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  • 301.
    Almgren, Torgny
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Probabilistic time planning for underground mines1990Ingår i: International Journal of Mining and Geological Engineering, ISSN 0269-0136, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 91-109Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The advantages of probabilistic time planning techniques, compared to deterministic ones, are discussed and an approach to probabilistic planning is presented. The approach includes an analysis of disturbancy factors, and a method of estimating the distribution of project completion time by using Monte Carlo simulation. It is shown how this result may be used to calculate the need for development buffers, which also has been demonstrated on a particular case, the Oscar project, a sublevel stoping operation in the Kiruna mine, Sweden.

  • 302.
    Almgren, Torgny
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Time planning under uncertainty in a mining environment1989Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 303.
    Almqvist, Helena
    et al.
    Luleå kommun.
    Hanaeus, Jörgen
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Organic hazardous substances in graywater from Swedish households2006Ingår i: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 132, nr 8, s. 901-908Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The concentrations of several selected organic hazardous substances were investigated in domestic graywater. In total, 41 of 81 organic hazardous substances were found in concentrations above the detection limits (nonylphenol and octylphenol ethoxylates, brominated flame-retardants, organotin compounds, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, phthalates, linear-alkyl benzene sulfonate, and triclosan). Moreover, total solids, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD7), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen, total phosphorus, potassium, and sulphur were investigated and presented for graywater. Another objective was to suggest potential household sources for a selected number of organic hazardous substances. The present and past investigations reveal households to be obvious contributors of organic hazardous substances to municipal wastewater, and that graywater is an important media in this transport. The spreading derives from diffuse household sources like everyday activities (laundry, cleaning, etc.), the wearing down of things such as pipe material and interior fittings, and from airborne deposition.

  • 304.
    Almudhari, Haider
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Effektivisering av materialhantering gällande plåtrullar i SSAB:s Stålhamn: En fallstudie på Oxelösunds Hamn AB2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag befinner sig produktionsföretag under konkurrenskraftiga och snabba förändringar i en global marknad. Det utmanar företag som jobbar med materialtillverkning och distributionsnät på en global nivå till att ständigt förbättra deras verksamhet. Aktörerna som verkar inom en och samma supply chain bör enas för att kunna bli konkurrenskraftiga och flexibla, som respons på globaliseringen. Genom att företag skapar gemensamma mål, delar information, risker och vinster kan alla aktörer inom kedjan gynnas.

    Denna fallstudie har genomförts på en av Oxelösunds Hamns verksamheter, nämligen SSAB:s Stålhamn, som de driver åt SSAB i Oxelösund kommun. Stålhamnen har en viktig roll i SSAB:s supply chain eftersom den agerar som SSAB:s skeppningshamn där material som kommer från SSAB i Borlänge och Oxelösund lagras tills de ska skeppas vidare till andra hamnar i världen. Idag upplever Oxelösunds Hamn ineffektiv information- och materialflöde inom Stålhamnens verksamhet.

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka materialhantering i form av vilka transport- och lagringsmetoder som sker inne i en av Stålhamnens verksamheter, Coilsterminalen. Därefter klargörs vilka slöserier som finns samt hitta förbättringar för att effektivisera information- och materialflödet vid hanteringar av plåtrullar i Coilsterminalen.

    Studien har primärt genomförts genom observationer, ostrukturerade och några strukturerade intervjuer samt strukturerade mejlkonversationer och insamling av data. Fokuset låg på att hitta de möjliga effektiviseringsområden i praktiken för att sedan hitta teori och litteratur som belyser de upphittade bristerna. Några teorier som kommer att betonas på grund av deras relevans är Lean, lager- och supply chain teori.

    Studiens resultat och analys visar att utmaningarna som hindrar effektivisering i Coilsterminalen är baserad på interna och externa faktorer. Interna faktorer består av onödig förflyttning av material, omarbetning i kontor och outnyttjat arbetsskift. Externa faktorer orsakas på grund av leverantörer i form av osäkerhet av informationsinput samt material input/output.

    Studien resulterar i att den optimala lösningen är att samarbetet mellan aktörerna i kedjan förbättras så att flöde av information blir bättre och förminska osäkerheten i leverans och utleverans. Vidare uppmuntrar studien Oxelösund Hamn att samla in data, i form av statistik, om dagliga händelser i Stålhamnen så att de belyser problem och kostnader som är dolda. Oxelösund Hamn uppmuntras också införa det outnyttjade arbetsskiftet under natten och förminskning av lagret.

  • 305.
    Almuqdadi, Kadhim
    et al.
    Arab Academy-Denmark.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The waste of wars in Iraq: its nature, size and contaminated areas2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1991, new weapons were used for the first time by the American and British troops in Iraq. These weapons proved to have high destructive capability against armored machinery and tanks. Later, there were many signs of being a weapon to destroy the human beings, animals and plants, which raised huge controversy and sharp criticism among scientists, doctors and environmentalists. Despite the opacity and deception, many of the secrets of depleted uranium ammunition were exposed, and confirmed the seriousness of use and serious repercussions on the environment and public health, which stepped up the international campaign against its manufacturing and use. However, the brilliant military success and profits of the military industry tempted the Pentagon and NATO to continue production and use of these weapons. Despite the high human and environment risks DU was used in various conflicts like Iraq, Bosnia, Kosovo and Serbia, Afghanistan, Gaza, Lebanon and recently in Libya. It is noteworthy to mention that the public and even some scientists, researchers and news media are ignorant of the effects and risks of the use of DU in military operations. This raises the point that there should be a large campaign to raise public awareness to prevent the risk of DU weapons. Based on scientific research and updates, we would like to high light the waste of wars in Iraq: Our paper shed the light on the size of depleted uranium(DU) weapons used in the wars on Iraq and the legacy of waste (their nature, size, and the contaminated regions), as high risks on humans and the environment. This is one of the leading environmental, health and social tragic problems in Iraq. This problem should be addressed immediately, seriously and effectively.

  • 306.
    Almuqdadi, Kadhum
    et al.
    Arab Academy-Denmark.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Nature, size and contaminated areas of the waste of war in Iraq2013Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 93-107Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1991, new weapons were used for the first time by the American and British troops in Iraq. These weapons proved to have high destructive capability against armored machinery and tanks. Later, there were many signs of being a weapon to destroy the human beings, animals and plants, which raised huge controversy and sharp criticism among scientists, doctors and environmentalists.Despite the opacity and deception, many of the secrets of depleted uranium ammunition were exposed, and confirmed the seriousness of use and serious repercussions on the environment and public health, which stepped up the international campaign against its manufacturing and use.However, the brilliant military success and profits of the military industry tempted the Pentagon and NATO to continue production and use of these weapons. Despite the high human and environment risks DU was used in various conflicts like Iraq, Bosnia, Kosovo and Serbia, Afghanistan, Gaza, Lebanon and recently in Libya.It is noteworthy to mention that the public and even some scientists, researchers and news media are ignorant of the effects and risks of the use of DU in military operations. This raises the point that there should be a large campaign to raise public awareness to prevent the risk of DU weapons.Based on scientific research and updates, we would like to high light the waste of wars in Iraq: Our paper shed the light on the size of depleted uranium(DU) weapons used in the wars on Iraq and the legacy of waste (their nature, size, and the contaminated regions), as high risks on humans and the environment. This is one of the leading environmental, health and social tragic problems in Iraq. This problem should be addressed immediately, seriously and effectively.

  • 307.
    Almuqdadi, Kadhum
    et al.
    Arab Academy-Denmark.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Risks of the military uses f depleted uranium on humans and the environment2013Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 163-203Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Great Development in the military industry had been witnessed in the past two decades, especially in depleted uranium weapons. These weapons were first used by USA and its allies in 1991 in Iraq. Later they were used in Bosnia (1995), Kosovo and Serbia (1999) Afghanistan (2001) and finally Iraq (2003).The manufacturers and users of these weapons continued to blackout the nature of these weapons and deny the harm caused on the public health, animals and the environment.After a short period of time, facts were revealed by the investigations and research executed by large number of scientists and investigators.This paper highlights the important effects caused by the use of depleted uranium weapons on human health and environment.

  • 308.
    Alniemi, Jamal
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Jämförande studie av lastnedräkningar för hand och med FEM-program2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 309.
    Al-Rawabdeh, Abdulla M.
    et al.
    University of Calgary, Alberta.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Taani, Ahmed A.
    Yarmouk University.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    A GIS-based drastic model for assessing aquifer vulnerability in Amman-Zerqa groundwater basin, Jordan2013Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, nr 5, s. 490-504Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Amman-Zerqa Basin (AZB) is a major basin in Jordan. The concentration of economic, agricultural and social activities within the basin makes it of prime importance to Jordan. Intensive agricultural practices are widespread and located close to groundwater wells, which pose imminent threats to these resources. Groundwater contamination is of particular concern as groundwater resources are the principal source of water for irrigation, drinking and industrial activities. A DRASTIC model integrated with, and GIS tool has been used to evaluate the groundwater vulnerability of AZB. The Drastic index map showed that only 1.2% of the basin’s total area of 3792 km2 lies in the no vulnerable zone and about 69% is classified as having low pollution potential. The results also revealed that about 30% of the catchment area is moderately susceptible to pollution potential and slightly 1% is potentially under high pollution risk. These results suggest that almost one third of the AZB is at moderate risk of pollution potential. These areas are mainly in the north-east and central parts of the basin where the physical factors like gentle slope and high water table well support the chances of getting shallow aquifer water polluted. Areas with high vulnerable pollution are mainly the central of Amman old city.

  • 310.
    Al-Rawabdeh, Abdullah
    et al.
    Department of Geomatics Engineering, University of Calgary.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Taani, Ahmed
    Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Yarmouk University.
    Al-Khateeb, Fadi
    Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, Alberta.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Modeling the risk of groundwater contamination using modified DRASTIC and GIS in Amman-Zerqa basin, Jordan2014Ingår i: Central European Journal of Engineering, ISSN 1896-1541, E-ISSN 2081-9927, Vol. 4, nr 3, s. 264-280Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Amman-Zerqa Basin (AZB) is the second largest groundwater basin in Jordan with the highest abstraction rate, where more than 28% of total abstractions in Jordan come from this basin. In view of the extensive reliance on this basin, contamination of AZB groundwater became an alarming issue. This paper develops a Modified DRASTIC model by combining the generic DRASTIC model with land use activities and lineament density for the study area with a new model map that evaluates pollution potential of groundwater resources in AZB to various types of pollution. It involves the comparison of modified DRASTIC model that integrates nitrate loading along with other DRASTIC parameters. In addition, parameters to account for differences in land use and lineaments density were added to the DRASTIC model to reflect their influences on groundwater pollution potential. The DRASTIC model showed only 0.08% (3 km2) of the AZB is situated in the high vulnerability area and about 30% of the basin is located in the moderately vulnerable zone (mainly in central basin). After modifying the DRASTIC to account for lineament density, about 87% of the area was classified as having low pollution potential and no vulnerability class accounts for about 5.01% of the AZB area. The moderately susceptible zone covers 7.83% of the basin’s total area and the high vulnerability area constitutes 0.13%. The vulnerability map based on land use revealed that about 71% of the study area has low pollution potential and no vulnerability area accounts for about 0.55%, whereas moderate pollution potential zone covers an area of 28.35% and the high vulnerability class constitutes 0.11% of AZB. The final DRASTIC model which combined all DRASTIC models shows that slightly more than 89% of the study area falls under low pollution risk and about 6% is considered areas with no vulnerability. The moderate pollution risk potential covers an area of about 4% of AZB and the high vulnerability class constitutes 0.21% of the basin. The results also showed that an area of about 1761 km2 of bare soils is of low vulnerability, whereas about 28 km2 is moderately vulnerable. For agriculture and the urban sector, approximately 1472 km2 are located within the low vulnerability zone and about 144 km2 are moderately vulnerable, which together account for about 8% of the total agriculture and urban area. These areas are contaminated with human activities, particularly from the agriculture. Management of land use must be considered when changing human or agricultural activity patterns in the study area, to reduce groundwater vulnerability in the basin. The results also showed that the wells with the highest nitrate levels (81-107 mg/l) were located in high vulnerable areas and are attributed to leakage from old sewage water.

  • 311.
    Al-Rawabdeh, bdullaabdulala
    et al.
    University of Calgary, Department of Geomatics Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Attya, Hussain
    University of Calgary, Department of Geomatics Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    GIS Applications for Building 3D Campus, Utilities and Implementation Mapping Aspects for University Planning Purposes2014Ingår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 19-28Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In city planning managing the third dimension is becoming a necessity. Using 3D GIS modeling within a GIS environment offers a flexible interactive system for providing the best visual interpretation because it aids the planning and decision-process. Previous 3D virtual models did not have to be completely accurate. It did need to be a relatively accurate representation of the true simulation of reality. Every point in 3D GIS models has their true coordinates, so they can express terrain features in an intuitive way which enhances the management and analysis of a proposed project through 3D visualization.A university campus is a complex infrastructure. New students and first- time visitors have a hard time orientating themselves and finding places. This paper discusses the concept of 3D GIS modeling techniques using the following simple procedure to generate a university campus as a real 3D GIS model which will show the effectiveness of the 3D GIS modeling approach. The 3D GIS model provides access to mapping data to support planning, design, and data management. Intelligent GIS models and GIS tools help community planning and apply regional and discipline-specific standards. Integration of GIS spatial data with campus organization helps to improve quality, productivity, and asset management. The following study built 3D GIS map and all utility information for Al al-Bayt University campus as a case study. The primary objective is to establish a 3D GIS for the Al al-Bayt university campus, Jordan to improved data management (e.g., maps, plans, usage of facilities, services) and to develop methods using 3D spatial analysis for specific applications.

  • 312.
    Al-Rubaei, Ahmed
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Long-Term Performance, Operation and Maintenance Needs of Stormwater Control Measures2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 313.
    Al-Rubaei, Ahmed
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Engström, Malin
    Växjö Municipality.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Long-term hydraulic and treatment performance of a 19-year old constructed stormwater wetland: Finally maturated or in need of maintenance?2016Ingår i: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 95, s. 73-82Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Constructed stormwater wetlands (CSWs) are a commonly used measure for stormwater retention and quality treatment. However, although questions have been raised about the long-term performance of CSWs, only a few studies have targeted this issue and none have evaluated the performance of CSWs more than approximately 5–10 years old. Further, most studies have not examined the development of the long-term performance of CSWs but delivered a snapshot at a certain point of time. The present study investigated the performance of a 19-year-old CSW in Växjö, Sweden, treating stormwater from a 320-ha urban catchment. Besides removal of sediment from the CSW’s forebay, no other maintenance had been conducted. However, regular inspections had been performed. The results of the present sampling campaign were compared to two existing datasets collected at the same CSW after three years of operation in 1997 and nine years of operation in 2003. The CSW was found to provide efficient peak flow reduction and, depending on the event characteristics, also volume reduction. It still treated stormwater effectively: removal of Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, TSS and TP event mean concentrations were between 89 and 96%, whereas mean concentrations of TN were reduced by 59%. The load removal efficiencies were even higher. Comparative analysis of the three monitoring periods based on the load removal efficiency revealed that the CSW, despite the lack of maintenance, performed more efficiently and stably for most pollutants compared to when newly constructed. This underlines the importance of the establishment and maturation of constructed wetland systems. Overall, the results showed that CSWs are resilient systems, which if designed well and regularly inspected to prevent major issues, can work efficiently for at least two decades.

  • 314.
    Al-Rubaei, Ahmed
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Engström, Malin
    Växjö Municipality.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Long-term hydraulic performance of stormwater infiltration systems: a field survey2013Ingår i: NOVATECH 2013: Planning and Technologies for Sustainable Urban Water Management, 23 - 27 June 2013, Lyon, France., 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examined the factors influencing the long-term hydraulic performance of some stormwater infiltration systems (swale and two types of permeable pavements) in Växjö, southern Sweden. The infiltration capacities of 9 permeable pavements and 2 swales sites, all with different ages ranging from 1 year to 14 years, were measured using replicate double ring infiltrometers. The sites were either constructed of swale (2), interlocking concrete pavers (ICP) filled with gravel (2), concrete grid pavers (CGP) filled with gravel (3), or concrete grid pavers (CGP) filled with grass (4). The results of this study showed that the long-term behaviour of the infiltration capacity relies largely on the type and age of the system and the type of joint filling (gravel and grass). Furthermore, the study showed that the 11 year old concrete grid pavers filled with grass had the highest infiltration capacity (4.80 + 2.46 mm/min), whilst the 9 and 14 year old swales had the lowest infiltration capacity (0.10 + 0.00 mm/min).

  • 315.
    Al-Rubaei, Ahmed
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Engström, Malin
    Växjö Municipality.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Long-term treatment efficiency of a constructed stormwater wetland: preliminary results2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Constructed stormwater wetlands (CSWs) are commonly used in Sweden and worldwide because of their high efficiency in urban stormwater management. However, questions have been raised about the long-term performance of CSWs. This study investigated the performance of a 19-year-old constructed wetland, which was designed to treat the stormwater from a 320-ha catchment located in the city of Växjö, southern Sweden. The system has not been maintained since its construction in 1994. The results of the present study were compared with results obtained from a previous study conducted by Växjö Municipality in 1997. The results showed that the CSW significantly reduced peak flows by 72%. High concentration reductions were found for Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, TSS and TP (90, 89, 91, 90, 96, 96 and 86%, respectively). TN concentrations were reduced by 61%. The results indicated that lack of maintenance had no effect on the performance of wetland system during this long period of operation (19 years). In contrast, especially the removal of Cu and nitrogen was enhanced compared to 1997, which may be due to maturing of the system. The results show that CSWs are resilient systems, which (provided that design is sufficient) can work efficiently for at least two decades.

  • 316.
    Al-Rubaei, Ahmed
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Merriman, Laura S.
    Biological & Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University.
    Hunt, William F.
    Biological & Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Survey of the operational status of 25 Swedish municipal stormwater management ponds2017Ingår i: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 143, nr 6, artikel-id 05017001Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past 50 years, wet stormwater ponds have been constructed to reduce negative environmental impacts of urban stormwater discharges on receiving aquatic environments. However, in many jurisdictions there is little information on the current operational status of such ponds and their functioning. This paucity of information prompted a field survey of 25 Swedish municipal stormwater ponds, aged between 3 and 26 years. The pond survey focused on estimating the pond hydraulic loading and efficiency, the state of littoral vegetation, characteristics of bottom sediment in the inlet and outlet zones (sizes and the chemistry), and the overall operational pond status, including the access for maintenance. The hydraulic efficiencies of ponds were estimated for pond footprint shapes and relative locations of the inlets and outlets using literature data. The estimated hydraulic efficiencies correlated well with the pond length-to-width ratios and the ratio of the pond surface area to the impervious area of the runoff contributing catchment (i.e., the hydraulic loading). Littoral vegetation was inspected visually and found to be overgrown at some facilities, which impeded the maintenance access. Benthic sediments in ponds contained silt and clay (&lt;63&#x2009;&#x2009;&#x3BC;m" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;"><63  μm<63  μm), sand and gravel fractions, and when compared with the literature data, such sediments appeared relatively coarse. Chemical characteristics of sediments reflected anthropogenic (traffic) activities, but without excessive contamination warranting special disposal requirements. Of the 25 ponds surveyed, four were fenced off and inaccessible to machinery. In fact, the design of these four ponds was such that it made inspection and maintenance very difficult, which may pose potential risks to ponds operation. Fifty-four percent of the investigated ponds were in need of minor maintenance, primarily because of sediment and litter accumulation in their inflow and outflow sections. The fact that the inspection survey revealed relatively few minor issues that could be corrected easily demonstrates the importance of relatively simple regular inspections serving to detect minor problems at an early stage before they would seriously impact pond functioning. The above survey methodology should be helpful for developing similar low-cost surveys in other jurisdictions.

  • 317.
    Al-Rubaei, Ahmed Mohammed
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Engström, Malin
    Växjö Municipality.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Effectiveness of a 19-Year Old Combined Pond-Wetland System in Removing Particulate and Dissolved Pollutants2017Ingår i: Wetlands (Wilmington, N.C.), ISSN 0277-5212, E-ISSN 1943-6246, Vol. 37, nr 3, s. 485-496Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study monitored the stormwater runoff quantity and quality treatment performance of a 6.8 ha 19-year old combined pond-wetland system, located in south Sweden, over one year. The mean volume reductions for 53 storm events for the pond and wetland were 40% and 28%, respectively, while the mean flow reductions were 60% and 76%, respectively. Pollutant concentrations in the influent to the wetland were highly variable. The pond-wetland system could efficiently remove an average of 91%, 80%, 94%, 91%, 83% and 92% of TSS, TP, particulate Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, respectively, whereas the removal of particulate and dissolved Ni was highly variable with an average of 67% ± 62% and −5% ± 41%, respectively. The removal of TN, NH4-N and NO3 + NO2-N was highly variable with an average of 45% ± 27%, 12% ± 96% and 45% ± 43%, respectively. These removal percentages are high in comparison to other studies and underline that relatively old systems can also provide efficient treatment. Although the pond accounted for a substantial reduction of pollutant concentration, the wetland significantly enhanced both the treatment performance and the peak flow reduction. This underlines that a combined pond/wetland system is a more beneficial solution than a pond only. The pollutant removal efficiency was significantly influenced by some factors including Antecedent Dry Days, seasonal variations, air temperature, retention times, rainfall depth and duration, and peak rainfall intensity.

  • 318.
    Al-Rubaei, Ahmed
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Stenglein, Anna Lena
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Can vacuum cleaning recover the infiltration capacity of a clogged porous asphalt?2012Ingår i: WSUD 2012: Water Sensitve Urban Design - 21 - 23 February 2012, Melbourne Cricket Ground : building the water sensitve community, Barton: Institution of Engineers, Australia , 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The main threat for the performance of porous asphalt is clogging leading to decreased infiltration capacity. Thus, we investigated the potential of vacuum cleaning to recover the infiltration capacity of clogged permeable asphalts which have been in use for several decades. The influence of road operation and maintenance measures on the results was discussed.Method: We investigated the hydraulic conductivity (HC) of two roads with porous asphalt in Haparanda and Luleå, Sweden, which had been in use for 28 years and 15 years, respectively. A lack of appropriate maintenance during their operating life had lead to significant clogging and thus malfunction. The roads were vacuum cleaned using a vacuum cleaner/sweeping truck combination. This technology is recommended as a maintenance option for porous asphalt. Before and after the vacuum cleaning, replicate HC measurements were conducted using double-ring infiltrometers.Result: Before vacuum cleaning, mean HC was <0.1mm/min in Haparanda and between 0.4 and 0.8 mm/min in Luleå. After vacuum cleaning, HC increased significantly in Luleå (between 1.1 and 7.1mm/min) while no significant increase was detected in Haparanda. Despite the improvement after vacuum cleaning, HC was still far lower than the initial HC after construction. Reasons for the different results in Haparanda and Luleå were identified; the road winter maintenance was of primary importance.Conclusion: Depending on the extent of clogging, vacuum cleaning has the ability to recover HC of porous asphalt. However, long term behaviour of the HC depends largely on the street maintenance, thus regular appropriate maintenance is preferable.

  • 319.
    Al-Rubaei, Ahmed
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Stenglein, Anna Lena
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Long-term performance of a porous asphalt pavement in Luleå, Sweden: preliminary results2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 320.
    Al-Rubaei, Ahmed
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Stenglein, Anna Lena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Long-term hydraulic performance of porous asphalt pavements in northern Sweden2013Ingår i: Journal of irrigation and drainage engineering, ISSN 0733-9437, E-ISSN 1943-4774, Vol. 139, nr 6, s. 499-505Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of clogging on the long-term infiltration capacity and porosity of two 18- and 24-year-old porous asphalts was examined by using replicate double-ring infiltrometer tests and analyzing asphalt core samples. Tests were carried out to see if high pressure washing and vacuum cleaning could restore the hydraulic performance. The infiltration capacity of the porous asphalts decreased substantially, primarily due to surficial clogging (0.50 +/- 0.26 in Lulea, Sweden, and 0.22 +/- 0.12 in Haparanda, Sweden, compared to initially > 290 mm min(-1)). In Lulea, washing and vacuum cleaning could partially restore the infiltration capacity (3.48 +/- 3.00 mm min(-1)), but in Haparanda, no effect was measured. The porosity was constantly between 16 and 18%. The difference of the long-term behavior and effect of cleaning in Lulea and Haparanda is primarily attributable to different street maintenance, age, and winter maintenance (application of fine gravel and/or sand). Although the infiltration capacity in Lulea was far below initial values, the asphalt still has the capacity to infiltrate an intense design rainfall (100 year average return interval, 15 min duration), underlining that porous asphalt can be a resilient feature also under nonfavorable conditions

  • 321.
    Al-Rubaei, Ahmed
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Long-term hydraulic performance of stormwater infiltration systems2015Ingår i: Urban Water Journal, ISSN 1573-062X, Vol. 12, nr 8, s. 660-671Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the common use of stormwater infiltration systems, there is still only limited data available evaluating the long-term hydraulic function of such systems. The hydraulic performance of twelve stormwater infiltration systems (vegetated and unvegetated concrete grid pavers, unvegetated interlocking concrete pavers and grassed swales) was therefore investigated in field and laboratory environments in Växjö, Sweden. The systems investigated had not been subjected to regular maintenance to sustain infiltration capacity. Due to this, and the fact that, for most systems, an inappropriate joint filling material was used and (at the swales) there was severe compaction, most systems showed a reduced infiltration capacity. Despite this, especially the older vegetated systems, were still capable of infiltrating intense design rainfalls. This study showed the influence of some factors (type and age of the system, the type of joint filling material (grass and macadam) and the distance from the edge of the pavement) on the long-term behaviour of the infiltration capacity. In conclusion, there is a significant risk that existing stormwater infiltration systems are not working adequately in praxis. Proper implementation of construction and regular control by the inspecting authority has to be ensured.

  • 322.
    Alsyouf, Imad
    et al.
    Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Al-Ash, Lubna
    Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.
    Al-Hammadi, Muna
    Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.
    Improving baggage flow in the baggage handling system at a UAE-based airline using lean Six Sigma tools2019Ingår i: Quality Engineering, ISSN 0898-2112, E-ISSN 1532-4222, Vol. 30, nr 3, s. 432-452Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a real successful implementation of lean six sigma methodology to continuously improve the baggage flow in a baggage handling system (BHS), by identifying the causes of mishandled baggage, and deriving solutions to enhance BHS performance. The results show that the main critical problems were low system reliability and the high number of bags passing through manual-encoding-stations. This research illustrates how to avoid baggage congestion and provides applicable and cost-effective solutions. The success of this project made the organisation aware of the opportunities that the application of lean Six Sigma methodology created in the aviation and airport sector.

  • 323.
    Altaie, Entidhar
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Analysis of Shallow Foundations in Three Different Regions in Iraq2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 324.
    Al-Taie, Entidhar
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Foundations of educational buildings in Iraq: past, present and future2013Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Foundation is considered as one of the main parts of any structure such as buildings, railways, bridges, etc. The type of foundation used is highly dependent on the type and properties of soil. The design of foundations requires many factors that should be defined such as the load that the foundation is going to hold, geological conditions of the soil under the foundation, type of soil and the local building code criteria.There are number of differences in the geological and soil conditions in Iraq. As a consequence, these differences are reflected on the type of foundation to be used. Despite these differences, same materials and style of buildings are used all over Iraq. To have good information about the materials and the required design of the foundation, a comprehensive historical review was executed to highlight the progress of the materials and types of foundation that was used since the dawn of civilization up to the present (ancient, Islamic, Ottoman and British occupation till after independent). Present day situation had been analysed through a case study which illustrated the link between soil and foundation types in three different parts of Iraq (Mosul, Baghdad and Basrah). One building was analysed using STAAD. Pro software in these regions. Furthermore, the same building was analysed using local materials, which were historically used and was compared with present day materials used.It is evident that Iraqi designers and engineers require local code to define all the loads, materials and design of the foundation to be used. The use of local materials might be very effective from both engineering and economic perspectives.

  • 325.
    Al-Taie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Bearing Capacity Affecting the Design of Shallow Foundation in Various Regions of Iraq Using SAP200 & SAFE softwares2014Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 4, nr 4, s. 35-52Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Bearing pressure is the load per unit area along the foundation bottom. The value of bearing pressure can be obtained from soil exploration. In this research, three sites in Iraq were tested (Mosul at north, Baghdad at middle and Basrah at south) for the best type of foundation to be chosen. Seventy nine samples were taken from twenty three boreholes drilled to a depth ranging from 1to 24m, from various sites for the three sites. Samples were tested for their size; Atterberg limits; direct shear; unconfined compression; consolidation and SPT tests. The results showed that the nature of soil in Mosul was generally were silty clay to clay (in some areas silt or sand) with high to very high plasticity. In Baghdad, it was loam clay, silty clay, and in some areas silt. Its plasticity range was medium to high and non-plastic in few sites. For Basrah, the soil type was clay loam and in many places was sand or silt. The value of plasticity was medium. The average and the worst values of bearing capacity were: 177KN/m2 and 77KN/m2 for Mosul; 125 KN/m2 and 68 KN/m2 for Baghdad; and 84KN/m2 and 24 KN/m2 for Basrah. These values were used in a computer model (SAP2000 and SAFE softwares) to find the best suitable foundation in each site. The model suggests that spread or continuous and raft (if basement is used for building with many floors) are suitable for Mosul. For Baghdad, spread and raft type of foundations are suitable. While, for Basrah, raft foundation type are to be used in some areas where building should be less than three floors and for other areas, deep foundation (piles or pier) can only to be used.

  • 326.
    Al-Taie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Effect of bearing capacity on designing foundations in Iraq using STAAD Pro- v8i2014Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 2014, nr 6, s. 292-303Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of Iraqi soil is classified as Quaternary deposits, especially in the Mesopotamian plain and tributaries of the River Tigris. Soil varies from north to south of Iraq. These differences in soil af-fected the process to select the suitable type of foundation. This research is to study the effect of bearing capacity on shallow foundations in different regions of Iraq. Seventy nine samples were collected from 23 boreholes at three different locations (Mosul at the North, Baghdad at the middle and Basrah at the south of Iraq). The samples were collected at varying depth between 1 to 24m. They were subjected to the following testes: Atterberg limits, sieve and hydrometers, consolidation, direct shear, unconfined compression and the filed (SPT test). The values of the bearing capacity parameters (ϕ and c) were obtained from the above tests. The results obtained were used in the application of the general equation of the bearing capacity. Then, the model of a building was designed (two floors, with mat foundation type) using STAAD Pro software. The average values of bearing capacity in each region were applied in the program (Mosul= 177KPa, Baghdad= 125KPa and Basrah= 84KPa). In addition, the worst bearing capacity values were also used for the three regions (Mosul = 77KPa, Baghdad= 68 KPa and Basrah= 24KPa). The results obtained from the average and worst bearing capacity indicated that for Mosul, we could use shallow foundation (spread and mat used if there was basement) for different areas and for buildings with many sto-ries. For Baghdad region, shallow foundation was more suitable for building not higher than five stories. Finally, for Basrah region, shallow foundations were an appropriate selection, but for most areas deep foundation was the right choice.

  • 327.
    Altaie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Effect of Material Used in Concrete Mixture on the Foundation Stresses on Soil2015Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 7, nr 10, s. 668-675Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable design, green architecture and sustainable construction are new methods for design and construction that are employed for environmental and economic challenges. Clay and bricks proved as sustainable building materials. In this paper, crush brick in the concrete mixture instead of normal coarse aggregate will be used. STAAD Prov8i software was applied for the designed of a hypothetical building in different sites of the three locations in Iraq (Mosul at the north, Baghdad at the center and Basrah at the south). The input model data used in the software were depending on the field and laboratory tests done for twenty three sites in the three locations of Iraq. Concrete properties values were used in the software for concrete mixture with crushed bricks. The results values of base pressure obtained from the software were low for the three locations. The maximum values of base pressure under the foundation for both the average and the minimum bearing capacity values for Mosul region for the normal strength concrete and air-entrained were (94, 84) kPa and (91, 82) kPa respectively, for Baghdad region were (89, 82) kPa and (86, 81) kPa respectively. Finally, for Basrah, the results for the base pressure were (84, 77) kPa and (82, 76) kPa, respectively. The results values of the base pressure were less for all locations compared with the base pressure values obtained from a previous work for the same locations. The use of crushed brick as aggregate in the concrete mixture is economical due to its availability as local material and it is durable materials with low weight.

  • 328.
    Altaie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Estimation of Settlement under Shallow Foundation for Different Regions in Iraq Using SAFE Software2015Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 7, nr 7, s. 379-386Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Foundation design must satisfy limited values of settlement. Settlement is an essential criterion in the design process of shallow foundations. To calculate the settlement under different types of shallow foundations, 79 samples were taken from twenty-three sites distributed in three regions:Mosul, Baghdad and Basrah in the northern, central and southern parts of Iraq. Field and laboratory tests were performed to obtain the strength parameters to calculate the bearing capacity. The results obtained for the bearing capacity were used in SAFE software. The software was used to design and analyze the foundation and to calculate the settlements under two types of foundations (raft and continuous) for the three regions. Average and minimum values of bearing capacity wereused. The software used subgrade reaction modules values for the design and analysis. According to the results, the suitable, safe and economical type of foundation to be used in Mosul, Baghdad and Basrah regions for the average value of bearing capacity is the continuous type for the first two regions while the raft type is recommended for Basrah region. In case that the minimumbearing capacity values are used, raft foundation is recommended for Mosul and Baghdad. While deep foundation is the suitable type of foundation for Basrah region.

  • 329.
    Al-Taie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Reconstruction and Projects Department, Minister of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Evaluation of Foundation Settlement under Various Added Loads in Different Locations of Iraq Using Finite Element2016Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 8, nr 5, s. 257-268Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Settlement is an important criterion in the design of the foundations. It is classifying into immedi-ate (or elastic) settlement and consolidated settlement (primary and secondary). The factors that affect the shallow foundation settlement are the applied loads, soil stiffness, and geometric shape of foundation. Calculations of settlement depend on the parameters of soil which can be obtained from field and laboratory tests. Field and laboratory tests were conducted for twenty three sites in three different regions in Iraq (Mosul, Baghdad, and Basrah). In this research, field and laboratory tests results adopted for two sites from each region depended on the maximum and minimum bearing capacity values. Settlement for each site was calculated using numerical (mathematical) calculations and PLAXIS software under different added loads. The results of settlements beneath the foundation were competing for the sites with maximum value of bearing capacity in Mosul; Baghdad and Basrah. Also, the comparison conducted for sites of minimum bearing capacity value and the results showed different settlement values of each site. The change of settlement values under different loads was linearly in the six sites using numerical (mathematical) calculations. While, the settlement values obtained from PLAXIS software for sites with maximum bearing ca- pacity value showed that Mosul site had the highest value due to the type of soil layers and the dif- ference models of soil used in the software. Basrah site had a settlement value higher than Bagh- dad site due to the soil layers of sand type only. PLAXIS results for sites with minimum bearing capacity showed that for Basrah site the soil went to failure. While, the settlement values for Mosul and Baghdad sites were close to each other due to have nearly same soil layers. Therefore, high rise buildings could not be used in some sites. Also, soil in some locations and under some added loads needed to be improved before the implementation of any constructions.

  • 330.
    Altaie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Materials and the style of buildings used in Iraq during the Islamic period2012Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 2, nr 2, s. 69-97Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Islamic period in Iraq lasted 1002 years (637-1639 AD). During this period big cities were constructed and old cities were reconstructed. There was development of the materials used and the design. Bricks, grill wage, plaster, gypsum and marble and stones were used. The environmental conditions were taken in the design of the buildings. The walls were thick and basements and badgur were established. This makes it easier to cool or heat the house. Tar was used to protect the buildings from moisture. New style of buildings was established using new engineering innovations. Well-designed arches and domes were noticed during this period. Islamic buildings had special features such as minarets, arches, domes, vaults, gilding, patterns and decorations.

  • 331.
    Altaie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Progress of building materials and foundation engineering in ancient Iraq2012Ingår i: Advanced Materials Research, ISSN 1022-6680, E-ISSN 1662-8985, s. 220-241Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans realised the importance of housing since the dawn of history. The first man used the caves as shelter. When agricultural activities dominated the life style of humans, villages started to be constructed. Later these were developed into cities. The dawn of civilization started in Iraq. The inhabitants in that time used the available natural materials in their construction. Reviewing the progress of engineering practices of ancient Iraq, reveals the facts that the inhabitants were aware of the principles of construction and engineering. The materials used and the design of the buildings were very suitable from both environmental and engineering perspectives. This work is a critical review of the progress and development of engineering practices and construction materials used in ancient Mesopotamia

  • 332.
    Al-Taie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The need to develop a building code for Iraq2014Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 6, nr 10, s. 610-632Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Building Code is a legal document provided a minimum level of safety and health for the construc-tions to make public living in safe buildings. People recognize the importance of constructing the buildings in safe conditions, since the dawn of civilization. Many countries around the world were facing different kind of disasters such as fires, earthquakes, etc. These disasters made builders to develop methods for safe construction to avoid any disaster. Later, these developments became codes and standards. Since, the middle of the last century many countries established its local codes. This research represents a review of the importance of the codes with a short history for them. Furthermore, reviews for some national codes (Egyptian, Syrian and Arabia Saudi) were done as well as comparison between load’s correction factors, geotechnical requirements and materials used in concrete. Most of the national codes were highly based on the ACI, British and Germany codes and standards. In addition, a review and comparison were presented for International codes (American (ACI) and European (EC)) through a case study. EC code is becoming more common for the world. Eurocode give more flexibility to the user to employ their own standards (national annex). To find the best suitable foundation design to be used in Iraq and the differences when using the American and European codes, a building model was designed and analyzed using STAAD Pro., and SAFE softwares for three locations (Mosul, Baghdad and Basrah). The combination loads used in the two softwares were for ACI and EC codes. Results obtained were very similar. The type of foundation to be chosen for Mosul location is spread or continuous. For Baghdad location the suitable type is raft and for Basrah the choice is raft and piles.In view of the fact that Iraq has no national code engineers and designers were depending on the ACI and British codes and standards. It is very important to have an Iraqi code because it will im-prove the quality and safety of the design and construction of buildings as well as its economic value.

  • 333.
    Altaie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The progress of buildings style and materials from the Ottoman and British occupations of Iraq2012Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 2, nr 2, s. 41-51Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The period of ottoman occupation of Iraq was characterized by the same style of buildings and they used local materials as did their predecessors. At the beginning of ottoman occupation, governors were focusing on build mosques and religion schools (Tkaya). Houses were built in random styles depending on the experiences of the builders. For this reason, the houses became irregular and expanded randomly. This lead to the shrinkage of the areas of the roads where they became very narrow and used to referred to as “Drbuna”. At the end of the ottoman period the style of buildings changed and it was reflecting European renaissance influences such as the government campus known as “Qishla”. In 1917 the British army occupied Iraq. During this period the buildings were more inclined to the European style. New materials were used for the first time like cement and iron (Schliemann). The new materials and design destroyed the Iraqi heritage and cultural identity. It is believed that the new housing style did not take into consideration the Iraqi environment.

  • 334.
    Al-Taie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Saaed, Tarek Edrees
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Foundation assessment in different parts of Iraq using STAAD Pro v8i2013Ingår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 273-281Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Foundation is considered as one of the main parts of any structure such as buildings, railways, bridges, etc. The type of foundation used is highly dependent on the type and properties of soil. The design of foundations requires many factors that should be defined such as the load that the foundation is going to hold, geological conditions of the soil under the foundation, type of soil and the local building code criteria.There are number of differences in the geological and soil conditions in Iraq. As a consequence, these differences are reflected on the type of foundation to be used. Despite these differences, same materials and style of buildings are used all over Iraq. The main problems of Iraqi soil are high gypsum content, salinity and shallow water table depth. These factors that influence the foundations are the soil properties and the amount of loads that transmitted by the superstructure.The situation had been analysed through a case study which illustrated the link between soil and foundation types in three different parts of Iraq (Mosul, Baghdad and Basra). One building was analysed using STAAD. Pro software in these regions. It is evident that Iraqi designers and engineers require local code to define all the loads, materials and design of the foundation to be used. The use of local materials might be very effective from both engineering and economic perspectives.

  • 335.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Performance of Clay Liners in Near-Surface Repositories in Desert Climate2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Wars in Iraq (1991 and 2003) generated various types of hazardous waste (HW) in the form of soil contaminated by depleted uranium (DU). Other HW emanated from destroyed army vehicles and remnants of Iraqi nuclear facilities holding various types and amounts of chemical and radioactive material. The negative impact of the various wastes on the health conditions of the population was reported from different parts of Iraq, showing an enhanced frequency of cancer and abnormally born infants. For isolating the wastes, which represent low-level and short-lived intermediate level radioactive wastes, near-surface repositories (NSR) are proposed since they represent the least expensive way of solving future problems with sufficient safety. Internationally, the timeframe of the containment of such wastes is designated to be 300 years. Site selection affects and largely controls the selection of a suitable design the aim being to minimize or eliminate migration of hazardous elements from the waste to the environment. The formulation of siting criteria is the first vital step toward the resolution of the problem. Site selection criteria are proposed taking in account three major factors: environmental, geological and socio-economic factors. Accordingly, Iraqi deserts, which make up 60% of Iraq, represent the number one candidate for locating a safe disposal facility, primarily because of the low population, suitable topography, climatic conditions, seismic stability and availability of raw materials. Long-term performance of NSR is directly related to the function of top and bottom liner systems. They should be designed so that they are mutually compatible and combine to effectively isolate the waste. Liners are considered as the main elements of any disposal facility on the ground surface and a properly designed top liner system is of particular importance since it will minimize or eliminate water percolation into the waste body. Compacted clay liners (CCL) should preferably have with a low hydraulic conductivity, which is achievable by proper selection of raw materials, compaction density and construction methods. A further criterion is that they must not soften significantly by expansion on wetting, which puts a limit to the smectite content and density. The liners can consist of native material found near the landfill site, and be used after simple processing, primarily drying and crushing, or be mixed with fillers like silty sand. Since the hydraulic conductivity is the key property of a reliable CCL, relevant experimental determination of the hydraulic conductivity is vital. The common practice in geotechnical laboratories is to apply high hydraulic gradients for getting results quickly but this can lead to non-conservative, incorrect results. The present study involved determination of the hydraulic conductivity of a smectite-rich clay sampled at places within reasonable distance from potential NSR sites. Various hydraulic gradients were applied to samples compacted to several different densities, using two permeants and two filter types. It was concluded that the outflow filter can significantly affect the evaluated conductivity especially when applying high hydraulic gradients. This was partly explained by clogging of outflow filters of conventional fine-porous type by torn-off clay particles at such gradients. A major conclusion was that the gradient in laboratory testing should not exceed 100 m/m.In order to assess the suitability of available raw materials within the Iraqi Deserts, two smectitic soils termed as Green and Red clays were investigated for potential use in CCLs. Both clays are fairly rich in smectite, which calls for mixing them with properly graded silt/sand material from the desert for modifying the expandability. The shear strength, swelling pressure, hydraulic conductivity and creep properties were determined and used for defining criteria for selecting suitable clay-sand ratios. The results showed that 30-50% Green clay mixed with sand and 40-60% Red clay mixed with sand were suitable for constructing top liners with a hydraulic conductivity of 1×10-9 - 1×10-10 m/s. For bottom liners, 70% Green clay mixed with sand and 80% Red clay mixed with sand would be suitable; they were found to have a hydraulic conductivity of 1×10-11 m/s.The long-term performance of CCL is controlled by a number of processes like long periods of extreme dryness and short periods of very heavy rain. The percolation of water through the top liner system of a number of design alternatives were simulated using the code HELP 3.95D and subsequently by the FE program VADOSE/W. For the assumed NSR concept the slope stability of the top liner is essential and it was determined by using FE technique considering various slope angles. The engineering properties, primarily the hydraulic conductivity, swelling pressure and shear strength of 30-50% Green clay mixed with sand were introduced in the simulations. Two initial water contents of the compacted materials were considered representing 1) optimum water content (“wet case”), and 2) air‐dry conditions (“dry case”). Application of the HELP code decided the selection of suitable CCL having a thickness of 0.5 m and inclined by 5.7ᵒ. More detailed analyses with VADOSE/W showed that a mixture at the dry case would bring 0.5 mm (0.5 litre of leaking water per square meter) through CCL in an eight year simulation period. Long-term simulations (up to 300 years) showed that CCL would undergo continuous drying without reaching saturation even in the case of periods of very heavy rain (616 mm) for the wet and dry cases. The slope stability factor for the rather steep angle 30ᵒ was found to be 1.5 for the most critical case representing complete water saturation. In conclusion, the proposed materials and design features are believed to be suitable for practical application.

  • 336.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Performance of landfills of hazardous waste with special respect to the function of clay liners2012Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna licentiatavhandling är baserad på fyra artiklar med anknytning till utförande av ytnära deponier för lågaktivt avfall (LLW) med fokus på byggande och funktion hos lerlager i topptäckningen. Den första artikeln behandlar ursprunget till farligt avfall, dess förekomst och inverkan på folkhälsan. Artikeln rör också det vetenskapliga underlaget till val av isoleringen av sådant avfall med hänsyn också till kostnadsfrågor. Regler och principer för uppbyggnad av isolering enligt amerikanska och tyska normer redovisas. Den andra artikeln beskriver hur behandling av avfall sker i anläggningar för avfallsdeponering och innehåller förslag till kriterier för placering av sådan verksamhet i Irak med särskild hänsyn till miljömässiga, geologiska och socio-ekonomiska faktorer. Med dessa kriterier som grund visar artikeln att en anläggning i Al-Jeziraöknen kan vara lämplig för behandling och deponering av farligt avfall. Den tredje artikeln beskriver egenskaperna hos två irakiska smektitiska leror som ses som kandidatmaterial för isolering av farligt avfall i Irak. Dessa leror undersöks fortlöpande för att utvärdera deras användbarhet för ändamålet. Den fjärde artikeln, slutligen, behandlar processerna vid bevätning/uttorkning av lerlager i avfallstäckningar i ökenklimat och frågor som gäller byggande av sådana täckningar.

  • 337.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hazardous wastes problems in Iraq: a suggestion for an environmental solution2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq passed through many destructive wars where the country infrastructures have been destroyed. Consequently, various types of hazardous wastes generated from 1991 and 2003 wars are exposed in different parts of Iraq without any aspect of human and environment considerations. Contaminants are found in the form of contaminated rubble with depleted uranium (DU). Landfill disposal is still an economical and vital solution that should serve between 500-1000 years for confining hazardous wastes like DU. The longevity of a hazardous waste landfill is mainly controlled by clay based liners. There are many factors affecting the performance of clay liners. These factors were discussed in this research. The main requirements of hazardous waste landfills were listed according to USEPA and German regulations. Finally, the main aspects of landfill siting criteria in Iraq were suggested.

  • 338.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hazardous wastes problems in Iraq:a suggestion for an environmental solution2013Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 81-91Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq passed through many destructive wars where the country infrastructures have been destroyed. Consequently, various types of hazardous wastes generated from 1991 and 2003 wars are exposed in different parts of Iraq without any aspect of human and environment considerations. Contaminants are found in the form of contaminated rubble with depleted uranium (DU). Landfill disposal is still an economical and vital solution that should serve between 300-1000 years for confining hazardous wastes like DU. The longevity of a hazardous waste landfill is mainly controlled by clay based liners. There are many factors affecting the performance of clay liners. These factors were discussed. The main requirements of hazardous waste landfills were listed according to USEPA and German regulations. Finally, the main aspects of landfill siting criteria in Iraq were suggested.

  • 339.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Proposed site selection criteria for hazardous waste disposal facilities in Iraq2012Ingår i: Waste Management and the Environment VI / [ed] V. Popov; H. Itoh; C.A. Brebbia, WIT Press, 2012, s. 309-319Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hazardous wastes in Iraq can be considered as a looming crisis due to its severe impact on health and environment after the 1991 and 2003 wars. The most dangerous type is depleted uranium waste. It is classified by EU and USEPA as Low-Level radioactive Waste and a simple and sufficiently safe way of isolating it from the biosphere is to turn it into a landfill confined within tight dikes. Selection of a disposal site requires a number of conditions to be fulfilled, like socio/economic, environmental and geotechnical criteria, which, in combination, determine where such landfills can be located. This is particularly obvious for Iraq, with its large desertic areas that are available for constructing landfills of hazardous waste. The climatic conditions are suitable and the deep groundwater level valuable for minimizing or avoiding contamination of the area. Heavy rain may occasionally fall requiring special measures to be taken for maintaining stability and tightness. This paper lists suitable site selection criteria for landfills of hazardous waste with special respect to Iraq. An example of a suitable disposal site is described and assessed.

  • 340.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser.
    Natural smectitic soils for protective liners in arid climate2014Ingår i: Applied Clay Science, ISSN 0169-1317, E-ISSN 1872-9053, Vol. 102, s. 104-112Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Compacted clay liners (CCL) can be used to isolate hazardous wastes like the soil and military scrap contaminated with depleted uranium that emanated from the Iraqi wars in 1991 and 2003. Near-surface repositories for such dangerous waste can preferably be located in the Iraqi deserts, which make up 60% of the territory of Iraq. CCLs are usually constructed using a mixture of clayey soil and coarse material compacted in air-dry form or suitably wetted. In the present study, two smectitic soils from Iraq, termed Green and Red clays, were investigated for potential use in CCLs. The shear strength, swelling pressure, hydraulic conductivity and creep properties were determined and used for preliminary design of top and bottom liners. The engineering properties were determined for various dry densities and water contents ranging from air-dry to fully saturated conditions. The results showed that mixtures of sand and 30-50% Green clay, and mixtures of sand and 40-60% Red clay are suitable for constructing top liners with a hydraulic conductivity between 1×10-10 - 1×10-9 m/s. For bottom liners, mixtures of sand and 70% Green clay and mixtures of sand and 80% Red clay can be considered. They were found to have a hydraulic conductivity of 1×10-11 m/s for a density at saturation of 2.1 g/cm3 (dry density 1.7 g/cm3). As to the slope stability of top liners, the shear strength for different clay percentages was found to guarantee slope stability for 18o inclination under both air-dry and water saturated conditions.

  • 341.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hydraulic properties of smectite clays from Iraq with special respect to landfills of DU-contaminated waste2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfills of material contaminated by depleted uranium and other low-level radioactive waste must be isolated from the biosphere for a sufficiently long time. This can be effectively made in desert climate by collecting contaminated waste in suitable areas confined by tight embankments and covering them with very tight clay liners protected from desiccation and erosion by suitably composed filters and coarse rock fill. Examples of design principles and construction are described in the paper. The clay liners are made of air-dry expanding clay that can be found in sufficient quantities in Iraq and that provide very good tightness at low cost. The construction technique is well known from various projects.

  • 342.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hydraulic properties of smectite clays from Iraq with special respect to landfills of DU-contaminated waste2013Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 109-125Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfills of material contaminated by depleted uranium and other low-level radioactive waste must be isolated from the biosphere for a sufficiently long time. This can be effectively made in desert climate by collecting contaminated waste in suitable areas confined by tight embankments and covering them with very tight clay liners protected from desiccation and erosion by suitably composed filters and coarse rock fill. Examples of design principles and construction are described in the paper. The clay liners are made of air-dry expanding clay that can be found in sufficient quantities in Iraq and that provide very good tightness at low cost. The construction technique is well known from various projects.

  • 343.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hydraulic properties of smectite rich clay controlled by hydraulic gradients and filter types2014Ingår i: Applied Clay Science, ISSN 0169-1317, E-ISSN 1872-9053, Vol. 87, s. 73-80Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The common practice in geotechnical laboratories is to apply high hydraulic gradients for getting results in reasonable time but this can jeopardize the accuracy. In this paper, the hydraulic conductivity of a smectite rich clay from Iraq was determined under different hydraulic gradients (5 to 10000 m/m) using several densities and two permeants. Also, two types of filters were used, ordinary stainless steel sintered filter and sand/silt filter, in order to examine the possible effect of clogging by dragged clay gel particles. It was concluded that the outflow filter can affect the evaluated conductivity especially when applying high hydraulic gradients. For sintered filters the hydraulic conductivity was reduced as the gradient increased, while the conductivity increased as the hydraulic gradient increased when using sand/silt filters. For salt water the impact of the gradient was less obvious than for distilled water. A theoretical model was derived for selecting safe hydraulic gradients as a function of dry density, hydraulic gradient, swelling pressure and permeant type. A major conclusion was that the gradient in laboratory testing should not exceed 100 m/m.

  • 344.
    Altorkmany, Lobna
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Kharseh, Mohamad
    Civil Environmental Engineering Department, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Ljung, Anna-Lena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Strömningslära och experimentell mekanik.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Strömningslära och experimentell mekanik.
    Experimental and Simulation Validation of ABHE for Disinfection of Legionella in Hot Water Systems2017Ingår i: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 116, s. 253-265Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The work refers to an innovative system inspired by nature that mimics the thermoregulation system that exists in animals. This method, which is called Anti Bacteria Heat Exchanger (ABHE), is proposed to achieve continuous thermal disinfection of bacteria in hot water systems with high energy efficiency. In particular, this study aims to demonstrate the opportunity to gain energy by means of recovering heat over a plate heat exchanger. Firstly, the thermodynamics of the ABHE is clarified to define the ABHE specification. Secondly, a first prototype of an ABHE is built with a specific configuration based on simplicity regarding design and construction. Thirdly, an experimental test is carried out. Finally, a computer model is built to simulate the ABHE system and the experimental data is used to validate the model. The experimental results indicate that the performance of the ABHE system is strongly dependent on the flow rate, while the supplied temperature has less effect. Experimental and simulation data show a large potential for saving energy of this thermal disinfection method by recovering heat. To exemplify, when supplying water at a flow rate of 5 kg/min and at a temperature of 50 °C, the heat recovery is about 1.5 kW while the required pumping power is 1 W. This means that the pressure drop is very small compared to the energy recovered and consequently high saving in total cost is promising.

  • 345. Altorkmany, Lobna
    et al.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Overview of legionella bacteria infection: control and treatment methods2009Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 346.
    Altorkmany, Lobna
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Overview of Legionella Bacteria Infection: Control and Treatment Methods2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the first recognized outbreak of Legionnaires' disease (LD) in 1976, it has become an increasing problem around the world especially in poor countries. Legionella (L) causes an estimated 15,000 annual cases of pneumonia in USA, and leads to death in about 20% of the cases. L is found worldwide in both natural and artificial environments e.g. spa pools, cooling towers. It infects people by inhaled contaminated aerosols that can transmit several km. The optimal temperature for L growth is 20-45C. Control of L is therefore an important health issue. Many treatment methods are used; biocides, ionisation, ozone, UV-radiation, pressure, and thermal treatment. Only thermal treatment can completely eliminate L, which is killed almost instantly at 70C. Current paper gives an overview of the Legionella problem and treatment methods.

  • 347.
    Alwan, Khaldoon Khaled
    et al.
    Department of Geology, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Kubaisi, Manal Shakir Ali
    Department of Geology, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Validity of Existing Rain Water Harvesting Dams within Part of Western Desert, Iraq2019Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 11, nr 12, s. 806-818Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study area is located within the western part of Iraq between Latitude

    (32˚45'0'' - 34˚0'0'') North and longitude (39˚30'0'' - 40˚45'0'') East within

    Anbar Governorate. It covers an area of 4767.423 Km 2 with elevation ranges

    from 360 to 840 m. The general slope decreases from southwest to northeast.

    Five old dams identified in the study area. The results of SWAT model

    showed high curve number (70 - 85) indicating low filtration and runoff rate

    (1.2 - 8.2) mm for the period (1994-2014). These dams have catchment areas

    ranged between (118.03 - 673.41) km 2. They were to be used for agricultural

    purposes. The results according to the Food, Agriculture Organization (FAO)

    standards for their distance from agricultural areas using a GIS showed that

    all are not suitable except dam number (1). The distance to roads showed that

    dams (1, 4) are highly suitable, (2, 3) are low suitable and dam (5) is not suitable.

    The average annual quantity of rain water that can be harvested from

    the 5 dams is about 12.9 million cubic meters.

  • 348.
    Alzeyadi, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Rawabdeh, Abdulla M.
    Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    A Novel Coating Method for Create Filter Media Capable to Remove Phosphate from Wastewater Effectively2019Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 11, nr 8, s. 443-463Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Filtration materials coating with metallic oxides represented a good method for phosphate sorption. However, most of the researchers utilize chemicals as a source of metallic oxides and heating process to set the chemicals over the filtration materials. This study is aimed to introduce the furnace bottom ash FBA as a source of metallic oxides; it is available free because it is dumped as a waste material from power generation plants. The method of creating new filter media involves coating the limestone and sand by FBA, and the ordinary Portland cement OPC utilized as binder to binding the mixture materials. The water is the factor which is responsible for activating the OPC. All factors such as mixed materials ratio, water content and age of reaction have subjected to optimization process. The results revealed that the optimal mixture for phosphate removal consists of 40% FBA, 5% OPC from dry weight of supporting material, 35% water ratio from the total weight of FBA and OPC, and 14 days are enough to complete the materials reaction. Limestone-furnace bottom ash LFBA indicated high capacity for phosphate sorption and possibility  of  efficiency  regenerate.  This  study  demonstrates  a  new  method  for coating the filtration materials more convenient with sustainability approach.

  • 349.
    Alzeyadi, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Alattabi, Ali
    School of Civil Engineering, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
    Study of Biomass Bottom Ash Efficiency as Phosphate Sorbent Material2019Ingår i: Civil Engineering Journal, ISSN 2476-3055, Vol. 11, nr 5, s. 2392-2401Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Excessive richness of nutrients in water bodies such as rivers, lakes and ponds lead into deterioration of aquatic life as a results of dense growth of algae. Phosphate is one of the main nutrients that should be controlled to prevent this serious issue. Utilizing low cost material as a phosphate sorbent is offering a treatment method characterized as a sustainable solution. In this study the efficiency of biomass bottom ash BBA as phosphate sorbent material from aqueous solution is investigated. Batch experiments were undertaken, in which a particular mass of BBA was brought into contact with the phosphate solution. The experiments studied the influence of pH (different phosphate solutions were prepared with pH range 4 to 8), temperature (adsorption capacity measured at the temperature range of 10 to 30 °C), and contact time. In addition, the adsorption isotherm models were also applied to better understand the mechanism of phosphate sorption by BBA. The results revealed that the bonding between the cations (BBA surface) and anions (phosphate solution) is significantly affected by the pH of the solution. BBA presents an excellent phosphate sorption, especially, at low pH value and temperature around 20 oC. The method of this research can be adopted as a followed strategy for examination the capability of selected material for phosphorus removal from wastewater.

  • 350.
    Al-Zubaidi, Ibrahim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser.
    Numerisk simulering av sättningar och portryck för en provbank på sulfidjord2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den finkorniga sulfidjorden som finns längs Norrlandskusten är känd för sin stora sättningsbenägenhet och utgör en potentiell miljörisk genom försurning och urlakning av metaller om den inte hanteras rätt. För att förebygga miljörisker och utveckla jordförstärknings- och grundläggningsmetoder måste en ökad kunskap om sulfidjordar tas fram. I ett pågående forskningsprojekt vid Statens Geotekniska Institut studeras sulfidjords kompressionsegenskaper och rekommendationer ska tas fram avseende underlag för sättningsberäkningar. I projektet omfattas ett antal provbankar där ett av dessa områden, Lampen ligger i Kalix i norra Sverige. I detta examensarbete har det utförts numeriska analyser i finita elementprogrammet PLAXIS 2D av sättningar och portryck under en av provbankarna i Lampen och jämförelser görs med tidigare rapporterade fältmätningar.

    Tre olika delar analyseras i FE-programmet PLAXIS 2D. I den första delen, som är huvuddelen, utvärderas materialmodellernas, Soft Soil (SS) respektive Soft Soil Creep (SSC), förmåga att simulera de uppmätta sättningarna och porövertrycken för en period av cirka ett års belastning av provbank. Den andra delen består av en analys av de två deformationstillstånden, axialsymmetriskt och plant. De två deformationstillståden jämförs med hänsyn till sättningar och portryck. I den tredje delen utvärderas påverkan på simulerade resultat av olika nivåer på grundvattenytan, en variation som har observerats i provområdet i Lampen.

    Vid en jämförelse av de konstitutiva modellerna noteras som förväntat större sättningar vid användning av SSC-modellen i jämförelse med SS-modellen. SSC-modellen visar även ett högre porövertryck. Vid jämförelse med i fält uppmätta värden noteras att de mest överensstämmande sättningarna erhålls från SS-modellen medan portrycksutvecklingen simuleras bättre, men ändå långt från bra, med SSC-modellen (för simulering med dubbelsidig dränering).

    Vid analys av deformationstillstånd (axialsymmetriskt kontra plant) noteras en jämnare fördelning av deformationer längs banken vid användandet av axialsymmetriskt tillstånd. Den potentiella brottrörelsen som uppvisas vid släntkrön vid tillämpning av plant deformationstillstånd är inte lika tydlig vid axialsymmetriskt tillstånd. Det axialsymmetriska tillståndet visar även ett lägre porövertryck.

    Numeriska simuleringar av den varierande nivån på grundvattenytan som observerats i fältmätningar visar vid fallet en lägre antagen grundvattennivå en marginellt mindre sättning.  Potentiella brottrörelser blir inte lika tydliga då den lägre nivån på grundvattenytan simuleras.

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