAC protocol is detailed and its performance assessed through theoretical verification. The RSN architecture is shown to offer a scalable solution, where increased node density offers more precise sensing as well as increased redundancy for safety critical applications. The use-case demonstrates that RSN solutions may be deployed as standalone systems potentially integrated into current and future ITS. RSN may provide both easily deployable and cost effective alternatives to traditional ITS (with a direct impact independent of penetration rate of other ITS infrastructures - i.e., smart vehicles, safe spots etc.) as well as provide fine grain sensory information directly from the road surface to back-end and cooperative systems, thus enabling a wide range of ITS applications beyond current state of the art.

  • 338.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Hostettler, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Bardov, Vladimir
    Obertov, Dmitrii
    Vehicle Speed Determination (Patent pending)Patent (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 339.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Hostettler, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, CDT.
    Lundberg Nordenvaad, Magnus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Gylling, Arne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, CDT.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Mäkitaavola, Henrik
    Project: iRoad2011Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 340.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Johansson, Andreas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Castano, Miguel
    Rönnbäck, Stefan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Nordin, Tilda
    SCA Obbola AB.
    Ekholm, Nils-Olov
    Billerud Karlsborg AB.
    Interactive modeling and visualization of complex processes in pulp and paper making2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses a new approach to interactive modeling, visualization and analysis of complex industrial processes. A theoretical framework based on signal flow graphs for modeling and visualization is presented. Using this framework a software tool is designed, called ProMoVis, which can be used to model a process, to visualize the models together with process construction and control system, and to perform analysis regarding e.g. feasible control strategies for the process. Moreover, a case study is conducted, where ProMoVis is used to model, visualize and analyze a stock preparation plant. The results indicate that the proposed methods and tools improve work flows, increase process understanding and simplify decision making on control strategies for complex process.

  • 341. Birk, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Johansson, Andreas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Johansson, Robert
    SSAB Tunnplåt AB.
    Medvedev, Alexander
    Implementation and industrial experiences of advanced control and monitoring in coal injection2000Inngår i: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 327-35Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarizes the implementation and industrial experiences of a model-based control and gas-leakage detection system in a coal injection plant. It describes how advanced control and monitoring can be implemented in an industrial environment while taking human–machine interface aspects into consideration. The operation of the advanced and the conventional concept are compared regarding evaluation data, experiences and observations of operators and maintenance personnel. It is shown that the advanced control and monitoring system improves plant performance without disturbing routines in plant operation and, moreover, is positively accepted by the plant operators.

  • 342. Birk, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Johansson, Andreas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Medvedev, Alexander
    Control and gas leakage detection in a fine coal injection plant: design and experiments1998Inngår i: Elsevier IFAC Publications / IFAC Proceedings series, ISSN 1474-6670, Vol. 31, nr 23, s. 271-276Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with design and implementation of a combined model-based control and gas leakage detection system applied to the pulverized coal injection plant at SSAB Tunnplåt AB in Luleå, Sweden. The structure and functions of the in-house control and process monitoring system SafePCI are described. SafePCI is experimentally tested and has successfully completed two weeks test operation. The evaluation of the test operation indicate that combined model-based control and gas leakage detection is a major improvement for control systems in the process industry.

  • 343. Birk, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Johansson, Andreas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Medvedev, Alexander
    Control and gas leakage detection in a fine coal injection plant: design and experiments1998Inngår i: Automation in mining, mineral, and metal processing 1998, (MMM'98): a proceedings volume from the 9th IFAC Symposium, Cologne, Germany, 1 - 3 September 1998 / [ed] J. Heidepriem, Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1998, s. 271-276Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with design and implementation of a combined model-based control and gas leakage detection system applied to the pulverized coal injection plant at SSAB Tunnplåt AB in Luleå, Sweden. The structure and functions of the in-house control and process monitoring system SafePCI are described. SafePCI is experimentally tested and has successfully completed two weeks test operation. The evaluation of the test operation indicate that combined model-based control and gas leakage detection is a major improvement for control systems in the process industry.

  • 344. Birk, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Johansson, Andreas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Medvedev, Alexander
    Model based control for a fine coal injection plant1999Inngår i: I E E E Control Systems Magazine, ISSN 0888-0611, Vol. 19, nr 1, s. 33-43Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Modeling, control, and gas leakage detection in the coal injection process are discussed. It is shown that by use of model-based methods, the flow and pressure of the coal injection vessel are reliably controlled. With the new control law, the coal mass flow can be used as a control parameter for the blast furnace. High injection rates can be used and more coke substituted, This is expected to yield a cost reduction in the iron production. An experimental comparison of the conventional control unit with the one suggested in this article shows that an improvement of the process efficiency can be reached by other means than increasing the capacity of the plant

  • 345.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Johansson, Andreas
    Medvedev, Alexander
    Johansson, R
    SSAB Tunnplåt AB.
    Model-based estimation of molten metal analysis in the LD converter: experiments at SSAB Tunnplat AB in Lulea2001Inngår i: Conference record of the 2001 IEEE Industry Applications Conference: thirty-sixth IAS annual meeting ; 30 September - 4 October 2001, Hyatt Regency Hotel, Chicago, Illinois, USA, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2001, Vol. 2, s. 1349-1353Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiences from field tests of a model-based molten metal analysis estimation system for the LD converter process are reported. Experiments have been carried out during a six-months long period on two converters at SSAB Tunnplat AB in Lulea, Sweden. The results achieved prove the viability of the approach taken and indicate its high potential regarding estimation accuracy and robustness. It is also concluded that some further system development is necessary to enable modeling of additives and lance level before the system can be recommended for permanent installation

  • 346.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Johansson, Andreas
    Medvedev, Alexander
    Johansson, Robert
    SSAB Tunnplåt AB.
    Model-based estimation of molten metal analysis in the LD converter: experiments at SSAB Tunnplat AB in Lulea2002Inngår i: IEEE transactions on industry applications, ISSN 0093-9994, E-ISSN 1939-9367, Vol. 38, nr 2, s. 565-570Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiences from field tests of a model-based molten metal analysis estimation system for the Linz and Donawitz converter process are reported. Experiments have been carried out during a six-month-long period on two converters at SSAB Tunnplat AB, Lulea, Sweden. The achieved results prove viability of the approach taken and indicate its high potential regarding estimation accuracy and robustness. It is also concluded that some further system development is necessary to enable modeling of additives and lance level before the system can be recommended for permanent installation

  • 347.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Marklund, Olov
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Medvedev, Alexander
    Video monitoring of pulverized coal injection in the blast furnace2001Inngår i: Conference record of the 2001 IEEE Industry Applications Conference: thirty-sixth IAS annual meeting ; 30 September - 4 October 2001, Hyatt Regency Hotel, Chicago, Illinois, USA, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2001, Vol. 2, s. 1354-1358Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel approach for monitoring and control of the coal powder injection in a blast furnace is presented and discussed. Image analysis of video recordings is used as a means to estimate the instantaneous coal flow. Initial experiments at the blast furnace no 3 of SSAB Tunnplat AB Lulea, Sweden, have been performed and first hand results on modelling and control of a single injection line are given

  • 348.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Medvedev, Alexander
    A note on gramian-based interaction measures2003Inngår i: Proceedings, European Control Conference: ECC 2003, 2003Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This note deals with recently developed gramian based interaction measures. The measures are used for the choice of measurement/actuator pairs for decentralized control, where the controller remains unspecified. The theoretical background of these measures is clarified and a geometrical interpretation is given. Moreover, a generalization of the Hankel interaction index array to different gramian based system norms is proposed and it is shown that the introduction of weighted gramians makes the criteria more flexible and superior compared to the augmenting with additional filter dynamics. Finally, some examples are given to illustrate the usefulness of the generalized measures.

  • 349.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Medvedev, Alexander
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Pressure and flow control of a pulverized coal injection vessel1997Inngår i: Proceedings of the 1997 IEEE International Conference on Control Applications: October 5 - 7, 1997, Sheraton Hartford Hotel, Hartford, Connecticut, USA, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 1997, s. 127-132Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Deals with model-based pressure and flow control of a fine coal injection vessel for the use of the blast furnace injection process. By means of system modeling and identification, the structure and behavior of the coal injection vessel are analyzed. It is shown that by use of model-based design, the control goals can be reached and the control performance can be significantly improved compared to the conventional PI-controllers. Several dynamic models of the plant are developed. A number of control strategies are presented and compared by means of practical tests. The LQG design method is used to design the controllers. All the controllers are validated through experiments on the coal injection plant at SSAB Tunnplat in Lulea, Sweden

  • 350.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Medvedev, Alexander
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Pressure and flow control of a pulverized coal injection vessel2000Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, ISSN 1063-6536, E-ISSN 1558-0865, Vol. 8, nr 6, s. 919-929Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with model-based pressure and flow control of a fine coal injection vessel for the use of the blast furnace process. A control system should be in place to maintain a constant coal mass flow from the injection vessel to the blast furnace, since irregularities in the coal mass flow cause significant variations in the hot metal quality. By means of system modeling, the structure and behavior of the coal injection vessel are analyzed. It is shown that by use of a model-based design, the control objectives can be reached and the control performance can be significantly improved compared to the proportional integral (PI) controllers. Alternative control strategies are discussed and compared with the conventional design. The linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) design method is used to design a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) controller which is validated through experiments on the coal injection plant at SSAB Tunnplat, Lulea, Sweden.

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