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  • 351.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Legal preconditions for wind power implementation in Sweden and Denmark2006Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish energy policy relies heavily on the promotion of renewable energy resources, in particular wind energy and in 2002 the Swedish Government adopted a national planning goal of a yearly wind power generation of 10 TWh by 2015, which implies a substantial increase from the current 0.6 TWh level. The main purpose of this study is to analyse relevant functions of the Swedish law with reference to the im-plementation of wind power; the overarching question at issue being in what respects the law impedes respectively facilitates the development of wind power, and to compare the results from the Swedish analysis with the corresponding functions in Danish law, and b) to present some implications for the choice between different legislative measures to meet the Swedish wind power planning goal. The results are based on in-depth studies of relevant legal rules and case law, and the overall indi-cations are: a) on one hand, that several of the Swedish legal rules in connection with the overarching management and use of land and water areas are vaguely formulated and provide an extensive room for discretion, which makes the outcomes unpredictable and increase the uncertainties associated with wind power investments, b) on the other hand, that certain specific rules regarding the location of the wind-mills, together with the requirement to objectively assess alternative sites for the installation have shown to seriously hamper the establishment of windmills in Sweden, c) that the strong support for the munici-pal self- governance in connection with the system for physical planning in Sweden implies that great stress is laid on the existence of territorial plans for wind power, which in turn implies that windmills are unlikely to be established without municipal consent, and finally d) that the installation of windmills on Swedish territory may require as many as five different permits, which imply time-consuming (and hence costly) processes with unpredictable outcomes. The results from the analysis of the corresponding Danish system reveal a quite different situation; the specific and precise regulations regarding the installation of windmills in Denmark imply a lot less room for discretion which reduce the uncertainty in connection with the investment decision. Moreover, that the vertically integrated planning system in Denmark greatly enhances the possibilities to implement national planning objectives on the regional, municipal and local level.

  • 352.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Mitigation possibilities in the energy sector: an Arctic perspective2009In: Climate Governance in the Arctic, Dordrecht: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2009, p. 303-326Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 353.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Path dependence in the legal system?: Implications for the development of wind power2011In: Nordisk miljörättslig tidskrift, ISSN 2000-4273, E-ISSN 2000-4273, Vol. 2011, no 2, p. 35-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Institutional path dependence means that decisions made in the past affect future choices. The core of the formal institutional framework – the legal system – reflects choices already made, while the result of today’s legal application is the basis for future rulings. Since the planning and location of energy installations, such as windmills, typically involves application of legal rules that to various extents are coloured by path dependence, the transformation of the energy system may prove difficult. A more sustainable energy system thus depends e.g. on the design of the institutional framework and whether the law is promoting or counteracting the diffusion of renewable energy technology such as wind power. The aim of this paper has been to analyse the legal implementation of wind power in Sweden on the basis of presumed path dependence. The paper illustrates that the path dependence of the legal regimes affecting wind power development in some instances is significant and that policy implementation therefore may be seriously hampered. The purposes for which expropriation of land is possible in Sweden were for example founded in the early 20th century, a time in which very few thought of producing energy by harnessing wind. Although time has changed, the regulation remains and the rules are – if not hampering – at best neutral vis-à-vis wind power development. The resource management provisions under the Environmental Code also show clear signs of institutional path dependence; regardless of repeated criticism from e.g. the Council of Legislation (Swe: Lagrådet) regarding the rules’ applicability the system persists and continues to confuse both legal scholars and practitioners. The municipal planning monopoly and right of veto is another feature of the Swedish institutional framework that produces self-reinforcing sequences that are hard to breach. And without municipal consent, energy policy, and particularly wind power policy, is very difficult to implement. Although the institutional path dependence suggests a complex and complicated situation, the norms, expectations, traditions, customs etc. that constitute the social structure in which the law is embedded can change, and so can the law. The more recent legal application demonstrates that the law can in fact be applied in favour of wind power development even facing strong preservation interests. This may be a sign of a necessary change happening.

  • 354.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Renewable energy and the function of law: a comparative study of legal rules related to the planning, location and installation of windmills2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish energy policy relies heavily on the promotion of renewable energy, in particu-lar wind power. Notwithstanding a substantial political and economic support for this development, the installed capacity of wind power in Sweden remains fairly small both in relation to the corresponding development in other countries and in absolute num-bers. The starting point for this study is that the implementation of a planning policy, such as the Swedish development goal for wind power, is partly dependent on the re- quirements of the law. In other words, in the face of supposedly strong economic incen-tives to promote wind power, barriers to the implementation might be found embedded in the institutional system. The purpose of this study is thus, primarily, to describe and analyse the function of Swedish law with reference to the implementation of renewable energy policy objectives, with focus on the development of wind power. This involves legal rules related to planning, location and operation of windmills. The legal system is evaluated in respect of its capacity to facilitate or impede the development of wind power. Secondly, the study includes a comparative analysis of the corresponding legal functions in Denmark, Norway and England. The result of the analysis of Swedish law indicates that the legal system governing the implementation process encompasses bar- riers to the development of wind power. The main obstacles are found in the system for physical planning and the concession system, although quite a few hindering individual provisions have also been disclosed. The lack of sufficient control functions together with an extensive municipal power creates an unpredictable and ineffective planning system that basically lacks confidence for an efficient implementation of wind power. The installation of windmills may further require as many as five different types of permits, which risks to seriously hamper the development due to lengthy processes and appeals. Among the individual rules, the location requirement in the Swedish Environ-mental Code strikes as notably hindering; the requirement to objectively assess alterna-tive sites has in several cases obstructed the installation of windmills. Overall, the im- plementation deficits are considerable. The examination of the corresponding legal functions in Denmark, Norway and the United Kingdom presents some very important differences with respect to planning control and permit requirements, as well as regard-ing substantial provisions. Generally, it looks as if there is a correlation between the level of overarching control over the physical planning on the one hand, and the poten-tial to successfully implement renewable energy policy objectives on the other. Time-limits for permit procedures, legal standards for emissions, explicit rules for the balanc-ing of opposite interests and so forth, are other interesting features that may be em-ployed in Sweden. A realization of the Swedish wind power planning goal will thus presumably require changes of the law. The most important issue is perhaps to reduce the implementation deficits by improving the legal framework governing the planning and installation processes. A few of the discussed factors emerge as crucial in this re-spect and that is roughly: to remove the general permit requirement, and thus leave the entire trial to the planning system; and to breach the municipal planning monopoly.

  • 355.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Renewable energy in the Arctic: regulatory frameworks2013In: Polar Law Textbook II, Köpenhamn: Nordic Council of Ministers , 2013, p. 155-173Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 356.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Rättsliga förutsättningar för en gemensam europeisk energipolitik2008In: EU och den globala klimatfrågan, Stockholm: Santérus Förlag, 2008, p. 137-161Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 357.
    Pettersson, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wind power planning and permitting: comparative perspectives from the Nordic countries2010In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 14, no 9, p. 3116-3123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze and compare some important institutional and legal preconditions for wind power development in three Nordic countries: Denmark, Norway and Sweden. In the paper a number of historical, institutional and policy-related differences across these countries are highlighted, but most attention is paid to the various territorial planning procedures. The analysis suggests that although public economic support to wind power is necessary to promote its diffusion in the electricity system, similar policy instruments - in terms of both size and design - can induce significantly different developments depending on the legal preconditions for the location and environmental assessment of windmills. The success and failure stories of technology support policies can thus not easily be transferred across country borders. An important conclusion is that in comparison to Sweden the physical planning systems in both Denmark and Norway provide greater scope for implementing a national wind power policy at the local level. For instance, the Danish planning system is vertically integrated, and involves a designation of areas for wind power purposes in the local plans, while the municipalities in Sweden must in some way assent to (i.e., plan for) the establishment of windmills at a certain location in order for the installation to actually take place. Compared to its competitors, wind power is one of the power-generating technologies that tend to have the most to lose from the uncertainties created by planning regulations that leave much discretion to local authorities.

  • 358.
    Pettersson, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Goytia, Susana
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The role of the precautionary principle and property rights in the governance of natural resources in Sweden2016In: Nordisk miljörättslig tidskrift, ISSN 2000-4273, E-ISSN 2000-4273, Vol. 2016, no 1, p. 107-121Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 359.
    Pettersson, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Adaptive capacity of legal and policy frameworks for biodiversity protection considering climate change2013In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 34, p. 213-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Protection of biodiversity under conditions of climate change is likely to place large requirements on existing frameworks for biodiversity protection at both EU and national level. While these systems are not perfectly adapted today, the inclusion of climate change concerns will require revision and addition of new issues, such as species migration corridors and buffers, as well as proactive strategies in areas that may not be protected today. Biodiversity in forest is particularly important as forest range over large areas that include also other land uses; this holds particularly true for the large forested areas in northern Europe. Illustrating complexities regarding biodiversity protection, this study reviews the applicable legal framework related to biodiversity in forests on EU and national level in Sweden, one of the countries with the largest forest areas in the EU. Mainly drawing on a policy and legal study, the paper concludes that adapting the legislative and policy system to a future with large uncertainties in terms of extent of change poses a problem for what are largely reactive systems in particular in terms of legislation.

  • 360.
    Pettersson, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet.
    Forest invasive species and climate change: EU and Swedish regulatory frameworks2012In: Environmental Policy and Law, ISSN 0378-777X, E-ISSN 1878-5395, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 63-73Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 361.
    Pettersson, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Michanek, Gabriel
    In search of legal pathways to a sustainable energy supply: the method of constructive jurisprudence2011In: Methods and models: used in the project Pathways to Sustainable European Energy Systems, Göteborg: Alliance for Global Sustainability , 2011, p. 63-65Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 362.
    Pettersson, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Michanek, Gabriel
    Wind power development and the function of law2011In: European Energy Pathways: Pathways to Sustainable European Energy Systems, Göteborg: Alliance for Global Sustainability , 2011, p. 101-106Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 363.
    Pettersson, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Oksanen, Anniina
    Faculty of Law, University of Lapland, Rovaniemi.
    Mingaleva, Tatiana
    Institute of Industrial Ecology Problems in the North, Kola Science Centre, Russian Academy of Science, Apatity.
    Petrov, Victor
    Institute of Industrial Ecology Problems in the North, Kola Science Centre, Russian Academy of Science, Apatity.
    Masloboev, Vladimir
    Institute of Industrial Ecology Problems in the North, Kola Science Centre, Russian Academy of Science, Apatity.
    License to Mine: A Comparison of the Scope of the Environmental Assessment in Sweden, Finland and Russia2015In: Natural Resources, ISSN 2158-706X, E-ISSN 2158-7086, Vol. 6, p. 237-255, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The regulatory framework for mining operations is complex; the licensing process in particular typically involves several laws and a number of permits. This paper assumes that the regulatory framework is strongly influenced by the institutional framework of which it is part, and that it suffers from an institutional path dependence that may decrease the efficiency of the system as well as act barrier to the implementation of necessary environmental requirements. The paper provides: 1) a legal analysis of the regulatory framework governing mining operations in Sweden, Finland and Russia; and 2) a comparative analysis of the scope of the environmental assessment within the licensing process in the examined countries. The result of the analysis of the regulatory frameworks shows great similarity between the Swedish and the Finnish systems, both in terms of the overall structure and the implementation of substantive environmental rules. The Russian system differs in this respect, with more declarative rules and seemingly less substantive assessments. The results also indicate that the regulatory frameworks in all three countries show signs of institutional path dependence, but in very different degrees. Though Russia has indeed implemented major changes in the formal structure, very little has changed in practice. The Swedish regulatory framework for mining shows a deficient systematics and conflicting objectives, despite the implementation of a comprehensive environmental legislation. The recently reformed Finnish system seems to have a more holistic approach.

  • 364.
    Pettersson, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University .
    Erratum: The role of participation in the planning process: examples from Sweden2017In: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 22, no 8, p. i-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 365.
    Pettersson, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University.
    The role of participation in the planning process: examples from Sweden2017In: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 986-997Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Participation in decision-making has successively developed into a guiding principle at both EU and national level. However, diverse perspectives exist on what the role of different interests in participative processes should be, and the legal rules regarding participation varies between different sectors; from clearly defined to virtually non-existent requirements. This may have adverse effects on the legitimacy of decisions and decision-making. This paper reviews the role of participation in the planning process in relation to natural resource development in Sweden, as guided by EU and international law. Based on the notion of effective participation, the study illustrates the potential clashes that may result from different conceptions of participation, for instance, at various levels of governance, as well as from disparate principles for implementation in different sectors.

  • 366.
    Pettersson, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Strömberg, Caroline
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå universitet, Department of Social and Economic Geography, Umeå University.
    Possibility to implement invasive species control in Swedish forests2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, no Suppl. 2, p. 214-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Invasive alien species constitute an increasing risk to forestry, as indeed to natural systems in general. This study reviews the legislative framework governing invasive species in the EU and Sweden, drawing upon both a legal analysis and interviews with main national level agencies responsible for implementing this framework. The study concludes that EU and Sweden are limited in how well they can act on invasive species, in particular because of the weak interpretation of the precautionary principle in the World TradeOrganisation and Sanitary and Phytosanitary agreements. In the Swedish case, this interpretation also conflicts with the stronger interpretation of the precautionary principle under the Swedish Environmental Code, which could in itself provide for stronger possibilities to act on invasive species.

  • 367.
    Pettersson, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Industrial pollution control and efficient licensing processes: the case of Swedish regulatory design2014In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 6, no 8, p. 5401-5422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial pollution accounts for a large proportion of global pollution, and in the European Union, an integrated pollution and prevention approach based on individual performance standards has been implemented to regulate emissions from industrial plants. Crucial for the assessment of the licensing conditions are the Best Available Technique (BAT) requirements, which should be set in accordance with the recently introduced Industrial Emissions Directive (IED). In this paper, we review and assess the licensing of industrial plants in one of the Member States, namely Sweden. Specifically, we discuss how the existing regulations (including the IED) manage to address potential trade-offs between important regulatory design issues, such as flexibility, predictability and the need to provide continuous incentives for environmental improvements. The analysis indicates that while the EU regulations provide flexibility in terms of the choice of compliance measures, in Sweden, it enters an existing regulatory framework that adds a lot of uncertainty with respect to the outcome of the licensing processes. An important challenge for the implementation of the IED is to implement performance standards that lead to continuous incentives to improve environmental performance in industrial sectors without, at the same time, adding new uncertainties. While standards ideally should be both flexible and predictable, achieving one of these criteria may often come at the expense of the other.

  • 368.
    Pettersson, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    van Rijswick, Marleen
    Department of Law, Utrecht Centre for Water, Oceans and Sustainability Law, Utrecht University.
    Suykens, Cathy
    Institute for Energy and Environmental Law, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Alexander, Meghan
    School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Cardiff University.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Priest, Sally
    Flood Hazard Research Centre, Middlesex University.
    Assessing the legitimacy of flood risk governance arrangements in Europe: insights from intra-country evaluations2017In: Water international, ISSN 0250-8060, E-ISSN 1941-1707, Vol. 42, no 8, p. 929-944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Legitimacy has received comparatively less attention than societal resilience in the context of flooding, thus methods for assessing and monitoring the legitimacy of flood risk governance arrangements are noticeably lacking. This study attempts to address this gap by assessing the legitimacy of flood risk governance arrangements in six European countries through cross-disciplinary and comparative research methods. On the basis of this assessment, recommendations to enhance the legitimacy of flood risk governance in Europe are presented.

  • 369.
    Pongwan, Alexandra
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Utmätning i makars respektive sambors gemensamma besittning: En utredning om bevisbördan vid utmätning för fredande av egendom samt lagregeln förenlighet med grundprincipen i Äktenskapsbalken2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I uppsatsen görs en utredning av gällande rätt beträffande utmätning av egendom i makars respektive sambors gemensamma besittning. Vid utmätning av egendom som finns i makars respektive sambors gemensamma besittning presumeras egendomen i första hand tillhöra gäldenären oavsett vem av dem som är gäldenär. För att kunna freda sin egendom från den andra makens respektive sambons skulder åläggs den åberopade maken respektive sambon (benämns för tredje man i rättslig mening) bevisbördan. Besittningspresumtionen stadgas i 4 Kap. 19 § 1 st. Utsökningsbalk (UB) (1981:774). Syftet med arbetet är därför att fastställa och tydliggöra vilka giltiga bevis som åläggs gäldenärens make respektive sambo för att delvis eller i helhet kunna freda sin egendom från gäldenärens skulder. I analysen diskuteras besittningspresumtionens förenlighet med gällande grundprincip om makarnas respektive sambors egendomsförhållande. Grundprincipen stadgas i 1 Kap. 3 § Äktenskapsbalken och innebär att vardera maken råder över sin egendom och svarar för sina skulder. Arbetet är baserat på den rättsdogmatiska metoden som innebär att utifrån lagstiftning, rättspraxis, lagförarbeten och doktrin lösa juridiska problem. Resultatet av undersökningen visar att egendomsdistinktionen (giftorättsgods, samboegendom och enskild egendom) som stadgas i Äktenskapsbalken (ÄktB) (1987:230) respektive Sambolagen (SamboL) (2003:376) vid utmätning inte har särskild stor betydelse eftersom den skuldsatte maken presumeras vara ägare till egendom vid sambesittning enligt 4 Kap. 19 § 1 st. UB. Genom det höga beviskrav som åläggs den skuldfria maken respektive sambon för att kunna freda sin egendom från utmätning för den andra makens skulder är makar respektive sambor i praktiken indirekt ansvariga för den andra makens respektive sambons skulder. Det som fortsättningsvis stadgas om makar gäller även för sambor om inget annat uttrycks.

  • 370.
    Priest, Sally J.
    et al.
    Flood Hazard Research Centre, Middlesex University.
    Suykens, Cathy
    Utrecht Centre for Water, Oceans and Sustainability Law, Utrecht University.
    Van Rijswick, Marleen
    Utrecht Centre for Water, Oceans and Sustainability Law, Utrecht University.
    Schellenberger, Thomas
    University François Rabelais.
    Goytia, Susana
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.
    Institute of Agriculture and Forest Environment, Polish Academy of Sciences.
    Van Doorn-Hoekveld, Willemijn J.
    Utrecht Centre for Water, Oceans and Sustainability Law, Utrecht University.
    Beyers, Jean-Christophe
    Institute for Environmental and Energy Law, KU Leuven.
    Homewood, Stephen
    Flood Hazard Research Centre, Middlesex University.
    The European union approach to flood risk management and improving societal resilience: Lessons from the implementation of the Floods Directive in six European countries2016In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 21, no 4, article id 50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diversity in flood risk management approaches is often considered to be a strength. However, in some national settings, and especially for transboundary rivers, variability and incompatibility of approaches can reduce the effectiveness of flood risk management. Placed in the context of increasing flood risks, as well as the potential for flooding to undermine the European Union’s sustainable development goals, a desire to increase societal resilience to flooding has prompted the introduction of a common European Framework. We provide a legal and policy analysis of the implementation of the Floods Directive (2007/60/EC) in six countries: Belgium (Flemish region), England, France, the Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden. Evaluation criteria from existing legal and policy literature frame the study of the Directive and its effect on enhancing or constraining societal resilience by using an adaptive governance approach. These criteria are initially used to analyze the key components of the EU approach, before providing insight of the implementation of the Directive at a national level. Similarities and differences in the legal translation of European goals into existing flood risk management are analyzed alongside their relative influence on policy and practice. The research highlights that the effect of the Floods Directive on increasing societal resilience has been nationally variable, in part because of its focus on procedural obligations, rather than on more substantive requirements. Analysis shows that despite a focus on transboundary river basin management, existing traditions of flood risk management have overridden objectives to harmonize flood risk management in some cases. The Directive could be strengthened by requiring more stringent cooperation and providing the competent authorities in international river basin districts with more power. Despite some shortcomings in directly affecting flood risk outcomes, the Directive has positively stimulated discussion and flood risk management planning in countries that were perhaps lagging behind

  • 371.
    Rönnqvist, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Det rättsliga ramverket för skydd av skog: Byråkratins kalhygge2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 372.
    Samadi, Adine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Sveriges implementering av EU:s industriutsläppsdirektiv (IED): Förändringen av verksamhetsutövarens ansvar2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 373.
    Samadi, Adine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    WTO’s tillämpning av försiktighetsprincipen för hantering av invasiva främmande arter2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Främmande arter förflyttar sig mellan staters territorium eftersom de inte känner några statsgränser. Det finns dock arter som avsiktligt flyttas över statsgränser av olika skäl, t.ex. för att främja jakt. De arter som avsiktligt introducerats kan bli klassade som invasiva främmande arter om de medför stora negativa konsekvenser på exempelvis den biologiska mångfalden. Detta har resulterat i försök att kontrollera införsel och spridning av sådana arter, exempelvis genom konventionen om biologisk mångfald. Konventionens regler innebär att stater ska kontrollera, utrota och förhindra införandet av invasiva främmande arter. Regler för kontroll av invasiva främmande arter finns även inom EU-rätten Bland annat för att uppfylla konventionen har EU antagit en förordning om främmande arter. Förordningen syftar till att förebygga, tidigt upptäcka och förvalta redan etablerade invasiva främmande arter. Inom ramen för förordningen har även en förteckning av invasiva främmande arter av unionsintresse antagits. En särskild problematik för området är den internationella handeln och frihandelssystemen. En ökad global handel har lett till en ökad spridning av invasiva främmande arter. En enkel lösning hade varit att begränsa den globala handeln, men detta skulle innebära en konflikt med andra målsättningar och åtaganden. Såväl frihandel som kontroll av invasiva främmande arter är prioriterade målsättningar och problemet måste därför hanteras med försiktighet. Frihandelssystemen, både inom EU och globalt (världshandelsorganisationen), tillåter införandet av handelshinder om det är nödvändigt för att begränsa påverkan av invasiva främmande arter. Kraven är dock relativt högt ställda: det krävs vetenskapliga bevis för artens negativa påverkan. Försiktighetsprincipen har betydelse inom samtliga regleringar. Det är dock svårt att säga om världshandelsorganisationens SPS-avtal verkligen har kapacitet att skydda miljön och människors hälsa från invasiva främmande arter. Resultatet av undersökningen indikerar att handeln åtnjuter ett större skydd än miljön när det gäller kontrollen av invasiva främmande arter. En sätt att uppnå bättre balans i detta avseende skulle kunna vara en harmonierad försiktighetsprincip på området, dvs. att försiktighetsprincipen fick samma långgående skydd inom frihandelssystemen som inom ramen för exempelvis den svenska miljöbalken.

  • 374.
    Sandra, Casotta
    et al.
    Department of Law, Aalborg University and Centre of Cybercrime and Cybersecurity, Aalborg, Denmark. Institute for Security and Development Policy, Stockholm, Sweden. Sustainable College Bruges (SCB), Bruges, Belgium. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) , United Nations Environmental Law Programme UNEP, Geneva, Switzerland. School of Law, Western Sydney University (WSU), Sydney, Australia.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Climate Change, Environmental Threats and Cyber-Threats to Critical Infrastructures in Multi-Regulatory Sustainable Global Approach with Sweden as an Example2019In: Beijing Law Review, ISSN 2159-4627, E-ISSN 2159-4635, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 616-642, article id 93271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores and analyzes the nexus between climate change, environmental threats, and cyber-threats in a multi-regulatory contextual sustainable global approach with Sweden as an example. Research and collection of material have been conducted with the precise aim to draw a parallel between environmental regulations and the cyberspace and cybersecurity systems. Many aspects of the cyber-security system are not known and are highly fragmented. Selected points of the study of the Swedish cyber strategy are being developed in parallel to the environmental regime in order to better understand how to improve the effectiveness of the cyber complex regime from a contextual perspective. One way to better understand the cybersecurity system is to make an interdisciplinary study of how best to coordinate these systems, thus making both cyber law and policy more effective. This leads to bringing evidence on how to take inspiration from a regime system (environmental law or, more concretely, the environmental liability framework) and using it as source of inspiration to understand and shape the formation of another system in another area, namely cybersecurity. The method of this ongoing research consists of choosing and applying key aspects of environmental law (such as concepts and principles) and comparing them with comparable selected cybersecurity key aspects, which are selected because they present strong similarities with their “equivalent” focal points pertaining to the environmental system. When conducting this comparison, multi-level governance is applied too, which means analysis of the sources of law and policy existing at Global/Regional/National (local) levels in order to understand the interactions between different levels. The analytical task of the research consists of choosing some focal points from the environmental liability system that are very similar and comparable to those of the cyber regime.

  • 375.
    Sandström, Therese
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Rennäringslagens förenlighet med grundlag: En studie av rennäringslagen och egendomsskyddet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här uppsatsen har nu gällande lagstiftning för renskötselrätten behandlats. Dagens rennäringslag (RNL) bygger till stor del på den första renbeteslagen från år 1886 och reglerar samers rättigheter i samband med renskötselns bedrivande. Bland dessa rättigheter ingår bland annat en rätt för samer att nyttja mark och vatten i samband med renskötseln.

    Även annan lagstiftning reglerar renskötselns förhållande, främst i syfte att stärka skyddet mot andra intressen. I arbetet redogörs för bestämmelser avseende renskötseln i miljöbalken, skogsvårdslagen och regeringsformen.  Renskötseln är dels en kollektiv rätt som tillkommer samebyn och dels en civilrättslig p.g.a. av den urminnes hävd som renskötseln grundas på. Att renskötseln är av civilrättsligt slag innebär att den omfattas av egendomsskyddet i regeringsformen vilket belyses i arbetet.

    Syftet med denna uppsats var att undersöka hur rennäringslagen förhåller sig till överordnad lag och granska hur renskötselrätten kommer till uttryck i lagstiftning. Redogörelsen innehåller en historisk tillbakablick från rennäringslagens tillkomst fram till det komplicerade förhållande som råder idag. De rättsliga tvister mellan staten och samebyar som lyft frågan om grundlagsenlighet har därför behandlats.

    I syftet ingick även att undersöka rättens framtidsutsikter varför en redogörelse av tre förslag till konventioner har behandlats. De aktuella konventionerna är förslaget om nordisk samekonvention, renskötselkonvention och ILO konventionen nr 169.

  • 376.
    Savci, Mattias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Mervärdesskatt: Ekonomisk brottslighet inom EU2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom den Europeiska unionen har vi idag principen om den fria och gemensamma marknaden där moms ska tas ut i det land där varan konsumeras. Detta innebär att företag inom unionen kan handla varor momsfritt. Det var år 1993 som man inom unionen avskaffade momstullen, vilket i sin tur ledde till att det blev svårare att kontrollera momssystemet. Brottsligheten och bedrägerierna ökade i samband med avskaffandet av tullarna och skattekontrollen blev betydligt sämre då man inte längre betalade momsen vid tillförandet. Detta öppnade för bedrägerier såsom ökad karusellhandel, fiktiv handel- och penningtvätt. Det medför stora kostnader för staterna som utsätts för bedrägeri i form av moms. Med hjälp av den rättsdogmatiska metoden har det i uppsatsen redogjorts för gällanderätt avseende den ekonomiska brottsligheten för att avslutningsvis komma fram till ett förslag till lösning på det aktuella problemet. Ett förslag när det gäller momskarusell är att det inte ska förekomma moms vid handel av två företag inom landet, utan att de företag som säljer till slutkonsument istället ska påföra moms.  

  • 377.
    Savci, Ninorta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Familjer med missbruk: Barnens rätt till skydd, stöd och omsorg2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 378.
    Solbär, Lovisa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Marcanó, Pietro
    Umeå universitet.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Land-use planning and designated national interests in Sweden: arctic perspectives on landscape multifunctionality2019In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 62, no 12, p. 2145-2165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rural land-use planning should handle land-use interests, such as nature-based tourism, biodiversity preservation and industrial resource extraction, on an appropriate level of scale. Management for multifunctionality represents an option in factually multifunctional landscapes. The Swedish policy of national interests, as applied in the context of the three northernmost municipalities’ statutory comprehensive plan-making, provides an attempt in this direction. Based on mapping and practitioner interviews, the study reveals that the vague ‘practical’ implications of the omnipresent land-use designations under the policy complicate the task of local-level spatial planning. Integrated consideration of multiple uses (or use options), implicated by policy principles, was found to fall back into case-by-case assessments. Land-use designation can be worked into a tool for the governance of multifunctional landscapes when care is taken to manage the aspects outlined in the study, among others interagency orchestration and explicit regulation of co-existence.

  • 379.
    Spoong, Therese
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Tvångsomhändertagande av barn: till föräldrar med funktionsnedsättningar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det huvudsakliga syftet med studien har varit att undersöka om föräldrars funktionsnedsättning kan vara en förutsättning för tvångsomhändertagande av barn. Studien har visat att tvångsomhändertagande kan bli aktuellt om funktionsnedsättningen påverkar föräldrarnas förmåga att ge sitt barn den omsorg som barnet behöver. Det sätts emellertid hellre in en mängd större frivilliga insatser än insatser via tvångsvårdslagstiftning. Undersökningen bekräftar vikten av att alltid se till barnperspektivet och barnets bästa i samtliga beslut som rör barn. Studien har genomförts genom att studera lagstiftning, förarbeten, praxis och doktrin enligt den rättsdogmatiska metoden.

  • 380.
    Stenudd, Sebastian
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Uppström, Anton
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Verksamheten bakom digital innovation: En flerfallsstudie av digitalt mogna företag baserad på konceptet verksamhetsmodell2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The overall purpose of the study is to develop the understanding of how digitally maturing companies design and operates the digital unit. The study has examined the organization within the companies that directly or indirectly develop digital offerings (the digital unit) towards external customers , and has utilized the holistic concept of an operating model in order to do so. The purpose is addressed by the following research question: What common factors exist between the digital units of digitally maturing companies?

    Method

    The study is exploratory in its nature with an inductive approach, in which a qualitative multiple case study was conducted. In order to study digitally matured companies, the selection process involved the help of digital experts as well as previous studies on digital maturity. In total, 21 semi-structured interviews with informants from 8 digitally matured companies were conducted, together with 4 interviews with experts in digitalization and business development. The informants had a good understanding of respective organization, and the data was complemented with publicly available information such as reports, presentations and websites.

    Results

    The results show that there are many common factors between the studied organizations that can help explain as to why they are prevalent in digital innovation and maturity. In total, 22 common themes were identified between the organizations’ digital units by studying their operating models.

    The identified themes were aggregated into a proposal of 4 generic design principles for how the digital units could be designed in order to prosper digital innovation. In addition, a framework for operations modelling is presented with a focus on digital units.

    Theoretical implications

    The theoretical implications from the study is primarely fourfolded: (1) the study develops the knowledge of digitally matured companies and concretizes the result from previous studies. (2) The study develops the concept of an operating model by identifying and bridging 6 academic fields. (3) The study presents a suggested framework for modelling the operations in general, and particularly for the design of the digital unit. (4) The study support a multidisciplinary approach to studying best praxis from a holistic perspective.

    Practical implications

    The results from the study can serve as inspiration when designing organizations for today’s the managers in general, and for the managers within digital innovation in particular. The suggested framework and design principles can facilitate the process of understanding and designing a synergetic operation that support the business model and strategy.

  • 381.
    Strömberg, Caroline
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Aktivitet: Rättsfilosofiska frågor i aktuell forskning2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 382.
    Strömberg, Caroline
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Aktivitet: Spridning av filosofiska samtal genom två handledningsmaterial till samtalsledare2013Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 383.
    Strömberg, Caroline
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ethics in Legal Interpretation2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 384.
    Strömberg, Caroline
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Etik och normkonflikter inom miljörättslig lagstiftning2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A conflict of norms puts the legal subject in a difficult position. As a consequence of some conflicts of norms, a legal subject cannot act legally correct in any way, as long as the conflict is not solved. This brings about a lack of rule of law and also that the legal rules do not succeed to guide the legal subject’s actions, which is often regarded as one of the most important properties of the law. In the essay, questions about the emergence of, problems with and solutions to conflicts of law within the field of environmental law have been discussed. Two cases have been used to discuss different kinds of conflicts of norms that can be found in environmental legislation. It has been found in the essay that one of them is an example of the law both prohibiting and permitting the same behaviour, and that the other case is an example of the law both prohibiting and prescribing the same behaviour. Furthermore, it has been suggested in the essay that conflicting ethical assumptions that might underlie the rules can be partial explanations to why the conflicts of norms emerge, and that it can be reasonable to use ethical theories when interpreting the law in cases where unclear and seemingly ethical expressions occur in the law.

     

  • 385.
    Strömberg, Caroline
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Legal positivism and the use of ethics in legal interpretation in a Swedish case2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 386.
    Strömberg, Caroline
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Om naturens skyddsvärde i miljöbalkens portalparagraf2016In: Nordisk miljörättslig tidskrift, ISSN 2000-4273, E-ISSN 2000-4273, Vol. 2016, no 1, p. 123-132Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 387.
    Strömberg, Caroline
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    On seemingly inconsistent moral statements in Swedish environmental law2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 388.
    Strömberg, Caroline
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Presentation av licentiatavhandlingen ”Etik och normkonflikter inom miljörättslig lagstiftning”2017In: The Philosophy Days in Uppsala / Filosofidagarna i Uppsala 25—27 August 2017: Book of abstracts, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 389.
    Strömberg, Caroline
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Är de etiska ställningstagandena i miljöbalkens portalparagraf motsägelsefulla?2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 390.
    Söderasp, Johanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Law in Integrated and Adaptive Governance of Freshwaters: A Study of the Swedish Implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Water is essential for sustaining life and providing ecosystem services for different human needs. In 2000, the European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD) was adopted against the background of increasing pressure on the waters of Europe. With the WFD, a new approach to governing freshwater resources within the Union was introduced, aimed at facilitating a shift from fragmented and sectoral water policies to a more holistic, integrated and adaptive governance system at the hydrological scale of river basins. This thesis has examined the Swedish implementation of the directive, with a primary aim to determine whether the Swedish formal institutional framework and water administration are sufficient to fully implement the freshwater governance model provided by the WFD and achieve the environmental results prescribed. The thesis consists of two main parts, where the first provides the contextual framework for the thesis, and the second part consists of four appended papers, which all in different ways contribute to achieving the overall purpose of the thesis. The thesis is founded on legal analysis and qualitative text interpretation of various sources of law, with emphasis on the analysis of national law in light of the WFD as well as EU legal principles and case law developed by the CJEU.

    The results show that the Swedish freshwater governance system and formal institutional framework encompasses opportunities as well as barriers for implementing the WFD. The governance arrangements reflect the hydrological requirement of the directive, and the Swedish system holds good opportunities for participation in decision-making procedures as well as adaptive potential, as the general legal framework for environmental and water law contains a relatively high degree of flexibility or adaptable rules.However, when analysing the Swedish freshwater governance system in light of four key functions (objectives and direction; administrative structure; adaptive capacity; and control and enforcement) identified in this study as crucial for the formal institutional framework to deliver in such integrated, adaptive and multi-level governance systems the WFD represents, the results reveal that central aspects of all four key functions are missing in the Swedish system. Due to these shortcomings, the overall conclusion is that no full regime shift towards the hydrological, adaptive and integrated system of the WFD has occurred in Sweden; the system for water planning and governance is not clearly reflected in the formal institutional framework nor sufficiently underpinned by the administrative structure at national level. Ten different proposals are presented to remedy the shortcomings.

  • 391.
    Söderasp, Johanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The Water Framework Directive and Spatial Planning in Sweden - Time for Legal Integration!Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial planning activities plays a crucial role in the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) (‘WFD’) and the achievement of its environmental objectives. In Sweden, spatial planning is regulated foremost through the Planning and Building Act (2010:900) (‘PBA’). In this article, the lack of external integration of the integrated planning and adaptive water management system of the WFD into Swedish spatial planning law is addressed, and necessary legislative changes are discussed. The obligations for the municipalities in this regard are analysed in the light of our general legal obligations under EU law, particularly as interpreted by the Court of Justice of the European Union (‘CJEU’). In Weser, the WFD’s environmental objectives, including the obligation to prevent deterioration, were declared as legally binding in each stage of implementation. This entails that in each decision-making situation, including spatial planning decisions or local building permits that might have adverse impact on the aquatic environment, the WFD environmental objectives must be complied with. However, the result reveals a clear lack of legal integration between the freshwater governance system and the legal framework for spatial planning in Sweden. As a consequence, water quality aspects are at great risk of being ignored in planning activities at the local or regional level, making the WFD’s environmental objectives significantly more difficult to achieve under the current legal framework.

  • 392.
    Söderasp, Johanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    What About State Implementation?: New Governance and the case of the European Union Water Framework Directive in Sweden.2015In: Europarättslig tidskrift, ISSN 1403-8722, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 508-524, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 393.
    Söderasp, Johanna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Before and After the Weser Case: Legal Application of the Water Framework Directive Environmental Objectives in Sweden2019In: Journal of environmental law, ISSN 0952-8873, E-ISSN 1464-374X, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 265-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) prescribes environmental objectives and an adaptive water governance system. This article analyses the Swedish implementation of the WFD through a review of high-profile Swedish court cases regarding the application of the WFD environmental objectives in individual authorisation processes for water operations. The selection of court cases represents both the time before and after the Court of Justice of the European Union’s Weser case in 2015. The results indicate an inertial tendency in the legal application of the WFD environmental objectives in Swedish courts, including a reluctance to fully apply EU law as interpreted by the CJEU. The overall conclusion is that traditional legal certainty aspects often trump flexibility and a high level of environmental protection as desired in the adaptive water governance system of the WFD. This raises questions about judicial preconceptions and the procedural autonomy of the Member States vis-à-vis the ‘effet utile’ of EU law through judicial implementation.

  • 394.
    Söderberg, Johanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    EU:s ramdirektiv för vatten och dagvattenförorening: Klarar Sverige kraven?2011In: Nordisk miljörättslig tidskrift, ISSN 2000-4273, E-ISSN 2000-4273, Vol. 2011, no 1, p. 3-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the EU Water Framework Directive from a legal perspective, with special focus on the environmental effects of stormwater. Efficient management of polluted stormwater is a crucial measure to take in order to obtain the objectives of the directive, in particular a “good water status”. However, analyses of legal material supplemented by interviews indicate inefficient Swedish implementation. Although the Swedish Environmental Code contains several legal management control measures that can be used to improve the handling of stormwater, the relevant provisions are not precise enough, leaving considerable room for discretionary judgements to the administrative authorities and municipalities involved. Furthermore, enforcement authorities fail to comply with the legal tasks to initiate reviews of old permits in order to adjust the conditions to the modern environmental requirements stipulated in the directive.

  • 395.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Helenius, Heidi
    University of Lapland, Rovaniemi.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wiklund, Roine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Masloboev, Vladimir
    Institute of Industrial Ecology Problems in the North, Kola Science Center.
    Mingaleva, Tatiana
    Institute of Industrial Ecology Problems in the North, Kola Science Center.
    Patrov, Viktor
    Institute of Industrial Ecology Problems in the North, Kola Science Center.
    Environmental Regulation and Competitiveness in the Mining Industry: Permitting Processes in Finland, Sweden and Russia2015In: Resources policy, ISSN 0301-4207, E-ISSN 1873-7641, Vol. 43, p. 130-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates to what extent and under what circumstances environmental regulation can be designed and implemented to jointly achieve positive environmental outcomes and sustained competitive strength in the mining industry. First the paper provides a conceptual analysis of the impacts of environmental regulations on mining competitiveness, including a discussion of how the environmental-competitiveness trade-off can be affected by various regulatory design and implementation strategies. Methodologically we distinguish between the flexibility, predictability and stringency of the regulations, and in a second step these analytical concepts are illustrated in the empirical context of the environmental permitting processes in Finland, Sweden and Russia. An important result is that in these countries there has been a lack of timeliness and predictability in the environmental regulations (e.g., uncertainty about the interpretation of the legislation, delays due to appeals etc.). These problems can in part be addressed by, for instance: (a) allocating more resources to the regulatory authorities; (b) establishing more consensus-based regulatory interactions between the mining industry and the authorities; and (c) introducing more standardized procedures and road maps for environmental impact assessments, permit applications and not the least for how to interpret specific legal rules in the context of mining.

  • 396.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Svahn, Nanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wiklund, Roine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Helenius, Heidi
    Environmental Regulation and Mining Sector Competitiveness2014Report (Refereed)
  • 397.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Christiernsson, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Environmental taxation of fertilizers in Europe: policy design, outcome and future potential2007In: Critical issues in environmental taxation: international and comparative perspectives, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007, p. 515-541Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 398.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Christiernsson, Anna
    Policy effectiveness and acceptance in the taxation of environmentally damaging chemical compounds2008In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 240-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Taxes on chemical compounds still constitute a fairly small share of the total environmental tax base in Europe, but proposals for new chemical tax schemes have become common. The overall purposes of this paper are to analyze: (a) the economics and politics of taxing chemical compounds; and (b) the future potential for increased implementation of such taxation policies in Europe. While much of the discussion is general in scope, the empirical part focuses on the case of fertilizer taxation in Austria, Denmark, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden. There exists an inevitable trade-off between costly monitoring on the one hand and the achievement of a cost-effective allocation of nitrate leaching abatement measures on the other. This is true for many types of chemicals and our analysis of the fertilizer case provides a number of general lessons for future implementation of environmental taxes in the chemicals field. The choice of tax scheme design matters not only for the cost effectiveness of the policy, but can also be an important mean of reducing any political opposition towards environmental taxes. The European experience in fertilizer taxation indicates that some kind of earmarking of tax revenues can be effective in increasing the legitimacy of the tax policy, and taxes which achieve a close proportionality to damage done will often be perceived as fair. The latter implies that taxation close to environmental damages and the reduction of the associated transaction costs should be policy priorities. Finally, an important feature of many legal provisions - including the EC Nitrate Directive - is the weight given to goal fulfilment, and although taxes are in no way prohibited they may be abandoned since their impacts on environmental quality (and ultimately on goal fulfilment) can be hard to predict.

  • 399.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ek, Kristina
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wind power development in Sweden: global policies and local obstacles2007In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 365-400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, the Swedish government adopted a national planning goal of a yearly wind power generation of 10 TWh by 2015, implying a substantial increase from the current 0.6 TWh level. In this paper, we provide an economic assessment of the potential for future wind power investments in Sweden in close conjunction with an analysis of the legal, attitudinal and policy-related uncertainties that face a wind mill investor. It is shown that the economics of Swedish wind power is negatively affected by: (a) the lack of policy stability; (b) public criticism at the local level; and, in particular, (c) the legal provisions governing the assessment of the environmental impacts of wind mills and the planning procedures for mill location. While national and global energy policies as well as the general public point out wind power as particularly environmentally friendly, most of the objections to its expansion at the local level tend to have environmental origins. The interests of those who object to wind mill installations gain strong legal protection, and the municipal territorial planning monopoly in Sweden implies that it is hard to make national energy policy goals heard at the local implementation stage. Compared to its competitors, wind power is the technology that tends to have the most to loose from the risk and uncertainties created by this investment environment. The paper identifies and discusses a number of ways in which the national policy interests could be strengthened at the local level. We discuss the role of citizen participation, as well as solutions within the realms of the legal system. Moreover, since the diffusion of wind power encounters the most strident legal and attitudinal obstacles where it interferes with competing land uses, a move offshore appears to be an efficient strategy from the perspective of a wind mill investor. A stronger political commitment to wind power expansion in legal provisions as well as in the form of long-run stability in policy instrument implementation will probably be necessary to attain the 2015 policy goal.

  • 400.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Michanek, Gabriel
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Tillståndsprocesser och planering för ny elproduktion: Sverige i ett internationellt perspektiv2009Report (Other academic)
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