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  • 301.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Lived music - multi-dimensional musical experience: Implications for music education2013Inngår i: Philosophy Study, ISSN 2159-5313, E-ISSN 2159-5321, Vol. 3, nr 12, s. 1124-1134Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the field of music education, there is a need of approaching the holistic view of musical experience from different angles. Therefore, the aim of this article is to investigate the phenomenon of multi-dimensional musical experience from a life-world-phenomenological perspective and indicate its benefits to music education. The analysis is informed by Dufrenne’s philosophical writings regarding the phenomenology of aesthetic experience and also draws on Merleau-Ponty, Heidegger, interpreted by Benson and Ford, together with Schutz. These philosophers provide tools for understanding musical experience from a bodily, existential, and sociological perspective, and their complementary ideas about being and learning can be applied to musical experience in the first case and secondly its influences for music educational praxis. Firstly, the concept of lived music is defined through a discussion of dimensions of musical experience; the phenomenology of aesthetic experience; the use of several senses; the heard and the hear-able; apperception; and musical dwelling. Then, the sharing of experience in musical dwelling and its relevance to the concept of imagination is highlighted. I will also emphasize the importance of the view of human beings as holistic bodily subjects. Finally, the article includes a discussion regarding the implications of a life-world-phenomenological view of musical experience to music education.

  • 302.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Livsvärldsfenomenologi som grund för musikpedagogisk forskning: ontologi och metodologi2003Inngår i: Några nedslag i livsvärlden: teori och praktik i pedagogisk forskning, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2003, s. 43-61Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 303.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Lose control, listen to each-other, and create: understanding cooperative music making from a chiasmatic perspective2014Inngår i: Reconstruction: Studies in Contemporary Culture, ISSN 1547-4348, E-ISSN 1547-4348, Vol. 14, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 304.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Meaning making in Swedish compulsory schools: What do we know and what do we need to investigate further? SYMPOSIUM2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This symposium aims to offer a picture of how and from what perspectives musical meaning making in Swedish compulsory schools, has been and currently is being investigated. The last years two educational reforms with strong influence on the subject music in compulsory school have been launched: A new curriculum with syllabuses and a new grading system, as well as a new teacher education program are currently being implemented. The expectations of what pupils in schools should be able to handle in the subject music, have been more clarified, specified, and subject specific, while at the same time few student are recruited for music teacher training programmes for the years 1-9. Hence, music education research that focus how musical meaning making in this new setting is taking place, what the steering documents could imply, and what the conditions for musical meaning making look like is important to pay attention to. By mapping what we already know, and what is currently investigated, we can also get information about what should and could be investigated in the future. Musical learners experience music as listeners, performers and composers in different styles and contexts. Through meaning making in the musical world pupils should reach a feeling of I can express myself through music, I can compose, I can make music, and I can listen to and experience music. In such processes pupils are expected to experience and learn to handle, for example, form, texture, timbre, pitch, linearity, harmonies, rhythms, and movement, in different styles and contexts. The combination of musical parameters, how they sound as one, constitutes music, or a phenomenon possible to experience as music. Hence, music is not constituted solely by the sum of the musical parameters, but also by the gaps between them; gaps which make meaning-making possible. Through interaction within musical styles and social contexts music show itself as a whole, where acoustic, structural, bodily, tensional, emotional, and existential dimensions of meaning-making are offered.In earlier studies I have investigated how musical meaning making is made possible in Swedish schools from a teachers perspective, and currently I am, together with Olle Zandén, investigating how the implementation of the new grading system influence possibilities for musical learning, as well as to what extent the new syllabuses offers holistic musical experience, partly together with Susanna Leijonhufvud. In the introduction I will briefly mention and attempt to map earlier published research connected to the theme of the symposium by Börje Stålhammar, Ralf Sandberg, Claes Ericsson, and Monica Lindgren, together with more recent studies by Anniqa Lagercrantz, Mikael Persson, Katharina Dahlbäck, Manfred Scheid and Tommy Strandberg. However , the symposium will primarily present recent studies by the researchers themselves that approach musical meaning making in the compulsory schools from different angels and theoretical perspectives . The short presentations will be summarized and discussed by Catharina Christophersen. In the following the focus of the participating researchers’ work is presented.

  • 305.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Musikdidaktik – a central subject in music teacher education!?: A question of reflected profession-directed learning within and between relational communicative arenas. Contribution to Symposium2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Musikdidaktik is a central part of music teacher education and addresses the practical, theoretical and philosophical perspectives that inform music teaching and learning. Its roots are in the classical idea of didactics set out by Rathke and Comenius, and it has been applied to teacher education since it concerns teaching and learning in organized settings, such as schools.In one of the part-projects included in the overarching MUPP-study (Brøske Danielsen & Johansen, ed. 2012), music teacher educators, practicum supervisors, and student music teachers from the Nordic countries were interviewed about educational quality in Musikdidaktik. Specifically, the interviews addressed le¬arning, identity, and choice of content. The interview material were analysed from different perspectives, and different theoretical angels, which three chapters of Educating Music Teachers in the New Millennium (ibid.) written by Ferm Thorgersen and Johansen illustrate. The perceptions of quality among the different groups of agents have been investigated, as well as the relations between the subject musikdidaktik and the practicum field. In my contribution to the symposium I will slightly present the answers to the following questions: When, where and how does holistic quality learning of Musikdidaktik take place?; What constitute the enabling and disabling factors in student music teachers’ learning trajectories between communities of practice within the institution and in the remote practicum?; What function, task, and aim of practicum supervising in music teacher education becomes visible through supervisors’ perceptions and experiences as related to teaching and learning quality? Summing up I will draw some lines from the general answers, mainly concerning reflective profession-directed learning within and between relational and communicative arenas, and indicate some future challenges for music teacher education.

  • 306.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Openness and awareness: a phenomenological study of music teaching and learning interaction2005Inngår i: Proceedings of the Fourth International Research In Music Education Conference (RIME), Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 2005Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 307.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Openness and awareness: roles and demands of music teachers2006Inngår i: Music Education Research, ISSN 1461-3808, E-ISSN 1469-9893, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 237-250Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to present and discuss the background to and the result of my thesis Openness and awareness-a phenomenological study of music teaching and learning interaction , which studies music teachers in Swedish ordinary schools teaching pupils aged from 10 to 12. The aim of the study was to describe, analyse and try to understand music teaching and learning interactions between teachers and pupils in music lessons in Years 4-6 of compulsory school. The focus was on the teacher's words, actions and reflections. In what ways do teachers interact with pupils in musical learning processes? What aspects of teaching and learning interactions are important when the aim is to offer the pupils, musical experience? I present the results from my methodological standpoints, which belong to a life-world-phenomenological way of thinking. This implies that the world is around us and in us, we are in the world, but experience it in different ways depending on our earlier experiences. I present my view of learning music, which among other things emphasises that learning is not constituted in a vacuum, but is instead found in a complex context. These presumptions made me choose observation and written reflections as methods to capture the music teaching and learning interactions. The answers to the research questions, themes and aspects of music teaching and learning interactions, are presented in two separate parts. The first part is based on the observations with themes focusing on how the teachers related to the incorporated musical knowledge of the pupils; in which ways were the teachers open to the initiatives of the pupils; how musical experience was made possible; how the acts of the pupils were handled; and finally, which symbols were used in the interactions. The second part is based on the teachers' reflections and is presented in two themes; conditions that influence the quality of the interaction; and balance. I make clear how the themes relate to each other, and describe the phenomenon of teaching and learning interaction as a whole. I also attempt to illuminate the roles and demands of the teachers through a close look at one of the themes: making further musical experience possible .

  • 308.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Peer assessment in higher education: teatchers' perceptions of student involvement2007Inngår i: ECTS and assesment in higher education: Conference proceedings. EM 57 / [ed] Kent Löfgren, Umeå universitet. Enheten för pedagogiska mätningar , 2007, s. 49-58Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 309.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Phenomenological ontology and epistemology in relation to music educational settings2006Inngår i: Nordisk musikkpedagogisk forskning: Årbok, ISSN 1504-5021, Vol. 8, s. 91-102Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 310. Ferm, Cecilia
    Playing to teach music: embodiment and identity-making in musikdidaktik2008Inngår i: Music Education Research, ISSN 1461-3808, E-ISSN 1469-9893, Vol. 10, nr 3, s. 361-372Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Musikdidaktik is a central subject within music teacher training in the Nordic countries. In musikdidaktik acts of teaching (music) and learning (musikdidaktik) constitute possibilities for identity formation. The objective of learning is closely connected to their future profession, in which musical and educational competences are blended, combined and used in different ways. The study presented in this article was based on a phenomenological way of thinking about education as an arena for identity development. Students' identity formation in relation to their education in musikdidaktik was investigated. In an interview study where seven musikdidaktik professors and three groups of music teacher trainees participated, the following questions were asked from a phenomenological perspective: How can education in musikdidaktik function as an arena for identity formation? What constitutes processes of music teacher trainees' identity formation? What connections can be seen between ways of teaching musikdidaktik and identity? What competences (are expected to) develop during the processes and how are they connected to employability? The results show that trainee identity formation processes can be communicated. It became evident that awareness of and reflections upon one's own experiences, learning, goals and identity development are important issues in the trainees' identity formation processes. That the trainees had the possibilities to try to act as music teachers proved to be important. When it comes to the challenges for the professor, they are primarily concerned with handling situations in a way that encourages the growth of the trainees, but also challenges them to reflect; and to be a role model, but also to offer them meetings with different role models. The competences that the trainees develop are combined in different ways within the trainees' identity formation. Musikdidaktik constitutes an arena where the students should have the opportunity to be in the world as music teachers through playing to teach music.

  • 311.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Researching dance for hard-of-hearing children from a life world approach2005Inngår i: Researching Different Approaches to Music Education Practice with Young Children, European Network for Music Educators and Researchers of Young Children, MERYC , 2005, s. 26-31Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with this paper is to make clear and discuss the research approach as well as the ontological and methodological perspective of a project which focuses hard of hearing children in a dance educational setting. The goal with the project is to offer the children participation in dance activities, let them use and become aware about their bodies, and furthermore communicate and strengthen their self-esteem. One further thought is that an improved communication skill, in a longer perspective, can inspire to use the spoken language. I put questions as; in what ways do the children participate in the activities? What space does the interest and initiatives of the children in the activities get? How do they move and communicate in the activities? The dance educational setting is constituted by the children, the teachers, the room, the music and the relations between these parts. My starting-point is that you cannot separate any of those parts and the situation is also dependent on time and the participants' arlier experiences. I have a life-world-phenomenological view on research, knowledge as well as communication. This project has an action research approach which includes video observation and written communication. I will make clear and discuss the consequences of this. Finally I take the opportunity to discuss the following points; what aspects are important in a further development of this study? Suggestions for important problems and possibilities in further work with analysis of the material. Consequences of approach, research-method and startingpoints?

  • 312.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    The music classroom – a local place and a public space: Democratic Education Towards Music as a Language of Us All2015Inngår i: Svensk tidskrift för musikforskning, ISSN 1653-9672, Vol. 97, s. 61-73Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several youngsters need and use art-based expressions to communicate their feelings, experiences and ideas. To be able to handle different forms of expressions is a human right. But even if this is something that we all can agree upon, several questions have to be formulated. The aim of the paper is to present the message of democracy in current curricula, and investigate Hannah Arendt’s thoughts about democracy as a guideline for organizing of music education in Swedish schools. What challenges and priorities do music educators achieve from Hannah Arendt’s writings in this respect? Arendt underlines that human beings become clear to them selves and to others through interaction in the social life. In those interactive activities we need different forms of languages to try, modify, and create ideas and insights. Questions that have to be elaborated upon when using Arendt’s view of democracy are for example; Who is expected to make their voices heard, who is seen as a possible participant, and who has access to the specific areas?

  • 313.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    The music classroom: a local place and a public space; Hannah Arendt’s thinking about democracy as a fundament for educational activities that offer music as a language of us all2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several youngsters need and use art-based expressions to communicate their feelings, experiences and ideas. To be able to handle different forms of expressions is a human right. But even if this is something that we all can agree upon, several questions have to be formulated. The aim of the paper is to present the message of democracy in current curricula, and investigate Hannah Arendt’s thoughts about democracy as a guideline for organizing of music education in Swedish schools. What challenges and priorities do music educators achieve from Hannah Arendt’s writings in this respect? A crucial starting point in Arendt’s thinking was the balance between Vita Activa (the action life), consisting of work, production and action, and Vita Contemplativa (the philosophical thinking life) consisting of different forms of thinking. Arendt sought to see and make connections between the two possible. She meant that Vita Activa takes place in the world wherein we are born, through speech and action, where actors and audience depend on each other. In the social context we become clear to our selves and to others through interaction. In those interactive activities we need different forms of languages to try, modify, and create ideas and insights. But to reach common sense, we also need to step back, Arendt says, and think, imagine, value and reflect. In the paper the thoughts are used and connected to contexts, which are constituted by communication in and through music. Questions that have to be elaborated upon when using Arendt’s view of democracy are for example; Who is expected to make their voices heard, who is seen as a possible participant, and who has access to the specific areas? The paper discuss how and to what extent Arendt’s thoughts about democracy can be used to put light on how Swedish schools, based on expressions in the current curricula, can offer Music as a language for all.

  • 314.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    The perils, possibilities and practices of assessment in music education2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The tension between assessment and music teaching and learning within formal schooling has been an enduring educational dilemma. The ‘possibilities’ of assessment in music education is further agitated by recent neo-liberalistic accountability movements and standards agendas in the Western world. The question is how assessment impact on classroom practices. We ask ourselves how students' expressed 'creativity' and musical learning can be responded upon and graded, and what practices - including formative feedback processes - that encourage students’ musical learning. The symposium takes a holistic view of musical learning and knowledge as a starting point, and aims at discussing and reflecting upon possibilities and challenges with assessment in schools. Holistic or multi-dimensional musical learning can be defined as structural, tensional, acoustical, bodily, emotional and existential, which in turn can be expressed as skills, analytic knowledge, creativity, expressivity and music making. One issue that will be treated uniformly across the presentations at the symposium is what constitutes the formulation of achievement criteria that are connected to practice, that are possible to communicate and at the same time describe relevant qualities of expressed musical knowledge. Another issue is how teachers use criteria in formative assessment, and how students’ learning and creativity is encouraged, rather than limited. A third one is how achievement criteria can help students to reflect upon and assess their own musical learning and knowledge. Related to those issues are questions about the language used in formulation and communication of achievement criteria, which in turn is connected to imaginations and expectations among teachers. How can collaborative aspects of musical knowledge be taken into account, and in what ways can holistic musical learning be expressed in action by students and assessed by teachers? Last but not least questions of quality and equality relevant to reflect upon, which also will be done. The symposium will be dialogical and interactive in nature with audience insights shared on key thematic issues.   We wish to use ”a whole morning”. First part: Introduction 10 min, presentation 1: 12 min, pres 2: 12 min, pres 3: 12 min, pres 4: 12 min, pres 5: 12 min. First summary, and a couple of questions 10 min. (Coffe break) Second part, pres 6: 12 min, pres 7: 12 min, pres 8: 12 min, pres 9: 12 min, pres 10: 12 min, dialogical summary 10-15 min, discussion the rest of the time.   Each speaker includes questions, or another kind of ”bridge” to the next speaker in his/her presentation to keep the read thread throughout the presentations, which we think also will engage the audience.   Introduction: Assessment of expressed musical learning form a holistic point of view – the weight and danger of conceptualisation. Cecilia Ferm Thorgersen, Associate Professor in Music Education, School of Music in Piteå, Luleå University of Technology, SWEDEN (10 min)   What can various approaches to the assessment of music learning tell us about our values and philosophical strands when seen in a historical perspective? Geir Johansen, Professor in Music Education, Norwegian Academy of Music, Oslo, NORWAY (12min).   Revisioning assessment of music creativities in educational settings: From practice to theory. Pamela Burnard, Associate professor, Cambridge University, GB, (12 min).   Teachers as artists and artists as teachers. Meeting the challenge of artistic assessment in music education program: a pragmatist suggestion. Lauri Väkevä, Professor, Sibelius Academy, Helsinki, FINLAND.   Equal assessment of musical knowledge in relation of creativity and holistic musical learning, Fredrik Påhlsson, PhD-student, Royal College of Music in Stockholm, SWEDEN. (12 min)   Students' use of criterion based, formative assessment in lower secondary schools.  Jon-Helge Sætre, Faculty of Education and International Studies, Oslo University College, Oslo, NORWAY. (12min)   The dimension of Self Concept in assessment of musical learning in primary schools. Joakim Hellgren, PhD-student, School of Music, Luleå University of Technology, SWEDEN (12 min).   Music teachers reflections upon new classroom assessment practices in Norwegian lower secondary school. John Vinge, PhD-student, Norwegian Academy of Music, Oslo/ Hedmark University Collage NORWAY (12 min)   Some reflections upon formulations of achievement criteria for assessment in music within a Swedish national curriculum reform. Annika Falthin, PhD-student, Royal College of Music in Stockholm, SWEDEN: (12 min)   From conceptions of quality to criteria and back again: In search for a professional didactical discourse on qualities in popular music. Olle Zandén, Assistant professor, Stockholm, University, SWEDEN. (12 min).   Summing up – challenges and possibilities in dialogue Cecilia and Pamela (10-15 min)   Discussion 15 min.    

  • 315.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    To learn an aesthetic language: a study of how hard of hearing children internalise dance2007Inngår i: Australian Online Journal of Arts Education, ISSN 1833-1505, Vol. 3, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 316.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Traversing the chiasm of lived teaching and learning experience: Embodied practicum in music teacher education2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier studies of educational quality in music teacher training have valued practicum as one of the most important parts of music teacher education. Not a least have those experiences in the field been appreciated by students. In order to develop high quality music teacher education, we have to understand what happens in practicum contexts; in the meeting between, teacher students, practicum supervisors, students, steering documents, culture, and music, when students perceive that they learn how to teach music in adequate ways. This paper tries to understand such meetings and learning situations from a phenomenological perspective, namely based on the concept ”chiasm” as developed by Maruce-Merlau-Ponty. Expressed by the Greek letter χ (chi), chiasm means a crisscrossing of the perceiving and the perceived, self and other, language and meaning. Chiasm also signifies an inter-twining, an intersection, reversibility, or the process of flowing of phenomena one into another. Chiasm is a contextual encounter of individuals and groups who, by taking action together, can change and transform their life-worlds. Chiasm can symbolically represent practicum as an intertwining of theory and practice. Like the crosspiece, practicum within music teacher education can become an endless journey and the meeting place of a student teacher’s self with the world of different and unique music teaching and learning experiences, unpredictable turns, challenges and wonders. This paper attempts to communicate a glimpse of such a journey, expressed through five music teacher students’ stories. The stories were produced through individual and group interviews performed within a larger Norwegian-Swedish research project focusing educational quality in music teacher education. Hopefully the analysed stories can contribute with knowledge about how individuals and groups embody knowledge about their musical teaching and learning life-worlds, whether and how they exercise the power of self-reflective thinking and apply it to solve problems, to challenge existing assumptions, and to create new spaces and conditions for change, through action.

  • 317.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Traversing the chiasm of lived teaching and learning experience: embodied practicum in music teacher education2015Inngår i: Nordisk musikkpedagogisk forskning: Årbok, ISSN 1504-5021, Vol. 15, s. 9-24Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier studies of educational quality in music teacher education have valued practicum as one of the most important parts of music teacher education. Not a least have those experiences in the field been appreciated by students. In order to develop high quality music teacher education, we have to understand what happens in practicum contexts: in the meeting between, teacher students, practicum supervisors, students, steering documents, culture, and music, when student teachers perceive that they learn how to teach music in adequate ways. This paper tries to understand such meetings and learning situations from a phenomenological perspective, namely based on the concept ”chiasm” as developed by Maurice Merlau-Ponty. Expressed by the Greek letter χ (chi), chiasm means a crisscrossing of the perceiving and the perceived, self and other, and language and meaning. Chiasm also signifies an inter-twining, an intersection, reversibility, or the process of flowing of phenomena one into another. By that, chiasm can symbolically represent practicum as an intertwining of theory and practice. Like the crosspiece, practicum within music teacher education can become an endless journey and the meeting place of a student teacher’s self with the world of different and unique music teaching and learning experiences, unpredictable turns, challenges and wonders. This article attempts to communicate a glimpse of such a journey, expressed through five music teacher students’ stories. The stories were produced through individual and group interviews performed within a larger Norwegian-Swedish research project focusing educational quality in music teacher education. Hopefully the analysed stories contribute with knowledge about how individuals and groups embody knowledge about their musical teaching and learning life-worlds. Key-words; music teacher education, practicum, educational quality, chiasm, flesh

  • 318.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Ville och musikundervisingen2011Inngår i: Grundskoletidningen, ISSN 1652-7844, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 319.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Ömsesidig nyfikenhet och respekt: fenomenologisk didaktik som utgångspunkt för musikundervisning i grundskolans lägre åldrar2009Inngår i: Nordisk musikkpedagogisk forskning: Årbok, ISSN 1504-5021, Vol. 11, s. 161-177Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In music educational discussions of today, the engagement regarding youngsters' musical everyday culture, identity and knowledge is prominent. So is what status these musical features get in the schools' music lessons. Arguments are put forward that adolescents of today experience music in school, and music in their lives as separate entities, although playing of popular music is the most common activity within music classes at school. A question is what can be said to constitute adolescents' everyday culture, and what it implies to develop musical knowledge within school-frames. Such discussions steered my curiosity towards young children's experiences of music within and outside school. The specific aim for the article was to illuminate and discuss what consequences life-world-phenomenological Didaktik might have for music education in the early stages of compulsory school. The results of the philosophical investigation imply that a life-world-phenomenological way of thinking about teaching and learning music can facilitate teachers in how to offer pupils to develop their embodied experiences and knowledge. Phenomenological Didaktik encourage teachers to take care of children's musical cultures, and to challenge them in common learning situations through mutual curiosity and respect. How children's musical knowledge and experience can be related to teaching content is also illuminated in the article.

  • 320.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Öppenhet och medvetenhet: en fenomenologisk studie av musikdidaktisk interaktion2004Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    My interest in the problem I have chosen has grown from my practise as a music teacher in Swedish compulsory schools. My ontological and epistemological standpoints belong to a life-world-phenomenological way of thinking. By this I mean that the world is around us and in us, we are in the world, but experience it in different ways from our earlier experiences. An assumption in the study is that method and theory can hardly be separated from each other. When it comes to my view on teaching and learning, I have a holistic perspective. I don’t think you can separate content and methods. I think that the development of an individuals’ music experience and music knowledge needs to be in focus. With that foundation of understanding as a startingpoint, I believe that learning is constituted by our experiences in the world. I will also stress that learning does not arise nor is it formed in a vacuum, it is instead found in a complex context. The aim of the study is to describe, analyse and try to understand music teaching and learning interaction between teachers and pupils at music lessons in years 4-6 of compulsory school. There is a focus on the teacher’s words, actions and reflections. In what ways do teachers interact with pupils in musical learning processes? What aspects of the teaching and learning interaction are important when the aim is to offer the pupils, musical experience? How do the teachers reflect upon the interaction? According to a phenomenological way of looking at the world, the mean is to find a method that makes it possible to understand individuals and social groups from the lived relations they have to their environments, the world they live and participate in. The purpose is not solely to enlighten the things that already exist, but to see new connections between what is already existing. I followed three teachers for one semester, observed them and let them reflect via e-mail on the notes I wrote them every week. The generated written material was analysed by a method inspired by phenomenology. The results are presented in two parts. The first part is based on the observations. It is presented as themes and aspects that through the analysis seemed to be important and represent different sides of the phenomenon. The themes focus the following; How the teachers related to the incorporated musical knowledge of the pupils, in which way the teachers were open to the initiatives of the pupils, how musical experience was made possible, how the acts of the pupils were handled and finally which symbols were used in the interaction. The second part is based on the teachers’ reflections and is presented in two themes; Conditions that influence the quality of the interaction, and balance. Each theme is commented, related to practise and earlier research, and put into a broader context. In the last chapter some pervading characteristics such as inter-subjective creation of meaning, and distribution of responsibility are discussed.

  • 321.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Alerby, Eva
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Pedagogik språk och Ämnesdidaktik.
    Dance education: a question of embodied knowledge2004Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 322.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Alerby, Eva
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Pedagogik språk och Ämnesdidaktik.
    Konsten att dansa eller dansandets konst: dans som förkroppsligad kunskap2006Inngår i: Lärandets konst: betraktelser av estetiska dimensioner i lärandet, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2006, s. 157-168Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 323.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Gullberg, Anna-Karin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Hentschel, Linn
    Umeå universitet.
    Mars, Annette
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Nyberg, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Wachenfeldt, Thomas von
    Umeå universitet.
    Collaborative learning as Common Sense: Structure, Roles and Participation Amongst Doctoral Students and Teachers in Music Education – Beyond Communities of Practice2017Inngår i: Visions of Research in Music Education, ISSN 1938-2065, Vol. 29Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The article communicates an investigation of how collaborative learning is constituted in a PhD-course, namely Collaborative learning in music educational settings. The course was organized and run in a way that aimed to investigate, develop and encourage collaborative learning among students and teachers in the third circle. Material produced and analysed included log-books, assignments, peer-response, after-thoughts, and a Facebook discussion-thread. The results are presented as descriptions of the constituent parts of collaborative learning occurring in the “rooms” of the course. The results show the importance of structure as well as awareness when it comes to roles and kinds of participation.

  • 324. Ferm, Cecilia
    et al.
    Johansen, Geir
    Professors’ and trainees’ perceptions of educational quality in musikdidaktik as related to preconditions for deep learning2008Inngår i: British Journal of Music Education, ISSN 0265-0517, E-ISSN 1469-2104, Vol. 25, nr 2, s. 177-191Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 325.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Johansen, Geir
    Relations of quality and competence: some reflections regarding educational quality in music teacher education2008Inngår i: Finnish Journal of Music Education, ISSN 1239-3908, Vol. 9, nr 1-2, s. 65-82Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 326.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Johansen, Geir
    Norges Musikkhøgskole.
    Student music teachers' learning trajectories: a relational perspective2012Inngår i: Educating Music Teachers for the New Millennium.: multiculturalism, professionalism and music teacher education in the contemporary society : a report from a research and development project, Oslo: Norwegian Academy of Music , 2012, s. 187-206Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 327.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Johansen, Geir
    NMH.
    Juntunen, Marja-Leena
    Sibeliusakademien.
    Mapping the teaching of musikdidaktik: addressing the possibilities and challenges of meetings between the instrumental and school music traditions in music teacher education2010Inngår i: Crossing Borders: Nordic Research in Music Education in an International Perspective / [ed] Karin Johansson, Lund University: Malmö Academy of Music , 2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION The current situation within music teacher education in Finland, Norway and Sweden is to some extent characterized by a lack of interrelational communication between the musikdidaktik traditions of instrumental teaching and classroom teaching. In fact these traditions live more or less separate lives. In Finland, the two traditions are taught separately, entitled differently and to a large extent they use different terminology. They also have different historical roots: instrumental pedagogy has strong Russian and Central European influences whereas the school music tradition has its main roots in German-Scandinavian music education along with educational science. At a general level, the characteristics of instrumental didaktik in Sweden can be described as focusing on the instrument, it’s repertoire, challenges and techniques whereas the classroom didaktik is primarily focused at group activities and the importance of shared musical experience. The circumstance that the teachers of instrumental didaktik are often employed not only at the academy but also work as municipal culture school teachers or musicians differ from that of the classroom didaktik teachers who more frequently holds positions at the academy. This difference makes it hard to organize meetings between the two traditions. In Norway, a fully instrumental music teacher education separated from a parallel education for becoming school music teachers was offered by one of the conservatories up to the middle of the 1990ies. Today, music teacher education is organized so that the two paths run in parallel during one educational course, but still their cultural characteristics still entail differences: While the instrumental tradition seems oriented towards instruction and inherent value positions along with keeping and nurturing the advantages of the teacher role in master-apprenticeship relations, the classroom tradition is more generally oriented, including a variation of teaching forms as well as searching for a balance between musical and non-musical values and between child centered and subject centered teaching. In a broader picture the differences between the two educational traditions appear as embedded in two different cultures. The instrumental tradition origins in the several hundred year old master-apprenticeship tradition which can be said to constitute the educational practice of music and musicians themselves. The school music tradition appears as melanged by two ingrediences: Educational theory and music education approaches like the ones connected with Jaques-Dalcroze, Orff and Kodaly. In addition to that the situation in question seems to be similar in all the three countries in question, so, too, does the challenges at the labor market. New challenges for the music teaching profession emerge at an increasing speed. For example, to an increasing degree both instrumental and classroom teachers are required to teach various genres and styles of music, they face a big variety of learners and have to cope with different learning situations and environments as well as having to relate to the challenges of their pupils' informal musical learning outside school. THE STUDYThe overarching aim of the present study is to map and describe the various musikdidaktik traditions in Finland, Sweden and Norway and to reach knowledge upon which suggestions can be made to attain closer contacts and cooperation between different didaktik traditions. By studying and articulating the differences and similarities between countries and traditions we are looking for the ways in which the teaching traditions can learn from and empower each other. We believe that this can be done through acknowledging the specific features and goals of the two traditions and through having them to mirror each other. In sum we believe that this will contribute significantly to inform the field of music teacher education with respect to existing as well as new challenges at the labour market.The first phase of the research process which is in progress examines how music teachers' professional competence is defined and described along with how the process of becoming a ”good” teacher is treated in the Finnish, Norwegian and Swedish instrumental (pedagogy) and classroom didaktik traditions as embodied in relevant literature. In the second phase of the study, we will observe and interview teachers in each country as regards the strenghts, weaknesses and possibilities of the two traditions, including their potential for empowering each other. The research material of the first phase of the study consists of the syllabuses of music teacher education at one institution for higher music education in each of the countries. Along with this we will study the textbook material which is used at the various courses of classroom and instrumental didaktik.Hermeneutic text analysis will be applied to grasp the traditions as they appear in/through the texts studied. This includes analyzing the texts from each country and then compare the results in order to create a full picture of the phenomenon. Interpretation will depart from posing questions like the following to the collected material: (1) How is the process of the student music teachers’ teacher development described or discussed? (2) How is this related to the teacher-student relationship? (3) What principles for content selection are utilized and what content is selected? (4) What is considered as good teaching in the texts? (5) What qualifications and competences is given priority and how are these qualifications and competences described and treated? Finally we will look for reasoning indicating how the educating organization’s responsibility for the process of becoming a good teacher is considered as well as when, where and how the learning process of becoming a good teacher should take place. In the paper presentation, the preliminary results concerning the differences and similarities between countries and traditions will be discussed followed by a discussion about what the traditions can learn from each other. The presentation will also invite a discussion about the study at large including its importance, challenges, and implications.

  • 328.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Johansen, Geir
    Norges Musikkhøgskole.
    Juntunen, Marja-Leena
    Sibeliusakademien.
    Music teacher educators’ visions of music teacher preparation in Finland, Norway and Sweden2016Inngår i: International Journal of Music Education, ISSN 0255-7614, E-ISSN 1744-795X, Vol. 34, nr 1, s. 49-63Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we investigate the assumptions, ideals and beliefs of 12 professors who teach the courses in instrumental teaching and classroom music teaching, called instrumental Musikdidaktik and classroom Musikdidaktik. Drawing on Hammerness’ concept of teachers’ vision we concentrate on the professors’ visions of good teaching, an ideal graduate, and their subject as a whole as well as how those visions can be extended to denote some of the teaching traditions at play. This was examined by individual interviews that constituted one part of a varied set of data collection strategies. The professors’ visions were not necessarily consistent with those of their colleagues. Still they were strongly related to, steered, and limited by established teaching traditions. We suggest that vision might constitute a functional concept among music teacher educators and that clear program visions should be formulated in music teacher education institutions through collective collegial work.

  • 329.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Johansen, Geir
    Norges Musikkhøgskole.
    Juntunen, Marja-Leena
    Sibeliusakademien.
    Professors's visions of music-teacher education2012Inngår i: XVI Nordic Musicological Congress, Stockholm 2012: Abstracts / [ed] Jacob Derkert, Stockholm: Department of Musicology and Performance Studies Stockholm University , 2012, s. 35-36Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent developments at the labour market for music teachers require a broader understanding of the music teacher profession than before and cause music teachers to establish themselves as versatile music workers at various levels and areas of music education. This requires music teacher education to not only offer a variety of relevant courses but also to ensure that the student music teachers profit from the potential synergies of relating to and reflecting on the learning outcomes of those courses in relation to each other. As a basis for succeeding in such an endeavour, studies into the characteristics and manifestations of the various educational traditions at play are very much needed. In addressing this need empirically we found the notion and concept of vision a possible point of departure. Drawing on Hammerness (2006), we conceive of music teachers’ visions as entailing ‘images of an ideal practice’ (ibid.: 1), bringing together their hopes, cares and dreams with their understandings. As such, a vision represents a goal for them that also is within the realms of possibility. In turn, vision connects to their understandings, dispositions; and practices as well as notions of accessible tools.While the role and function of visions among teachers and student teachers have been scrutinized by several scholars, vision’s role in the teacher education of particular subjects and the role of the teacher educators’ visions have not yet been systematically studied. We hold that these visions may turn out to be equally important for the quality of teaching and learning in music teacher education as (music) teachers' visions may prove to be in the areas and schools for which the student music teachers are qualified. Furthermore, the professors’ visions can be expected to influence the visions of student music teachers and teacher freshmen and thus constitute a kind of visions of second degree.Hence, in this presentation we will address the following question: What characterizes the visions of musikdidaktik professors and how do these visions relate to their notions of understandings, dispositions, practices, and tools within the musikdidaktik subject as a learning community?The study is positioned within the field of research on higher music education and how that education can be further developed. The theoretical framework draws on teacher thinking research (e.g. Jyrhämä 2002; Kansanen 1999), questions of teaching and teacher development in teacher education (Darling- Hammond 2006;Darling- Hamond & Bransford ed. 2005) and the understanding of teaching and learning in musikdidaktik (e.g., Ferm & Johansen 2008, Juntunen 2007). The study is a shared project between three researchers from Sweden, Norway and Finland each examining one music teacher education programme in their country which educates both classroom and instrumental music teachers. The data consist of four semi-structured interviews of musikdidaktik professors from each country representing musikdidaktik for classroom, voice, piano, and strings. The results will be presented and discussed in connection with professors’ visions of good practice, professors’ visions of an ideal graduate, and professors’ visions of the musikdidaktik subject as a whole. The ways in which similarities and differences between countries and musikdidaktik traditions emerge from the visions will be discussed in relation to music teacher education, as well as music teaching practice.

  • 330.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Karlsen, Sidsel
    Hedmark University College.
    Fifteen years of innovative leadership: Professor Sture Brändström and the development of the research environment at the Department of Music and Media in Piteå2010Inngår i: Music, education and innovation: Festschrift for Sture Brändström, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2010, s. 5-11Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 331.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Örebro Universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    Being - is it possible in a space offered by music education?: a philosophical investigation of how music education can embrace the space of being presented at the 'origin of the work of art'2012Inngår i: XVI Nordic Musicological Congress, Stockholm 2012: abstracts / [ed] Jacob Derlert, Stockholm: Department of Musicology and Performance Studies Stockholm University , 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Martin Heidegger claims that a work of art contains an intrinsic power to open the space of Being. If a work of art can be a musical work of art, then music possesses the power to strike us and hence throw us into Being. We will examine Heidegger’s thinking in relation to the new Swedish syllabus for the subject music. This theoretical study is animated by a living example of a young boy who is about to conquer music.Further, art, as Heidegger describes it, will be focused upon and discussed in relation to how it can exist within music education. How is it possible to relate to music as a work of art with the same distinctions as Heidegger presents for us, by looking upon art as a thing as well as a tool but also as an as an opener to the space that constitutes the gap between earth and world? We argue that the educator has an unquestionable role in this creational space of origin seen as an educational practice.To be able to understand, draw parallels and exemplify Heidegger’s thinking, we choose to relate the investigation of those two main issues to the Swedish national syllabus for the subject music. Heidegger’s thinking is then related to the new Swedish governing documents, an investigation aiming to explore how the syllabus embraces and performs Heidegger’s thinking in music educational practice. The presentation ends with a discussion about how music education can offer students a place in Being, and music educators’ roles as parts of the creational origin process of a work of art.

  • 332.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Thorgersen, Ketil
    Aesthetic communication in music education: student's awareness2007Inngår i: International Society for the Philosophy of Music Education Symposium, 2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 333.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Wennergren, Ann-Christine
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Skriftlig respons i fokus inför deltagarorientrade seminarier2015Inngår i: Seminariet i högre utbildning: Erfarenheter och reflektioner, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, s. 155-173Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 334.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Zandén, Olle
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Implementation of a new assessment system: consequences for teaching and learning of music in Swedish schools year 5-72013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last years several reforms have influenced the educational system in Sweden. A new curriculum for the compulsory school has offered teachers and pupils a totally new system for assessment. A new credit scale is constructed and all pupils will be graded already in the 6th grade, which means that new teacher groups will have to grade their pupils’ performances. The curriculum describes criteria in three qualitative levels for each subject by defining aspects of a holistic knowing and describing three levels of competence within each of these aspects. Clarity and transparency have been steering concepts in the formulation process in order to offer parents and pupils a better possibility to understand and influence education and assessment in schools. At the same time teachers are expected to make holistic assessments of the pupils’ acquired knowledge. In a subject as music, teachers’ subject knowledge and conceptions of quality can transcend what is currently possible for them to verbalize. In several other subjects written and spoken language constitute the primary media of communication. Musical knowledge though, can be expressed and experienced in sounding forms, a mode of expression which is not easily transduced into writing or speaking. Hence, high demands for verbal clarity in aims and assessment may result in essential parts of music being excluded from teaching and learning, based on a view that these aspects are too complicated to assess equally, or impossible to communicate verbally in a clear way. There is a risk that the new demands on clarity and transparency may reduce the subject to comprise only those aspects that can be easily measured and talked about. The current study aims to systematically and critically investigate in which ways the Swedish curriculum with its new assessment- and grading regime influences music teachers’ practice and their students’ musical learning in grade 5 to 7. Earlier research has generally stated that educational reforms take time to implement, but recent reforms in England and USA give evidence that teaching methods and content can change rapidly, given a strong external pressure, for example through economic incentives, inspections, school choice and public display of schools’ and pupils’ performances. Music education could become an easy prey for such pressures, given that music teachers lack a tradition to accompany music with words and that musical assessment criteria often are perceived as subjective, as compared to objective measurables. The demand for clear and explicit criteria offers challenges, since differences between credit levels are expressed as assessable qualities and not measurable quantities. A forced verbalisation of these quality aspects may get consequences for music teachers’ evolving understanding of knowledge aspects, as well as for their experience of and qualitative evaluation of students’ musical achievements and expressions. The first phase of the study includes interviews with music teachers teaching in year 5-7 about changes in their teaching practices as well as their perceptions of the new demands in Lgr11. The second phase will be a survey, aiming to map the implementation scenario among Swedish music teach in the same years. The third and final part gets its inspiration from Engeström’s activity theory where structural and intentional contradictions are expected to have a key function for learning and development. In this phase the teachers’ as well as the students’ perspectives are focused through participant observation, interviews, and collegial conversations. The teachers define the problems found in practice, which are discussed among colleagues who together create strategies for further development. A model for general development work will be constructed through the project. By limiting the investigation to teachers who teach music in year 5-7 the study can claim to generate new knowledge concerning a group of teachers that have been neglected earlier. In the presentation at the conference we will present the study as a whole and also communicate some preliminary results from the first phase interview study.

  • 335.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Zandén, Olle
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Vinge, John
    Norges Musikkhøgskole.
    Nyberg, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Andersson, Ninnie
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Väkevä, Lauri
    Sibeliusakademien.
    Assessment as learning in music education: The risk of ‘criteria compliance’ replacing ’learning’ in the Scandinavian countries2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment as learning in music education - the risk of ‘criteria compliance’ replacing ’learning’ in the Scandinavian countriesRecent reforms in England and USA give evidence that teaching methods and content can change rapidly, given a strong external pressure, for example through economic incentives, inspections, school choice and public display of schools’ and pupils’ performances. Educational activities in the Scandinavian countries have increasingly become dominated by obligations regarding assessment and grading. A common thread is the demand for equal and just assessment and grading through clear criteria and transparent processes. Torrance (2007) states that clarity in assessment procedures, processes and criteria has underpinned widespread use of coaching, practice and provision of formative feedback to boost achievement, but that such transparency encourages instrumentalism. He concludes that the practice of assessment has moved from assessment of learning, through assessment for learning, to assessment as learning, with assessment procedures and practices coming completely to dominate the learning experience and ‘criteria compliance’ replacing ‘learning’. Thus, formative assessment, in spite of its proven educational potential, threatens to be deformative (Torrance, 2012). In the symposium we will explore to what extent and how this development is visible from four perspectives. Four examples of assessment investigation of dance and music education in primary, lower and upper secondary schools will function as entrances to the dilemma.The symposium will start with an introduction of assessments demands in general and in the Scandinavian countries specifically, ending up in the theories of Torrance, and the risk of assessment as learning or even. Thereafter the following perspectives and settings will be described.Professionalism in Action – Music Teachers on an Assessment JourneyIf assessment practices within education have led, as Torrance (2007) claims, to instrumentalism in the form of “assessment as learning [and] criteria compliance” (p. 281-282), how can teachers and researchers reclaim the exploratory notions of (music) education? In an ongoing collaborate Research and Development and Participatory Action Research project, a group of Swedish upper secondary school music teachers together with a researcher investigates issues regarding assessment, for instance why equality is not spelled “exactly the same thing” and how teachers balance professionalism with accountability. Demands on documentation of dance knowledge in upper secondary schools in Sweden – how does that processing assessment practice?In the syllabuses from Gy11, expressed dance performance can be seen as an embodied action. Though, students and teachers are asked to evaluate themselves and fill out a written rubric in the same way as all other subjects at studied upper secondary schools. The focus on criteria-referenced feedback can have coherence to assessment as learning instead of assessment for learning. Based on observations, conversations and written reflections teachers are expressing the insufficiency with the rubric in combination to dance. How is the demand on documentation processing the assessment practice? Through a study of grading conversation teachers´ conception of qualities are illuminated. What is the base for what is assessed and communicated and how is that effect the teaching professionalism? What is prepossessing teachers´ conceptions of qualities?An outline of an understanding of assessment as didactical self-defence strategiesThe findings of Vinge (2014) indicate a clear tendency towards a systematic criterion based assessment practice in the compulsory music of subject in lower secondary schools in Norway. This change in practice follows the implementation of the latest curriculum reform (LK06, the knowledge reform), a curriculum reform initiated to enhance student learning within the frames of international competency comparison. Music teachers make use of new assessment principles and techniques designed to enhance student learning, associated with the so-called assessment for learning concept. However, the analysis indicates that these principles and techniques are being used mainly for grading purposes and settings – assessment of learning. All though teachers seem to face lots of difficulties in the construction of various assessment schemes; once adopted they seem to become important tools in the teachers’ strive for effectiveness and control. This poses a central question, which will be elaborated in this presentation: Who is assessment actually for? Is it for the students or the teacher? Teaching for learning or teaching for documentation: on the effects of a curriculum reformThe Swedish 2011 curricular reform brought considerable change to the school system. Among other changes, grading was to take place from school year 6 and not from year 8 and a new grading regime was introduced with more grades and more detailed criteria than in the preceding curricula. In this presentation, preliminary results from a survey among music teachers in Swedish compulsory school will be discussed. The survey is based on the findings in a qualitative study of music teachers’ perceptions of this reform (Zandén & Ferm, forthcoming) and aims at giving a representative picture of the effects of the reform on music education and music teachers’ professional situation. Finally Lauri Väkevä will draw lines between the different contributions, comment critically, and conclude with with a Finnish perspective.

  • 336.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Activity: Fagdidaktikk mellom skole og lærerutdanning: an inter-Nordic perspective2007Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 337.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Activity: Meaning making in Swedish compulsory schools: What do we know and what do we need to know?2013Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 338.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Activity: Nettverkskonferansen i universitets- og høgskolepedagogikk: a bottom up studie2007Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 339.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Activity: Research in music education conference: embodiment and identity making in musik didaktik education2007Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 340.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Activity: Researching Music Teacher Education in the Nordic Countries: Where do we stand and where are we heading?2013Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 341.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Aktivitet: Bundeskongress Musikunterricht2014Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 342.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Aktivitet: Musik som mångdimensionell uttrycksform för alla: Frågor om lärande, demokrati och bedömning i svensk grundskola2012Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Installationsföreläsning

  • 343.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Cross roads, crossing borders, and meetings in the common world: A sociological phenomenological view on cross boundary research – Spotify as a case2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The presentation will enlighten and discuss the need and challenges of border-crossing research, when complex phenomena that include art, technology and Bildung are to be investigated. A developing project Evolving Bildung in the nexus of streaming services, art and users - Spotify as a case will function as a starting-point for a reasoning regarding what constitutes border-crossing research, and what dilemmas as well as new meeting points that appear in a process where border crossing is at stake. Material to make an analysis possible was gathered during a lunch-to-lunch symposium where scholars from music education, musicology, psychology, media and communication, English literature, management, Big-data, and sound engineering met and discussed collaboration in relation to the mentioned project. The material was analyzed from a sociological phenomenological perspective. The result of the analysis shows the challenges with, and importance of, meetings in the common world to make border-crossing research possible, at the same time as a belonging to a specific scientific world defines a researcher. Concepts, methods, attitudes, and theories have to, at least to some extent, be redefined based upon new common agreements. Such a process demands researchers to occasionally leave their own “truths” and be open and curios in the common world.

  • 344.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Cultural Citizenship through aesthetic communication in Swedish schools: democracy, inclusion and equality in the face of assessment policies2016Inngår i: European Journal of Philosophy in Arts Education, ISSN 2002-4665, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 68-95Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current Swedish society differences are growing regarding who has the right to learn and use artistic forms of expression. Where a citizen comes from, socially and geographically, more and more determines her tools for handling life. A variety of steering documents state that all Swedish youths should have the right to learn and use artistic forms of expression. At the same time the demands on equal assessment and grading are growing stronger in Sweden, which force teachers to put efforts on documentation and grading, instead of musical learning. The aim of this article is to present and discuss possibilities for pupils to develop Cultural Citizenship through music in the school situation where different views of equality are competing. This article discusses to what extent it is possible to conduct democratic inclusive music education towards Cultural Citizenship in the current time of increased demands of documentation, assessment and grading. To come close to the phenomena of Cultural Citizenship in music educational settings, and to offer theoretical tools for understanding and reflection, the to some extent contradictory political and educational philosophies of Hannah Arendt was used. The philosophical exploration implies a need of teachers’ authority and responsibility when it comes to an agreed upon view of the musical world, and ways to organize meetings with that world in inclusive ways in schools towards a functional Cultural Citizenship.

  • 345.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    The risk of unequal gender role conservation: Informal ensemble playing from the perspective of an upper secondary female guitarist2017Inngår i: 21st Century Music Education: Informal Learning and Non-Formal Teaching Approaches in School and Community Contexts / [ed] Ruth Wright, Betty Anne Younker and Carol Beynon, London Ontario: Canadian Music Educators' Association, 2017, s. 21-38Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 346.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Christophersen, Catharina
    Bergen University College, Grieg Academy.
    Inclusive arts education in two Scandinavian primary schools: a phenomenological case study2017Inngår i: International Journal of Inclusive Education, ISSN 1360-3116, E-ISSN 1464-5173, Vol. 21, nr 5, s. 463-474Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies indicate that ideas related to special education could influence the way arts education is performed and motivated in schools. Further investigation is therefore required in order to raise awareness of how perspectives on inclusion can serve as a starting point for arts education, and vice versa. This article takes it starting point in an ethnographic double case study of arts education practices. Data were collected during the school year 2013/2014 in two Scandinavian schools (for pupils aged 6–13) with an articulated commitment to the arts. The methods used for data collection were observation and interviews. The material was analysed from a phenomenological point of view, and the analysis showed a predominantly holistic view of inclusion in the two schools. Five dimensions of inclusion were identified through the analysis: providing arts education for allbeing connected to something largerallowing access to different forms of expression and communicationestablishing preconditions for holistic inclusion, and developing special arts education. The results indicate that these schools have made considerable progress in developing an inclusive arts learning environment. Results also suggest that a holistic inclusive view of education encourages a functional and vivid arts education for ‘all’, both inside and outside the classroom.

  • 347.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Ekberg, Niclas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Pedagogik språk och Ämnesdidaktik.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Allan, Jon
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Burkhart, Patrick
    Evolving Bildung in the Nexus of Streaming Services, Art andUsers : Spotify as a Case 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The changed landscape of media, with digital distribution as a keyfactor, creates new conditions for people’s access to cultural expressions. This has mainly been studied through technical and financial perspectives, focusing on the record industry, file sharing, human–technology interaction, and click frequency. New questionsare necessary for an understanding of what functions streamed musicand art expressions can have in people’s lives, and how companies such as Spotify relate to these functions.The aim of the study is to explore Bildung in the nexus of streaming services, art and users, with Spotify as a case study. Research questions: How and to what extent do technical, legal, economic, and ethical factors control possibilities for meaningmaking in the interaction between streaming media such as Spotify, arts, and human beings? How does the quality of art/music distributed through streaming influence opportunites for Bildung? How do users make meaning in the specific contexts? To what extent is the user involved in her own Bildung via the algorithms making up the participation?

    To achieve this aim and address the research questions an interdisciplinary study is needed, which makes it possible to understand the complex phenomena of a streaming media platform in relation to Bildung. Technicians and researchers from the humanities and social sciences will approach the research problem and form a holistic understanding of streaming media in relation to human beings, art, and technology. Hence, combinations of methodological approaches are required. Big-data analysis will provide access to how varied demographics use Spotify. The Spotify users’ activities, experiences of streaming media interactions, and meaning-making will be accessed through qualitative netnographical observations, shadowing, and interviews. Sound quality analysis will clarify what aesthetic values are involved in the most appreciated listening experiences, which will be related to Bildung.

  • 348.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Vinge, John
    Norway Academy of Music, Oslo.
    Väkevä, Lauri
    Sibelius Academy of the University of the Arts Helsinki.
    Zandén, Olle
    Linnæus University, Sweden.
    Assessment as learning in music education: the risk of ‘criteria compliance’ replacing ’learning’ in the Scandinavian countries2017Inngår i: Research Studies in Music Education, ISSN 1321-103X, E-ISSN 1834-5530, Vol. 39, nr 1, s. 3-18Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent reforms in England and USA give evidence that teaching methods and content can change rapidly, given a strong external pressure, for example through economic incentives, inspections, school choice and public display of schools’ and pupils’ performances. Educational activities in the Scandinavian countries have increasingly become dominated by obligations regarding assessment and grading. A common thread is the demand for equal and just assessment and grading through clear criteria and transparent processes. Torrance (2007) states that clarity in assessment procedures, processes and criteria has underpinned widespread use of coaching, practice and provision of formative feedback to boost achievement, but that such transparency encourages instrumentalism. He concludes that the practice of assessment has moved from assessment of learning, through assessment for learning, to assessment as learning, with assessment procedures and practices coming completely to dominate the learning experience and ‘criteria compliance’ replacing ‘learning’. Thus, formative assessment, in spite of its proven educational potential, threatens to be deformative (Torrance, 2012). In the article we will explore to what extent and how this development is visible in two cases, presenting music education in one Norwegian and one Swedish compulsory school setting. Three thematic threads run through this exploration: quality, power and instrumentalism. 

  • 349.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Wennergren, Ann-Christine
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Utveckling av responskompetens: seminariet som träningsarena2016Inngår i: Det goda seminariet: Forskarseminariet som lärandemiljö och kollegialt rum / [ed] Marie Cronqvist & Alexander Maurits, Göteborg: Makadam Förlag, 2016, s. 133-155Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 350.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Zandén, Olle
    Department of Music and Art, Linnaeus University, Linnéuniversitetet.
    Swedish music teachers’ relations to an assessment reform: a national view: Specific focus on documentation demands and teachers’ autonomy2016Inngår i: Bulletin of empirical music education research, ISSN 2190-3174Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate Swedish compulsory school music teachers’ relations to a curriculum reform with specific focus on changes in teaching, documentation demands and professional autonomy. The research questions are: To what extent and in what ways have Swedish music teachers adapted to the new compulsory school curriculum (Lgr11)? What changes in documentation demands and practices are reported? To what extent do Swedish music teachers perceive a change in their professional autonomy during the implementation of Lgr11? To answer these questions, a survey was constructed and a random sample of 200 schools was drawn from the 3,252 Swedish schools with pupils in year 6 that were registered at that time by the Swedish National Agency of Education. The survey was completed by 201 music teachers at the 171 schools that agreed to participate, and it generated both quantitative and qualitative data. The findings are presented according to the following themes: Adaptation to the new curriculum, Approach to curriculum, Changes in documentation demands and practices, Possible causes for increased documentation, Documentation’s place in planning and teaching, and Perception of change in professional autonomy. The main outcomes state that the national criteria for grading rather than the aims of the curriculum are steering the teachers in their planning, performance and evaluation of teaching. The implications for practice is that teachers have to claim a space for discretionary power in order to be able to run their classrooms in ways that harmonise with both their conceptions of quality and with the documentation and grading demands.

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