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  • 301.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Szentes, Henrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Managing exploration and exploitation in construction projects2013Ingår i: Proceedings for 7th Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organisation / [ed] Ole Jonny Klakegg, Trondheim: Akademika forlag, 2013, s. 451-460Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior research has shown that companies in various industrial contexts need to achieve both exploitation of current knowledge and technologies to make profits today, and exploration of new knowledge and technologies to adapt to changing conditions and prepare for tomorrow’s demands. The capacity to achieve both exploration and exploitation is especially problematic in project based organizations due to projects’ discontinuous nature. In spite of its theoretical and practical importance, research on exploration and exploitation in projects and project-based organizations is scarce. The purpose of this study is to investigate how exploration and exploitation is managed in construction projects. Empirical data was collected through a multiple case study involving interviews with the client’s project manager, the contractor’s project manager, and the design manager in seven construction projects. Tentative findings show that the project actors often focus more on exploitation than on exploration although they acknowledge the importance of exploration too. However, exploitation often involves adopting conventional methods and solutions based on existing knowledge without any development efforts. Time constraints in tight schedules are hindering both radical innovations and continuous developments. The findings also reveal that explorative solutions must be possible to exploit in the same project. Sufficient project size and/or long-term contracts over a series of projects therefore enhance both investments in explorative activities and exploitation through continuous developments from project to project. Exploration activities are mostly performed in early stages while the focus on exploitation strengthens as the project proceeds. Exploration is often conducted by the contractor or by the client, consultant and contractor together. Hence, in design-bid-build contracts the client and consultant often miss opportunities to explore new technical solutions. Early contractor involvement, (e.g. in Design-build contracts) thereby enable the achievement of both exploration and exploitation

  • 302.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Szentes, Henrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Managing the tensions between exploration and exploitation in large construction projects2017Ingår i: Construction Innovation, ISSN 1471-4175, E-ISSN 1477-0857, Vol. 17, nr 4, s. 492-510Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Prior studies highlight the importance of building ambidextrous capabilities to achieve both exploitation of current knowledge and technologies to make profits today, and exploration of new knowledge and technologies to adapt to and prepare for tomorrow's demands. In spite of its theoretical and practical importance, research on organizational ambidexterity in project-based organizations is scarce. Thus, the purpose of the paper is to study how ambidexterity may be managed and how exploration and exploitation may be achieved in construction projects. The research identifies some drivers and barriers to exploration and exploitation and also sheds light on how various management approaches interact and affect exploration and exploitation activities. Design/methodology/approach – The empirical material is drawn from 40 semi-structured interviews with managers representing the client, the contractor and the designer involved in each of the seven large construction projects in the sample. Findings – In contrast to prior literature in high-tech industries where exploitation focuses on continuous development, exploitation in construction projects often involves adopting conventional methods and solutions based on existing knowledge without any development efforts at all. This may enhance short-term efficiency and lower risk at the project level but increase risk at the firm level. Tight time schedules hinder both radical innovations and incremental developments, and the findings also reveal that to invest in efforts on explorative solutions, it must be possible to exploit the solutions in the same project. Research limitations/implications – In this empirical context, the traditional structural and sequential ambidexterity solutions are not sufficient. In construction projects, contextual ambidexterity solutions in which key project actors collaborate in developing systemic innovations and fine-tuning solutions across projects are more effective. Practical implications – Sufficient project size and/or long-term contracts over a series of projects enhance both investments in explorative activities and exploitation through continuous developments from project to project. In design-bid-build contracts, the client and consultant often miss opportunities to explore new technical solutions that rely on contractor competencies. Early procurement of contractors (e.g. in collaborative design-build contracts) thereby enables the achievement of both exploration and exploitation. Originality/value – This study provides important input to the authors' understanding of how exploration and exploitation may be managed in project-based industries, which has been scarcely studied in previous ambidexterity literature.

  • 303.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Szentes, Henrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Organizational ambidexterity in construction projects2014Ingår i: 2014 IEEE International Conference on Management of Innovation and Technology: ICMIT 2014, Singapore; 23 - 25 September 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, s. 81-86, artikel-id 6942405Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Most organizations need to be ambidextrous by exploiting current knowledge to make profits today as well as exploring new knowledge to prepare for tomorrow's demands. The capacity to achieve both exploration and exploitation is especially problematic in project based organizations due to projects' discontinuous nature. In this study we investigate how exploration and exploitation is managed in inter-organizational projects, through a multiple case study of seven construction projects. Tentative findings show that project actors focus more on exploitation than on exploration and that exploitation often involves adopting conventional methods and solutions without any development efforts. The findings also reveal that investment in explorative innovations must be possible to exploit in the current project, since exploitation in future projects is uncertain.

  • 304.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Szentes, Henrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Lagerqvist, Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Hinder och drivkrafter för industriellt anläggningsbyggande: Underlagsrapport till Produktivitetskommittén, Näringsdepartementet2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 305.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Vennström, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Effects of procurement on project performance: a survey of Swedish construction clients2009Ingår i: Proceedings of CIB Joint International Symposium, Construction Facing Worldwide Challenges / [ed] Anita Ceric; Radujkovic Mladen, ArCiBel Editores, 2009, s. 19-28Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to increase the efficiency of the construction industry development and improvement of procurement procedures is vital. The purpose of this investigation is to increase the understanding of how procurement procedures affect project performance. A procurement model including eight hypotheses is first developed on the basis of a literature review and then tested through multivariate statistical techniques based on empirical data collected through a survey investigation of 106 Swedish construction clients. The results of hierarchical regression analyses show that cooperative procurement procedures positively affect collaboration among project actors and that collaboration in turn have positive effects on project performance. In general, however, cooperative procurement procedures do not have direct effects on project performance.

  • 306.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Volker, Leentje
    Department of Civil Engineering, University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands.
    Kadefors, Anna
    Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm. Chalmers University Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Lingegård, Sofia
    Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Science and Engineering (SEED), School of Architecture and the Built Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Rosander, Lilly
    Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Collaborative Procurement Strategies for Infrastructure Projects: A Multiple Case Study2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Management, procurement and law, ISSN 1751-4304, Vol. 172, nr 5, s. 197-205Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With the announcement to tender a project, several strategic decisions are made that have significant impact on the innovation and efficiency potential of a project. The purpose of this study is to investigate and compare how different types of integrative and collaborative procurement strategies may enhance the opportunities for improved efficiency and innovation in infrastructure projects. Hence, it contributes to the scientific debate on buyer-supplier relationships in relation to project performance. Furthermore, it guides public client organizations in steering explicitly for integration and innovation in their projects. Interview-based case studies of ten public infrastructure projects procured based on four different types of collaborative procurement strategies in Sweden and the Netherlands were conducted. The findings indicate that the duration of the collaboration is fundamental in setting the limits for innovation, and that early involvement as well as long-term commitments in maintenance open up for more innovation. Naturally, the potential for increased efficiency is higher than for innovation, and also occurs in collaborations with limited duration. The findings confirm the importance of a learning perspective on procurement strategies for public client organizations and show the importance of explicit considerations on incentives and project governance issues in the front-end phase of a project.

  • 307.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Effects of cooperative procurement procedures on construction project performance: a conceptual framework2011Ingår i: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 29, nr 2, s. 197-208Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we develop a testable holistic procurement framework that examines how a broad range of procurement related factors affects project performance criteria. Based on a comprehensive literature review, we put forward propositions suggesting that cooperative procurement procedures (joint specification, selected tendering, soft parameters in bid evaluation, joint subcontractor selection, incentive-based payment, collaborative tools, and contractor self-control) generally have a positive influence on project performance (cost, time, quality, environmental impact, work environment, and innovation). We additionally propose that these relationships are moderated or mediated by the collaborative climate (i.e. the trust and commitment among partners) in the project and moderated by the overall project characteristics (i.e. how challenging the project is in terms of complexity, customization, uncertainty, value/size, and time pressure). Based on our contribution, future research can test the framework empirically to further increase the knowledge about how procurement factors may influence project performance.

  • 308.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Effects of procurement on construction project performance2009Ingår i: IAMOT 2009: 18th International Conference on Management of Technology, 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 309.
    Eriksson, Simon
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Vidén, Ebba
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Thriving in a Business Ecosystem: A study of role and capability alignment2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to enhance the understanding of what capabilities that are required by actors in a business ecosystem depending on what role they enact. To fulfill this research purpose, the following research questions were derived: RQ1: What key activities underpin different ecosystem roles? and RQ2: What capabilities allow actors to perform key activities?

    Method – This study was conducted as an abductive single case-study of a business ecosystem that evolves around Internet-of-Things-based solutions in the automotive and transportation sector. In total, four companies and one expert company took part in the research, all participating in, or have knowledge of, the ecosystem of inquiry. In total, 20 interviews were conducted, and results were generated through the use of a thematic analysis.

    Findings – The findings from the study are summarized in a framework that illustrates what key activities actors perform to enact either an ‘Enabler’, ‘Leader’ or ‘Direct Value Creator’ role, and more specifically, what capabilities that allow actors to perform those key activities. The findings also show that actors must be able to leverage ‘ecosystem intelligence capabilities’, regardless of role, to be successful in a business ecosystem.

    Theoretical and practical implications – The study provide implications for research on business ecosystem by empirically explicating the key activities that underpin different ecosystem roles, and, by highlighting that actors must not only possess a set of role-specific capabilities, but also some generic capabilities that allow them to operate in a business ecosystem. Our framework assists managers to better evaluate if their firm can leverage the capabilities required to perform the activities of the role they aspire.

    Limitations and future research – The study is limited by a single case-study of a business ecosystem currently in the early phases. Hence, future research is recommended to validate and extend our findings in other contexts than of ours, as well as to study if the capabilityrequirements vary among different stages of ecosystem evolvement.

  • 310. Erlandsson, Anders
    et al.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Schönström, David
    Söderström, Anna-Karin
    Design in the world kitchen2005Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 311.
    Fahlberg, Hanna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Effects of servitization in the marketing processes of Software-as-a-Service: With focus on intangible aspects of Software-as-a-Service2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past three decades vast advances in IT and computing have been made, which places a lot of pressure on the marketers. Cloud computing are now a widely used concept and are said to have servitized the whole IT-industry. A cloud-based solution that have received lot of attention recently are Software-as-a-service (SaaS). A SaaS can take several shapes and ranges from simple automations to more complex systems applications. SaaS are increasingly being used in order to make the daily operations and the business itself more efficient. Even though SaaS are more commonly used, there are no extensive literature on how to conduct the marketing effort for such a solution.

    The purpose of this research is to explore the marketing process of cloud-based services more in-depth; get a good sense of which factors that are interesting while purchasing a SaaS, but also which factors are interesting while choosing a supplier. The study is of an exploratory character have a qualitative inductive approach. In order to explore the subject area, eleven in-depth expert interviews have been conducted.

    The result provided valuable insights regarding the marketing process of SaaS, but also on how the relationship between the customer and supplier together with the service itself are affecting the marketing effort. The most important findings are considered to be:

    Core aspects of supplier relationship: Trust and Personal relationship, Understanding of the business and willingness to change, Communication along with Quality and Total cost of service.

    Core factors of SaaS: Saving of resources, Scalability, Daily operations are outsourced, High reliability and availability of the system along with Security

    This gives valuable clues to what the potential customer values. Meaning, what the supplier company should focus on in order to create an effective marketing and in the end create extensive value for the customer. Tough, if the security requirements are not meet the rest of the service is of little importance. Security can be considered the foundation for value creation in this context.

    In the future, there are many aspects that could be profitable to investigate further in the scope of marketing for cloud-based solutions such as SaaS. The first aspect that should be investigated are an exploration of specific marketing approaches for SaaS or other Cloud based services. But also, how such a marketing effort could be constructed in the future. The second aspect are how trust is affected by servitization and digitalization. But also, how to build trust in a more intangible and digital world. By focusing on these aspects many businesses can receive valuable clues on how to create extensive customer value through providing cloud-based solutions.

  • 312.
    Flohr, Ludvig
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Människan och våglänken: Fem fallstudier om industriellt köpbeteende i svensk skogsindustri2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Industriellt köpbeteende kan beskrivas som studerandet av den processen som sker när ett företag upptäcker ett behov fram till dess att produkten eller tjänsten beställs. Förståelsen för kundens köpbeteende är en viktig faktor i de allt mer konkurrensutsatta företagsmiljöerna och skänker många fördelar ur ett marknadsföringsperspektiv. Genom att studera kundens köpbeteende kan frågor som vad kunden verkligen vill ha, hur den vill ha det och varför besvaras. Studerandet av industriellt köpbeteende kan även bidra med förståelse för vilka infallsvinklar som är mest effektfulla vid anpassning och riktning av marknadsföring, för att som företag påverka ett köpbeslut.

    Mycket av forskningen som bedrivits inom industriellt köpbeteende har syftat till att etablera en generell förståelse, som utan direkta bevis antagits applicerbar inom många branscher. En sådan bransch är svensk skogsindustri. Studien har därför syftat till att undersöka industriellt köpbeteende i skogsindustrin med avseende på skillnader och likheter med tidigare teorier men även för att karaktärisera det branschspecifika köpbeteendet.

    Datainsamlingen har utförts i form av fallstudier där fem små- och medelstora företag intervjuades kring deras inköp av våglänkar (våg som monteras i skogskranen och väger respektive timmer). Områden som undersöks är företagens process från det som triggar igång inköpsbehovet fram till anskaffandet av våglänken, rådande köpsituation samt de personer som är delaktiga i köpbeslutet och hur de påverkar varandra.

    I helhet visade studien att tidigare forskning är applicerbar i skogsindustrin trots att vissa modeller lämpade sig för större företag än de som undersöktes. Undersökning av hur individer påverkar varandra inför ett köpbeslut hos de intervjuade företagen visade sig mer komplicerat att utröna än förväntat. Slutligen har studien bidragit till praktiska implikationer för vart marknadsföringen bör riktas när företag köper produkter första gången respektive vid kommande återköp.

  • 313.
    Floren, Henrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    From preliminary ideas to corroborated product definitions: managing the front end of new product development2012Ingår i: California Management Review, ISSN 0008-1256, E-ISSN 2162-8564, Vol. 54, nr 4, s. 20-43Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Front-end activities largely influence the outcomes of new product development processes, because it is here that firms create new ideas, give them direction, and set them in motion. We show that the front end can be understood as comprising three core activities: idea/concept development, idea/concept alignment, and idea/concept legitimization, which allow firms to create corroborated product definitions. This article provides important implications for managers interested in front-end management. It devotes specific attention to the differences between incremental and radical front-end development and to the front end in the light of increasingly open innovation processes.

  • 314. Florén, Henrik
    et al.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Where new product development begins: critical success factors, concepts and controversies in the fuzzy front end2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 315.
    Florén, Henrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Lee, Carmen
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Gustafsson, Stefan
    Höganäs AB.
    A Framework for Raw Materials Management in Process Industries2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 316.
    Florén, Henrik
    et al.
    Center for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Halmstad University .
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Löf, Anton
    Raw Materials Group, Stockholm.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Raw materials management in iron and steelmaking firms2019Ingår i: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 32, nr 1, s. 39-47Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper adds new knowledge on how raw materials should be managed in iron and steelmaking firms. While previous research has contributed significantly to how firms should deal with functional challenges related to raw materials, the understanding of Raw Materials Management from a holistic perspective is largely lacking, and extant research does not provide qualified advice to firms on this matter. This study provides such knowledge by drawing on insights from Höganäs AB, a world leader in ferrous powder metallurgy, and their efforts to identify key aspects and principles of raw materials management. Our elaboration of a more holistic view on raw materials management builds on two elements. First, we depict five external uncertainties and three internal conditions that impact firm-level raw materials management. Second, we present six critical capabilities that underpin proficient firm-level raw materials management. The paper concludes with a discussion of implications for both firms aiming to increase their raw materials proficiency and to future investigations into this important area.

  • 317.
    Florén, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design. Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Critical success factors in early new product development: a review and a conceptual model2018Ingår i: The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, ISSN 1554-7191, E-ISSN 1555-1938, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 411-427Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature on the front end in the New Product Development (NPD) literature is fragmented with respect to the identification and analysis of the factors that are critical to successful product development. The article has a two-fold purpose. First, it describes, analyses, and synthesizes those factors through a literature review of the research on the front end in NPD. Second, it conceptualizes a framework that features two types of success factors: foundational success factors (common to all the firm’s projects) and project-specific success factors (appropriate for the firm’s individual projects). The article makes recommendations for the management of this important phase of product development, discusses limitations of relevant previous research, and offers suggestions for future research. The article makes a theoretical contribution with its analysis and synthesis of the reasons for success in front-end activities and a practical contribution with its conceptual framework that can be used as an analytical tool by firms and their product managers.

  • 318.
    Forsberg, Lena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Att utveckla handlingskraft: om flickors identitetsskapande processer2007Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna avhandling handlar om ridskolan som arena för identitetsskapande processer hos flickor. Avsikten har varit att studera vad meningsskapande praktik i stallmiljön betyder för dem; på vilket sätt de påverkar och påverkas av miljön. Särskild tonvikt har lagts på hur genus konstrueras genom aktivitet och handlingar samt vilka diskurser som får sitt uttryck genom språk, regler och symboler. Syftet med studien är att tolka och analysera meningsskapande inom den sociala och kulturella kontext som en ridskola utgör. Mina forskningsfrågor är: Hur ser praktiken ut i stallet? Vilka deltar och på vilket sätt? Vilka dimensioner i verksamheten är betydelsefulla för flickornas identitetsskapande? Hur positionerar sig flickorna genom handling, språk och symboler? Hur skapas genuspositioner inom ramen för den praktik som ridskolan erbjuder? Vilka ideal, normer och krav har flickorna att förhålla sig till? Vilka positioner är önskvärda och inte önskvärda i stallkulturen? På vilket sätt skiljer sig deras position i stallet med deras upplevda position i skolan? Min teoretiska utgångspunkt är socialkonstruktivistiskt och med intresset för vilka ideal, normer och värderingar flickorna har att förhålla sig till i stallmiljön. För analysen har jag använt mig av teoretiskt resonemang hos Foucault, Butler och Skeggs, där makt, mening och materialitet varit viktiga begrepp. Stallstrukturen utövar makt på flickorna i kraft av sina diskurser. De har i sin tur utrymma att utöva makt i kraft av sitt tolkningsföreträde gentemot hästen och mot andra ungdomar i stallet. Meningsskapande sker i det handlingssutrymme som uppstår och utvecklas i den sociala gemenskapen. Materialitet visar sig i att deras praktiska ansvar och ledarskap över hästen blir till en personligt upplevd kompetens. Det empiriska materialet består dels av personliga berättelser från 50- talet till nutid av kvinnor som varit aktiva i stallet under sin ungdomstid, dels av observationer under 2 månader av en grupp flickor på en ridskola samt uppföljande intervju efter ett år. Samtliga flickor och kvinnor hade tillbringat mycket av sin fritid i stallet Min ambition har varit att studera vad flickorna själva har uppfattat som betydelsefull i sin vistelse på ridskolan. Det empiriska materialet analyseras under tre teman: möte med hästen, möte med kulturen och möte med människorna. I dessa beskrivs de dimensioner som var betydelsefulla för att förstå hur flickorna positionerade sig i stallet. Resultatet visar att det är flickornas förmåga att interagera med hästen som gör att ridning skiljer sig från andra fritidsintressen. Hästens inte helt ofarliga karaktär gör att flickorna tvingas bli tydliga och bestämda, vilket gör att en självbild av handling, mod och tydlighet utvecklats. Legitimitet i kulturen skapas av olika diskurser, som jag kallar Ansvar och arbetets diskurs, Omsorgsdiskurs och Den militära diskursen. Via dessa lär sig flickorna förstå att miljön med hästar innebär hårt arbete och utmaningar som de förväntas klara av, vilket de också gör. I gengäld bli de uppfattade och uppfattar sig själva som driftiga och ansvarsfulla. Möte med människorna lyfter fram den sociala gemenskap som ridskolan erbjuder. Umgänget med andra var betydelsefullt. Det finns utrymme för kvinnlig identifikation. Homosocial gemenskap är viktigare än heterosexuellt spel. Flickorna skiljde sig gentemot andra flickor utanför stallet. De betraktade sig som "obrydda". Med det menade de att de stod emot traditionella förväntningar på hur flickor ska uppträda och vara. De hade investerat i subjektpositioner där de uppfattade sig själva som ledare; handlingskraftiga och kompetenta. Slutsatsen är att flickorna i stallet har utrymme att skapa subjektpositioner som ger vidgat genusutrymme. Detta får betydelse för deras upplevda känsla av handlingskraft och ledarförmåga, de är hjältar i en kompromisslös värld.

  • 319.
    Forsberg, Lena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    How to promote collaboration between course members?2004Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaboration between members is a crucial matter for challenging learning and assessment of net based courses. We use Fronter as a conference system for a course in leisure studies at A-level. In this every participant has an own page not accessible for the rest of the group. If a member wants to raise anything of interest for the whole group s/h/e addresses this on a joint page. The participants should in an easy way be able to invite others into a more private chat, "home-room", as a way to get to know each other on an emotional level, not necessarily connected to the content of the course. When meeting students live we often spend time for the participants go get to know each other on a personal level, which enables peer collaboration and assessment. In a distance course, in which the participants as best see each other in a camera, it is difficult to create this atmosphere of trust and friendship. As a result there is little communication between the participants. In this session we would like to get to know about what other systems can offer and exchange experiences about how to enhance friendship and cooperation among the participants.

  • 320.
    Forsberg, Lena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Hästen som livsstil: beskrivning av ett forskningsprojekt i vardande2004Ingår i: SVEBIs forsknings- och utbildningskonferens, Svensk förening för beteendevetenskaplig idrottsforskning , 2004Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 321.
    Forsberg, Lena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Manegen är krattad: Om flickors och kvinnors företagsamhet i hästrelaterade verksamheter2012Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här avhandlingen handlar om betydelsen av företagsamhet och ledarskap med utgångspunkt från stallmiljö. Syftet är att undersöka stallet som en möjlig ledarskap- och entreprenörsskola och även undersöka hur stallmiljön kan utmana könsstereotyper i relation till ledarskap och entreprenörskap. Det ger samtidigt en ökad kunskap om företagsamhet och företagande inom svensk hästverksamhet. Med utgångspunkt i stallet och hästrelaterad verksamhet är studiens forskningsfrågor: Hur "görs" ledarskap och entreprenörskap? På vilket sätt uttrycker de sina handlingar i förhållande till stereotyper om kvinnor och män? Hur "görs" kön i relation till ledarskap och entreprenörskap? Vilken roll har strukturer? Mina teoretiska verktyg vilar på betydelser av entreprenörskap som en process som är relationell och social. Genom mitt intresse i att tolka och analysera hur entreprenöriella processer skapar sociala förändringar, bidrar den här forskningen till forskningsområdet ”entreprenörskap som social förändring”. Metateoretiskt har jag ett socialkonstruktionistiskt perspektiv där jag intresserat mig för vilka ideal, normer och värderingar flickorna och kvinnorna har att förhålla sig till och hur de skapar och orienterar sig själva. Till min analys har jag använt genusteori och diskursiva perspektiv. I avhandlingen finns en grundidé att stallet erbjuder en diskursiv praktik som påverkar flickor som ung i deras identitetsprocess. Samtidigt får flickorna utöva makt och inflytande över hästar och andra ungdomar i stallet genom sin kompetens och position. Den materialiserade effekten i deras identitetsprocess visas genom deras uppfattning om personlig kompetens hos dem själva. Dessa processer studeras i den här avhandlingen i andra miljöer. Speciellt fokus ligger på processen som entreprenörer i hästverksamhet.Det empiriska materialet består av flera kompletterande delstudier: 1) Sex livsberättelser från vuxna kvinnor som hade tillbringat mycket tid i stallet, där berättelsen fokuserade på ungdomstiden; 2) en etnografisk inspirerad studie där jag följde en grupp flickor (6 st) som tillbringade en stor del av sin fritid i stallet.3) uppföljande intervjuer med samma flickor ett år och fyra år senare, där den senare uppföljningen hade fokus både på beskrivningar från deras historier i stallet och i situationer utanför stallet; 4) kartläggning av företag och företagsledare i hästrelaterade företag i Sverige, 5) enkätundersökning till ett urval av de kartlagda företagarna; 6) 13 nutida huvudsakligen populärvetenskapliga texter om företagande i branschen; samt 7) intervjuer med åtta entreprenörer (utvalda bland de som besvarat enkäten) för att kunna undersöka deras upplevelser av att vara företagare i hästbranschen och huruvida stallet påverkat deras företagande.Den sammantagna diskussionen resulterade i tre teman; företagsamhet, ledarskap och företagande. Under dessa teman visade jag hur ledarskap och entreprenörskap ”görs” i hästrelaterade verksamheter och diskuterar vidare hur deras agerande och uppfattningar utmanar könsstereotypa föreställningar om kvinnor och män. Samtidigt tolkade jag hur kön ”görs och betydelser strukturer. Resultatet visar hur de i stallmiljö tagit del av en kulturell praktik som domineras av kvinnor som utför både könskodade kvinnliga och manliga sysslor, som får betydelse för deras upplevelse som driftig och kompetent. Hästens utmanande karaktär tvingar in dem att inta en subjektsposition där de utövar ett ledarskap som upplevs genom sitt utövande som en naturlig färdighet. Genom sina erfarenheter känner de sig rustad att inte stå emot utanförkulturens krav på förväntningar av kön och kan hitta en kollektiv ”annorlundahet” som tar avstånd från yta och traditionell femininet. De premierar handlingskraft och mod. Det empiriska materialet visar därigenom att det är möjligt att både vara entreprenöriell och ledare fast på flickors och kvinnors vis utan att låta sig fixeras. Ett dilemma är att även om de själva skapar sig ett handlingsutrymme så kan detta hindra dem att se gemensamma hinder som inbegriper kvinnor i allmänhet. Trots att de agerar annorlunda, kan de inte helt frigöra sig från att de starka strukturer som utgör hinder för kvinnors möjligheter till avancemang. Det kan dessutom i sin ihärdighet få orimliga krav på sig och lägga för stor vikt vid sitt eget ansvar när de inte ser gemensamma strukturer. Ändå är deras driv och genusutrymme ett exempel på ett förminskande av de rådande normerna, och att deras kraft visar på en potential att förändra ett samhälle. För att det ska ge genomslag i samhällelig mening behövs en kritisk massa där den här avhandlingen kan representera ett exempel på en genusexperimentell miljö som resulterat i entreprenöriella handlingar.

  • 322.
    Forsberg, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Tebelius, Ulla
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Horseback riding as a leisure activity: a historical review2005Ingår i: First International Conference on Lifestyle, Health and Technology: June 1-3, 2005 at Luleå University of Technology, Porsön, Luleå, Sweden, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 323.
    Forsberg, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Tebelius, Ulla
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    The riding school as a site for gender identity construction among Swedish teenage girls2011Ingår i: World Leisure Journal, ISSN 0441-9057, E-ISSN 1607-8055, Vol. 53, nr 1, s. 42-56Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is based on observations and interviews with six teenage girls (age 14–16) currently highly active in a Swedish riding school. Riding is one of the most popular sporting activities among girls in Sweden and riding schools receive financial support from the government to make riding available to everyone. The aim of this paper is to explore how teenage girls construct their gender identity at the stable through the handling of horses and related work in their leisure time. Theoretically, we employ Butler's (1999) theory of identity, based on social constructivism. The relationships with the horses, the hard work, the unexpected challenges, as well as the friendships among the girls, were found to be essential elements of the stable experience. At the stable, the girls learned to take action, handle risks and take the lead. This created an alternative way of enacting themselves as young females, resulting in an identity based on being independent, competent and powerful. As such, the riding school represents a developmental space where teenage girls can prepare themselves for their future, independent, lives.

  • 324.
    Forsberg, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Tebelius, Ulla
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Which identity do girls create in the stable?2006Ingår i: Bowling together: seven articles from the Malmö conference, Malmö: Textbyrån MLT AB , 2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is one of the most horse populated countries in Europe with a general riding activity which is unique in the world. 220 000 individuals are related to the riding schools in Sweden and 85 percent are women. Half of these are younger than twenty-five. Riding is a traditional sport for girls and a sport that through time has picked up ideals like responsibility, bringing up and democracy. Riding as an activity takes time not just for the riding itself but also to the care of the horse. The times of youth at the leisure arenas are important for the identity development among the youth.At the same time the creation of identity in the late modern society has got a more open character that is tested constantly. It also makes it possible with several identities and is a part of an individualization process where looks and body are more important.The purpose of this article is to investigate how the youth in the stable are influenced by what we call the late modern age.This is investigated through a minor ethnographic study where a number of visitors at the stable are observed in their leisure time.

  • 325.
    Forsberg, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Gender and entrepreneurship in the horse-related industry2013Ingår i: Journal of Business Diversity, ISSN 2158-3889, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 75-93Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we examine the horse-related industry in terms of entrepreneurship and gender. Based on reports of the industry, a mapping of the entire sector (N= 7504) and a questionnaire (N=520) we find that the industry is portrayed as female gendered, but dominated by men. However, we also find evidence that the industry is changing gender, as women dominate among younger entrepreneurs. The strongest motives for the horse-related entrepreneurs (regardless of gender) are realizing a dream and being able to combine interest with work. We also found that entrepreneurs in this industry mainly network inside the industry.

  • 326.
    Forsberg, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Gender and entrepreneurship in the horse-related industry2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we examine the horse-related industry in terms of entrepreneurship and gender. Based on reports of the industry, a mapping of the entire sector (N= 7504) and a questionnaire (N=520) we find that the industry is portrayed as female gendered, but dominated by men. However, we also find evidence that the industry is changing gender, as women dominate among younger entrepreneurs. The strongest motives for the horse-related entrepreneurs (regardless of gender) are realizing a dream and being able to combine interest with work. We also found that entrepreneurs in this industry mainly network inside the industry.

  • 327.
    Fredin, Johan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology School of Engineering Soft Center.
    Jönsson, Anders
    Blekinge Institute of Technology School of Engineering Soft Center.
    Broman, Göran
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Holistic methodology using computer simulation for optimisation of machine tools2012Ingår i: Computers & industrial engineering, ISSN 0360-8352, E-ISSN 1879-0550, Vol. 63, nr 1, s. 294-301Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual machine concepts supporting optimization of machine tools have been developed in earlier work. The virtual machine concept is a tool that can describe the behaviour of a machine tool while considering the interaction between mechanics of the machines and the control system. Considerable amount of work has been done proving the concept and showing the potential of such a design tool in different contexts. Several studies have shown the potential of using the virtual machine concept, although, no work has been found that is exploring the potential of a full optimization study.The aim of this work is to show the potential of the virtual machine concept in an optimisation study of the complete machine tool, including the mechanical system, parameters in the control system, the NC-code as well as choice of servo and drive systems. An efficient optimisation strategy is presented, making it possible to solve the complex optimisation problem within a reasonable amount of time.A combination of optimisation algorithms is used to achieve a fast and accurate way of solving the complex task to optimise the complete machine tool. Genetic algorithms, gradient based algorithms and more traditional hands on engineering are used for solving the optimisation problem. Post processing and data mining is suggested as a way of extracting as much information as possible from optimisation results with the aim to increase the knowledge about the studied system. An important conclusion is that the virtual machine should support the decision making in product development, not replace the product developers as regards decision making.

  • 328.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Organizational environment revisited: a conceptual review and integration2006Ingår i: International Studies of Management and Organization, ISSN 0020-8825, E-ISSN 1558-0911, Vol. 36, nr 3, s. 22-49Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Innumerable books and articles state that "the environment" is important to organizations and merits attention, as it is thought to influence organizations' actions as well as outcomes. Still, little agreement exists on what the environment is and how to apprehend it. This paper presents a review of four different perspectives in organization-environment research: the adaptive, the resource-dependence, the cognitive, and the population-ecology perspectives. All perspectives present assumptions about environmental structure, sources of environmental change, level of analysis, and so forth, but they also imply different meta-theoretical assumptions that constitute distinct frames of references. In this paper, the author suggests that the ideas in the realist paradigm in strategy research, the logic of appropriateness, and high general applicability and prescriptive value contribute to explaining the dominant position of the adaptive perspective. It is further argued that viewing "environment" from only one angle is too limited a conceptualization, and "environment" is suggested to be a feasible avenue for combining and integrating characteristics from different perspectives in order to overcome limitations with a single-frame approach.

  • 329.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Three essays on the organization - environment interface2003Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The environment is considered to be of importance to organizations, albeit for different reasons. This thesis presents an introduction to the concept of organizational environment and will provide the reader with a review of four different perspectives in organization - environment thinking. The perspectives reviewed are the adaptive, the resource-dependence, the cognitive, and the population-ecology perspective. These four perspectives are compared and contrasted on seven different dimensions, in an attempt to identify their similarities and differences. There then follows a discussion on how these perspectives relate to the appended papers, the evolution of these papers, and a summary of the papers. Finally, suggestions for future research are presented. There are three appended papers. The first paper, named Characteristics in information processing approaches, aims to describe and compare different information processing approaches. The purpose of the paper is to identify similarities and differences in different terms used to describe information acquisition, relate them to and compare them with each other, but also to identify their underlying concepts and the course of events they represent. The approaches addressed include environmental scanning, business intelligence, and information management. The second paper is entitled Information use in strategic decision-making. This paper addresses the issue of information use in decisions characterized as strategic. The method employed is a case study, where four decisions are highlighted. By addressing questions such as: Why is information used? What kind of information does management use? How do they obtain it? And finally, where do they obtain it?, the study provides the reader with an insight into management information behavior when taking strategic decisions. The third paper, The influence of environmental scanning on innovation performance, addresses the question of weather or not those firms that are better at managing external information also are better innovators. Data were collected by means of a mail survey, and the results show that a positive relationship exists between environmental scanning and innovation performance. Moreover, sharing information across functions/departments as well as using environmental information in decision-making concerning new product/service development were also found to correlate positively with innovation performance. The results also show that firms that are skilful at collecting, sharing and making use of information when deciding on new products/services are those that exhibit the highest degree of innovation performance in comparison with others.

  • 330.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Towards a theory of managing information in new product development2005Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with various information aspects of new product development (NPD). In total, the thesis consists of 6 research articles appended in full, and an introductory text that integrates and theorizes with and from these papers. The first paper is a review article examining the literature on and role of information in NPD. The main argument put forward here is that information processing can be understood in terms of three steps: acquiring, sharing, and using information. The second paper is a largescale survey that examines the relationship between market and entrepreneurial orien-tation and performance in NPD. A market orientation is to a large extent about acquiring, disseminating and using market information, while an entrepreneurial orientation partly is about ignoring such information, and instead trying to be innovative, proactive, and take risks. The results show that a market orientation and innovativeness are positively related to NPD performance, and that neither product nor environmental characteristics moderate these relationships. The third paper is also a survey, and investigates the extent to which management of external information is associated with innovation performance. The main findings are that scanning the technological sector of the environment was positively associated with innovation performance, while scanning customers, suppliers, and competitors proved to be negatively correlated with innovation performance. Crossfunctional integration in the form of collaboration as well as using information from the industry environment also proved to be positively related to innovation performance. The last three papers have a centre of gravity in “management of information & environ-ment”, and not so much in new product development per se. Paper four describes and com-pares different information processing approaches (e.g. environmental scanning, marketing research) in order to identify their similarities and differences, but also their underlying con-cepts and the course of events they represent. The main conclusion is that differences exist primarily in terms of focus and scope. Paper five is a review and tentative integration of different perspectives in organization – environment research: the adaptive, the resource-dependence, the cognitive and the population-ecology perspective. The review identifies differences and similarities among these perspectives, suggests tentative conclusions on why the adaptive perspective is so frequently utilized at the expense of the other three, and suggests constructivism as a feasible avenue for combining and integrating these perspectives. Finally, the sixth and final paper deals with information use in the context of strategic decisionmaking. With a case study approach, the questions of why information is used, what kind of information is used, where it is obtained, and how it is obtained were addressed, and the results from this paper are mainly descriptive. The purpose of the introductory text is two-fold. In addition to providing integration of the appended papers, the main purpose is theory construction (i.e. elicitation of constructs and propositions). In the introduction, all six appended papers together with a new literature search and a new pilot case study are used to generate propositions about management of information, information sources, and the need for cross-functional integration in three different phases of the NPD process. In addition, suggestions regarding theoretical connections are made. The introduction text concludes with reflections, managerial implications, limitations, and future research.

  • 331.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Andersson, Svante
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    The overestimated role of strategic orientations for international performance in smaller firms2006Ingår i: McGill International Entrepreneurship (MIE) Conference: Conference Extended Abstracts, 2006, s. 41-42Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 332.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University.
    The overestimated role of strategic orientations for international performance in smaller firms2009Ingår i: Journal of International Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1570-7385, E-ISSN 1573-7349, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 57-77Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines how market orientation (MO) and entrepreneurial orientation (EO) relate to international performance in small firms. Empirically, the article draws on survey data from 188 Swedish SMEs. Results show that strategic orientations have a very limited influence on international performance in these firms. Proactiveness and, to some extent, a market orientation proved positively associated with international performance, while innovativeness and risk taking show no such relationship. Our findings highlight the problems associated with using "traditional" MO and EO constructs in an SME setting and point to the need of developing more appropriate constructs tailored to this context. We also note that the MO construct was developed from a "causal view" of marketing, while successful small international firms rely more on effectuation logic. The article also contributes to the debate between the two dominant perspectives that address firms' early internationalization processes: the process theory of internationalization and the international new venture perspective, where our results are in favor of the latter.

  • 333.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Cenamor, Javier
    Department of Business Administration, School of Economics and Management, Lund University.
    Cavalli-Björkman, Harald
    re:newcell AB, Cardellgatan 1, SE-114 36 Stockholm.
    Hernell, Emma
    HUI Research, SE-103 29 Stockholm.
    Carlsson, Johan
    EVRY Sweden AB, Olof Asklunds Gata 10, 421 30 Västra Frölunda.
    Digital strategies for two-sided markets: A case study of shopping malls2018Ingår i: Decision Support Systems, ISSN 0167-9236, E-ISSN 1873-5797, Vol. 108, s. 34-44Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalization is fundamentally changing the retailing ecosystem for shopping malls as digital and analogue elements get increasingly intertwined. We conceptualize shopping malls as two-sided markets whose primary function is connecting shoppers and retailers. By means of an interpretative case study, the article then presents an omnichannel strategy typology for how shopping malls can meet the evolving digitalization challenge. We identify three generic strategies labeled digital awaiter, digital data gatherer, and digital embracer. The paper provides implications for research in omnichannel strategies, digitalization, and two-sided markets by explicating different strategies that involve physical and digital resources, and different ecosystem agents, i.e., retailers and shoppers. It also provides insights for other organizations beyond retailing and which operate under a two-sided market regime.

  • 334.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Chronéer, Diana
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    An 'inside-out' perspective on managing information in new product development2006Ingår i: International Journal of Technology Intelligence and Planning (IJTIP), ISSN 1740-2832, E-ISSN 1740-2840, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 248-261Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A continuous stream of books and papers has suggested that firms need to apprehend information about environmental factors such as customers, competitors and new technologies in order to enable effective New Product Development (NPD). Often, this literature takes an 'outside-in' perspective, and argues that firms need to utilise tools such as industry structure analysis and the OT component of SWOT to increase NPD performance. This paper outlines an alternative 'inside-out' perspective, and suggests that firms should start not by focusing on the environment, but rather on their resources and capability for managing information. The paper develops and explicates a three-component capability of managing information in NPD. The paper concludes with managerial implications by pointing to a variety of techniques and tools that management and other practitioners involved with NPD can use to build and sustain the capability of managing information.

  • 335.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Dahlskog, Emmy
    I3tex.
    Krumlinde, Charlotte
    WSP Sverige AB.
    Yazgan, Kerem
    Axel Johnson Group.
    The front end for radical innovation: A case study of idea- and concept development at Prime group2016Ingår i: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 25, nr 2, s. 179-198Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A firm's ability to develop radical innovation is heavily contingent on the front-end phases where ideas and concepts are created, yet few empirical studies provide detailed insights into radical idea and concept development. Using literature on problem finding and problem solving, we explore how radically new ideas and concepts emerge, and outline the process by which they are created. Based on multiple case studies of five completed and two ongoing projects conducted by a highly innovative consultancy firm, Prime Group, the article proposes a six-step process for radical idea and concept development. The insights provide theoretical implications and advice for how firms can increase novelty and success rates of emergent radical ideas and concepts

  • 336.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Dasselaar, Manfred
    Ericsson SE.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    When product meets service: Digitalizing industrial innovation2015Ingår i: Ericsson Business Review, ISSN 1653-9486, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 337.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Ericson, ÅsaLuleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Addressing societal challenges2018Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
  • 338.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Introduction: Addressing societal challenges2018Ingår i: Addressing Societal Challenges / [ed] Editors Johan Frishammar Åsa Ericson, Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2018, s. 1-6Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As an area of excellence in research and innovation, EffectiveInnovation & Organization (EIO) at Luleå University ofTechnology (LTU) represents an important initiative aimedat addressing societal challenges by combining engineeringand social science research. EIO enables the pooling of resourcesfrom various scientific disciplines to address manyof the societal challenges Sweden is currently facing. Thisbook is one result from such pooling of disciplines, resourcesand cross-disciplinary discussions. Here, some leading EIOresearchers have jointly analysed and reflected upon fivekey societal challenges to identify some of their implicationsand future pathways for research at LTU. All of these challengesspan multiple scientific domains, and competence ininnovation and organisation will be critical if they are to beaddressed effectively.

  • 339.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Ericsson, Kristian
    TRUMPF Machine Tools International.
    Patel, Pankaj
    Miller College of Business, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana.
    The dark side of knowledge transfer: Exploring knowledge leakage in joint R&D projects2015Ingår i: Technovation, ISSN 0166-4972, E-ISSN 1879-2383, Vol. 41-42, s. 75-88Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge leakage refers to loss of technological knowledge intended to stay within a firm׳s boundaries and may cause a “weakened state” in which a focal firm loses its competitive advantage and industry position. Based on multiple case studies of knowledge leakage in joint research and development (R&D) projects in large firms in Sweden, this paper makes two contributions. First, in contrast to the uni-dimensional dyadic leakage process assumed in the literature, we find that the knowledge leakage process is multi-dimensional and exists in three varieties: i) a process whereby an external party assimilates knowledge from a focal firm, ii) a process whereby an external party assimilates knowledge from another external party, and iii) a process whereby the focal firm uses knowledge already shared with an external party in such a way that it becomes sensitive. Second, where the prior literature suggests that core knowledge must be protected from leakage, we find that some core knowledge can leak without negative effects, whereas some knowledge, being non-core to a focal firm, can have severe negative effects. These insights provide novel theoretical implications and new insights into how firms can manage knowledge leakage in practice.

  • 340.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Floren, Henrik
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    What is the "fuzzy front end", why is it important, and how can it be managed?2009Ingår i: Managing Innovation: Integrating technological, market and organizational change, Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2009, 4, s. 341-343Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 341.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Floren, Henrik
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Beyond managing uncertainty: insights from studying equivocality in the fuzzy front end of product and process innovation projects2011Ingår i: IEEE transactions on engineering management, ISSN 0018-9391, E-ISSN 1558-0040, Vol. 58, nr 3, s. 551-563Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown uncertainty reduction to be critical in the fuzzy front end of the innovation process, but little attention has been given to the equally important concept of equivocality, although it is a defining characteristic of many front-end projects. To address this research gap, this paper report the results from a longitudinal, multiple case study of four large companies oriented to both product and process innovation. First, our results show that both uncertainty and equivocality is more effectively reduced in successful front-end projects than in unsuccessful ones. Second, the negative consequences of equivocality appear more critical to front-end performance than the consequences following uncertainty. Third, our results show that uncertainty and equivocality are reduced sequentially in successful projects and simultaneously in unsuccessful projects. Finally, uncertainty and equivocality takes longer time to reduce in process innovation projects than in product innovation projects, which is a consequence of the systemic nature of process innovation. Altogether, these findings provide strong implications for managing front-end projects more proficiently.

  • 342.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Florén, Henrik
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Patterns of uncertainty and equivocality during predevelopment: findings from process-based firms2009Ingår i: IAMOT 2009: 18th International Conference on Management of Technology, 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous literature suggests that innovation managers should prioritize uncertainty reduction in early phases of innovation projects. When uncertainty is high, the general prediction is negative consequences in the form of time-delays, waste of resources, unclear team vision and, ultimately, concept failure. There are strong reasons to believe, however, that simultaneous management of equivocality is equally important, but this concept has largely been neglected in previous research. By means of a case-study relying upon exploratory interviews addressing unique observations of 58 innovation projects, we notice that the perhaps most significant challenge for being successful or not is not the initial levels of uncertainty. Rather, it is managerial attempts to actively fight for reducing uncertainty but also addressing the equivocality dimension in the pre-development stages of the innovation process. We observe reduced patterns of uncertainty and equivocality in successful product innovation and process innovation projects in pre-development stages. This was not the case for unsuccessful projects. Similarly, we find significantly lower levels of equivocality for successful projects, which is a contribution to prior research suggesting that uncertainty is the major concern during predevelopment. Moreover, our results show that perceived patterns of uncertainty and equivocality differ between product innovation and process innovation projects in different sub-phases of pre-development. Key results are summarized as propositions which not only provide guidance for future research, but also provide direct managerial implications on how to address uncertainty and equivocality in different sub-phases of predevelopment.

  • 343.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Hörte, Sven-åke
    The role of market orientation and entrepreneurial orientation for new product development performance in manufacturing firms2007Ingår i: Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, ISSN 0953-7325, E-ISSN 1465-3990, Vol. 19, nr 6, s. 765-788Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this article is to examine the relationships between two strategic orientations and performance in new product development. The first orientation considered is market orientation; the second one considered is entrepreneurial orientation, which reflects a firm's propensity to innovate, to be proactive, as well as its willingness to take risks. Drawing upon a sample of 224 mid-sized manufacturing firms, multiple regressions with and without interaction terms were used for testing seven hypotheses. The results show that a market orientation and innovativeness were positively related to performance in new product development, while proactiveness and risk taking show no such relationship. The results also show that neither product characteristics nor environmental characteristics moderate these relationships. In terms of implications, our results suggest that contradictory and to some extent paradoxical capabilities are needed to increase performance in new product development, and that the different components of an entrepreneurial orientation do not impact new product development performance equally

  • 344.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Kurkkio, Monika
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Lichtenthaler, Ulrich
    University of Mannheim.
    Antecedents and consequences of firms' process innovation capability: a literature review and a conceptual framework2012Ingår i: IEEE transactions on engineering management, ISSN 0018-9391, E-ISSN 1558-0040, Vol. 59, nr 4, s. 519-529Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Process innovation can allow both efficiency and effectiveness gains and is a key source of long-term competitive advantage in manufacturing firms. However, the literature on managing process innovation is broad and fragmented, and it has not yet been systematically reviewed in the scholarly literature. Drawing on a capability-based perspective, the aim of this paper is to provide a systematic review of the process innovation literature. We synthesize our findings into a conceptual framework displaying the antecedents and consequences of firms' process innovation capability. First, a parsimonious review of the process innovation literature is conducted. Second, a conceptual framework of firms' process innovation capability is developed to synthesize the literature and to advance knowledge about managing process innovation. A principal distinction between a firm's potential and realized process innovation capability is drawn, and it is argued that high-quality realization mechanisms are critical for achieving desired process innovation outcomes. Finally, implications for theory, management practice, and recommendations for future research are provided.

  • 345.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Lichtenthaler, Ulrich
    WHU—Otto Beisheim School of Management, Technology and Innovation Management.
    Success factors for managing the fuzzy front end in non-assembled product development: findings from process-based firms2009Ingår i: 16th International Product Development Management Conference: "Managing dualities in the innovation journey", University of Twente , 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of the article is to empirically identify success factors for managing the fuzzy front end during the development of non‐assembled products, as well as ranking their relative importance. By means of an exploratory case study, we probe existing front‐end practices in three firms within the metal‐ and minerals industry. Such a study is justifiable, as the specific contingency characteristics of process‐based companies make previous research results difficult to transfer. As mutual interdependences exist between product innovation and process innovation in such firms, we ground our thesis not only in the fuzzy front end (FFE) literature but also in the literature on managing process innovation (MPI). Among other things, our findings show that (1) several factors relevant to managing process innovation apply to the FFE for product development as well, e.g. investment in and integration of new process technology, product‐ and process innovation integration, and adequate relationships between labor and management. Furthermore, some factors (i.e. cross‐functionality, project management, early customer involvement, and culture) are paramount to make other factors work, and virtually no factor can be ignored completely.Our findings have major implications for how R&D m

  • 346.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Lichtenthaler, Ulrich
    University of Mannheim.
    Kurkkio, Monika
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    The front end in non-assembled product development: a multiple case study of mineral- and metal firms2012Ingår i: Journal of engineering and technology management, ISSN 0923-4748, E-ISSN 1879-1719, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 468-488Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We conceptualize the front end in non-assembled product development to be iterative and experiment-based, consisting of three sub-phases: informal start-up, formal idea-study, and formal pre-study. Although some key activities are shared with the front end activities in assembled product development, literature reviews, anticipating requirements of customers’ production processes, analysis of raw materials, anticipation of scale-up problems, and tests in bench-, pilot plant-, and full scale production represent unique activities. In addition, product concepts were frequently developed in parallel, requiring specification of physical, chemical and structural properties. These findings have implications for increasing the success and quality of front end efforts

  • 347.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Lichtenthaler, Ulrich
    University of Mannheim.
    Richtnér, Anders
    Center for Innovation and Operations Management, Stockholm School of Economics.
    Managing process development: key issues and dimensions in the front end2013Ingår i: R &D Management, ISSN 0033-6807, E-ISSN 1467-9310, Vol. 43, nr 3, s. 213-226Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Beyond the traditional focus on product innovation, prior research and practical examples from a variety of industrial settings underscore the importance of the early phases of process development and process innovation. Despite the potential for large cost savings and efficiency gains, however, little is known about what firms actually do in the early design and concept creation phases of process development, and what guides their subsequent formal process development efforts. By means of a longitudinal multiple case study of four large companies, we bridge this gap by conceptualizing a ‘process definition’. This process definition includes a process concept and is the ‘process equivalent’ of a product definition. Our analysis shows that firms create such process definitions through iterative trial-and-error processes, in which experiments, environmental scanning, and administrative planning constitute key methods for uncertainty reduction. Mainstream theory on product definitions fails to account for the key dimensions of a process definition. On the contrary, dimensions such as the understanding of production needs, assessment of product consequences, a thorough implementation plan and early anticipation of intended outcomes, constitute key dimensions of a successful process definition. These findings are particularly relevant to process development managers, plant managers, and others interested in process development and management of production processes.

  • 348.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Lichtenthaler, Ulrich
    WHU—Otto Beisheim School of Management, Technology and Innovation Management.
    Rundquist, Jonas
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Identifying technology commercialization opportunities: the importance of integrating product development knowledge2012Ingår i: The Journal of product innovation management, ISSN 0737-6782, E-ISSN 1540-5885, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 573-589Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    New product development (NPD) is a knowledge-intensive activity, perhaps even more so in recent years given the shift toward more open innovation processes, which involve active inward and outward technology transfer. While the extant literature has established that knowledge is critical for NPD performance, knowledge generated through NPD can have an additional impact on external technology exploitationas when firms go beyond pure internal application of knowledge to commercialize their technologies, for example, by means of technology outlicensing. Grounded in the knowledge-based view of the firm, this paper examines how the integration of domain-specific knowledge, procedural knowledge, and general knowledge generated through NPD affects a firm's proficiency in identifying technology commercialization opportunities. Additionally, analysis of how technology opportunity identification relates to technology commercialization performance is provided. Empirically, the paper draws on survey data from 193 Swedish medium-sized manufacturing firms in four industries active with NPD, and regression analyses and structural equation modeling were used to test the hypotheses. The results highlight the importance of integrating domain-specific and general NPD knowledge to proficiently identify technology licensing opportunities. The empirical findings also provide strong support for a subsequent link between technology opportunity identification and technology commercialization performance. Altogether, these results point to strong and previously unexplored complementarities between inward and outward technology exploitation, that is, between NPD and technology licensing. As such, the results provide important theoretical implications for research into the fields of knowledge integration, technology exploitation, opportunity identification, and technology markets. Moreover, the results have significant managerial implications concerning how knowledge generated through NPD can help firms to achieve both strategic and monetary benefits when trying to profit from technology. In particular, to set up proficient technology commercialization processes, it appears beneficial for firms to integrate knowledge that is gained through the ordinary activities of developing and commercializing products. Specifically, the integration of domain-specific knowledge and general knowledge helps firms to match their technologies with new applications and markets, which is often the critical barrier to successful technology commercialization activities. Managers are thus encouraged to integrate domain-specific knowledge and general knowledge from NPD to reap additional benefits in profiting from investments in innovation and technology

  • 349.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle. House of Innovation, Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle. University of Vaasa, Vaasa, Finland.
    Circular business model transformation: A roadmap for incumbent firms2019Ingår i: California Management Review, ISSN 0008-1256, E-ISSN 2162-8564, Vol. 61, nr 2, s. 5-29Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To achieve positive economic, environmental, and social benefits, many incumbent manufacturing firms attempt to apply circular economy principles to their business practices. However, these firms often struggle to change their existing linear business models to circular models because the steps required for successful transformation are still poorly understood. Based on a multiple case study of eight business model transformation journeys, this article proposes a roadmap for circular business model transformation. It provides a step-by-step process to enable circular transition, allowing companies to meet environmental, social, and financial objectives and proactively address sustainability.

  • 350.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Framtidens Produktframtagning i Svenska Företag: Trender, Implikationer och Reflektioner2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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