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  • 351.
    Rönkkö, Reima
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Nordmark, Désirée
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Metal balance in thermal treatment of CCA-contaminated soils2008Ingår i: Mine planning and equipment selection and environmental issues and waste management in energy and mineral production: proceedings of the Sixteenth International Symposium on Mine Planning and Equipment Selection (MPES 2007) and the Tenth International Symposium on Environmental Issues and Waste Management in Energy and Mineral Production (SWEMP 2007) ; MPES 2007 and SWEMP 2007 ; held jointly in Bangkok, Thailand, December 11 - 13, 2007 / [ed] Rai K. Singhal, Irvine, Calif.: The Reading Matrix Inc. , 2008Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 352. Sakanakura, H.
    et al.
    Ecke, Holger
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Matsuto, T.
    Tanaka, N.
    Evaluation of methods used for the total decomposition of bottom ash and slag from electric arc vitrification1999Ingår i: Copenhagen Waste and Water '99 including EcoProcura Copenhagen '99: Conference Proceedings, København, 1999Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 353.
    Sakanakura, Hirofumi
    et al.
    Akita National College of Technology, Akita.
    Ecke, Holger
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Matsuto, Toshihiko
    Akita National College of Technology, Akita.
    Tanaka, Nobutoshi
    Akita National College of Technology, Akita.
    Evaluation of acid extraction methods used for the metal content analysis of bottom ash and slag from electric arc vitrification2003Ingår i: The Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management, ISSN 1088-1697, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 223-229Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this investigation was to find the most reliable acid extraction method for the determination of the total metal content in a waste sample. Samples of bottom ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator and slag generated by electric arc vitrification of the bottom ash were investigated. Acid extraction methods were applied using the reagents nitric acid, aqua regia, hydrofluoric acid and a combination of aqua regia and hydrofluoric acid. Another experimental variation was whether the sample was milled prior to extraction or not. Extractants were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The data were evaluated statistically including both Welch's equality test and partial least square analysis. The main conclusion was that bottom ash was most completely decomposed by milling followed by treatment with aqua regia and hydrofluoric acid. For slag, this method was only superior with respect to the extraction of Pb and Cd. Another observation was that electric arc vitrification causes the removal of Zn, Cd and Pb which was probably due to evaporation.

  • 354.
    Schwitzguebel, Jean-Paul
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, Lausanne.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Comino, Elena
    Politecnico di Torino.
    Vanek, Tomas
    Institute of Experimental Botany, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic.
    From green to clean: a promising and sustainable approach towards environmental remediation and human health for the 21st century2009Ingår i: Agrochimica, ISSN 0002-1857, Vol. 53, nr 4, s. 1-29Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 355.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Alunframställning och att lära av historien2015Ingår i: Kemivaerlden, Biotech, Kemisk Tidskrift, ISSN 1653-5596, nr 6, s. 42-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 356.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Classification of ash as hazardous or non-hazardous waste2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Combustion and incineration are utilized extensively in Sweden for the generation of heat and electricity. Substantial volumes of ash with varying chemical composition are also generated in the process. Classification of such ash as hazardous or non-hazardous under the European union legislation is, in principle, a “mission impossible” since the chemical forms of the inorganic components are very complex. Consequently, a method has been identifiedaccording to which reference substances are selected such that they represent the hazards of the actual forms of those trace elements that might influence health and the environment. The reference substances have been selected such that the hazard is not underestimated, that the result becomes reasonable realistic and that the evaluation is feasible to carry out. There areindications, especially with regard to ecotoxicity, that the method is overly cautious, and a potential is identified for combining testing with information from Authority data bases. It is explained and exemplified that ash may be very susceptible to ageing, and that this in many cases, and for most of the elements of interest, may improve the properties considerably. This not only influences the status of an ash with regard to the acceptance criteria for landfilling, butalso influences the classification. Leach properties are important when the degree of solid solution is to be assessed. Elements with similar properties, especially regarding their ionic radii, tend to exchange for each other even in solids. The effect is strongest for those elements that are the lowest abundance. Solid solution effects may lead to that trace elements become as inaccessible as the major elements in a certain crystalline phase. Iron(hydr)oxides and other ironrich phases frequently act as sinks for chromium, nickel and zinc, and in many cases this implies that most of these elements may not contribute to a classification as hazardous. The method has been applied to around 30 facilities with typically several ashes at each facility. It is concluded that this approach has lead to that many ashes have been classified in a cautious bur also reasonably realistic manner which at the same time has been practical.

  • 357.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Classification of waste as hazardous or non-hazardous: the cases of ash and slag2012Ingår i: Waste Management and the Environment VI / [ed] V. Popov; H. Itoh; C.A. Brebbia, WIT Press, 2012, s. 285-296Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Anyone who owns and manages waste is obligated by law to know if it is hazardous or non-hazardous. However, proper classification of waste from incineration and combustion facilities as well as from steel mills may initially appear as a "mission impossible". In such waste, oxides of various elements appear in the form of various phases with non-stoichiometric and varying compositions that do not appear in the data bases on hazardous properties of various substances. The trace elements - which are the ones of highest significance for the classification - do not form phases of their own but are included in the phases formed by the major elements in the form of solid solution. Different batches of waste may have different ranges of compositions rendering direct testing an insurmountable task. A method is presented by means of which such residues can be classified in a conservative but still reasonably realistic and feasible manner. According to this method, elements of interest are regarded as if they appeared as simple oxides or as mixed oxides with iron. These reference substances are selected in such a manner that they can be found in databases on hazardous properties of various substances. Such data of the reference substances can then be used together with data from chemical analysis to calculate whether the waste in question is hazardous or non-hazardous. This approach has been pursued in Sweden at more than 30 plants with good results. It is anticipated that the method - after adjustment - can be used also under upcoming new legislation

  • 358.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Long-term developments in residues from the processing of alum shale and possible remedies2014Ingår i: Energy production and management in the 21st century: the quest for sustainable energy / [ed] C.A. Brebbia; E.R. Magaril, Southampton: WIT Press, 2014, s. 789-800Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In large parts of the world, the gas market has changed dramatically due to the fracking of rock, including shale. It is also anticipated that significant changes will take place in the oil market due to the rapid introduction of the processing of shale for the purpose of oil and gas generation. Many fear that there will be substantial consequences for the environment, especially in the long term. The purpose of the present paper is to share some experiences from related historical activities in Sweden where alum shale has been used for oil extraction, burning of lime, alum production and uranium beneficiation. Legacies exist in terms of shale ash and fines as well as residues from the leaching of uranium, in quantities of a total of tens of millions of tonnes, and at various stages of remediation. The long-term integrity of these residues is analyzed with regard to the possibility of development of acid mine drainage, and in view of the low Ca and high S content. It is found that such developments cannot be excluded for the cases in which the alum shale had not been (properly) combusted. Waste materials having appropriately high pH acid buffering capacities to inhibit acidification are identified together with injection as a promising method of application. The need for mixing on a local scale is discussed together with the possible influence of the injection of slurry on ongoing fires. It is found that further knowledge is needed on a number of issues.

  • 359.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Tekedo AB.
    Mätmetodik och sorteringsteknik med avseende på krom, koppar och arsenik (CCA) i träbaserade bränslen2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the work that has lead to the present report has been to investigate the prerequisites for purer fuels - and thereby also purer ashes - through sorting of impregnated wood. The work has comprised information and literature searches with regard to copper, chromium and arsenic in fuels and ashes together with the prerequisites for measuring and sorting. The work has also comprised a number of visits and interviews. The compilation made in the present report shows that it is technically and practically possible andfeasible to identify wood that contains copper, chromium and arsenic as well as to quantify these elements in incoming fuels. In the case of arsenic, the result of such an identification and sorting depends only on how comprehensively it is being carried out, since in practice, impregnated wood is the only source forthis element.

  • 360.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Reducing risk and uncertainty associated with nuclear waste processing and disposal: a Hanfort tank waste study2018Ingår i: Materials Research Society, 2018 Fall Meeting & Exhibit, ET15: Scientific basis for nuclear waste management: Perspectives on strategy, risk and uncertainty in radioactive waste management, Materials Research Society, 2018, Vol. ET15.01, artikel-id ET15.01.04Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Carolyn Pearce1 David Peeler1 Rolf Sjöblom2 Mark Triplett1 Kirk Cantrell1 Robert Moore1 MichaelSchweiger1 Vicky Freedman1 Matthew Fountain1 Sue Clark1 Albert Kruger3

    1, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, United States2, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, , Sweden3, U.S. Department of Energy—Office of River Protection, Richland, Washington,United States

    The Department of Energy’s Environmental Management cleanup effort is focusedon developing and implementing innovative and high impact technologies andsolutions that positively impact the overall mission lifecycle by: (1) reducing lifecyclecosts; (2) accelerating lifecycle schedules; (3) mitigating mission uncertainties,vulnerabilities, and risks; and (4) minimizing the mortgage associated with longterm,post-closure and post-completion stewardship. Pacific Northwest NationalLaboratory and its partnering institutions, are focused on reducing risk anduncertainty across the integrated flowsheet which includes safe waste storage,retrieval, pretreatment, immobilization, disposal, and tank closure. In thispresentation, an overview of the major Hanford flowsheet unit operations will beprovided and examples of specific projects focused on reducing risks anduncertainties will be explored.For example, a key issue of Hanford tank waste processing and disposal is that,although radionuclides (e.g., technetium) drive the disposal risk for the low-activityflowsheet, the presence of ‘benign’ elements (e.g., aluminum) dictate processinglimits or rates in both retrieval and pretreatment unit operations and have otherpotential downstream negative impacts. Thus, safe, cost-effective, and efficient wasteprocessing depends on a fundamental understanding of aluminum chemistry in highionic strength, highly alkaline solutions where water activity is low. Once the wastehas been retrieved, processed, and immobilized, controlling the behavior of riskdriving elements (e.g., Tc and/or I for low-activity waste) in the waste form and theenvironment becomes essential for waste form disposal or tank closure.With respect to low-activity waste form disposal, material solutions mustdemonstrate that the risk driving radioactive elements will be contained in a mannerwholly consistent with statutory requirements. Modelling future performanceremains a challenge for performance assessment (PA) formalism. An appealingoption is to perform an inverse PA (IPA) and look far into the past. Archeologicalartifacts, analogous to wasteform materials (i.e. glass and concrete) that have beenleft by our ancestors and exposed to the environment for thousands of years can beused to check for comprehensiveness as well as to validate and refine predictedwasteform durability. An IPA describes the features, events and processes that haveinfluenced the corrosion of a material over time and can help establish the mostlikely scenarios that should be included in PA for the future. An IPA for ancient glassfrom a hillfort at Broborg, Sweden (ca. 400-575 AD), used to fortify the fort wallswill also be one of the key focal points of this presentation.

  • 361.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Sustainability of combustion and incineration of renewable fuels: example of Sweden2013Ingår i: Energy and sustainability IV / [ed] C.A. Brebbia; A.M. Marinov; C.A. Safta, Southampton: WIT Press, 2013, s. 173-184Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the statistics at the EC Commission, Sweden is the Champion byfar in Europe in terms of renewable energy. It comprised around 45% of the totalin the year 2008. This position has been reached by a combination of naturalresources, political determination and technology development.A major contributor to this is the extensive utilization of district heatingwhich amounts to around 50 TWh per year, and which covers about half of thetotal need for industrial and domestic buildings. The district heating is basedmainly on combustion of bio fuels together with waste and some peat.This practice is generally very positive from a sustainability perspective forthe following reasons: (1) bio fuels are renewable, and so is peat, although over alonger time span; (2) waste is being recovered for energy purposes; and (3) ashmaterial is, in many cases, re-circulated and recycled.However, sustainability is not only about total percentages, but also on thequality in the processes, especially in terms of qualification of fuels and ashesand the associated possibilities for more efficient combustion and incinerationprocesses as well as ash utilization. Efficiency in this regard of course alsoincludes protection of health and the environment. These aspects are explored ina technical as well as a legal perspective, and some possibilities for furtherdevelopment and improvement are identified and discussed.The compilation and analyses are based on more than ten years of researchreports (mostly in Swedish) financed by District Heating in Sweden (SvenskFjärrvärme), [The Swedish] Thermal Engineering Research Institute(Värmeforsk), the Swedish Waste Management (Avfall Sverige) and SvenskaEnergiaskor AB (which translates to: “Swedish Energy Ashes Inc.”).

  • 362.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    The long-term effects of nuclear accidents2014Ingår i: Waste Management and the Environment VII / [ed] C.A. Brebbia; G. Passerini; H. Itoh, Southampton: WIT Press, 2014, s. 355-366Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present paper is to present some examples, based mainly on Swedish work, of late effects of nuclear accidents together with their implications and possible remedies, or absence of need for remedies. It took six years after the Three Mile Island accident before it was realized that the core was partially converted into very corrosion resistant corium which was distributed throughout the reactor system in the form of fines. It is essential that techniques for removal of such debris be developed for the Fukushima plant in order for large areas to become accessible. The ability of caesium-137 to bind irreversibly to soil material is essential in conjunction with ploughing, since it will not only imply self-shielding but also that caesium-137 is hindered from entering the groundwater as well as plants. Disposal of top soil material may be greatly facilitated if such immobilization can eliminate the need for a top seal. However, such operations are irreversible, and knowledge of the long-term properties of the soil material must be available before any decisions can be made. Thus, previous experience, especially on the long term behaviour is essential. Such long-term results are available in Sweden from tests started already in the early 60's. The issues have been studied in substantial detail since the level of protection has been much higher in Sweden than e. g. in Japan. Otherwise, the total fallouts are comparable in magnitude with Sweden receiving around 5% of the total from Chernobyl, and Japan receiving from Fukushima what corresponds to about 8 % of that from Chernobyl, all figured as caesium-137. The distribution is much more concentrated in Japan, however. The major need for protection in Sweden relates to ash and reindeer in which areas Authority restrictions still apply. Even modest levels of caesium-137 in the bio-fuel may lead to levels in the ash that warrant consideration.

  • 363.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Cato, Anna
    Swedish Radiation Safety Authority.
    Lindskog, Staffan
    Swedish Radiation Safety Authority.
    Financial planning for the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant2012Ingår i: Environmental Impact / [ed] C.A. Brebbia, Southampton: WIT Press, 2012, s. 3-14Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    After their service life is over, nuclear power plants must be decommissioned. Accordingly, Sweden has a system with segregated funds to cover the costs. Payments to the funds are dictated by the results of recurrent cost estimates. Recently, differences have been observed between different estimations for the Barsebäck BWR:s. Therefore, the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, who oversees the system, has commissioned the present study with the objective to investigate the reasons. The work comprises analyses of generic deviances as well as specific ones. It was found that the variations are within the ranges observed elsewhere, but that the precision in comparisons between different reactors can be improved. No new cost raisers were identified for the Barsebäck reactors. It was found that the cost estimation community strongly recommends the parametric method for early estimates whilst the cost calculations on decommissioning are mostly based on the bottom-up method. It is proposed that the parametric method be attempted for comparison between different reactors

  • 364.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Cato, Anna
    Swedish Radiation Safety Authority.
    Lindskog, Staffan
    Swedish Radiation Safety Authority.
    Finansiella aspekter vid avveckling av kärnkraftverk (BWR)2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport behandlas hur framtagna beräkningar av framtida kostnaderför avveckling av kärnkraftverk (BWR) kan valideras. Den metodför validering som berörs är en parametrisk metodansats. Denna behandlasmed utgångspunkt på den planering som görs på Barsbäcksverketrörande rivning av reaktorerna B1 och B2.Syftet med rapportenI föreliggande studie behandlas en alternative metod för att beräkna dentotala miljöskulden rörande rivning och avveckling av kärnreaktorer. Denmetodansats som analyseras är lämplig för bedömning av reliabilitet i derivningsstudier som de svenska reaktorägarna utför vart tredje år. Rapportensom är deskriptiv till sin karaktär visar på frågor som är väl lämpadeatt bedrivas som myndighetsstöd. Resultatet av projektet kan lämna ettpositivt bidrag till att uppnå mera rättvisande skattningar av de framtidakostnaderna för rivning och avveckling av svenska kärnkraftverk (BWR).Resultat för SSM:s verksamhetI studien presenteras i vilka situationer som en parametrisk ansats ärtillämplig. Resonemang sätts in i en autentisk kontext genom att referensergörs till de förberedande aktiviteter som idag genomförs vid Barsebäcksverket.En tentativ slutsats är att den valda metoden är lämplig föratt göra uppskattningar av de framtida kostnader för avveckling för kärnkraftverksom fortfarande är i drift. En fördel med metoden är att den ärkostnadseffektiv, men en nackdel är att det krävs utveckling av databasermed referenskostnader.

  • 365.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Ecke, Holger
    Brännvall, Evelina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    On the possibility of using vitrified forts as anthropogenic analogues for assessment of long-term behaviour of vitrified waste2012Ingår i: Waste Management and the Environment VI / [ed] V. Popov; H. Itoh; C.A. Brebbia, WIT Press, 2012, s. 225-236Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An information survey was conducted in the areas of natural analogues, vitrified forts, combustion technology and vitrified waste.The main purpose was to identify if vitrified stone material in hillforts might be used as anthropogenic analogues for glass containing waste.Such comparisons are needed in order for predictions to be made regarding the long-term integrity of the waste forms.The scope was to compare the chemistry as well as the processes used for the generation of the glasses. It was found that the vitrified forts contain glass material with wide variations in composition of the major elements.They cover and exceed those in the glasses made of waste with only the exception of phosphorus.Natural glasses as well as archaeological glasses show much narrower ranges of compositions, and they do not coincide with those of the glasses containing waste. Quality of heat analyses indicated that it is likely that the stone material in the forts was melted for the purpose of obtaining long-lasting structures.This narrows the range of possible processes used, and facilitates reconstruction of the ancient methods by means of testing.This, in turn, provides possibilities of comparison between ancient and modern methods, which can then be used as a basis for validation of the use of the analogue.

  • 366.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Ecke, Holger
    Brännvall, Evelina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Vitrified forts as anthropogenic analogues for assessment of long-term stability of vitrified waste in natural environments2013Ingår i: International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, ISSN 1743-7601, E-ISSN 1743-761X, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 380-399Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The area’s natural analogues, vitrifi ed forts, combustion technology, and vitrifi ed waste have been reviewed.The purpose was to identify if investigations of vitrifi ed rock in hill forts might be warranted for assessing thelong-term integrity of vitrifi ed waste in natural environments. Wastes that are being vitrifi ed include ash fromincineration of domestic waste, contaminated soil and fi ssion products from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel.It was found that vitrifi ed materials in at least 200 hill forts constitute good anthropogenic analogues to vitrified waste. The compositions vary considerably from site to site and even within one site and may correspondrelatively well to the spans of parameters in the various vitrifi ed wastes. Glasses in vitrifi ed forts comparefavourably to archaeological artefacts which are soda- and potash-based and consequently have different corrosionbehaviours and may weather too quickly. Natural glasses might be too limited in composition variationand are perhaps also too durable. Combustion technology considerations based on quality of heat analysesindicate that at least some of the vitrifi cations of hill forts were carried out with the specifi c purpose of achievingstrong and durable constructions. This makes it considerably easier to envisage how the vitrifi cations mighthave been carried out, and this, in turn, facilitates comparisons between anthropogenic analogues and modernvitrifi ed wastes.

  • 367.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    et al.
    Tekedo AB.
    Hermansson, Hans-Peter
    Studsvik Nuclear AB.
    Ramqvist, Gunnar
    El-Tekno AB.
    Elektrisk integritet i testkapslar2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 368.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Energy generation by waste incineration: the management of impregnated wood2015Ingår i: Energy and Sustainability VI / [ed] Whady Florez-Escobar; Farid Chejne; Fanor Mondragon; Carlos Brebbia, Southampton, UK: WIT Transactions on Ecology and The Environment , 2015, s. 89-100Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfilling of organic waste is no longer allowed in Sweden. Instead, essentially all such waste is being recycled, and about half of it goes to incineration which accounts for about 10% of the total need for heating of buildings. Incineration implies destruction of potentially harmful constituents in the waste, but does not destroy contaminant elements such as arsenic which almost exclusively originates from impregnated wood. Methods for identification of chromium, copper and arsenic in such wood are analysed as well as techniques for sorting it into two categories. If incinerated separately, these can give rise to ash with Cr, Cu and As, and ash with only Cu. The former ash has a small volume and can be stabilized/landfilled at a qualified facility, and the latter ash might be used for beneficiation of Cu. In addition, the contamination by As, especially, in other fuels will be small and consequently also in the ash, thus facilitating its use. It is found that such sorting may be achieved using visual inspection as well as x-ray fluorescence (XRF), whilst use of reagents does not appear to offer any advantage over these two. Both methods are already in industrial use in Sweden, thus proving the feasibility of segregation and stabilization of contaminants in impregnated wood.

  • 369.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Signe
    Umeå university.
    Sustainability of combustion and incineration of renewable fuels: the example of Sweden2015Ingår i: Biomass to biofuels, Southampton: WIT Press, 2015, s. 215-226Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the statistics at the EC Commission, Sweden is the Champion byfar in Europe in terms of renewable energy. It comprised around 45% of the totalin the year 2008. This position has been reached by a combination of naturalresources, political determination and technology development.A major contributor to this is the extensive utilization of district heatingwhich amounts to around 50 TWh per year, and which covers about half of thetotal need for industrial and domestic buildings. The district heating is basedmainly on combustion of bio fuels together with waste and some peat.This practice is generally very positive from a sustainability perspective forthe following reasons: (1) bio fuels are renewable, and so is peat, although over a longer time span; (2) waste is being recovered for energy purposes; and (3) ash material is, in many cases, re-circulated and recycled.However, sustainability is not only about total percentages, but also on thequality in the processes, especially in terms of qualification of fuels and ashesand the associated possibilities for more efficient combustion and incinerationprocesses as well as ash utilization. Efficiency in this regard of course alsoincludes protection of health and the environment. These aspects are explored in a technical as well as a legal perspective, and some possibilities for furtherdevelopment and improvement are identified and discussed.The compilation and analyses are based on more than ten years of researchreports (mostly in Swedish) financed by District Heating in Sweden (SvenskFjärrvärme), [The Swedish] Thermal Engineering Research Institute(Värmeforsk), the Swedish Waste Management (Avfall Sverige) and SvenskaEnergiaskor AB (which translates to: “Swedish Energy Ashes Inc.”).Keywords: sustainable, combustion, incineration, bio fuels, waste, ash, Sweden.

  • 370.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lindskog, Staffan
    Swedish Radiation Safety Authority.
    Management of intergenerational environmental liabilities: example of decommissioning of nuclear research and development facilities2012Ingår i: International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, ISSN 1743-7601, E-ISSN 1743-761X, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 135-158Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The character is described of various prerequisites for and obstacles against fulfilment of the polluter pays principle in the case of decommissioning of old nuclear research and development (R&D) facilities, and the relevance to other areas is analyzed. Background is compiled in the areas of Swedish old nuclear R&D facilities, environmental liabilities in some areas, and legislation. Two completed decommissioning projects and two under planning are described together with some findings on planning for decommissioning and on cost estimation. Also, an example is given on developing a basis for regulation relating to small facilities. It is concluded that although the polluter pays principle is easy to understand, it may be complicated to implement, especially in cases where there is a gap in time between the operations and the decommissioning. Pitfalls may be plentiful and extensive awareness and substantial efforts are warranted for adequate funds to be available at the time when they are needed. Thus, it is essential that internationally available advice and knowledge be utilized, information exchanged, and necessary knowledge acquired. It is also important to realize that the planning is usually dictated by the needs for financial planning, and that there is a substantial difference between end of license and end of liability. A need for information exchange between different areas of technology is identified and it is hoped that the present work might contribute to such processes.

  • 371.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lindskog, Staffan
    Firma Lindskog.
    Reputation asset and environmental liability2014Ingår i: Environmental Impact II / [ed] C.A. Brebbia; G. Passerini; T-S. Chon, Southampton: WIT Press, 2014, s. 467-478Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The second largest asset to a company may well be its good reputation. Environmental liabilities warrant special attention in this regard since they may well constitute the largest uncertainty in an annual report, and it is not seldom discovered that they have been underestimated. The purpose of the paper is to compile and present a road map as to how to meet the legal and other requirements, and to analyse the alternatives of proactive and reactive approaches. The legal requirements are to be found in various pieces of legislation, on different topics, and with a highly varying degree of detail. It is found that general statements, including the polluter pays principle, together with the requirements on annual reporting provide a good basis for developing a company strategy. Further information about how to plan for decommissioning and restoration, including financial planning can be found in various recommendations and standards from e.g. IAEA, OECD/NEA and ASTM, and support on cost methods is available from AACE and ISPA. More detail can be found in various open sources such as journal articles, conference proceedings and books. It is concluded that a proactive strategy, which includes early technical and financial planning, is associated with the lowest overall costs, and can eliminate many of the otherwise potentially very troublesome cost raisers. It is also concluded that with proper planning, funding is to be made using untaxed assets. Using taxed assets can constitute an efficient road block against proper decommissioning and remediation actions. It is concluded that a proactive and proper management of environmental liabilities – if properly communicated – can constitute an important asset in terms of raised confidence among share holders, customers, interested parties and others.

  • 372.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lindskog, Staffan
    Swedish Radiation Safety Authority.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Long term aspects of landfilling and surface disposal: Lessons learned from nuclear and non-nuclear decommissioning, remediation and waste management2013Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 2, nr 2, s. 35-51Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The fields of landfilling of conventional waste and that of surface disposal of nuclear waste have developed quite independently and also partly out of phase with each other. The paper analyses what knowledge and experience might be mutually beneficial as well as what further knowledge may be needed.It is found that even though knowledge may exist, and information from lessons learned elsewhere be available, action may be subject to considerable initiation or incubation times. Legislation on financial reporting is summarized and its implications for early technical and financial planning are assessed. Prerequisites for long-term behaviour are analysed for the waste forms as well as for the seals and covers. The rationale for using natural and anthropogenic analogues is compiled, and alternative seals for landfills are analysed based on this information. Lessons learned from nuclear decommissioning are presented, and the difficulties encountered when the decommissioning takes place long times after commissioning and operation of a facility are illuminated. Comparison is made with contaminated soil in which area openly available domestic publications are lass abundant in some areas. The differences between end of license and end of responsibilities are clarified. Uranium-containing waste is presented as an example. Prerequisites are presented for natural uranium together with its progenies and for depleted uranium, initially without any daughters. It is found that both alternatives are associated with a number of issues to consider, and that both call for long-term containment for conventional chemical hazard and radiological hazard reasons.

  • 373.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Noläng, Bengt
    BenSystems.
    Why trace elements are often immobilized in ashes and slags: On the role of solid solution in iron (hydr)oxides2012Ingår i: Abstract proceedings of 7th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium: Södra Sunderbyn, June 25th to 27th, 2012 / [ed] Anders Lagerkvist, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2012, s. 114-115Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 374.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Weaver, Jamie L.
    Department of Chemistry, Washington State University, Pullman, WA.
    Peeler, David K.
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA.
    McCloy, John S.
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA.
    Kruger, Albert A.
    Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, WA.
    Ogenhall, E.
    The Archaeologists, Geoarchaeological Laboratory, National Historical Museums (SHMM), Uppsala.
    Hjärtner-Holdar, Eva
    The Archaeologists, Geoarchaeological Laboratory, National Historical Museums (SHMM), Uppsala.
    Vitrified hillforts as anthropogenic analogues for nuclear waste glasses: project planning and initiation2016Ingår i: International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, ISSN 1743-7601, E-ISSN 1743-761X, Vol. 11, nr 6, s. 897-906Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nuclear waste must be deposited in such a manner that it does not cause significant impact on theenvironment or human health. In some cases, the integrity of the repositories will need to sustain fortens to hundreds of thousands of years. In order to ensure such containment, nuclear waste is frequentlyconverted into a very durable glass. It is fundamentally difficult, however, to assure the validity ofsuch containment based on short-term tests alone. To date, some anthropogenic and natural volcanicglasses have been investigated for this purpose. However, glasses produced by ancient cultures for thepurpose of joining rocks in stonewalls have not yet been utilised in spite of the fact that they might offersignificant insight into the long-term durability of glasses in natural environments. Therefore, a projectis being initiated with the scope of obtaining samples and characterising their environment, as well asto investigate them using a suite of advanced materials characterisation techniques. It will be analysedhow the hillfort glasses may have been prepared, and to what extent they have altered under in-situconditions. The ultimate goals are to obtain a better understanding of the alteration behaviour of nuclearwaste glasses and its compositional dependence, and thus to improve and validate models for nuclearwaste glass corrosion. The paper deals with project planning and initiation, and also presents some earlyfindings on fusion of amphibolite and on the process for joining the granite stones in the hillfort walls.Keywords: ageing, amphibolite, analogue, anthropogenic, Broborg, glass, hillfort, hill-fort, leaching,long-lived, nuclear, rampart, waste.

  • 375.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Zietek, A.
    Jönköping Energi AB.
    Gaude, E.
    Miljöhantering i Jönköping AB.
    Fagerqvist, J.
    Avfall Sverige - Swedish Waste Management and Recycling Association, Malmö.
    Karlfeldt Fejde, K.
    Water Environment Technology, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Stabilization Of Lead In Incineration Fly Ash By Ageing And Carbonatation In Contact With Moisture And Air2016Ingår i: International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, ISSN 1743-7601, E-ISSN 1743-761X, Vol. 11, nr 5, s. 683-693Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Residues from incineration of waste vary considerably in quality not only depending on the compositionof the waste and the incineration system, but also on the extent and duration of contact withmoisture and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Lead has a rather varying abundance and an even morevarying availability in ash as determined by leach tests. Fresh fly ash from Jönköping Energi AB hasa relatively low content of lead in comparison with other similar ashes but a somewhat high leach ratein relation to the total amount. Thus, in determining the pertinent destinations for this ash, it is appropriateto assess the availability after prolonged contact with moisture and air. It was found that theleaching decreased by up to around three orders of magnitude after such conditioning, which will whattake place in a landfill over time. The effect was confirmed by pilot tests. The paper also describes theash chemistry and possible mechanisms for the stabilization. It is concluded that the stabilization canfacilitate landfilling

  • 376.
    Skoglund, Nils
    et al.
    Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry, Umeå University.
    Boström, Dan
    Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry, Umeå University.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Grimm, Alejandro
    Öhman, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Återvinning av fosfor och energi ur avloppsslam genom termisk behandling i fluidiserad bädd; Slutrapport NWI Dp 4, Januari 20132013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 377.
    Strid, Martin
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Avlopp i flerfamiljshus: systemlösningar för lokala kretslopp1990Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 378.
    Sulzbacher, K.
    et al.
    Hamburg University of Technology.
    Ecke, Holger
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Calmano, W.
    Hamburg University of Technology.
    Anaerobic reduction of hexavalent chromium in filter sludge of an electrochemical process1997Ingår i: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 301-307Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of an anaerobic system to remediate hexavalent chromium containing waste was investigated. Experiments were performed at laboratory scale in the batch mode. The variables studied were the concentrations of waste, of inoculum, of yeast as an additional carbon source, of sulfate and the initial pH. The gas development, the final pH and the final concentrations of hexavalent and total chromium were measured. The evaluation was based on Multivariate data analysis. It could be shown that a remediation is possible. The influence of pH and sulfate were negligible in the given range. High yeast concentrations and low waste concentrations were favorable for a strong gas development and a complete elimination of chromate. Possible mechanisms are the active reduction of chromate by the microorganisms, its use as electron acceptor in bacterial respiration, and its sorption on organic material. Especially the last explanation is strongly supported by the experiments.

  • 379.
    Sun, Siao
    et al.
    Key laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resource Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.
    Leonhardt, Günther
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten. Unit of Environmental Engineering, University of Innsbruck.
    Sandoval, Santiago
    Université de Lyon, INSA Lyon, DEEP, Villeurbanne, France.
    Bertrand-Krajewski, Jean-Luc
    Université de Lyon, INSA Lyon, DEEP, Villeurbanne, France.
    Rauch, Wolfgang
    Unit of Environmental Engineering, University of Innsbruck, Austria.
    A Bayesian method for missing rainfall estimation using a conceptual rainfall–runoff model2017Ingår i: Hydrological Sciences Journal, ISSN 0262-6667, E-ISSN 2150-3435, Vol. 62, nr 15, s. 2456-2468Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The estimation of missing rainfall data is an important problem for data analysis and modelling studies in hydrology. This paper develops a Bayesian method to address missing rainfall estimation from runoff measurements based on a pre-calibrated conceptual rainfall–runoff model. The Bayesian method assigns posterior probability of rainfall estimates proportional to the likelihood function of measured runoff flows and prior rainfall information, which is presented by uniform distributions in the absence of rainfall data. The likelihood function of measured runoff can be determined via the test of different residual error models in the calibration phase. The application of this method to a French urban catchment indicates that the proposed Bayesian method is able to assess missing rainfall and its uncertainty based only on runoff measurements, which provides an alternative to the reverse model for missing rainfall estimates.

  • 380.
    Sundström, Birgitta
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Organiskt fosforgödselmedel1989Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 381.
    Sundström, Tina
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Water quality studies for environmental impact analysis: a case study from the Pequenos Libombos Reservoir, Mozambique1992Ingår i: Environment, development, and environmental impact assessment: notes on applied research, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 1992, s. 95-144Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 382.
    Svensson, Malin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Controlling the mobility of organic carbon (OC) ant its impact on metal transport from incineration residues2006Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Incineration residues contain both inorganic and organic material. The organic material may affect the mobility of pollutants in e.g. landfills or geotechnical constructions. Limit values of TOC (total organic carbon), determined according to European standard are stipulated to reduce the disposal of organic materials. The European standard methods to determine TOC and DOC (dissolved organic carbon) are evaluated. Factors controlling the mobility of DOC and its effect on metal mobility have also been studied. Determination of TOC according to European standard methods EN 13 137 and EN 1 484 include those carbon fractions that are oxidized during combustion. The definition of TOC as total organic carbon is not equivalent with the analytical result. The European standards on the definition of TOC need revision. Both organic and elemental carbon are oxidized upon heating, and the analytical TOC is thus a sum of organic and elemental carbon present in the sample. Since elemental carbon comprise the major part of the analytical TOC in solid samples of incineration residues, such results will most likely be misunderstood. Revision of the standard method EN 13 137 is recommended to better suit incineration residues. The L/S ratio (the relationship between the mass of liquid and the mass of solid material), excessive carbonation (addition of CO2 until the pH in the solution was stable for 2.5 h) and extraction pH were the main factors controlling the mobility of DOC in incineration bottom ash. Up to ~60 weight-% of the TOC in the bottom ash could be mobilized by controlling these factors (i. e. by using them as parameters). Only a minor part of the TOC (~7 weight-%) in APC residues was extractable with water, indicating a high proportion of elemental carbon. Water-soluble organic compounds may affect the mobility of metals in several ways. The formation of DOC-metal complexes has a direct effect on the metal mobility. Biological degradation of organic material may also affect the metal mobility indirectly due to changes of pH and redox- potential. The complexation capacity of DOC can be used in the development of washing as a pre-treatment process of incineration residues. Excessive carbonation may be useful in a washing process to enhance the separation of metals. Further treatment-oriented investigations of bottom ashes and APC residues are recommended in the development of a washing process of the materials.

  • 383. Svensson, Malin
    et al.
    Berg, Magnus
    ÅF-Process AB.
    Ifwer, Karin
    Tekedo AB, Nyköping.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Ecke, Holger
    The effect of isosaccharinic acid (ISA) on the mobilization of metals in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) dry scrubber residue2007Ingår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 144, nr 1-2, s. 477-484Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Co-landfilling of incineration ash and cellulose might facilitate the alkaline degradation of cellulose. A major degradation product is isosaccharinic acid (ISA), a complexing agent for metals. The impact of ISA on the mobility of Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu and Cd from a municipal solid waste incineration dry scrubber residue was studied at laboratory using a reduced 25-1 factorial design. Factors investigated were the amount of calcium isosaccharinate (Ca(ISA)2), L/S ratio, temperature, contact time and type of atmosphere (N2, air, O2). The effects of pH and Ca(ISA)2 as well as other factors on the leaching of metals were quantified and modelled using multiple linear regression (α = 0.05). Cd was excluded from the study since the concentrations were below the detection limit. The presence of Ca(ISA)2 resulted in a higher leaching of Cu indicating complex formation. Ca(ISA)2 alone had no effect on the leaching of Pb, Zn and Cr. A secondary effect on the mobilization was predicted to occur since Ca(ISA)2 had a positive effect on the pH and the leaching of Pb, Zn and Cr increased with increasing pH. The leaching of Pb varied from 24 up to 66 wt.% of the total Pb amount (1.74 ± 0.02 g(kg TS)-1) in the dry scrubber residue. The corresponding interval for Zn (7.29 ± 0.07 g(kg TS)-1) and Cu (0.50 ± 0.02 g(kg TS)-1) were 0.5-14 wt.% of Zn and 0.8-70 wt.% of Cu. Maximum leaching of Cr (0.23 ± 0.03 g(kg TS)-1) was 4.0 wt.%. At conditions similar to a compacted and covered landfill (4 °C, 7 days, 0 vol.% O2) the presence of ISA can increase the leaching of Cu from 2 to 46 wt.% if the amount of cellulose-based waste increases 20 times, from the ratio 1:100 to 1:5. As well, the leaching of Pb, Zn, and Cr can increase from 32 to 54 wt.% (Pb), 0.8-8.0 wt.% (Zn), and 0.5 to 4.0 wt.% (Cr) depending on the amount of cellulose and L/S ratio and pH value. Therefore, a risk (α = 0.05) exists that higher amounts of metals are leached from landfills where cellulose-containing waste and ash are co-disposed. This corresponds to an additional 29 t of Pb and 17 t of Cu leached annually from a compacted and covered landfill in the north of Sweden.

  • 384. Svensson, Malin
    et al.
    Ecke, Holger
    Berg, M.
    ÅF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm.
    Wikman, K.
    ÅF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    The effect of isosaccharinic acid (ISA) on the mobilization of metals in MSWI dry scrubber residue2004Ingår i: The 3rd Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium November 29th - December 2nd, 2004 in Toya, Hokkaido Japan / [ed] Morton Barlaz; Anders Lagerkvist; Toshihiko Matsuto, Hokkaido: Center for Applied Ethics and Philosophy, Hokkaido University, 2004, s. 13-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 385. Svensson, Malin
    et al.
    Herrmann, Inga
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser.
    Ecke, Holger
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Selektiv mobilisering av kritiska element hos energiaskor2005Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    SMAK syftade till att undersöka möjligheterna att selektivt separera element med hög mobilitet i botten- och flygaska. I faktordesignade extraktionsförsök identifierades de faktorer som har en signifikant och avgörande inverkan på elementens mobilitet. Försöken stöddes av kemiska jämviktsberäkningar med PHREEQC-2. Den optimala faktorinställningen användes sedan för att bedöma askans behandling enligt den kommande EU-lagstiftningen samt avfallsförordningen, Naturvårdsverkets generella riktvärden för förorenad mark och kemikalineinspektionens föreskrifter. Målet är att erhålla en produkt som på ett robust och ekonomiskt sätt kan omhändertas och helst återanvändas. Dessa behandlingar visade sig dock inte förändra botten- eller flygaskans klassificering enligt Rådets beslut om acceptanskriterier vid deponering.

  • 386. Tan, Zhongxin
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Phosphorus recovery from the biomass ash: a review2011Ingår i: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 15, nr 8, s. 3588-3602Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass ash, generated during the thermal chemical conversion of biomass for energy production, is an industrial by-product which is often recognized as a solid waste, but there are some useful elements in the biomass ash such as phosphorus, etc. So through some technology and methods, the biomass ash can be transferred into a useful resource. The paper mainly includes the following aspects: biomass ash composition characteristics, biomass thermal chemical conversion for phosphorus and phosphorus recovery technology from biomass ash. Through these aspects literature review, not only the whole biomass ash characteristics was made clear, but also we think that the idea of phosphorus from biomass ash is feasible, especially for some high phosphorus ash such as sludge ash, meat and bone meal (MBM) ash, etc. So the review about phosphorus from the biomass ash is very important practical significance for biomass energy, biomass ash disposal and phosphorus resource.

  • 387.
    Tan, Zhongxin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Xiao, Gang
    School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing.
    Leaching characteristics of fly ash from Chinese medical waste incineration2012Ingår i: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 30, nr 3, s. 285-294Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many of the characteristics of typical medical waste ash can be found by using ash leaching experiments. The present study investigated the characteristics of fly ash derived from incineration of medical waste in China. The particle diameter of the fly ash was in the range 154-900 µm. Elemental analyses of the fly ash indicated that it contained calcium, aluminium, iron, sodium, potassium and magnesium, and that copper, lead, chromium and mercury were the dominant heavy metals it contained. As leaching time was increased the leaching concentrations of the heavy metals increased and the leaching toxicity was augmented. When the pH was neutral, the concentrations of most heavy metals in the leachate were minimum whereas when the pH was alkali or acid, the leaching toxicity was greatly enhanced. High temperature melting was found to be a good method of fixing heavy metals, and the main components of the sinter were Fe3O4, SiO2, CaSO4 and CaSiO3, etc.

  • 388.
    Tenno, Robert A.
    et al.
    Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Pelkonen, Markku
    Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Activated sludge concentration dynamics1994Ingår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 28, nr 2, s. 491-493Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between activated sludge concentration in the aeration and settling tank is determined on the basis of settling process characteristics. The relationship is used for description of the activated sludge concentration and stock dynamics in the aeration and settling tank. A limit value for maximization of activated sludge concentration is determined

  • 389.
    Tenno, Robert A.
    et al.
    Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Renko, Esa K.
    Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Pelkonen, Markku
    Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Online identification of activated sludge settling properties1995Ingår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 29, nr 11, s. 2587-2590Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Activated sludge settling properties can be characterised with two time-varying parameters. A simple method is presented for online identification of these parameters. The method is obtained as an exact solution of the filtration problem; it is obtained on the basis of the settling process description and the parameters variation process description. The method is suitable for practical application. It is a more exact solution of the identification problem than the alternative regression analysis method. An easily implementable system is proposed for automatic characterisation of the sludge settling properties

  • 390.
    Tham, Gustav
    et al.
    Telge AB.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Mellström, Anna
    Telge Återvinning AB.
    Utilization of ashes in a landfill cover system2004Ingår i: he 3rd Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium November 29th - December 2nd, 2004 in Toya, Hokkaido Japan / [ed] Morton Barlaz; Anders Lagerkvist; Toshihiko Matsuto, Hokkaido: Center for Applied Ethics and Philosophy, Hokkaido University, 2004, s. 135-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 391.
    Tham, Gustav
    et al.
    Telge AB, Södertälje.
    Andreas, Lale
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Use of ashes in a landfill covers2006Ingår i: Abstract proceedings of the 4th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium, [June 14th to 16th 2006, Gällivare, Sweden] / [ed] Anders Lagerkvist, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2006, s. 201-202Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 392. Tham, Gustav
    et al.
    Mellström, A.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Utilization of secondary construction materials in a landfill cover system2005Ingår i: SARDINIA 2005: Tenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium ; S. Margerita di Pula, Sardinia, Italy, 3 - 7 October 2005 / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2005Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 393.
    Tian, Shuangshuang
    et al.
    College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan.
    Tan, Zhongxin
    College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan.
    Kasiuliene, Alfreda
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Ai, Ping
    College of Engineering, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan.
    Transformation mechanism of nutrient elements in the process of biochar preparation for returning biochar to soil2017Ingår i: Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering, ISSN 1004-9541, E-ISSN 2210-321X, Vol. 25, nr 4, s. 477-486Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Returning biochar to soil is a heavily researched topic because biochar functions well for soil improvement. There is a significant loss of nutrients, which occurs during biochar preparation before biochar is returned to soil, thereby seriously undermining biochar's efficacy. Therefore, the transformation mechanisms of biochar pH, mass, nutrients and metals during pyrolysis under different atmospheres and temperatures were studied such that the best method for biochar preparation could be developed. Several conclusions can be reached: (1) a CO2 atmosphere is better than a N2 atmosphere for biochar preparation, although preparation in a CO2 atmosphere is not a common practice for biochar producers; (2) 350 °C is the best temperature for biochar preparation because the amount of nutrient loss is notably low based on the premise of straw transferred into biochar; and (3) transforming mechanisms of pH, N, P and K are also involved in the biochar preparation process.

  • 394.
    Tiberg, Charlotta
    et al.
    Statens Geotekniska Institut, Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Marsz, Aleksandra
    Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Persson, Ingmar
    Department of Chemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Mench, Michel
    Bordeaux University, UMR BIOGECO INRA 1202, Ecology of Communities, Bordeaux 1 University.
    Kleja, Dan B.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Immobilization of Cu and As in two contaminated soils with zero-valent iron: Long-term performance and mechanisms2016Ingår i: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 67, s. 144-152Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Immobilization of trace elements in contaminated soils by zero-valent iron (ZVI) is a promising remediation method, but questions about its long-term performance remain unanswered. To quantify immobilization and predict possible contaminant remobilization on long timescales detailed knowledge about immobilization mechanisms is needed. This study aimed at assessing the long-term effect of ZVI amendments on dissolved copper and arsenic in contaminated soils, at exploring the immobilization mechanism(s), and at setting up a geochemical model able to estimate dissolved copper and arsenic under different scenarios. Samples from untreated and ZVI-treated plots in two field experiments where ZVI had been added 6 and 15 years ago were investigated by a combination of batch experiments, geochemical modeling and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. Dissolved copper and arsenic concentrations were described by a multisurface geochemical model with surface complexation reactions, verified by EXAFS. The ZVI remained “reactive” after 6-15 years, i.e. the dissolved concentrations of copper and arsenic were lower in the ZVI-treated than in the untreated soils. There was a shift in copper speciation from organic matter complexes in the untreated soil to surface complexes with iron (hydr)oxides in the ZVI-treated soil. The pH value was important for copper immobilization and ZVI did not have a stabilizing effect if pH was lower than about 6. Immobilization of arsenic was slightly pH-dependent and sensitive to the competition with phosphate. If phosphate was ignored in the modeling, the dissolution of arsenate was greatly underestimated

  • 395.
    Tiberg, Nils
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser.
    Gödselmedel från svenska mineralråvaror1985Ingår i: Seminarium i mineralteknik i Luleå 6-8 februari 1985 / [ed] Lennart Andersson; Eric Forssberg, Luleå: MinFo , 1985, s. 53-59Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 396. Todorovic, Jelena
    Diffusion tests for assessing leaching from incineration residues2004Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing amounts of incineration residues need to be disposed, reused or treated, which calls for reliable characterisation methods. Leaching tests are often used for an assessment of release of pollutants from wastes under a variety of leaching factors. Nevertheless, the prediction of the contaminants release in field is difficult due to the complexity of the processes occurring in field. This work aims at evaluating limitations and possibilities of making long- term leaching predictions for incineration residues using diffusion leaching tests. Also the effect of carbonation on the leaching of elements was evaluated. Leaching predictions for Cl and Pb based on diffusion test data were compared with leachate data from MSWI bottom ash reused in road construction as well as leachate data obtained using a two-step compliance test. For the first years, leaching of Cl from bottom ash in field could be predicted with an accuracy within one order of magnitude. This could be considered as a good fit. Good agreement was also found between leaching predictions based on the diffusion test and the compliance test for Pb. However, predictions based on a diffusion tests might be misleading for longer time periods as the stock of contaminants depletes. Longer time series of field data are needed for comparison. Field conditions such as wet/dry and freezing/thawing cycles were not considered in this work, but might affect the mobility of contaminants. The impact of such field factors deserves a thorough examination in future research. Carbonation was found to significantly affect leaching of some elements from MSWI bottom ash. Leaching of Pb and Zn was increased due to carbonation, while leaching of Cr, Mo, and Sb decreased. Leaching of Cu was increased by carbonation alone, but it was also observed that leaching could be decreased if carbonation is combined with water-solidification. With such effect on leaching it is necessary to take carbonation into account when leaching predictions are made.

  • 397.
    Todorovic, Jelena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Pre-treatment of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash for utilisation in road construction2006Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash has the potential for utilisation in construction, e.g. as a road base material. Such an utilisation would decrease the amount of bottom ash to be landfilled. However, leachates generated from bottom ash could be concentrated with respect to salts and metals, causing environmental problems. The use of carbonation of as a method to decrease the leaching of inorganic pollutants from MSWI bottom ash has been studied. Field investigations and laboratory leaching experiments enabled the identification of inorganic pollutants whose leaching might be critical during such an utilisation. Treatment methods by carbonation and water extraction were evaluated regarding the mobility of seven critical pollutants (Al, Cl, Cr, Cu, Mo, Sb and SO4). The stabilising effect of carbonation to a moderate alkaline level (~pH 8.3) was evaluated and compared to the mobilising effect of carbonation in excess (~pH 6.4). Carbonation to a moderate alkaline level demobilised four (Al, Cr, Cu and Sb) of seven critical components. Washing to remove easily soluble salts was recommended in addition to moderate carbonation. Carbonation in excess had the highest mobilising effect on Cr, Cu and Sb when interacted with other factors, mostly pH. Carbonation in excess was therefore proven to be a key factor enhancing the effectiveness of MSWI bottom ash treatment by wet extraction.

  • 398.
    Todorovic, Jelena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Ecke, Holger
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Demobilisation of critical contaminants in four typical waste-to-energy ashes by carbonation2006Ingår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 430-441Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Two bottom ashes, one air pollution control (APC) residue and one fly ash from three different Swedish municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plants were characterised regarding the leaching of environmentally relevant components. Characterisation was performed using a diffusion tank leaching test. The impact of carbonation on the release of eight critical components, i.e., Cl-, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb, Sb, Se, and Zn, was assessed at a lab-scale and showed carbonation to have a more pronounced demobilising effect on critical components in bottom ashes than in APC residue and fly ash. From grate type incinerator bottom ash, the release of Cr decreased by 97%, by 63% for Cu and by 45% for Sb. In the investigated APC residue, the releases of Cr, Se and Pb were defined as critical, although they either remained unaffected or increased after carbonation. Cl- and remained mobile after carbonation in all investigated residues.

  • 399. Todorovic, Jelena
    et al.
    Ecke, Holger
    Stabilization/solidification of refuse derived fuel (RDF) fly ash2002Ingår i: Intercontinental landfill research symposium, ICLRS, 2, October 13-16, Asheville, North Carolina, October 13-16, 2002, 2002, s. 210-211Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 400.
    Todorovic, Jelena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Ecke, Holger
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Treatment of MSWI residues for utilization as secondary construction minerals: a review of methods2006Ingår i: Minerals & Energy - Raw Materials Report, ISSN 1404-1049, E-ISSN 1651-2286, Vol. 20, nr 3/4, s. 45-59Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues display a potential for reuse in construction. A risk of harmful emissions to the environment and negative effects on the performance of residues during utilization exist because of their composition. Extraction and stabilization pre-treatment methods are available to decrease harmful leaching from utilized MSWI residues. Extraction procedures remove pollutants in a liquid phase that has to be handled as waste water.

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