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  • 301.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Partnering and the four dimensions of collaboration2011Ingår i: Proceedings of the 6th Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organisation: Shaping the Construction/Society Nexus / [ed] Kim Haugbølle; Stefan Christoffer Gottlieb; Kalle E. Kähkönen; Ole Jonny Klakegg; Göran A. Lindahl; Kristian Widén, Hørsholm: Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University , 2011, Vol. 2 : Transforming Practices, s. 259-270Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 302.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Partnering in engineering projects: Four dimensions of supply chain integration2015Ingår i: Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, ISSN 1478-4092, E-ISSN 1873-6505, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 38-50Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the interest of partnering and supply chain integration (SCI) has increased in various industries, there is still a lack of comprehensive conceptual and practical frameworks that enable both a detailed and systemic understanding of integration in project-based supply chains. In this paper a theoretical framework is developed, based on general SCI literature, but adapted to a project-based context. Integration in project-based supply chains is a multi-dimensional construct, including the four dimensions strength, scope, duration, and depth of integration. Empirical findings from a multiple case study of four engineering projects indicate that these four dimensions are critical when conceptualizing and implementing partnering in engineering projects. The results show that there are strong interdependencies among the four dimensions, suggesting that it is crucial to manage them simultaneously and systemically rather than in isolation. Consequently, it is not enough to decide on the extent to which suitable integrative activities and technologies should be implemented to strengthen integration in project-based supply chains. The integrative activities and technologies must also be implemented together with the right companies (scope), at the right time (duration), and with the right people in the companies (depth).

  • 303.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Partnering: what is it, when should it be used, and how should it be implemented?2010Ingår i: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 28, nr 9, s. 905-917Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in construction partnering has increased during the last decade. Much research have, however, found that cooperation and its benefits are not easily obtained, partly due to a lack of understanding of the partnering concept and when and how to implement it. The aim is therefore to increase this understanding by investigating three research questions: 1) What is partnering? 2) When should partnering be used and to what extent? 3) How should partnering be implemented? A thorough literature review and four case studies are utilized to develop a definition of partnering and discuss when and how partnering should be implemented through cooperative procurement procedures. Partnering is defined as a cooperative governance form that is based on core and optional cooperative procurement procedures to such an extent that cooperation-based coopetition is facilitated. Mandatory core procedures are: soft parameters in bid evaluation, compensation form based on open books, and usage of the core collaborative tools start-up workshop, joint objectives, follow-up workshops, teambuilding, and conflict resolution techniques. Complementary optional procedures are: early involvement of contractors in concurrent engineering, limited bid invitation, joint selection and involvement of subcontractors in broad partnering teams, collaborative contractual clauses, incentives based on group performance, usage of complementary collaborative tools (e.g. partnering questionnaire, facilitator, joint risk management, joint project office, and joint IT-tools), and increased focus on contractors' self-control.

  • 304.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Procurement and governance management: development of a conceptual procurement model based on different types of control2006Ingår i: Management Revue, ISSN 0935-9915, E-ISSN 1861-9908, Vol. 17, s. 30-49Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 305.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Procurement effects on coopetition in client-contractor relationships2008Ingår i: Journal of construction engineering and management, ISSN 0733-9364, E-ISSN 1943-7862, Vol. 134, nr 2, s. 103-111Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Client-contractor relationships are often criticized for being competitive and adversarial, rather than cooperative. The main purpose of this paper is to examine how construction clients' procurement procedures affect the balance between cooperation and competition (i.e., coopetition) in client-contractor relationships. The empirical results, based on a survey to 87 Swedish construction clients, show that clients' procurement procedures facilitate a focus on competition. It was also found that clients' earlier experience of a certain procedure heavily affects their procurement choices, thereby preserving old behaviors. Although two-thirds of the clients wish to increase cooperation with contractors, this does not affect their procurement decisions. This study therefore concludes that the theoretical framework, based on transaction cost economics, is correct in prescribing more cooperation than is empirically observed in the construction sector. The theoretical framework can increase clients' awareness of how procurement affects cooperation and competition, thereby serving as a basis for more unbiased and systematic procurement decisions, facilitating cooperation-based coopetition

  • 306.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Procurement strategies for enhancing exploration and exploitation in construction projects2017Ingår i: Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction, ISSN 1366-4387, E-ISSN 1759-8443, Vol. 22, nr 2, s. 211-230Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how procurement strategies may be designed to facilitate exploration and exploitation in construction projects.

    Design/methodology/approach

    This paper is based on a literature review of organizational research and construction management literature together with a brief interview study of Swedish clients and contractors.

    Findings

    The theoretical and empirical findings propose that small and simple projects with low uncertainty and scarce resources may focus on exploitation to enhance short-term efficiency through traditional procurement strategies including delivery systems that separate the actors and their activities (i.e. pure design-build- or design-bid-build-contracts), fixed price payment and price focus in bid evaluation. Large complex projects with high uncertainty and customization benefit from combining exploration and exploitation to enhance sustainable performance. This requires collaborative procurement strategies including joint specification through early contractor involvement, cost reimbursement coupled with incentive-based payment, bid evaluation based on multiple criteria and collaborative tools and activities in partnering arrangements.

    Research limitations/implications

    This paper contributes to organizational learning literature by pinpointing the need for integrating procurement strategies that enhance combination of exploration and exploitation. The main contribution to the construction management literature involves the investigation of how procurement strategies may affect exploration and exploitation, as identified and articulated in the propositions developed in this paper.

    Practical implications

    From a practical perspective, the findings highlight the importance of tailoring procurement strategies to project characteristics to enhance a suitable balance between exploration and exploitation in construction projects.

    Originality/value

    The explicit focus on the operational project-level is uncommon but relevant in organizational learning literature.

  • 307.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Så får Scania fokus på minskat slöseri i byggprocessen2009Ingår i: Byggindustrin, ISSN 1104-5981Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 308. Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Atkin, Brian
    Department of Construction Management, Lund Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, Torbjörn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Overcoming barriers to partnering through cooperative procurement procedures2009Ingår i: Engineering Construction and Architectural Management, ISSN 0969-9988, E-ISSN 1365-232X, Vol. 16, nr 6, s. 598-611Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to report on research into investigating ways in which construction clients can overcome barriers to partnering through the adoption of purposeful procurement procedures within an overall project management context. Design/methodology/approach - Data were collected through interviews, document analysis, surveys and workshops as part of a longitudinal case study using an action-research approach. Findings - Analysis reveals how the early involvement of partners, selected for their long-term perspective and willingness to use collaborative working arrangements, can help to overcome cultural and organizational barriers. Research limitations/implications - The research results are based on empirical study for which reasonable generalisations could be made, albeit cautiously. Clients' implementation of partnering requires an appropriate use of a broad range of suitable procurement procedures that are quite different from more commonly used procedures. Hence, clients need to reassess their procurement procedures and tailor them to different project situations. Additionally, a long-term perspective is crucial in order to facilitate continual improvement over time. Originality/value - The case study data support the analysis of how utilised procurement procedures affect project results.

  • 309.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Dickinson, Michael
    Khalfan, Malik M A
    Client-led subcontractor involvement: A way to increase value creation and innovation?2006Ingår i: Construction in the XXI Century: Local and Global Challenges / [ed] Roberto Pietroforte; Enrico De Angelis; Francesco Polverino, Edizione Scientifiche Italiane SpA , 2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 310.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Dickinson, Michael
    SCRI Research Centre, University of Salford, Manchester.
    Khalfan, Malik M.A.
    SCRI Research Centre, University of Salford, Manchester.
    The influence of partnering and procurement on subcontractor involvement and innovation2007Ingår i: Facilities, ISSN 0263-2772, E-ISSN 1758-7131, Vol. 25, nr 5/6, s. 203-214Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The aim of this paper is to investigate how a client's cooperative procurement procedures influence subcontractor involvement, value creation, and innovation in the construction of complex facilities. Design/methodology/approach - Empirical data were collected through interviews, surveys and participation in workshops during a longitudinal action research case study. The case project was located in Sweden and concerned the construction of plant facilities for manufacturing of pharmaceutical products. Findings - The case study findings reveal that the client's procurement procedures affect the level of subcontractor involvement and integration, but that this does not necessarily result in increased subcontractor value creation and innovation in the construction process. Research limitations/implications - Since the empirical results are based on data collected from only one case project, the possibilities for generalisations are limited. Practical implications - Clients' procurement procedures heavily affect subcontractor involvement, but in order to increase subcontractor contributions to innovation and value creation the actors should adopt a long-term perspective and actively work to establish an innovation-friendly climate. Originality/value - This paper focuses on the often-neglected importance of subcontractors and their contributions to innovation and value creation.

  • 311.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Laan, Albertus
    University of Twente.
    Procurement effects on trust and control in client-contractor relationships2007Ingår i: Engineering Construction and Architectural Management, ISSN 0969-9988, E-ISSN 1365-232X, Vol. 14, nr 4, s. 387-399Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To investigate how construction clients currently deal with procurement and analyze how the choices made during the buying process stages affect the combination of governance mechanisms and control types in client-contractor relationships.Methodology/approach: Empirical data was collected through a survey to 87 Swedish construction clients. Findings: Current procurement procedures establish governance forms facilitating a focus on price, through output control, and authority, through process control. Since construction transactions are mostly characterized by high complexity and customization and long duration, the theoretical framework prescribes a focus on trust and a somewhat lower focus on price and authority. Hence, from a transaction cost perspective, construction clients focus too much on price and authority and too little on trust. Since current procedures may cause problems in all stages of the buying process, the result suggests that partnering arrangements, entailing completely different choices during the buying process, may be a suitable way to facilitate trust and cooperation through informal social control.Research limitations/implications - Since the empirical results are based on data collected from only Swedish clients, international generalizations should be made cautiously.Practical implications - Clients wishing to implement trust-based collaborative relationships need to reconsider their procurement procedures entirely; joint objectives, teambuilding and other "fuzzy" techniques are not enough to transform adversarial relationships into cooperative ones.Originality/value - Earlier research has focused on one or a few aspects of procurement and governance, while this paper adopts an overall process perspective, taking into account clients' procurement procedures in their entirety.

  • 312.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Laan, Albertus
    Trust and control in buyer-supplier relationships: How construction clients' procurement procedures affect trust and control in client-contractor relationships2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 313.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Managing complex projects in the infrastructure sector: A structural equation model for flexibility-focused project management2017Ingår i: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 35, nr 8, s. 1512-1523Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex construction projects in the infrastructure sector are often beset with delays, which cause benefit shortfalls and increased costs. Prior project management literature and practice have mostly adopted a traditional control-focused approach, but recent research suggests that complex projects need more flexible practices to manage inevitable project change. Thus, the objectives of this study were to develop and empirically test a model for flexibility-focused project management practices to improve time performance in complex projects in the infrastructure sector. Based on empirical data from 138 construction projects procured and managed by the Swedish Transport Administration, the structural equation model shows that complexity and collaboration drive explorative learning, which improves adaptation and thereby improves time performance. Hence, the empirical test verifies that flexibility-focused project management practices based on collaboration, explorative learning, and adaptation enhance time performance in complex projects in the infrastructure sector.

  • 314.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Szentes, Henrik
    Lund University.
    Reactive Problem Solving and Proactive Development in Infrastructure Projects2019Ingår i: Current Trends in Civil & Structural Engineering, ISSN 2643-6876, Vol. 3, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 315.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Leiringer, Roine
    Hong Kong University.
    Explorative and exploitative learning in project-based organizations: improving knowledge governance through a project management office?2015Ingår i: Engineering Project Organisation Journal, ISSN 2157-3727, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 160-179Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational learning, in terms of both explorative learning within projects and exploitative learning across projects, is of strategic importance for project-based organizations (PBOs) in industries involving production of complex product systems (CoPS). In this conceptual article, we discuss and reflect on how organizational learning may be addressed in PBOs by the establishment of formal knowledge governance mechanisms in a project management office (PMO). Prior literature on PMOs has discussed a broad and diverse range of PMO functions, without conceptually reflecting on their interdependencies. Here, we synthesize the literature into seven main functions. From an organizational learning perspective, we identify significant synergies among the functions of Developing and maintaining a lessons-learnt database, Developing and maintaining project management standards and methods, Consulting and education, and Strategic management. We reflect on how a PBO may establish a centralized PMO utilizing these four systemic learning-related functions as knowledge governance mechanisms, in order to facilitate explorative and exploitative learning through articulation and codification of knowledge. There are also synergies among the three remaining functions, project resource management, monitoring and control, and project portfolio management. These three functions are, however, control related and could be detrimental to place within a centralized PMO focusing on organizational learning

  • 316.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Leiringer, Roine
    Hong Kong University.
    Organizational learning in project-based organizations: Facilitating exploration and exploitation through project management offices?2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 317.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Leiringer, Roine
    University of Hong Kong, Department of Real Estate & Construction.
    Szentes, Henrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    The Role of Co-creation in Enhancing Explorative and Exploitative Learning in Project-Based Settings2017Ingår i: Project Management Journal, ISSN 8756-9728, E-ISSN 1938-9507, Vol. 48, nr 4, s. 22-38Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We study how co-creation practices influence explorative and exploitative learning in five collaborative construction projects with partnering arrangements. Drawing on a longitudinal case study, our findings reveal two different types of explorative learning processes (i.e., adaptation and radical development) and three different exploitative learning processes (i.e., incremental development, knowledge sharing, and innovation diffusion). Furthermore, co-creation practices enhance adaptation, radical development, and incremental development, which are typical intra-project learning processes. Co-creation practices do not, however, enhance knowledge sharing and innovation diffusion across projects. These findings concur with previous insights that the temporary and one-off nature of projects makes inter-project learning problematic.

  • 318.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Lind, Hans
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Strategies for Reducing Moral Hazard in Construction Procurement: A Conceptual Framework2016Ingår i: Journal of Self-Governance and Management Economics, ISSN 2329-4175, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 7-33Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Moral hazard and opportunism is an inherent part of contracting and procurement strategies, especially in complex transactions that require co-creation, which is often the case in the construction industry. This paper clarifies the meaning of moral hazard in the context of construction procurement. Typically there is a double moral hazard problem, as not only the supplier, but also the client can "misbehave" in a number of ways. It is also important to note that both internal moral hazard (within the client and contractor organizations) and external moral hazard (between client and contractor) must be handled. The aim of this conceptual paper is to give an overview of strategies to reduce the risk of moral hazard. Eight different strategies are identified: 1) "the shadow of the future," promises of future work if effort is high 2) selection mechanism for contractor/employee, 3) length of contract, length of warranties, 4) level of detail in the contract, 5) payment systems, 6) monitoring intensity, 7) social norms, and 8) relation specific investments. These can be grouped into two ideal types; hard/formal and soft/informal strategies, of which the first is most suitable in simple and standardized projects, whereas soft/informal strategies are better in complex and uncertain projects.

  • 319.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Nilsson, Torbjörn
    Atkin, Brian
    Department of Construction Management, Lund Institute of Technology.
    Client perceptions of barriers to partnering2008Ingår i: Engineering Construction and Architectural Management, ISSN 0969-9988, E-ISSN 1365-232X, Vol. 15, nr 6, s. 527-539Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to identify critical barriers to partnering, as perceived by construction clients, and the specific measures that are taken to overcome them during implementation. Design/methodology/approach - Empirical data were collected through a survey study of 87 professional construction clients in Sweden. Findings - Clients regard the most critical barriers as those attributable to cultural and organisational aspects. The analysis also shows that clients' perceptions of these barriers do not, in fact, affect their procurement procedures. Two-thirds of clients in the survey wish to increase cooperation with actors in the belief that it will favour project success. Their intention does not have any bearing on their procurement and project management procedures, which are still aligned to competitive bidding. Two potential reasons for this inconsistency are discussed: clients may be unaware of how their procurement procedures affect cooperation, and/or the individual decision maker may not have strong enough incentives to start using new and less familiar procurement procedures even though they are potentially more suitable than traditional procedures. Research limitations/implications - The quantitative data are limited to clients' perceptions of barriers to partnering; a contractor perspective is not included in the survey. Practical implications - The research results can serve as an alert for construction clients that their procurement procedures need to be adapted if they want to achieve the move towards increased cooperation that they say they do. Originality/value - This paper offers a unique analysis of the correlations between desired outcome in the form of increased cooperation, and actual behaviour in the form of procurement procedures.

  • 320.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Olander, Stefan
    Department of Construction Management, Lund University.
    Szentes, Henrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Widén, Kristian
    Department of Construction Management, Lund University.
    Managing short-term efficiency and long-term development through industrialized construction2014Ingår i: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 32, nr 1-2, s. 97-108Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a strong need for a productive and innovative infrastructure sector because of its monetary value and importance for the development of a sustainable society. An increased level of industrialization is often proposed as a way to improve efficiency and productivity in construction projects. In prior literature on industrialized construction, there are however neither many studies addressing more long-term aspects of innovation and sustainability nor studies within the infrastructure context. Organizational theory suggests that firms need to be ambidextrous and focus on both long-term exploration of new knowledge and technologies and short-term exploitation of current knowledge and technologies, in order to achieve sustainable development. Therefore, an investigation of how both short-term exploitative performance objectives and long-term explorative development can be addressed when implementing industrialized construction in infrastructure projects was conducted. A case study consisting of four infrastructure projects shows that the main drivers for increased industrialization are of an exploitative nature, focusing on cost savings and increased productivity through more efficient processes. The main barriers to increased industrialization are however related to both explorative and exploitative activities. Hence, by managing the identified barriers and explicitly addressing both exploitation and exploration, industrialized construction can improve both short-term efficiency and long-term innovation and sustainability.

  • 321.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Patel, Pankaj C.
    Villanova University, Villanova School of Business.
    Rönnberg Sjödin, David
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Managing Interorganizational Innovation Projects: Mitigating the Negative Effects of Equivocality Through Knowledge Search Strategies2016Ingår i: Long range planning, ISSN 0024-6301, E-ISSN 1873-1872, Vol. 49, nr 6, s. 691-705Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Equivocality, or divergent interpretations and understandings of tasks and knowledge, has negative effects on performance because it increases conflicts and creates communication and coordination challenges in inter-organizational innovation projects. However, equivocality may also stimulate team members to discuss beliefs and interpretations in ways that provide improved understanding of knowledge and tasks. We theorize that mitigation of negative effects of equivocality on project performance is conditional on explorative or exploitative knowledge search mode. Exploitative search (increasing search depth) allows for rapid learning based on the partners' existing knowledge, but it also limits a team's ability to interpret and combine diverse knowledge. Explorative search (increasing search breadth), on the other hand, allows for novel combinations of diverse knowledge and thereby alleviates the negative effect of equivocality on performance. Based on quantitative data from 251 respondents in 52 heavy-engineering innovation projects in four multinational corporations based in Sweden and from their 29 collaborating partner firms worldwide, we find that equivocality reduces project performance, but that joint explorative search mitigates the negative effect of equivocality on project performance. However, we do not find support for the moderation effect of exploitative search on the relationship between equivocality and project performance. Theoretical and managerial contributions as well as limitations and suggestions for future research are presented

  • 322.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Department of Entrepreneurship, Management and Organization, Hanken School of Economics, Vasa.
    Buyer-supplier integration in project-based industries2013Ingår i: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 28, nr 1, s. 29-40Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of the study is to propose and test a buyer-supplier integration model, based on clients’ collaborative purchasing practices, in a project-based industry.Design/methodology/approach - A two-stage survey study of client-contractor relationships in the Swedish construction industry was conducted. The survey rounds in 2006 and 2009 obtained 87 and 106 responses respectively. The proposed model was empirically tested using structural equation modeling techniques. Findings - The empirical results support our proposed model: incentive-based payment and partner selection based on multiple criteria enhance buyer-supplier integration, in terms of joint action. Furthermore, incentive-based payment increases the use of partner selection based on multiple criteria.Research limitations/implications - A useful theoretical contribution is that incentive-based payment is an important type of incentive structure that enhances buyer-supplier integration in project contexts.Practical implications - We also found that the occurrence of joint action has been increasing from 2006 to 2009. Especially, incentive-based payment plays a more important role for establishing joint action in 2009 than in 2006. The recent economic downturn and a recently completed training program targeting the survey population may explain some of the unexpected findings.Originality/value - The paper addresses an identified gap in the relationship marketing literature, that is, the lack of quantitative studies of relationship marketing aspects in project-based industries.

  • 323.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Modelling procurement effects on cooperation2007Ingår i: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 25, nr 8, s. 893-901Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative arrangements, such as partnering, have received increased interest in recent years. Several studies show however that cooperative relationships are not easily achieved in construction. Implementation of cooperative relationships requires changes in several elements of the traditional procurement procedures. The purpose of this paper is therefore to propose and test a sequential model regarding clients' cooperative procurement procedures. We especially ask: what elements in clients' procurement procedures facilitate the establishment of cooperation and trust in their relationships with contractors? The model was tested through structural equation modelling. The empirical data required for the test were collected through a survey responded to by 87 Swedish professional construction clients. The empirical results show that cooperative procurement procedures are triggered by clients' wish to involve contractors early in specification, which has a simultaneous effect on procedures regarding bid invitation and compensation. Furthermore, these simultaneous effects breed a certain kind of partner selection based on task-related attributes, which also has a direct positive effect on trust and above all on cooperation in client-contractor relationships. Besides these implications from the model, the improvement of measurements for future modelling is discussed.

  • 324.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Sjödin, David Rönnberg
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Procurement procedures for supplier integration and open innovation in process development projects2012Ingår i: Perspectives on Supplier Innovation: Theories, Concepts and Empirical Insights on Open Innovation and the Integration of Suppliers, Imperial College Press, 2012, s. 405-442Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 325.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Sjödin, David Rönnberg
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Osäkerhet och tvetydighet: problem i investeringsprojekt2013Ingår i: Process Nordic, ISSN 1652-0114, s. 8-8Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 326.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Szentes, Henrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Managing exploration and exploitation in construction projects2013Ingår i: Proceedings for 7th Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organisation / [ed] Ole Jonny Klakegg, Trondheim: Akademika forlag, 2013, s. 451-460Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior research has shown that companies in various industrial contexts need to achieve both exploitation of current knowledge and technologies to make profits today, and exploration of new knowledge and technologies to adapt to changing conditions and prepare for tomorrow’s demands. The capacity to achieve both exploration and exploitation is especially problematic in project based organizations due to projects’ discontinuous nature. In spite of its theoretical and practical importance, research on exploration and exploitation in projects and project-based organizations is scarce. The purpose of this study is to investigate how exploration and exploitation is managed in construction projects. Empirical data was collected through a multiple case study involving interviews with the client’s project manager, the contractor’s project manager, and the design manager in seven construction projects. Tentative findings show that the project actors often focus more on exploitation than on exploration although they acknowledge the importance of exploration too. However, exploitation often involves adopting conventional methods and solutions based on existing knowledge without any development efforts. Time constraints in tight schedules are hindering both radical innovations and continuous developments. The findings also reveal that explorative solutions must be possible to exploit in the same project. Sufficient project size and/or long-term contracts over a series of projects therefore enhance both investments in explorative activities and exploitation through continuous developments from project to project. Exploration activities are mostly performed in early stages while the focus on exploitation strengthens as the project proceeds. Exploration is often conducted by the contractor or by the client, consultant and contractor together. Hence, in design-bid-build contracts the client and consultant often miss opportunities to explore new technical solutions. Early contractor involvement, (e.g. in Design-build contracts) thereby enable the achievement of both exploration and exploitation

  • 327.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Szentes, Henrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Managing the tensions between exploration and exploitation in large construction projects2017Ingår i: Construction Innovation, ISSN 1471-4175, E-ISSN 1477-0857, Vol. 17, nr 4, s. 492-510Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Prior studies highlight the importance of building ambidextrous capabilities to achieve both exploitation of current knowledge and technologies to make profits today, and exploration of new knowledge and technologies to adapt to and prepare for tomorrow's demands. In spite of its theoretical and practical importance, research on organizational ambidexterity in project-based organizations is scarce. Thus, the purpose of the paper is to study how ambidexterity may be managed and how exploration and exploitation may be achieved in construction projects. The research identifies some drivers and barriers to exploration and exploitation and also sheds light on how various management approaches interact and affect exploration and exploitation activities. Design/methodology/approach – The empirical material is drawn from 40 semi-structured interviews with managers representing the client, the contractor and the designer involved in each of the seven large construction projects in the sample. Findings – In contrast to prior literature in high-tech industries where exploitation focuses on continuous development, exploitation in construction projects often involves adopting conventional methods and solutions based on existing knowledge without any development efforts at all. This may enhance short-term efficiency and lower risk at the project level but increase risk at the firm level. Tight time schedules hinder both radical innovations and incremental developments, and the findings also reveal that to invest in efforts on explorative solutions, it must be possible to exploit the solutions in the same project. Research limitations/implications – In this empirical context, the traditional structural and sequential ambidexterity solutions are not sufficient. In construction projects, contextual ambidexterity solutions in which key project actors collaborate in developing systemic innovations and fine-tuning solutions across projects are more effective. Practical implications – Sufficient project size and/or long-term contracts over a series of projects enhance both investments in explorative activities and exploitation through continuous developments from project to project. In design-bid-build contracts, the client and consultant often miss opportunities to explore new technical solutions that rely on contractor competencies. Early procurement of contractors (e.g. in collaborative design-build contracts) thereby enables the achievement of both exploration and exploitation. Originality/value – This study provides important input to the authors' understanding of how exploration and exploitation may be managed in project-based industries, which has been scarcely studied in previous ambidexterity literature.

  • 328.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Szentes, Henrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Organizational ambidexterity in construction projects2014Ingår i: 2014 IEEE International Conference on Management of Innovation and Technology: ICMIT 2014, Singapore; 23 - 25 September 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, s. 81-86, artikel-id 6942405Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Most organizations need to be ambidextrous by exploiting current knowledge to make profits today as well as exploring new knowledge to prepare for tomorrow's demands. The capacity to achieve both exploration and exploitation is especially problematic in project based organizations due to projects' discontinuous nature. In this study we investigate how exploration and exploitation is managed in inter-organizational projects, through a multiple case study of seven construction projects. Tentative findings show that project actors focus more on exploitation than on exploration and that exploitation often involves adopting conventional methods and solutions without any development efforts. The findings also reveal that investment in explorative innovations must be possible to exploit in the current project, since exploitation in future projects is uncertain.

  • 329.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Szentes, Henrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Lagerqvist, Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Hinder och drivkrafter för industriellt anläggningsbyggande: Underlagsrapport till Produktivitetskommittén, Näringsdepartementet2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 330.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Vennström, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Effects of procurement on project performance: a survey of Swedish construction clients2009Ingår i: Proceedings of CIB Joint International Symposium, Construction Facing Worldwide Challenges / [ed] Anita Ceric; Radujkovic Mladen, ArCiBel Editores, 2009, s. 19-28Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to increase the efficiency of the construction industry development and improvement of procurement procedures is vital. The purpose of this investigation is to increase the understanding of how procurement procedures affect project performance. A procurement model including eight hypotheses is first developed on the basis of a literature review and then tested through multivariate statistical techniques based on empirical data collected through a survey investigation of 106 Swedish construction clients. The results of hierarchical regression analyses show that cooperative procurement procedures positively affect collaboration among project actors and that collaboration in turn have positive effects on project performance. In general, however, cooperative procurement procedures do not have direct effects on project performance.

  • 331.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Volker, Leentje
    Department of Civil Engineering, University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands.
    Kadefors, Anna
    Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm. Chalmers University Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Lingegård, Sofia
    Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Science and Engineering (SEED), School of Architecture and the Built Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Rosander, Lilly
    Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Collaborative Procurement Strategies for Infrastructure Projects: A Multiple Case Study2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Management, procurement and law, ISSN 1751-4304Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With the announcement to tender a project, several strategic decisions are made that have significant impact on the innovation and efficiency potential of a project. The purpose of this study is to investigate and compare how different types of integrative and collaborative procurement strategies may enhance the opportunities for improved efficiency and innovation in infrastructure projects. Hence, it contributes to the scientific debate on buyer-supplier relationships in relation to project performance. Furthermore, it guides public client organizations in steering explicitly for integration and innovation in their projects. Interview-based case studies of ten public infrastructure projects procured based on four different types of collaborative procurement strategies in Sweden and the Netherlands were conducted. The findings indicate that the duration of the collaboration is fundamental in setting the limits for innovation, and that early involvement as well as long-term commitments in maintenance open up for more innovation. Naturally, the potential for increased efficiency is higher than for innovation, and also occurs in collaborations with limited duration. The findings confirm the importance of a learning perspective on procurement strategies for public client organizations and show the importance of explicit considerations on incentives and project governance issues in the front-end phase of a project.

  • 332.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Effects of cooperative procurement procedures on construction project performance: a conceptual framework2011Ingår i: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 29, nr 2, s. 197-208Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we develop a testable holistic procurement framework that examines how a broad range of procurement related factors affects project performance criteria. Based on a comprehensive literature review, we put forward propositions suggesting that cooperative procurement procedures (joint specification, selected tendering, soft parameters in bid evaluation, joint subcontractor selection, incentive-based payment, collaborative tools, and contractor self-control) generally have a positive influence on project performance (cost, time, quality, environmental impact, work environment, and innovation). We additionally propose that these relationships are moderated or mediated by the collaborative climate (i.e. the trust and commitment among partners) in the project and moderated by the overall project characteristics (i.e. how challenging the project is in terms of complexity, customization, uncertainty, value/size, and time pressure). Based on our contribution, future research can test the framework empirically to further increase the knowledge about how procurement factors may influence project performance.

  • 333.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Effects of procurement on construction project performance2009Ingår i: IAMOT 2009: 18th International Conference on Management of Technology, 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 334.
    Eriksson, Per-Robin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    A Comparison Of Two Commercially Available Alternatives For Spatializing Audio Over Headphones In A Game Setting2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The video game industry is experiencing tremendous growth and developing games that stand out against the competition requires ever increasing production budgets. Graphics have been a selling point for video games for a long time, resulting in huge technical advancements in visuals. Audio has received more attention during the recent years, both in terms of sound-design and technical developments.

    This study compared two alternatives for spatializing audio over headphones in a game setting, while also comparing them against a more traditional stereo output. A commercial game was used to provide the game setting and participants rated the three different outputs based on three attributes and described their experience using Microsoft Product Reaction Cards. No statistically significant differences were found between the three outputs in any of the six rated attributes when doing a paired t-test or a Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test. Further analysis of frequency content, participants’ comments and Microsoft Product Reaction Cards were done to find out what sets the spatializing alternatives and stereo apart from each other.

  • 335.
    Eriksson, Simon
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Vidén, Ebba
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Thriving in a Business Ecosystem: A study of role and capability alignment2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to enhance the understanding of what capabilities that are required by actors in a business ecosystem depending on what role they enact. To fulfill this research purpose, the following research questions were derived: RQ1: What key activities underpin different ecosystem roles? and RQ2: What capabilities allow actors to perform key activities?

    Method – This study was conducted as an abductive single case-study of a business ecosystem that evolves around Internet-of-Things-based solutions in the automotive and transportation sector. In total, four companies and one expert company took part in the research, all participating in, or have knowledge of, the ecosystem of inquiry. In total, 20 interviews were conducted, and results were generated through the use of a thematic analysis.

    Findings – The findings from the study are summarized in a framework that illustrates what key activities actors perform to enact either an ‘Enabler’, ‘Leader’ or ‘Direct Value Creator’ role, and more specifically, what capabilities that allow actors to perform those key activities. The findings also show that actors must be able to leverage ‘ecosystem intelligence capabilities’, regardless of role, to be successful in a business ecosystem.

    Theoretical and practical implications – The study provide implications for research on business ecosystem by empirically explicating the key activities that underpin different ecosystem roles, and, by highlighting that actors must not only possess a set of role-specific capabilities, but also some generic capabilities that allow them to operate in a business ecosystem. Our framework assists managers to better evaluate if their firm can leverage the capabilities required to perform the activities of the role they aspire.

    Limitations and future research – The study is limited by a single case-study of a business ecosystem currently in the early phases. Hence, future research is recommended to validate and extend our findings in other contexts than of ours, as well as to study if the capabilityrequirements vary among different stages of ecosystem evolvement.

  • 336. Erlandsson, Anders
    et al.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Schönström, David
    Söderström, Anna-Karin
    Design in the world kitchen2005Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 337.
    Fahlberg, Hanna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Effects of servitization in the marketing processes of Software-as-a-Service: With focus on intangible aspects of Software-as-a-Service2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past three decades vast advances in IT and computing have been made, which places a lot of pressure on the marketers. Cloud computing are now a widely used concept and are said to have servitized the whole IT-industry. A cloud-based solution that have received lot of attention recently are Software-as-a-service (SaaS). A SaaS can take several shapes and ranges from simple automations to more complex systems applications. SaaS are increasingly being used in order to make the daily operations and the business itself more efficient. Even though SaaS are more commonly used, there are no extensive literature on how to conduct the marketing effort for such a solution.

    The purpose of this research is to explore the marketing process of cloud-based services more in-depth; get a good sense of which factors that are interesting while purchasing a SaaS, but also which factors are interesting while choosing a supplier. The study is of an exploratory character have a qualitative inductive approach. In order to explore the subject area, eleven in-depth expert interviews have been conducted.

    The result provided valuable insights regarding the marketing process of SaaS, but also on how the relationship between the customer and supplier together with the service itself are affecting the marketing effort. The most important findings are considered to be:

    Core aspects of supplier relationship: Trust and Personal relationship, Understanding of the business and willingness to change, Communication along with Quality and Total cost of service.

    Core factors of SaaS: Saving of resources, Scalability, Daily operations are outsourced, High reliability and availability of the system along with Security

    This gives valuable clues to what the potential customer values. Meaning, what the supplier company should focus on in order to create an effective marketing and in the end create extensive value for the customer. Tough, if the security requirements are not meet the rest of the service is of little importance. Security can be considered the foundation for value creation in this context.

    In the future, there are many aspects that could be profitable to investigate further in the scope of marketing for cloud-based solutions such as SaaS. The first aspect that should be investigated are an exploration of specific marketing approaches for SaaS or other Cloud based services. But also, how such a marketing effort could be constructed in the future. The second aspect are how trust is affected by servitization and digitalization. But also, how to build trust in a more intangible and digital world. By focusing on these aspects many businesses can receive valuable clues on how to create extensive customer value through providing cloud-based solutions.

  • 338.
    Fahlgren, Maja
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande.
    Automatic Level Generation in Games2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (konstnärlig kandidatexamen), 180 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 339.
    Flohr, Ludvig
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Människan och våglänken: Fem fallstudier om industriellt köpbeteende i svensk skogsindustri2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Industriellt köpbeteende kan beskrivas som studerandet av den processen som sker när ett företag upptäcker ett behov fram till dess att produkten eller tjänsten beställs. Förståelsen för kundens köpbeteende är en viktig faktor i de allt mer konkurrensutsatta företagsmiljöerna och skänker många fördelar ur ett marknadsföringsperspektiv. Genom att studera kundens köpbeteende kan frågor som vad kunden verkligen vill ha, hur den vill ha det och varför besvaras. Studerandet av industriellt köpbeteende kan även bidra med förståelse för vilka infallsvinklar som är mest effektfulla vid anpassning och riktning av marknadsföring, för att som företag påverka ett köpbeslut.

    Mycket av forskningen som bedrivits inom industriellt köpbeteende har syftat till att etablera en generell förståelse, som utan direkta bevis antagits applicerbar inom många branscher. En sådan bransch är svensk skogsindustri. Studien har därför syftat till att undersöka industriellt köpbeteende i skogsindustrin med avseende på skillnader och likheter med tidigare teorier men även för att karaktärisera det branschspecifika köpbeteendet.

    Datainsamlingen har utförts i form av fallstudier där fem små- och medelstora företag intervjuades kring deras inköp av våglänkar (våg som monteras i skogskranen och väger respektive timmer). Områden som undersöks är företagens process från det som triggar igång inköpsbehovet fram till anskaffandet av våglänken, rådande köpsituation samt de personer som är delaktiga i köpbeslutet och hur de påverkar varandra.

    I helhet visade studien att tidigare forskning är applicerbar i skogsindustrin trots att vissa modeller lämpade sig för större företag än de som undersöktes. Undersökning av hur individer påverkar varandra inför ett köpbeslut hos de intervjuade företagen visade sig mer komplicerat att utröna än förväntat. Slutligen har studien bidragit till praktiska implikationer för vart marknadsföringen bör riktas när företag köper produkter första gången respektive vid kommande återköp.

  • 340.
    Floren, Henrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    From preliminary ideas to corroborated product definitions: managing the front end of new product development2012Ingår i: California Management Review, ISSN 0008-1256, E-ISSN 2162-8564, Vol. 54, nr 4, s. 20-43Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Front-end activities largely influence the outcomes of new product development processes, because it is here that firms create new ideas, give them direction, and set them in motion. We show that the front end can be understood as comprising three core activities: idea/concept development, idea/concept alignment, and idea/concept legitimization, which allow firms to create corroborated product definitions. This article provides important implications for managers interested in front-end management. It devotes specific attention to the differences between incremental and radical front-end development and to the front end in the light of increasingly open innovation processes.

  • 341. Florén, Henrik
    et al.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Where new product development begins: critical success factors, concepts and controversies in the fuzzy front end2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 342.
    Florén, Henrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Lee, Carmen
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Gustafsson, Stefan
    Höganäs AB.
    A Framework for Raw Materials Management in Process Industries2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 343.
    Florén, Henrik
    et al.
    Center for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Halmstad University .
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Löf, Anton
    Raw Materials Group, Stockholm.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Raw materials management in iron and steelmaking firms2019Ingår i: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 32, nr 1, s. 39-47Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper adds new knowledge on how raw materials should be managed in iron and steelmaking firms. While previous research has contributed significantly to how firms should deal with functional challenges related to raw materials, the understanding of Raw Materials Management from a holistic perspective is largely lacking, and extant research does not provide qualified advice to firms on this matter. This study provides such knowledge by drawing on insights from Höganäs AB, a world leader in ferrous powder metallurgy, and their efforts to identify key aspects and principles of raw materials management. Our elaboration of a more holistic view on raw materials management builds on two elements. First, we depict five external uncertainties and three internal conditions that impact firm-level raw materials management. Second, we present six critical capabilities that underpin proficient firm-level raw materials management. The paper concludes with a discussion of implications for both firms aiming to increase their raw materials proficiency and to future investigations into this important area.

  • 344.
    Florén, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design. Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Critical success factors in early new product development: a review and a conceptual model2018Ingår i: The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, ISSN 1554-7191, E-ISSN 1555-1938, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 411-427Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature on the front end in the New Product Development (NPD) literature is fragmented with respect to the identification and analysis of the factors that are critical to successful product development. The article has a two-fold purpose. First, it describes, analyses, and synthesizes those factors through a literature review of the research on the front end in NPD. Second, it conceptualizes a framework that features two types of success factors: foundational success factors (common to all the firm’s projects) and project-specific success factors (appropriate for the firm’s individual projects). The article makes recommendations for the management of this important phase of product development, discusses limitations of relevant previous research, and offers suggestions for future research. The article makes a theoretical contribution with its analysis and synthesis of the reasons for success in front-end activities and a practical contribution with its conceptual framework that can be used as an analytical tool by firms and their product managers.

  • 345.
    Forsberg, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Aesthetical Perspectives in Street Lighting: A Study of Future Potentials in LED Lighting2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Omkring 19% av all elektricitet som produceras idag runtom i världen åtgår till att belysa vägar och städer. Ljuset som produceras även i ett slösaktigt utförande som skapar störningar i natur såväl som för människor. Nya utvecklingar kring ljusdioder kan bringa bot till dessa problem men teknologin kräver en passande revision av gatubelysningars roller i samhället. Dioderna använder nämligen en bråkdel av energin äldre belysningsmetoder kräver och medför en revolution i fysiska implementeringsmöjligheter medans de även låter sig kontrolleras till en hög grad. Dessa egenskaper gör att de har en oöverträffad anpassningsbarhet. Examensarbetet ser till hur estetik kan användas för att optimalt introducera lamporna i den världomfattande installationen dem. Lampornas unika möjligheter undersöktes och användes till att utveckla ett Koreansk-inspirerat gatulyse och ett interaktivt belysningssystem i två separata designprocesser. Resultatet av utvecklingarna var först, en modulbaserad armatur med en kostnadseffektiv konstruktion. Det andra resultatet var ett interaktivt stadsbelynsingssystem som föreslår ett dämpningsbart system vilket genom en adapterbar dator svarar på fotgängares närvaro. Detta examensarbete (D7014A) är ett projekt inom industriell design på utbildningen Teknisk design vid Luleå Tekniska Universitet och innefattar 30 högskolepoäng. Projektet sträckte sig över 20 veckor under vårterminen 2016. Arbetet utfördes i samarbete med Pukyong National Universitys institution för industriell design i Busan, Sydkorea.

  • 346.
    Forsberg, Lena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Att utveckla handlingskraft: om flickors identitetsskapande processer2007Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna avhandling handlar om ridskolan som arena för identitetsskapande processer hos flickor. Avsikten har varit att studera vad meningsskapande praktik i stallmiljön betyder för dem; på vilket sätt de påverkar och påverkas av miljön. Särskild tonvikt har lagts på hur genus konstrueras genom aktivitet och handlingar samt vilka diskurser som får sitt uttryck genom språk, regler och symboler. Syftet med studien är att tolka och analysera meningsskapande inom den sociala och kulturella kontext som en ridskola utgör. Mina forskningsfrågor är: Hur ser praktiken ut i stallet? Vilka deltar och på vilket sätt? Vilka dimensioner i verksamheten är betydelsefulla för flickornas identitetsskapande? Hur positionerar sig flickorna genom handling, språk och symboler? Hur skapas genuspositioner inom ramen för den praktik som ridskolan erbjuder? Vilka ideal, normer och krav har flickorna att förhålla sig till? Vilka positioner är önskvärda och inte önskvärda i stallkulturen? På vilket sätt skiljer sig deras position i stallet med deras upplevda position i skolan? Min teoretiska utgångspunkt är socialkonstruktivistiskt och med intresset för vilka ideal, normer och värderingar flickorna har att förhålla sig till i stallmiljön. För analysen har jag använt mig av teoretiskt resonemang hos Foucault, Butler och Skeggs, där makt, mening och materialitet varit viktiga begrepp. Stallstrukturen utövar makt på flickorna i kraft av sina diskurser. De har i sin tur utrymma att utöva makt i kraft av sitt tolkningsföreträde gentemot hästen och mot andra ungdomar i stallet. Meningsskapande sker i det handlingssutrymme som uppstår och utvecklas i den sociala gemenskapen. Materialitet visar sig i att deras praktiska ansvar och ledarskap över hästen blir till en personligt upplevd kompetens. Det empiriska materialet består dels av personliga berättelser från 50- talet till nutid av kvinnor som varit aktiva i stallet under sin ungdomstid, dels av observationer under 2 månader av en grupp flickor på en ridskola samt uppföljande intervju efter ett år. Samtliga flickor och kvinnor hade tillbringat mycket av sin fritid i stallet Min ambition har varit att studera vad flickorna själva har uppfattat som betydelsefull i sin vistelse på ridskolan. Det empiriska materialet analyseras under tre teman: möte med hästen, möte med kulturen och möte med människorna. I dessa beskrivs de dimensioner som var betydelsefulla för att förstå hur flickorna positionerade sig i stallet. Resultatet visar att det är flickornas förmåga att interagera med hästen som gör att ridning skiljer sig från andra fritidsintressen. Hästens inte helt ofarliga karaktär gör att flickorna tvingas bli tydliga och bestämda, vilket gör att en självbild av handling, mod och tydlighet utvecklats. Legitimitet i kulturen skapas av olika diskurser, som jag kallar Ansvar och arbetets diskurs, Omsorgsdiskurs och Den militära diskursen. Via dessa lär sig flickorna förstå att miljön med hästar innebär hårt arbete och utmaningar som de förväntas klara av, vilket de också gör. I gengäld bli de uppfattade och uppfattar sig själva som driftiga och ansvarsfulla. Möte med människorna lyfter fram den sociala gemenskap som ridskolan erbjuder. Umgänget med andra var betydelsefullt. Det finns utrymme för kvinnlig identifikation. Homosocial gemenskap är viktigare än heterosexuellt spel. Flickorna skiljde sig gentemot andra flickor utanför stallet. De betraktade sig som "obrydda". Med det menade de att de stod emot traditionella förväntningar på hur flickor ska uppträda och vara. De hade investerat i subjektpositioner där de uppfattade sig själva som ledare; handlingskraftiga och kompetenta. Slutsatsen är att flickorna i stallet har utrymme att skapa subjektpositioner som ger vidgat genusutrymme. Detta får betydelse för deras upplevda känsla av handlingskraft och ledarförmåga, de är hjältar i en kompromisslös värld.

  • 347.
    Forsberg, Lena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    How to promote collaboration between course members?2004Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaboration between members is a crucial matter for challenging learning and assessment of net based courses. We use Fronter as a conference system for a course in leisure studies at A-level. In this every participant has an own page not accessible for the rest of the group. If a member wants to raise anything of interest for the whole group s/h/e addresses this on a joint page. The participants should in an easy way be able to invite others into a more private chat, "home-room", as a way to get to know each other on an emotional level, not necessarily connected to the content of the course. When meeting students live we often spend time for the participants go get to know each other on a personal level, which enables peer collaboration and assessment. In a distance course, in which the participants as best see each other in a camera, it is difficult to create this atmosphere of trust and friendship. As a result there is little communication between the participants. In this session we would like to get to know about what other systems can offer and exchange experiences about how to enhance friendship and cooperation among the participants.

  • 348.
    Forsberg, Lena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Hästen som livsstil: beskrivning av ett forskningsprojekt i vardande2004Ingår i: SVEBIs forsknings- och utbildningskonferens, Svensk förening för beteendevetenskaplig idrottsforskning , 2004Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 349.
    Forsberg, Lena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Manegen är krattad: Om flickors och kvinnors företagsamhet i hästrelaterade verksamheter2012Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här avhandlingen handlar om betydelsen av företagsamhet och ledarskap med utgångspunkt från stallmiljö. Syftet är att undersöka stallet som en möjlig ledarskap- och entreprenörsskola och även undersöka hur stallmiljön kan utmana könsstereotyper i relation till ledarskap och entreprenörskap. Det ger samtidigt en ökad kunskap om företagsamhet och företagande inom svensk hästverksamhet. Med utgångspunkt i stallet och hästrelaterad verksamhet är studiens forskningsfrågor: Hur "görs" ledarskap och entreprenörskap? På vilket sätt uttrycker de sina handlingar i förhållande till stereotyper om kvinnor och män? Hur "görs" kön i relation till ledarskap och entreprenörskap? Vilken roll har strukturer? Mina teoretiska verktyg vilar på betydelser av entreprenörskap som en process som är relationell och social. Genom mitt intresse i att tolka och analysera hur entreprenöriella processer skapar sociala förändringar, bidrar den här forskningen till forskningsområdet ”entreprenörskap som social förändring”. Metateoretiskt har jag ett socialkonstruktionistiskt perspektiv där jag intresserat mig för vilka ideal, normer och värderingar flickorna och kvinnorna har att förhålla sig till och hur de skapar och orienterar sig själva. Till min analys har jag använt genusteori och diskursiva perspektiv. I avhandlingen finns en grundidé att stallet erbjuder en diskursiv praktik som påverkar flickor som ung i deras identitetsprocess. Samtidigt får flickorna utöva makt och inflytande över hästar och andra ungdomar i stallet genom sin kompetens och position. Den materialiserade effekten i deras identitetsprocess visas genom deras uppfattning om personlig kompetens hos dem själva. Dessa processer studeras i den här avhandlingen i andra miljöer. Speciellt fokus ligger på processen som entreprenörer i hästverksamhet.Det empiriska materialet består av flera kompletterande delstudier: 1) Sex livsberättelser från vuxna kvinnor som hade tillbringat mycket tid i stallet, där berättelsen fokuserade på ungdomstiden; 2) en etnografisk inspirerad studie där jag följde en grupp flickor (6 st) som tillbringade en stor del av sin fritid i stallet.3) uppföljande intervjuer med samma flickor ett år och fyra år senare, där den senare uppföljningen hade fokus både på beskrivningar från deras historier i stallet och i situationer utanför stallet; 4) kartläggning av företag och företagsledare i hästrelaterade företag i Sverige, 5) enkätundersökning till ett urval av de kartlagda företagarna; 6) 13 nutida huvudsakligen populärvetenskapliga texter om företagande i branschen; samt 7) intervjuer med åtta entreprenörer (utvalda bland de som besvarat enkäten) för att kunna undersöka deras upplevelser av att vara företagare i hästbranschen och huruvida stallet påverkat deras företagande.Den sammantagna diskussionen resulterade i tre teman; företagsamhet, ledarskap och företagande. Under dessa teman visade jag hur ledarskap och entreprenörskap ”görs” i hästrelaterade verksamheter och diskuterar vidare hur deras agerande och uppfattningar utmanar könsstereotypa föreställningar om kvinnor och män. Samtidigt tolkade jag hur kön ”görs och betydelser strukturer. Resultatet visar hur de i stallmiljö tagit del av en kulturell praktik som domineras av kvinnor som utför både könskodade kvinnliga och manliga sysslor, som får betydelse för deras upplevelse som driftig och kompetent. Hästens utmanande karaktär tvingar in dem att inta en subjektsposition där de utövar ett ledarskap som upplevs genom sitt utövande som en naturlig färdighet. Genom sina erfarenheter känner de sig rustad att inte stå emot utanförkulturens krav på förväntningar av kön och kan hitta en kollektiv ”annorlundahet” som tar avstånd från yta och traditionell femininet. De premierar handlingskraft och mod. Det empiriska materialet visar därigenom att det är möjligt att både vara entreprenöriell och ledare fast på flickors och kvinnors vis utan att låta sig fixeras. Ett dilemma är att även om de själva skapar sig ett handlingsutrymme så kan detta hindra dem att se gemensamma hinder som inbegriper kvinnor i allmänhet. Trots att de agerar annorlunda, kan de inte helt frigöra sig från att de starka strukturer som utgör hinder för kvinnors möjligheter till avancemang. Det kan dessutom i sin ihärdighet få orimliga krav på sig och lägga för stor vikt vid sitt eget ansvar när de inte ser gemensamma strukturer. Ändå är deras driv och genusutrymme ett exempel på ett förminskande av de rådande normerna, och att deras kraft visar på en potential att förändra ett samhälle. För att det ska ge genomslag i samhällelig mening behövs en kritisk massa där den här avhandlingen kan representera ett exempel på en genusexperimentell miljö som resulterat i entreprenöriella handlingar.

  • 350.
    Forsberg, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Tebelius, Ulla
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Horseback riding as a leisure activity: a historical review2005Ingår i: First International Conference on Lifestyle, Health and Technology: June 1-3, 2005 at Luleå University of Technology, Porsön, Luleå, Sweden, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
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