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  • 301.
    Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Mácsik, Josef
    Ecoloop, Stockholm.
    Environmental conditions affecting mobility of redox sensitive elements2006Ingår i: Abstract proceedings of the 4th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium, [June 14th to 16th 2006, Gällivare, Sweden] / [ed] Anders Lagerkvist, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2006, s. 133-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 302.
    Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Máscik, Josef
    Ecoloop, Stockholm.
    Mossakowska, Agnes
    Pilot study with fly ash stabilised sewage sludge (FSS) as hydraulic barrier layer in top cover constructions2006Ingår i: WASCON 2006: 6th International Conference on the Environmental and Technical Implications of Construction with Alternative Materials, Science and Engineering of Recycling for Environmental Protection ; Belgrade, Serbia & Montenegro, May 30 - June 2, 2006 ; [proceedings] / [ed] Marina Ilic, Belgrade: ISCOWA , 2006, s. 723-734Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 303.
    Mench, Michel
    et al.
    University of Bordeaux 1.
    Puschenreiter, Markus
    BOKU - University of Natural Resources & Applied Life Sciences.
    Ruttens, Anna
    Hasselt Universiteit.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Müller, Ingo
    Saxon State Agency for Environment & Geology.
    Cundy, Andrew
    University of Brighton.
    Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang
    Austrian Research Centers GmbH – ARC.
    Renella, Giancarlo
    University of Florence.
    Tlustos, Pavel
    Czech University of Life Sceinces Prague.
    Bert, Valérie
    INERIS.
    Marschner, Bernd
    Ruhr-University Bochum.
    SUMATECS - SUstainable MAnagement of Trace Element Contaminated Soils: a SNOWMAN-ERANET funded project2008Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 304.
    Migdalas, Athanasios
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Karakitsiou, Athanasia
    Pardalos, Panos
    Optimal Location Problems for Electric Vehicles Charging Stations: Models and Challenges2018Ingår i: Open Problems in Optimization and Data Analysis, Springer Publishing Company, 2018, s. 49-60Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Computational and theoretical open problems in optimization, computational geometry, data science, logistics, statistics, supply chain modeling, and data analysis are examined in this book.  Each contribution provides the fundamentals  needed to fully comprehend the impact of individual problems. Current theoretical, algorithmic, and practical methods used to circumvent each problem are provided to stimulate a new effort towards innovative and efficient solutions. Aimed towards graduate students and researchers in mathematics, optimization, operations research, quantitative logistics, data analysis, and statistics, this book provides a broad comprehensive approach to understanding the significance of specific challenging or open problems within each discipline.

  • 305.
    Morgan-Sagastume, Fernando
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik. AnoxKaldnes – Veolia Water Technologies AB, Lund.
    Biofilm development, activity and the modification of carrier material surface properties in moving-bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) for wastewater treatment2018Ingår i: Critical reviews in environmental science and technology, ISSN 1064-3389, E-ISSN 1547-6537, Vol. 48, nr 5, s. 439-470Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last decades, moving-bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) have found a niche in the treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters due to advantages of compactness, simplicity, stability and increased reaction rates. Recently, the material surface properties of MBBR carriers and their modification have been investigated, as reviewed herein, in order to enhance the control of microbial attachment and biofilm development, and MBBR performance by faster reactor startups or increased specific activity per surface area. Biofilm formation is a complex process influenced by the solid substratum surface properties and microbial composition and characteristics. MBBR carriers can be made to facilitate biofilm formation by modifying their physico-chemical surface characteristics using blended polymers, mixed materials, coatings and incorporating different chemical functional groups. The chemical modification of the substratum polymeric surface for biofilm treatment reactors has comprised plasma oxidation treatment, radiolysis in a gas phase, liquid-phase oxidative treatment and polymer grafting. This review focusses on carrier material surface properties, the modification of such properties and carrier material choices relevant to biofilm development and functionality of MBBRs, in order to identify opportunities and challenges in future biofilm carrier development.

  • 306.
    Morgan-Sagastume, Fernando
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Characterisation of open, mixed microbial cultures for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production2016Ingår i: Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology, ISSN 1569-1705, E-ISSN 1572-9826, Vol. 15, nr 4, s. 593-625Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Viable processes have emerged for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) via open, mixed microbial cultures (MMC). MMC PHA production is increasingly integrated into process technologies for the biological management of organic waste residuals and wastewaters. Herein, the literature has been systematically and comprehensively reviewed in order to establish the current knowledge about the characterisation of microbial communities engineered for PHA production. Despite the numerous descriptions of the microbial structure of PHA-storing MMC, the microorganisms actively storing PHAs are rarely identified. The microbial community structure and population dynamics in both the biomass enrichment and the PHA accumulation process have not been equally analysed. PHA-storing bacteria have been identified predominantly within the classes of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. Molecular techniques and microscopy have been preferentially used to characterise microbial diversity, abundance and activity in PHA-storing MMC. Fluorescence in situ hybridization remains relevant for the spatial identification and quantification of PHA-storing bacteria, and in tandem with Nile blue A staining helps identify actively PHA-storing bacteria. 16S rRNA-based fingerprinting is useful for describing dynamics in microbial community structure rather than diversity, and new generation sequencing provides a high-throughput characterisation of microbial diversity, dynamics and relative abundance. The dominant bacteria and their dynamics in bioreactors enriching for MMC with PHA-storage capacity and actively accumulating PHA are further covered with respect to the operating conditions used to select microbial communities for the PHA-storage phenotype. The specification of the PHA-storage phenotype and metabolic activity in identified bacteria remains a challenge in the study of PHA-storing MMC.

  • 307.
    Morgan-Sagastume, Fernando
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik. Veolia Water Technologies AB.
    Valentino, Francesco
    Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome.
    Hjort, Markus
    Veolia Water Technologies AB.
    Zanaroli, Giulio
    Department of Civil, Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering (DICAM), University of Bologna.
    Majone, Mauro
    Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome.
    Werker, Alan G.
    Veolia Water Technologies AB .
    Acclimation Process for Enhancing Polyhydroxyalkanoate Accumulation in Activated-Sludge Biomass2019Ingår i: Waste and Biomass Valorization, ISSN 1877-2641, E-ISSN 1877-265X, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 1065-1082Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A strategy was evaluated for conditioning activated sludge biomass to a new substrate whereby the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) accumulation capacity of the biomass was enhanced based on a series of aerobic feast–famine acclimation cycles applied prior to PHA accumulation. Different biomass types enriched during the treatment of municipal wastewater at laboratory, pilot, and full scales were exposed to aerobic feast–famine acclimation cycles at different feast-to-famine ratios with an acetate–propionate mixture (laboratory scale), acetate (pilot scale), and fermented waste–sludge centrate (pilot scale). A sevenfold increase in specific PHA storage rates and 20% increase in substrate utilization rates were observed during acclimation cycles (laboratory acetate–propionate). Biomass acclimation led to more than doubling of the specific substrate utilization rates, PHA storage rates, biomass PHA contents, and specific PHA productivities (per initial biomass) during PHA accumulation. The biomass PHA contents were found to increase due to acclimation from 0.19 to 0.34 (laboratory acetate–propionate), 0.39 to 0.46 (pilot acetate) and 0.19 to 0.25 gPHA/gVSS (pilot centrate). A similar bacterial community structure during acclimation indicated that a physiological rather than a genotypic adaptation occurred in the biomass. The physiological state of the biomass at the start of PHA accumulation was deemed significant in the subsequent PHA-accumulation performance. Positive acclimation trends can be monitored by measuring the relative increase in feast substrate utilization or respiration rates with respect to those of the first acclimation cycle.

  • 308. Mácsik, Josef
    et al.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Mossakowska, Agnes
    Eklund, Caroline
    Pilotförsök med flygaskastabiliserat avloppsslam (FSA) som tätskikt2005Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns restmaterial som har tekniska och miljömässiga egenskaper som gör dem lämpliga att använda vid sluttäckning av deponier. Genom att stabilisera rötat avloppsslam med flygaska har ett tätskiktsmaterial utvecklats. Avloppslammet är biologiskt nedbrytbart men genom tillsats av flygaska reduceras nedbrytningshastigheten.

  • 309.
    Mácsik, Josef
    et al.
    Ecoloop, Stockholm.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Mossakowska, Agnes
    Stockholm Vatten AB.
    Eklund, Caroline
    Econova.
    Erlandsson, Åsa
    Ecoloop, Stockholm.
    Uppföljning: Kontroll av tätskiktskonstruktionen på Dragmossens deponi2007Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Undersökningen visar att en sluttäckningskonstruktion med FSA i tätskiktet klarar funktionskraven som ställs på deponier med icke-farligt avfall. Undersökningen visar också att tätheten ökar med tiden, vilket ger god prognos för att konstruktionen med FSA är en långsiktig lösning

  • 310. Mácsik, Josef
    et al.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Mossakowska, Agnes
    Eklund, Caroline
    Erlandsson, Åsa
    Uppföljning: Kontroll av tätskiktskonstruktionen på Dragmossens deponi2007Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 311.
    Nilsson, Kristina L.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Lindberg, Johanna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier, ljudteknik och teater.
    Planering för klimatanpassning i sub-arktiska fjällområden2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Planering för klimatanpassning i sub-arktiska fjällområden är en rapport om en delstudie inom forskningsprojektet Klimatförändringar, klimatpåverkan och anpassning i Sub-Arktis, en fallstudie från norra Sveriges fjälltrakter, Climate change, impacts and adap-tation in the sub Arctic - A case study from the Northern Swedish mountains. De uppskattade framtida klimatförändringarna kommer att förändra inte bara vädret utan också landskapet i sub-arktiska områden. Detta kommer i sin tur att påverka markan-vändning och hur människor kan få sin utkomst i fjällområden. De viktigaste användarna, aktörerna och intressenterna av marken i dessa områden är samer, turistidkare, jägare, fiskare, naturvårdare m.fl. Dessutom används fjällområdena för friluftsliv, samt nationell och internationell turism. Denna rapport presenterar en delstudie inom det ämnesövergripande projektet, vilken fo-kuserar på markanvändningen successivt förändras och hur den kan anpassas till framtida klimatförändringar. Övriga delstudier i projektet har utvecklat modeller för detaljerade, nedskalade bedömningar av lokala data för klimat, vegetation, snöfördelning, biologisk mångfald och naturresurser. Dessa data ligger till grund för klimatanpassning av markan-vändningen. De samlade resultaten syftar till att användas för utveckling av lokala och regionala planeringsstrategier för olika nivåer av fysisk planering av markanvändning i sub-arktiska fjällområden. Det forskningsövergripande projektet, hade inledningsvis sin bas i Abisko naturve-tenskapliga station. Denna delstudie har genomförts på Luleå tekniska universitet av forskare inom arkitekturgruppen vid Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser. Det hanterar frågor om markanvändning och fysisk planering och omsätter undersök-ningsresultat från flera av de övriga delprojekten till faktorer att fungera som underlags-material eller aspekter att hantera i praktiskt tillämpade planeringssituationer.

  • 312.
    Nilsson, Mirja
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Environmental assessment of bottom ash pre-treated with zero valent iron2014Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Bottom ash has similar properties as crushed rocks and gravel, andcould replace some of the 40 million tonnesof virgin material used for road constructions each year.However, results presented in the literature indicate thatthe leaching of e.g. Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb and Zn can cause athreat to the sur rounding environment if the materialis used as it is. A common pre-treatment method is carbonation, whichwill reduce the pH and thereby decrease the leaching of several metals. This treatment is however not always enough, so alternative methods areneeded. One possibility could be to increase the number of sorption sites for the metals. The importance of iron oxides as sorption sits for metals isknown from both mineralogical studies of bottom ash as well as from theremediation of contaminated soil, where iron is used as an amendment.Zero valent iron (Fe 0) was therefore added prior to accelerated agingin order to increase the number of adsorption sites for metals and thereby improving the leaching quality. The performed leaching tests showed that theaddition of Fe 0 prior to accelerated aging improved the quality of the leachate compared with untreated bottom ash. There was also a significant de crease of Cu, Cr, Mo and Zn from bottom ash treated with Fe0 prior to accelerated aging com pared with bottom ash submitted to only accelerated aging. In order to make an environmental assessment of the bottom ash pretreated with Fe 0 prior to accelerated aginggeochemical modeling was performed using different pH and redox potentialsin order to simulate variations in the environment.The results in dicated that the leaching of Cr, Cr, Mo and Pb would not cause harm to the environment.Zn, however, was affected by changes in pH and leached in harmful aounts at pH values velow 6 and above 10.There are reasons to question the results from the geochemical modellingsince the results from pH-stat tests showedthat several elements leached at potentially harmful levelsat several of the tested pH. To fully evaluate the effect of addition of Fe0should the mineralogy of the pretreated bottom ash be evaluated further, in order to see what forms iron oxides are pre sent and if other metals are associated with them. However, in order to improve the quality of bottom ash,focus should be directed torwards what type of wastes that areincinerated and on the incineration process.

  • 313.
    Nilsson, Mirja
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Effect of accelerated carbonation and zero valent iron on metal leaching from bottom ash2016Ingår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 51, s. 97-104Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    About 85% of the ashes produced in Sweden originated from the incineration of municipal solid waste and biofuel. The rest comes from the thermal treatment of recycled wood, peat, charcoal and others. About 68% of all ashes annually produced in Sweden are used for constructions on landfills, mainly slopes, roads and embankments, and only 3% for construction of roads and working surfaces outside the landfills (SCB, 2013). Since waste bottom ash (BA) often has similar properties to crushed bedrock or gravel, it could be used for road constructions to a larger extent. However, the leaching of e.g. Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb and Zn can cause a threat to the surrounding environment if the material is used as it is. Carbonation is a commonly used pre-treatment method, yet it is not always sufficient.As leaching from aged ash is often controlled by adsorption to iron oxides, increasing the number of Fe oxide sorption sites can be a way to control the leaching of several critical elements. The importance of iron oxides as sorption sites for metals is known from both mineralogical studies of bottom ash and from the remediation of contaminated soil, where iron is used as an amendment.In this study, zero valent iron (Fe(0)) was added prior to accelerated carbonation in order to increase the number of adsorption sites for metals and thereby reduce leaching. Batch, column and pHstat leaching tests were performed and the leaching behaviour was evaluated with multivariate data analysis. It showed that leaching changed distinctly after the tested treatments, in particular after the combined treatment.Especially, the leaching of Cr and Cu clearly decreased as a result of accelerated carbonation. The combination of accelerated carbonation with Fe(0) addition reduced the leaching of Cr and Cu even further and reduced also the leaching of Mo, Zn, Pb and Cd compared to untreated BA. Compared with only accelerated carbonation, the Fe(0) addition significantly reduced the leaching of Cr, Cu and Mo. The effects of Fe(0) addition can be related to binding of the studied elements to newly formed iron oxides. The effects of Fe(0) addition were often more distinct at pH values between 7 and 9, which indicates that a single treatment with only Fe addition would be less effective and a combined treatment is recommended. The pHstat results showed that accelerated carbonation in combination with Fe(0)0 addition widens the pH range for low solubility of about one unit for several of the studied elements. This indicates that pre-treating the bottom ash with a combination of accelerated carbonation and Fe(0) addition makes the leaching properties of the ash less sensitive to pH changes that may occur during reuse. All in all, the addition of Fe0 in combination with carbonation could be an effective pre-treatment method for decreasing the mobility of potentially harmful components in bottom ash.

  • 314.
    Nilsson, Mirja
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Screening analysis of bottom ashes from waste incineration2013Ingår i: Sardinia 2013: 14th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, Forte Village, S. Margherita di Pula (CA), Italy, 30 September - 4 October 2013 ; CD-ROM: Symposium proceedings / [ed] Raffaello Cusso, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Screening analysis of bottom ashes from waste incinerationA local waste-to-energy plant in Northern Sweden incinerates municipal solid waste (MSW). The bottom ash (BA) shall be used as construction material. To investigate the homogeneity of the BA, as a base for a more detailed characterisation, a screening was done on 0-10 mm samples taken daily during one month in an ash treatment plant for metal separation.The on-going characterisation focuses on the leaching of heavy metals from the BA as previous work (Oja 2012) showed that a number of trace metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) exceeds the limits set up by the Swedish EPA (Naturvårdsverket 2010) for the use of waste as construction material with regard to total content. Since Cu and Cr also exceed the leaching limits (L/S10), the bottom ash cannot be used without treatment. Ageing and the effect of immobilising amendments are studied with regard to their effect on the leaching behaviour.Material and MethodSamples of BA were taken after metal separation and sieving, daily during one month in 2012 resulting in 32 samples of two different fractions, 0-10 mm and 10-50 mm. A screening was performed on the 0-10 mm fraction analysing pH, EC both in duplicates and LOI, TS, and elemental composition using XRF on non-milled samples in triplicates. Results Based on the analyses made, no grouping of samples could be observed (figure 1), and therefore the material in each fraction was homogenized prior to further investigation. On-going studyDifferent treatment options such as accelerated ageing and stabilization with e.g. zero valent iron are investigated in an on-going study. Also, the effect of incineration parameters such as temperature, air flow and time, on the composition of the BA is studied through modelling (using Factsage). The overall goal is to improve the quality of the BA to an extent that it can be used in different ground constructions.The combined effects of weathering and iron amendment on the mineral composition and the leaching behaviour will be studied. The test program includes acid neutralization capacity (ANC), TOC, XRF, XRD analyses and a column test. Mechanical stability and freeze-thaw resistance will also be tested. Using the Factsage database the incineration process will be modelled with regard to possible changes in the composition of the BA.In addition to this work two field test areas (á 200 m2) will be installed using treated BA as base layer in a material processing and stockpile areas. The leachate will be collected using lysimeters and analysed monthly. Primary results will be available in late summer/early fall. References Naturvårdsverket (2010). Återvinning av avfall i anläggningsarbeten. Handbok 2010:1. Naturvårdsverket StockholmOja E. (2012). Botten aska som dräneringsskikt vid sluttäckning av deponier. Department of Environmental Engineering, Division of Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology

  • 315.
    Nilsson, Per
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Anthropogenic flows of zinc and associated metals in Sweden1996Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 316.
    Nilsson, Per
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Lokal kompostering av hushållsavfall i Sorsele, Sollefteå och Övertorneå kommuner1993Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 317.
    Nilsson, Per
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Grennberg, Kerstin
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Construction of insulated compost containers and composting of kitchen and garden waste in cold climate1994Ingår i: Proceedings: Polartech '94 - International Conference on Development and Commercial Utilization of Technologies in Polar Regions, March 22-25, 1994 Luleå, Sweden, Högskolan i Luleå , 1994, s. 377-388Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 318.
    Nilsson, Per
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Grennberg, Kerstin
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Gabrielsson, Göran
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Construction of insulated compost containers and composting of kitchen and garden waste in a cold climate1993Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 319.
    Nilsson, Ragnar
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Förslag till framtida avfallshantering i Piteå1989Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 320.
    Nilsson, Ragnar
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Källsorteringsförsök på Porsösundet i Luleå1988Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 321.
    Nordell, Bo
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Nordmark, Desiree
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Laboratorieförsök med vatten i virvelrörelse: Mätning av fysikaliska egenskaper1988Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vattnet stängdes in i ett äggformat kärl med en rotator i botten. En liten lufvolym lämnades i toppen och syrehalt pH mm mättes under de olika försöken.

  • 322.
    Nordmark, Desiree
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Industrial By-products used in a Landfill Cover2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A small industrial waste landfill in Obbola, Northern Sweden is being completed and a final cover is installed. The landfill is owned and used by SCA Packaging, a paper mill factory nearby. An alternative final cover will be used, consisting mainly of industrial by-products from the paper mill. The aim of using industrial by-products is to save virgin materials, not to use synthetic materials and to make a cost-effective and environmentally safe closure of the landfill, while relevant laws and regulations are complied to.

  • 323. Nordmark, Desiree
    et al.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Andreas, Lale
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Mobility and fractionation of arsenic, chromium and copper in thermally treated soil2011Ingår i: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 3-12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal treatment is used to remediate soil co-contaminated with organic and inorganic contaminants. It destroys organic contaminants, but the remaining inorganic contaminants require further treatment. In this study the effects of thermal treatment on the mobility, speciation and chemical fractionation of As, Cr and Cu in a CCA-polluted soil were evaluated by leaching tests, As speciation assays and a sequential extraction procedure. The soil was sieved into four size fractions (<0.125, 0.125—0.250, 0.250—0.500 and 0.500—1.0 mm), each of which was treated at 800°C and analysed in comparison with the untreated soil. The leaching of As and Cr increased by factors of 18—40 and 2—23, respectively, while the mobility of Cu decreased 12—14-fold after treatment. The concentration of As(V) in pore water of the finest soil fraction increased 19-fold, whereas that of As(III) remained constant. The treatment reduced As, Cr and Cu associated with the reducible soil fraction. In addition, it increased the proportions of As and Cr (slightly) associated with the exchangeable and acid-soluble soil fractions, and the proportions of Cu and Cr (substantially) associated with the residual fraction.

  • 324.
    Nordmark, Desiree
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Mobility of redox sensitive elements due to organic matter in contaminated soil: bottom ash and residual waste fraction2012Ingår i: Abstract proceedings of 7th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium: Södra Sunderbyn, June 25th to 27th, 2012 / [ed] Anders Lagerkvist, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2012, s. 100-101Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 325.
    Nordmark, Desiree
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lindgren, Elisabet
    Sundsvall Energi.
    Vamling, Maria
    Länsstyrelsen Västernorrland.
    Evaluation of methods used to reduce leaching of harmful substances from residual fly ash fraction after washing2012Ingår i: Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Symposium on Environmental Issues and Waste Management in Energy and Mineral Production / [ed] Hao Ge; Carmen Mihaela Neculita; Maria Menegaki; Anil Mehrotra, Irvine, CA, USA: The Reading Matrix Inc. , 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Korstaverken near Sundsvall in Sweden produces electricity and district heating for about 80 000 citizens. Household and commercial wastes are used as fuel in their cogeneration plant. The produced fly ash is treated in an ash washing facility to reduce leaching of hazardous substances. Leaching of chromium and molybdenum from the ash residue exceeds although the limit values for non-hazardous landfills. The aim of this project has been to identify factors that influence the leaching of chromium and molybdenum and how a reduction can be achieved. Reduced mobility can be reached by addition of pH and redox reducing agents, or by carbonation. The results show that there are a number of measures that can generate a washed ash that meets the requirements of non-hazardous landfills. In order to design the optimal full scale solution from a practical and economical perspective, the identified alternatives must be evaluated.

  • 326.
    Nordmark, Desiree
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Vestin, Jenny
    Sveriges Geotekniska Institut.
    Arm, Maria
    Sveriges Geotekniska Institut.
    Lind, Bo
    Sveriges Geotekniska Institut.
    Hallgren, Per
    Skogsstyrelsen.
    Environmental and mechanical assessment of wood fly ash used for stabilisation of gravel roads2011Ingår i: SARDINIA 2011: Thirteenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium; [3 - 7 October 2011, S. Margherita di Pula - Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy] ; CD-ROM: Proceedings / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA Publisher, Italy , 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to climate change, there is a growing demand for mechanically stabilising forestry roads in Sweden. One way to do this is by addition of cement to the bearing layer of the road. In this study, cement was replaced by a forestry industry fly ash. Mechanical testing showed that a good stabilising effect could be achieved and at a 30% ash addition, it could resist more than 12 freeze-thaw cycles. The environmental impact of the ash addition was assessed using a standard leaching test at a liquid to solid ration of ten. The results indicated that most constituents of the ash remained fairly stable, but that notably chloride, potassium, calcium and sodium was mobilised in the grams per kg of TS range, adding up to about 1 % of the total mass. This may cause an elevated salinity in the emediate vicinity of a road, e g in the ditches, under a short time period, but is not considered to be a major problem for recipients. The results also indicate that the total content is a poor estimate for the leachability of various elements.

  • 327.
    Nordmark, Desiree
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lindgren, Elisabet
    Sundsvall Energi.
    Vamling, Maria
    Sundsvall Energi.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Processoptimering av asktvätt2011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Asktvätten vid Korstaverket i Sundsvall producerar en tvättad aska som består av en blandning av fallande flygaska och vattenreningsslam. I tvätten avskiljs framför allt lättlösliga salter och en mobil fraktion av andra ämnen. De senare avskiljs till större delen i den efterföljande vattenreningen vars slam blandas med fallande aska i tvätten. Blandningen klarar krav för deponiklass II med undantag för utlakning av krom och molybden, för vilka dispens har erhållits upp till tre gånger gränsvärdet, som är 10 mg/kg TS. I här rapporterat projekt har syftet varit att identifiera de faktorer som påverkar främst kroms och molybdens mobilitet i den tvättade askan (dvs flygaska + slam) och hur den kan påverkas praktiskt. Resultaten kan vara av intresse för dem som söker alternativ för askhantering. I Sverige har ingen motsvarande undersökning utförts tidigare. Molybden och andra grundämnen som bildar oxyanjoner tenderar att bli mer mobila vid högre pH-värden och därför kan tillsatser till asktvätt och reningsprocess som sänker pH mot neutrala värden ge en lägre utlakning. I synnerhet molybden mobiliseras ur reningsslammet vid kontakt med den mera basiska askan, och därför kan en separat deponering av tvättad aska och slam vara ett sätt att minska den totala utlakningen. För att reducera Cr6+ till trevärd krom och därmed minska kroms mobilitet, har tillsatser av elementärt och tvåvärt järn används. Tvåvärt järn har även testats i full skala under en kort tid. I lab har både elementärt järn och tvåvärt järn visat sig ge tydligt lägre kromlakning, elementärt järn var effektivast. I full skala användes tvåvärt järn, men resultatet var inte entydigt. Här kan det tänkas att järnskrot från bottenaska skulle kunna användas. Den effektivaste tillsatsen, som dock bara testats i lab var koldioxid, tillsatsen reducerade både krom- och molybdenutlakningen. Här kan man tänka sig att använda koldioxid från förbränningsanläggningen, eller driva en efterbehandling med deponigas. Våra resultat visar att det genom olika åtgärder, eller kombinationer av åtgärder, går att producera en tvättad aska som väl uppfyller de krav på utlakning som används för en klass II deponi idag. Därmed är projektets mål uppnådda. För att utforma den praktiskt och ekonomiskt mest optimala lösningen behöver de identifierade alternativen utvärderas.

  • 328.
    Nordmark, Desiree
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Rönkkö, Reima
    University of Oulu.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Andreas, Lale
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Changes in leaching and chemical fractionation of arsenic, chromium and copper in soil after thermal treatment2009Ingår i: SARDINIA 2009: Twelfth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium ; [5 - 9 October 2009, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy] / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal treatment is used for remediation of soils contaminated with both organic and inorganic contaminants. The target is destruction of organic contaminants while the residue containing the inorganic contaminants has to be further treated. The effects of thermal treatment on As, Cr and Cu in contaminated soil are evaluated in laboratory and field tests, using leaching test, As speciation and sequential extraction test. In laboratory tests on four particle size fractions, the leaching of As and Cr increased by factors of 18-40 and 2-23, respectively, while the mobility of Cu decreased 12-4 fold after thermal treatment. The concentration of As(V) in the finest soil fraction increased 19 fold, while As(III) remained constant. Arsenic, Cr and Cu associated to the reducible soil fraction decreased, possibly due to enhanced crystallisation of Fe oxides and reduction of available adsorption sites. In the field test, the concentration of As, Cr and Cu was 1-4 times higher in the filter fraction compared to the treated soil.

  • 329.
    Nordmark, Desiree
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Vestin, Jenny
    Sveriges Geotekniska Institut.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lind, Bo
    Sveriges Geotekniska Institut.
    Arm, Maria
    Sveriges Geotekniska Institut.
    Hallgren, Per
    Skogsstyrelsen.
    Geochemical Behavior of a Gravel Road Upgraded with Wood Fly Ash2014Ingår i: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 140, nr 10, artikel-id 5014002Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An insufficient bearing capacity of gravel roads is a common problem in Sweden during thaw periods. In this study, a gravel road at Timrå in central Sweden was mechanically stabilized by mixing 30% wood fly ash into the road base material. Testing of pollutant mobilization was performed both in the lab and at the field site over three years. The differences at a given liquid-to-solid ratio reached several orders of magnitude for some elements. K, Ca, Cl, and SO 4 were easily mobilized and found at elevated concentrations in leachate from the road one year after the road was stabilized. Two years after stabilization, the concentrations had returned to background levels. The stabilization also impacted the infiltration capacity of the road, reducing it by a factor of four. The weathering of Mg, Cu, and Zn from surrounding soil was higher, while the leaching of Al and K was higher from the amended road. Using fly ash in this fashion did not result in any noticeable adverse environmental impacts

  • 330.
    Nordmark, Désirée
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Assessment of thermal treatment of trace element contaminated soil2008Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Många förorenade områden i Sverige har en komplex föroreningssituation, med en blandning av organiska och oorganiska föroreningar. Impregnering av trä med kreosot, pentaklorfenol samt vattenlösliga krombaserade salter av typen CCA (krom, koppar, arsenik) är ett exempel på en verksamhet som orsakat sådana områden. Denna typ av förorenad jord kräver i regel en efterbehandling i flera steg, där de organiska föroreningarna separeras och destrueras, och de oorganiska föroreningarna koncentreras, separeras och stabiliseras i separata behandlingssteg. Termiska efterbehandlingsmetoder är lämpliga för destruktion av organiska föroreningar men kan öka mobiliteten av oorganiska föroreningar på grund av förändringar i mineralsammansättningen i jorden. Detta måste beaktas vid det fortsatta omhändertagandet av jorden. I det här arbetet har effekten av termisk behandling på mobiliteten av CCA i en förorenad jord undersökts, och de kritiska faktorer som förorsakar förändringarna har identifierats. Även egenskaper i termiska efterbehandlingsmetoder som påverkar det fortsatta omhändertagandet av jorden diskuteras.Arbetet har utförts genom laboratorieförsök med termisk behandling vid 800°C av en CCA-förorenad jord, uppdelad i fyra partikelstorleksfraktioner, samt genom litteraturstudier. En-stegs laktest visade att utlakningen av As och Cr ökade efter termisk behandling, medan utlakningen av Cu minskade. Sekventiella extraktionsanalyser visade att den ökade utlakningen av As troligen orsakades av en minskning av sorptionsplatser på grund av en ökad kristallisation av Fe-oxider. Den ökade utlakningen av Cr kan förklaras med en ökning av lättlöslig Cr(VI), en ökning av pH samt genom konkurrens om sorptionsplatser från andra oxyanjoner. Andelen mycket stabila Cr-föreningar ökade dock. Den minskade utlakningen av Cu kan kopplas till en ökad andel stabila Cu-föreningar. Flyktigheten av As, Cr och Cu är positivt korrelerad till temperatur och behandlingstid vid termisk behandling. As har den största flyktigheten följt av Cu och Cr. Kloridhaltiga föroreningar ökar flyktigheten av Cu och en reducerande atmosfär ökar flyktigheten av As. Termiska efterbehandlingsmetoder uppdelas i extraktions-/desorptions- (100-800°C) och förbränningsmetoder (800-1400°C). Förbränning är endast lämpligt för mindre mängder kraftigt förorenad jord på grund av den stora energiförbrukningen. I termiska desorptionsmetoder tas de förångade organiska föroreningarna om hand i en efterbrännkammare, kondenseras eller samlas upp i filter. Ett effektivt avgasreningssystem bör vara kopplat till anläggningen för att kontrollera luftemissioner. I anläggningar som består av en roterande ugn kan partiklar < 0,075 mm förorsaka tryckfall och problem med för stora mängder fint material i cykloner och filter. När jorden innehåller oorganiska föroreningar kan detta vara en fördel genom att den kraftigt förorenade finfraktionen kan separeras och behandlas separat fortsättningsvis. Även om en låg temperatur är att föredra för att kontrollera flyktigheten av As, Cr och Cu är det inte alltid det bästa valet för att begränsa deras utlakning eftersom utlakningen för t.ex. Cu har ett maximum efter termisk behandling vid 200-400°C. Koncentrationen och mobiliteten för CCA i den behandlade jorden bestäms av faktorer som den kemiska specieringen av föroreningen, interaktioner mellan föroreningar och andra jordkomponenter samt processparametrar som bränsle, atmosfär, temperatur och tid. En inblandning av stabiliserande tillsatsmedel i jorden före förbränning skulle kunna minska CCAs mobilitet och bör undersökas vidare.

  • 331.
    Nordmark, Désirée
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Controlling the mobility of chromium and molybdenum in MSWI fly ash in a washing process2018Ingår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 76, s. 727-733Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fly ash from a cogeneration plant near Sundsvall in Sweden was treated in an ash-washing facility. The leaching of chromium (Cr) and molybdenum (Mo) from the ash residue exceeded the limit values for non-hazardous landfills. In this study factors that influence the leaching of Cr and Mo were identified and methods that can reduce the leaching were evaluated. The results revealed that the mobility of Cr and Mo are mainly controlled by pH and redox reactions and sequential extraction tests also showed that the fraction of highly soluble species of Cr and Mo increased after washing due to pH reactions in the ash during the process. Stabilization of the pH at ∼8 through carbonation of the washed ash and a lowering of the redox potential by adding ferrous iron to the process resulted in decreased leaching. Treatment with carbon dioxide yielded a decrease (from 10.7 to 8.2) in the pH and, hence, the leaching of Cr and Mo by 93 and 91%, respectively. And the addition of ferrous iron reduced the leaching of Cr by 50%. Carbonation of the ash can be achieved via treatment with flue gases from the power plant or treatment with landfill gas at the disposal site.

  • 332.
    Nordmark, Désirée
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Robinson, Ryan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Landfilled organic carbon: is it all organic?2008Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 333.
    Onwubuya, Kene
    et al.
    University of Brighton.
    Cundy, Andrew
    University of Brighton.
    Puschenreiter, Markus
    University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Bone, Brian
    Environment Agency.
    Greaves, Jon
    Environment Agency.
    Teasdale, Phillip
    University of Brighton.
    Mench, Michel
    UMR BIOGECO INRA 1202, University of Bordeaux.
    Tlustos, Pavel
    Czech University of Life Sceinces Prague.
    Mikhalovsky, Sergey
    University of Brighton.
    Waite, Steve
    University of Brighton.
    Friesl, Wolfgang
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology.
    Marschner, Bernd
    Ruhr-University Bochum.
    Muller, Ingo
    Saxon State Agency for Environment, Agriculture and Geology.
    Developing decision support tools for the selection of "gentle" remediation approaches2009Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 407, nr 24, s. 6132-6142Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A range of tools have been proposed to support decision making in contaminated land remediation. From a European perspective it is clear, however, that there are considerable national differences in the decision support process, and more generally in the extent to which this process supports the selection of less invasive, alternative remediation options such as phytoremediation, in situ immobilisation etc. (referred to here as "gentle" remediation technologies). In this paper we present results from the recently completed European Union ERANET SNOWMAN project SUMATECS (Sustainable Management of Trace Element Contaminated Sites), and critically review available decision support tools in terms of their fitness for purpose for the application of gentle remediation technologies. Stakeholder feedback indicates a lack of knowledge amongst stakeholders of currently available decision support tools. We propose that decision support which focuses on gentle remediation is more strongly incorporated into existing, well-established (national) decision support tools / decision-frameworks, to promote more widespread use and uptake.

  • 334. Ore, Solvita
    et al.
    Todorovic, Jelena
    Ecke, Holger
    Grennberg, Kerstin
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Toxicity of leachate from bottom ash in a road construction2007Ingår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 27, nr 11, s. 1626-1637Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A test road constructed with municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash was monitored over a period of 36 months. Using chemical and toxicological characterisation, the environmental impact of leachates from bottom ash was evaluated and compared with leachates from gravel used as reference. Initial leaching of Cl, Cu, K, Na, NH4-N and TOC from bottom ash was of major concern. However, the quality of the bottom ash leachate approached that of the gravel leachate with time. Leachates from the two materials were compared regarding the concentration of pollutants using multivariate data analyses (MVDA). A standardized luminescent bacteria assay using Vibrio fischeri did not show any toxicity, most likely because saline contamination can mask the toxic response and stimulate luminescence in these marine bacteria. A mung bean assay using Phaseolus aureus revealed that the toxicity of bottom ash leachate collected at the very beginning of the experimental period (October 2001 and May 2002) might be attributed to the following components and their respective concentrations in mg l-1: Al (34.2-39.2), Cl (2914-16,446), Cu (0.48-1.92), K (197-847), Na (766-4180), NH4-N (1.80-8.47), total-N (12.0-18.5), and TOC (34.0-99.0). The P. aureus assay was judged as a promising environmental tool in assessing the toxicity of bottom ash leachate.

  • 335.
    Otsuki, Akira
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik. Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Géologie, GeoRessources UMR 7359 CNRS, University of Lorraine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France.
    Gonçalves, Pedro Pereira
    Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Géologie, GeoRessources UMR 7359 CNRS, University of Lorraine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France.
    Leroy, Emilien
    Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Géologie, GeoRessources UMR 7359 CNRS, University of Lorraine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France.
    Selective Milling and Elemental Assay of Printed Circuit Board Particles for Their Recycling Purpose2019Ingår i: Metals, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 9, nr 8, artikel-id 899Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Selective/preferential milling of printed circuit board (PCB) particles followed by non-destructive characterization of the mill products was performed in order to understand the effects of different feed masses into a hammer mill and different milling time on the metal recovery and enrichment ratio. Those are important variables affecting and determining the process performance and capacity. The milling tests and elemental assay characterization were conducted by using a hammer mill and a portable X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF), respectively. The results showed the preferential metal concentration/enrichment was achieved for several elements and their degree was varied depending on the parameters. Using the experimental data, predictive models of metal recovery were developed and the global trend of metal recoveries was observed under different mill feed and milling time and discussed.

  • 336. Palmquist, Helena
    et al.
    Ecke, Holger
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Removal of hazardous elements from MSWI slag leachate using anaerobic filters1999Ingår i: Sardinia 99: proceedings / Seventh International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, [4 - 8 October 1999, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy] / [ed] Thomas H. Christensen, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 1999, s. 253-260Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 337.
    Paton, Graeme I.
    et al.
    University of Aberdeen.
    Ruth, Katja Viventsova
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Wilson, Michael J.
    University of Aberdeen.
    Weitz, Hedda J.
    University of Aberdeen.
    Dawson, Julian J.C.
    University of Aberdeen.
    An ecotoxicity assessment of contaminated forest soils from the Kola Peninsula2006Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 355, nr 1-3, s. 106-117Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Point source copper and nickel contamination emanating from smelters of the Kola Peninsula, NW Russia, has been observed since the mid-1960s. Previous studies have concentrated on the spatial distribution of heavy metals and their effects on forest ecology and indigenous mammals and birds. Soil is perceived as the major repository for the metal pollutants but there is a need to link the soil concentration of pollutants on the Kola Peninsula with biological parameters. Many standard methods currently used in soil ecotoxicology are developed and refined with artificial amendments and rarely modified for use in historically contaminated environments. In this study, forest soils were sampled along a 34 km transect from the smelter and analysed both chemically and with a range of ecologically relevant biological tests. Soil respiration, total nematode count, microbial heterotrophic numbers and minimal inhibitory concentrations to copper and nickel were carried out on bulk soil. The soil pore water was tested with bacterial and fungal bioluminescence-based biosensors. The heterotrophic numbers and their inhibitory concentration showed strong correlation with heavy metal concentrations while decreasing biosensor luminescence was related to increasing copper concentrations present in the pore waters. Overall, there were considerable impacts on some microbial parameters but other measures including respiration and nematode populations were insensitive to pollutant levels. While chemical analysis of heavy metals proved essential in defining the extent of contamination, environmentally relevant ecotoxicological tests complemented these data by demonstrating pollutant impact. Ecotoxicological approaches that study both the bulk soil and pore water may represent the key to understanding the fate of heavy metal in soils.

  • 338.
    Pearce,, C.I
    et al.
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, United States.
    Weaver, J.L
    National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, United States.
    Vicenzi, E.P
    Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, Suitland, MD, United States.
    Lam, T
    Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, Suitland, MD, United States.
    Depriest, P.
    Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, Suitland, MD, United States.
    Koestler, R.
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, United States.
    Varga, T
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, United States.
    Miller, M.D.
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, United States.
    Arey, B.W.
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, United States.
    Conroy, M.A.
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, United States.
    McCloy, J.S.
    School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, United States.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Schweiger, M.J
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, United States.
    Peeler, D.K.
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, United States.
    Kruger, A.A
    Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, WA, United States.
    Investigating alteration of pre-viking hillfort glasses from the broborg Hillfort Site, Sweden2017Ingår i: Materials science & technology conference and exhibition 2017 (MS&T'17)., Association for Iron and Steel Technology, AISTECH , 2017, Vol. 2, s. 957-959Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 339.
    Pelkonen, Markku
    Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Upgrading oxygen transfer in the activated sludge process1990Ingår i: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 22, nr 7-8, s. 253-260Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives were to get some information on the variation of the alpha factor and to study factors affecting oxygen transfer efficiency in fine-bubble aeration. Results from a 5 week continuous operation of a batch aeration column process show that the variation of the alpha factor was considerable in the aeration basin, especially at the inlet end. The variation follows a diurnal rhythm and the weekly variation is much smaller. The off-gas method was used to examine factors affecting oxygen transfer in process conditions. Regression models were constructed to describe the transfer process both on a semitechnical scale and on a full scale. The most important factors are the specific air flow rate, the respiration rate and the DO concentration. The enhancement in OTE through the respiration rate and the DO concentration is due to a biological mechanism. To optimize the transfer process it is necessary to maintain a high respiration rate and a sufficiently high DO concentration.The objectives were to get some information on the variation of the alpha factor and to study factors affecting oxygen transfer efficiency in finebubble aeration. Results from a 5 week continuous operation of a batch aeration column process show that the variation of the alpha factor was considerable in the aeration basin, especially at the inlet end. The variation follows a diurnal rhythm and the weekly variation is much smaller. The off-gas method was used to examine factors affecting oxygen transfer in process conditions. Regression models were constructed to describe the transfer process both on a semitechnical scale and on a full scale. The most important factors are the specific air flow rate, the respiration rate and the DO concentration. The enhancement in OTE through the respiration rate and the DO concentration is due to a biological mechanism. To optimize the transfer process it is necessary to maintain a high respiration rate and a sufficiently high DO concentration.--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  • 340.
    Pelkonen, Markku
    et al.
    Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Kotro, Mikko
    Nordic Envicon Oy, Helsinki University, Development Services.
    Rintala, Jukka A.
    University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Biological nitrogen removal from landfill leachate: A pilot-scale study1999Ingår i: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 17, nr 6, s. 493-497Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A pilot-scale two-stage process including an anaerobic pretreatment (up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket, UASB) unit and a pre-denitrification activated sludge process was studied for treating leachates from a municipal landfill (waste aged 4 to 5 years, area 2.5 ha) and from a windrow composting area (1 ha). A single-stage pilot process was used for nitrification studies. The leachate characteristics were as follows: COD 740 to 2400 mg l-1 (chemical oxygen demand), BOD7 (biochemical oxygen demand) approximately 1000 mg l-1, N(tot) 40 to 120 mg l-1 and the temperature was between 2 and 21°C. The results show that 45 to 50 COD removal could be achieved in the UASB reactor even at temperatures below 10°C. The activated sludge process was operated with a 1.1 to 2.2 d hydraulic retention time and at between 8 and 21°C. The removal efficiencies were 80 to 90 for COD, over 98 for BOD7, over 90 for NH4-N and over 70 for N(tot). The dependence of denitrification efficiency on leachate biodegradable COD fraction and COD to N ratio was evaluated. Overall treatment efficiencies were good and applicable for design purposes. The total costs were estimated for a full scale pre-denitrification process at FIM 10 to 20 m-3 and FIM 50 to 90 (kg N removed)-1 (3.5 to 7 DM m-3 and 17 to 30 DM [kg N removed]-1) for a landfill representing circumstances in Southern Finland with an annual average flow of 50 m3 d-1.

  • 341.
    Pelkonen, Markku
    et al.
    Helsinki University of Technology.
    Tenno, Robert A.
    Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology, Helsinki University of Technology.
    New control parameters and measurement techniques for the activated sludge process1993Ingår i: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 27, nr 5-6, s. 287-295Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An on-line oxygen uptake and CO2-production rate measurement system was used to analyse the biomass activity. CO2-production rate corresponded well with oxygen uptake rate in the carbon oxidation process. In the nitrification process the ratio CO2-prod./O2-consumed (r(q)) had a larger variation, but CO2-production had a good correlation with utilized COD; variation of the r(q)-value indicate differences in the auto-/heterotrophic oxidation balance. From this basis the oxygen uptake rate for carbon oxidation and nitrification can be separated. The comparison with two biomass determination methods based on ATP-analysis shows that for heterotrophic biomass the methods indicate clearly different changes of ATP, for nitrification process the results were more compatible. By combining the biomass and on-line measurements with biomass growth model based on IAWPRC-model equations reasonably good estimates were obtained. Best fit of model was in the nitrification process; by using VSS as the measure of biomass the fit was poor. The differences in the ATP-measurement results affect also the model coefficients.An on-line oxygen uptake and CO2-production rate measurement system was used to analyze the biomass activity. CO2-production rate corresponded well with oxygen uptake rate in the carbon oxidation process. In the nitrification process the ratio CO2-prod./O2-consumed (rg) had a larger variation, but CO2-production had a good correlation with utilized COD; variation of rg-value indicate differences in auto-heterotrophic oxidation and nitrification can be separated. The comparison with two biomass determination methods based on ATP-analysis shows that for heterophil biomass the methods indicate clearly different changes of ATP, for nitrification process the results were more compatible. By combining the biomass and on-line measurements with biomass growth model based on IAWPRC-model equations reasonably good estimated were obtained. Best fit of model was in the nitrification process; by using VSS as the measure of biomass the fit was poor. The differences in the ATP-measurement results affect also the model coefficients

  • 342.
    Pelkonen, Markku
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Wang, Yu
    School of Engineering, Aalto University, Espoo, Lahti Center, School of Science and Technology, Aalto University.
    Leachate direct-discharge limits and incentives related to landfill aftercare costs2017Ingår i: Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, ISSN 1438-4957, E-ISSN 1611-8227, Vol. 19, nr 1, s. 413-422Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Society needs sustainable methods for landfilling from an environmental perspective, but they have to be cost effective and affordable. Aftercare represents considerable costs within waste management system and costs can be expected to accrue over a long period of time showing the need to compare different management options. Direct-discharge limits for leachate COD and nitrogen are different in various (European) countries. When leachate COD or nitrogen has decreased at the latter part of the aftercare period, effluent limits 50 or 200 mg/l for COD and 10 or 70 mg/l for nitrogen have a considerable impact on period length. The objective of this paper is to discuss the effects of leachate discharge limits on landfill aftercare and leachate management costs in various conditions. Landfill simulator results and modelling are used to estimate leachate concentrations in three different scenarios. It is suggested that stricter discharge limits (shown before) impact on the costs of activated carbon filtration (1.4-fold) and biological treatment (1.1–1.24-fold). Stricter limits also extend the aftercare period length considerably, but with substantial water circulation the differences are clearly smaller. These results support the recent suggestion of aftercare incentives, and some details of applying these incentives in different conditions are discussed.

  • 343.
    Pelkonen, Markku
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Yu, Wang
    Aalto University.
    Long term leachate management based on anaerobic/aerobic landfill simulator studies2012Ingår i: Abstract proceedings of 7th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium: Södra Sunderbyn, June 25th to 27th, 2012 / [ed] Anders Lagerkvist, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2012, s. 103-104Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 344.
    Quintela-Sabarís, Celestino
    et al.
    BIOGECO, INRA, Univ. Bordeaux.
    Marchand, Lilian
    BIOGECO, INRA, Univ. Bordeaux.
    Kidd, Petra S.
    Instituto de Investigaciones Agrobiológicas de Galicia (IIAG), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Santiago de Compostela .
    Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology.
    Puschenreiter, Markus
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna .
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Müller, Ingo
    Saxon State Agency for Environment, Agriculture and Geology.
    Neu, Silke
    Saxon State Office for Environment, Agriculture and Geology.
    Janssen, Jolien
    Hasselt University, Centre for Environmental Sciences.
    Vangronsveld, Jaco
    Hasselt University, Centre for Environmental Sciences.
    Dimitriou, Ioannis
    Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences, Department of Crop Production Ecology.
    Siebielec, Grzegorz
    Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation - State Research Institute.
    Gałązka, Rafał
    Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation - State Research Institute.
    Bert, Valérie
    INERIS, Clean and Sustainable Technologies and Processes Unit, DRC/RISK, Parc Technologique Alata.
    Herzig, Rolf
    Phytotech Foundation (PT-F), and AGB-Bioindikation Umweltbeobachtung und oekologische Planung Quartiergasse, Bern.
    Cundy, Andrew B.
    Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre (Southampton), University of Southampton.
    Oustrière, Nadège
    BIOGECO, INRA, Univ. Bordeaux.
    Kolbas, Aliaksandr
    BIOGECO, INRA, Univ. Bordeaux.
    Galland, William
    BIOGECO, INRA, Univ. Bordeaux.
    Mench, Michel
    BIOGECO, INRA, Univ. Bordeaux.
    Assessing phytotoxicity of trace element-contaminated soils phytomanaged with gentle remediation options at ten European field trials2017Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 599-600, s. 1388-1398Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Gentle remediation options (GRO), i.e. in situ stabilisation, (aided) phytoextraction and (aided) phytostabilisation, were implemented at ten European sites contaminated with trace elements (TE) from various anthropogenic sources: mining, atmospheric fallout, landfill leachates, wood preservatives, dredged-sediments, and dumped wastes. To assess the performance of the GRO options, topsoil was collected from each field trial, potted, and cultivated with lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) for 48 days. Shoot dry weight (DW) yield, photosynthesis efficiency and major element and TE concentrations in the soil pore water and lettuce shoots were measured.

    GRO implementation had a limited effect on TE concentrations in the soil pore water, although use of multivariate Co-inertia Analysis revealed a clear amelioration effect in phytomanaged soils. Phytomanagement increased shoot DW yield at all industrial and mine sites, whereas in agricultural soils improvements were produced in one out of five sites. Photosynthesis efficiency was less sensitive than changes in shoot biomass and did not discriminate changes in soil conditions.

    Based on lettuce shoot DW yield, compost amendment followed by phytoextraction yielded better results than phytostabilisation; moreover shoot ionome data proved that, depending on initial soil conditions, recurrent compost application may be required to maintain crop production with common shoot nutrient concentrations.

  • 345. Rastas Amofah, Lea
    et al.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Prosun, Bhattacharya
    Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Sverige.
    Projekt: Pilotskale utvärdering av jordtvätt för sanering av arsenik-kontaminerad jord2011Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Jordtvätt - en lämplig metod för behandling av CCA förorenad jord? I samband med Länsstyrelsernas kartläggning av förorenade områden har upptäckts objekt som är förorenade med arsenik. En del av objekt är så förorenade att de har negativ påverkan på miljön eller människors hälsa så att de behöver åtgärdas senast år 2010. I träimpregneringsindustrin användes kromerad koppar arsenat (CCA) som impregneringsmedel. Olika steg i impregneringsprocessen har lett till att jord förorenats med As. Deponering är idag en vanlig metod att omhänderta arsenikförorenad jord och en betydande del av efterbehandlingskostnaderna består ofta av transport- och deponeringsavgifter. Nyligen har regelverk för bedömning av avfall förändrats vilket har banat väg för nya behandlingsmetoder för förorenad jord såsom jordtvätt. Huvudsyftet med detta projekt är att bedöma om jordtvätt är en lämplig behandlingsmetod för CCA-förorenad jord. Andra syften med projektet är att hitta en lämplig kemikalietillsats för att höja metodens effektivitet samt att hitta en effektiv metod att behandla As förorenad tvättvätska. Kan man säkerställa att den behandlade jorden är stabil och inte har några negativa effekter på omgivningen kan det bidra till att etablera jordtvätt som en hållbar behandlingsmetod. Deponering av jord är varken en hållbar eller en effektiv användning av resurser. Behandling av föroreningarna och återanvändning av det behandlade jordmaterialet kan däremot leda till minskad förbrukning av jord, minskade transporter, etc.

  • 346.
    Rousta, Kamran
    et al.
    Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås, Högskolan i Borås.
    Bolton, Kim
    Physics Department, Göteborg University, Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    A Procedure to Transform Recycling Behavior for Source Separation of Household Waste2016Ingår i: Recycling, ISSN 2313-4321, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 147-165Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Household waste separation at the source is a central part of waste management systems in Sweden. Resource recovery of materials and energy increased substantially after separate collection was implemented in the 1990s. A procedure to transform recycling behavior for the sorting of household waste—called the recycling behavior transition (RBT) procedure—was designed and implemented in a waste management system in Sweden. Repeated use of this procedure, which will assist in the continual improvement of household sorting, consists of the following four consecutive steps: (i) evaluating the current sorting behavior; (ii) identifying appropriate interventions; (iii) implementing the interventions, and; (iv) assessing the quantitative effect of the interventions. This procedure follows action research methodology and it is the first time that such a procedure has been developed and implemented for the sorting of household waste. The procedure can easily be adapted to any source separation system (which may have different local situations) and, by improving the source separation, will increase the resource recovery in the waste management system. The RBT procedure, together with its strengths and weaknesses, is discussed in this paper, and its implementation is exemplified by a pilot study done in Sweden.

  • 347.
    Rousta, Kamran
    et al.
    Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås.
    Bolton, Kim
    Physics Department, Göteborg University, Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås.
    Lundin, Magnus
    Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Quantitative assessment of distance to collection point and improved sorting information on source separation of household waste2015Ingår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 40, s. 22-30Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study measures the participation of households in a source separation scheme and, in particular, if the household’s application of the scheme improved after two interventions: (a) shorter distance to the drop-off point and (b) easy access to correct sorting information. The effect of these interventions was quantified and, as far as possible, isolated from other factors that can influence the recycling behaviour. The study was based on households located in an urban residential area in Sweden, where waste composition studies were performed before and after the interventions by manual sorting (pick analysis). Statistical analyses of the results indicated a significant decrease (28%) of packaging and newsprint in the residual waste after establishing a property close collection system (intervention (a)), as well as significant decrease (70%) of the miss-sorted fraction in bags intended for food waste after new information stickers were introduced (intervention (b)). Providing a property close collection system to collect more waste fractions as well as finding new communication channels for information about sorting can be used as tools to increase the source separation ratio. This contribution also highlights the need to evaluate the effects of different types of information and communication concerning sorting instructions in a property close collection system.

  • 348.
    Rousta, Kamran
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Source Separation of Household Waste: Technology and Social Aspects2015Ingår i: Resource Recovery to Approach Zero Municipal Waste, Boca Raton: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, , 2015, s. 61-76Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Ch 4. Separate collection, i.e. source separation, of recyclable materials is crucial for sustainable management of household waste. Functioning and efficient source separation schemes require consideration of the local circumstances and understanding of the influential of behavioural factors pertaining to householders. There are a number of different approaches and technical systems used for source separation. This chapter discusses the role of citizens and presents examples of comprehensive source separation systems. Some recommendations for establishing, monitoring and evaluating separate collection systems concludes the chapter.

  • 349.
    Rousta, Kamran
    et al.
    Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås.
    Ordoñez, Isabel
    Division of Design & Human Factors, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Bolton, Kim
    Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Support for designing waste sorting systems: A mini review2017Ingår i: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 35, nr 11, s. 1099-1111Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a mini review of research aimed at understanding material recovery from municipal solid waste. It focuses on two areas, waste sorting behaviour and collection systems, so that research on the link between these areas could be identified and evaluated. The main results presented and the methods used in the articles are categorised and appraised. The mini review reveals that most of the work that offered design guidelines for waste management systems was based on optimising technical aspects only. In contrast, most of the work that focused on user involvement did not consider developing the technical aspects of the system, but was limited to studies of user behaviour. The only clear consensus among the articles that link user involvement with the technical system is that convenient waste collection infrastructure is crucial for supporting source separation. This mini review reveals that even though the connection between sorting behaviour and technical infrastructure has been explored and described in some articles, there is still a gap when using this knowledge to design waste sorting systems. Future research in this field would benefit from being multidisciplinary and from using complementary methods, so that holistic solutions for material recirculation can be identified. It would be beneficial to actively involve users when developing sorting infrastructures, to be sure to provide a waste management system that will be properly used by them.

  • 350. Ruth, Katja Viventsova
    et al.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Gunneriusson, Lars
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Holmgren, Allan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Changes in soil organic matter composition and quantity with distance to a nickel smelter: a case study on the Kola Peninsula, NW Russia2005Ingår i: Geoderma, ISSN 0016-7061, E-ISSN 1872-6259, Vol. 127, nr 3-4, s. 216-226Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The capacity of soils to absorb contamination depends on a number of factors, such as soil organic matter (SOM) that plays an essential role in adsorption of metal ions, especially in Podzols with their low content of clay minerals. Detailed analysis of SOM can provide information about the potential capacity of a soil to mobilise or immobilise contaminating substances, which in turn can be used to predict potential recovery of the soil ecosystem following heavy metal pollution. The purpose of this study was to learn how an increasing load of heavy metals (Cu and Ni) affects SOM content and structure, and which of the SOM functional groups are responsible for metal retention. The study area is located in the central part of the Kola Peninsula, south of Monchegorsk city and the nickel smelting complex ‘Severonickel’. The amount of total carbon in the soil decreased from 86% to 0.6% as the distance from the smelting complex decreased from 34 to 2 km. Functional groups of the SOM had a larger diversity in less polluted soils than in the soils located closer to the smelting complex. Carboxyl groups had a higher intensity of infra red (IR) bands in soils collected at the distance of 34–27 km than those located closer to the smelter. The most disturbed soil at the site closest to the smelter showed almost no presence of COOH groups. We conducted a laboratory experiment using soils from the least polluted sampling site to assess which SOM functional groups may be responsible for metal retention. Experimental contamination of the soil with the Cu/Ni solution resulted in an overall decrease in the absorbance for all studied functional groups within the measured range, except for COOH. This could be attributed both to changes in the structure of the SOM caused by its reaction with the contaminating substances, and to the leaching of some of the organic compounds from the soil during the experiment. Further studies are needed to better understand which functional groups in the SOM are active in the adsorption processes.

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