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  • 351.
    Lehmann, Paul
    et al.
    Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Can Technology-Specific Deployment Policies Be Cost-Effective?: The Case of Renewable Energy Support Schemes2016Rapport (Refereegranskat)
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  • 352.
    Lehmann, Paul
    et al.
    Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Can Technology-Specific Deployment Policies Be Cost-Effective?: The Case of Renewable Energy Support Schemes2018Ingår i: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 71, nr 2, s. 28s. 475-505Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    While there is relatively limited disagreement on the general need for supporting the deployment of renewable energy sources for electricity generation (RES-E), there are diverging views on whether the granted support levels should be technology-neutral or technology-specific. In this review paper we question the frequently stressed argument that technology-neutral schemes will promote RES-E deployment cost-effectively. We use a simple partial equilibrium model of the electricity sector with one representative investor as a vehicle to synthesize the existing literature, and review potential rationales for technology-specific RES-E support. The analysis addresses market failures associated with technological development, long-term risk taking, path dependencies as well as various external costs, all of which drive a wedge between the private and the social costs of RES-E deployment. Based on analytical insight and a review of empirical literature, we conclude that the relevance of these market failures is typically heterogeneous across different RES-E technologies. The paper also discusses a number of possible caveats to implementing cost-effective technology-specific support schemes in practice, including the role of various informational and politico-economic constraints. While these considerations involve important challenges, neither of them suggests an unambiguous plea for technology-neutral RES-E support policies either. We close by highlighting principles for careful RES-E policy design, and by outlining four important avenues for future research.

  • 353.
    Lehmann, Paul
    et al.
    Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Technology-neutral or Technology-specific?: Designing Support Schemes for Renewable Energies Cost-effectively2015Ingår i: I A E E Energy Forum, ISSN 1944-3188, nr Special Issue Quarter 2015 issue, s. 13-15Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 354.
    Lesser, Pamela
    et al.
    Northern Institute for Environmental and Minority Law, Arctic Centre, University of Lapland.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Suopajärvi, Leena
    Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Lapland.
    Petrétei, Anna
    Northern Institute for Environmental and Minority Law, Arctic Centre, University of Lapland.
    Hållbar gruvnäring: nordisk kunskap, god praxis och kunskapsluckor2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    SusMinNor–projektet är ett samarbete mellan Finska Lapplands Förbund,Lapplands Universitet (Rovaniemi), och Luleå tekniska universitet.Projektet har två huvudsakliga målsättningar – att främja gränsöverskridandesamverkan kring hållbar gruvnäring i Interreg Nord-området,och att samla och syntetisera viktiga forskningsresultat från i huvudsakde samhällsvetenskapliga disciplinerna, särskilt kring konsekvenser avgruvnäring och synergier mellan gruvnäring och samhällen i nordligasteEuropa. Projektet finansieras av Interreg Nord och genomförs underperioden 2015-2016.Inom ramen för projektet har en forskningsworkshop genomförts iHaparanda, Sverige i april 2016 samt ett slutseminarium som genomfördesden 21 september 2016 i Rovaniemi, Finland. Projektet har mynnat ut iföreliggande syntesrapport som belyser de huvudsakliga teman som forskningenkring hållbar gruvnäring i norra Finland och Sverige har adresserat,samt identifierar god praxis och kunskapsluckor i litteraturen.En genomgång av viktiga internationella initiativ kring hållbar gruvnäringhar gjorts för att möjliggöra jämförelser mellan frågeställningarsom undersökts i Finland och Sverige. Sådana undersökningar och til�-lämpningar av deras resultat i utvecklingsländer skiljer sig på ett betydandesätt från de behov som finns i Finland och Sverige, men teman som”stakeholder engagement” strategier (d.v.s. hur intressenter och sakägarebemöts) samt social hållbarhet är viktiga även i de nordiska länderna.Trots viktiga skillnader finns ofta också möjligheter till lärande av internationellaerfarenheter.

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  • 355.
    Lesser, Pamela
    et al.
    Northern Institute for Environmental and Minority Law, Arctic Centre, University of Lapland.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Suopajärvi, Leena
    Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Lapland.
    Petrétei, Anna
    Northern Institute for Environmental and Minority Law, Arctic Centre, University of Lapland.
    Kestävä kaivannaistoiminta: Pohjoinen osaaminen ja tietotaito2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [fi]

    Kestävä kaivannaistoiminta – pohjoinen osaaminen ja tietotaito eli Sus-MinNor-projekti (Sustainable mining in the Northernmost Europe – Lessonslearned and practices developed) on Lapin liiton, Lapin yliopiston ja Luulajanteknillisen yliopiston yhteityöprojekti, jolla on kaksi tavoitetta: (1) tehostaarajat ylittävää yhteistyötä kestävän kaivostoiminnan edistämiseksiInterreg Pohjoinen -alueella ja (2) koota yhteen yhteiskuntatieteellisen kaivostutkimuksentuloksia erityisesti kaivostoiminnan vaikutuksista sekäkaivosalan ja sitä ympäröivän yhteiskunnan välisistä suhteista Euroopanpohjoisilla alueilla. Projektia on rahoittanut Interreg Pohjoinen -ohjelma jase on ollut käynnissä vuosien 2015-2016 aikana.Tämä synteesiraportti on hankkeen päätuotos ja se valottaa kaivostoiminnankestävyyttä koskevan yhteiskuntatieteellisen tutkimuksenkeskeisiä teemoja, tutkimuksissa tunnistettuja hyviä käytäntöjä sekätietovajeita Suomessa ja Ruotsissa. Raportin lisäksi hankkeessa on järjestettytutkijatyöpaja Ruotsin Haaparannalla huhtikuussa 2016 ja päätösseminaariRovaniemellä syyskuussa 2016.Synteesiraportin alussa on luotu katsaus kestävän kaivostoiminnankansainvälisiin aloitteisiin vertailukohdaksi Suomen ja Ruotsin tutkimusaiheisiin.Vaikka kansainväliset kestävän kaivotoiminnan aloitteetovat painottuneet kehittyvien maiden kysymyksiin ja ovat siten hyvinerilaisia kuin Suomen ja Ruotsin tutkimustarpeet, myös samankaltaisiateemoja on paikannettavissa. Tällaisia ovat esimerkiksi sidosryhmätyöskentelyja sosiaalinen kestävyys. Eroista huolimatta kansainvälisenkeskustelun ja paikallisten tutkimusprojektien vertailu antaamahdollisuuden synergiseen oppimiseen.

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  • 356.
    Lesser, Pamela
    et al.
    Northern Institute for Environmental and Minority Law, Arctic Centre, University of Lapland.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Suopajärvi, Leena
    Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Lapland.
    Petrétei, Anna
    Northern Institute for Environmental and Minority Law, Arctic Centre, University of Lapland.
    Sustainable mining in the Northernmost Europe: lessons learned and practices developed2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The SusMinNor project is a collaboration between the Regional Council of Lapland, the University of Lapland, and Luleå University of Technology. The project’s duration spans 2015-2016 and is funded with financial support from Interreg Nord. There have been two project workshops, one in Haparanda, Sweden in April 2016 for researchers engaged in the subject, and the closing seminar, during which the research results were disseminated, in Rovaniemi, Finland in September 2016.  The Synthesis Report is the main deliverable of the project and highlights the major research themes in the social science literature on sustainable mining in Finland and Sweden (not Norway unfortunately as the project partner dropped out), and in addition, also identifies good practices and knowledge gaps in the current research.  

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  • 357.
    Lindman, Åsa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Essays on energy technology learning and voluntary carbon offsets2010Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of an introductory part and three self-contained papers, all related to the issue of promoting renewable energy sources. Paper I presents the results from a hypothetical market experiment of Swedish students' stated willingness to purchase emission allowances for carbon dioxide within the European emissions trading system. Methodologically we draw heavily on recent developments in the literature on integrating norm-motivated behaviour into neoclassical consumer theory, and assume that individuals have a preference for keeping a self-image as a responsible and thus norm-compliant person. The results indicate that students' willingness to purchase emission allowances is determined by both price and the presence of norms; people who feel personally responsible for contributing to reduced climate damages are also the ones who appear more inclined to purchase emission allowances. The empirical findings are also consistent with the notion that perceptions about others' stated willingness to purchase emission allowances affect individual norms and ultimately expressed behaviour. Norms are also largely activated by problem awareness and the individual's perception of her ability to contribute to solving the problem. In paper II we conduct a metaanalysis of wind power learning rates, thus permitting an assessment of some of the most important model specification and data issues that influence the estimated learning coefficients. The econometric analysis in this paper relies on over 100 learning rate estimates presented in 35 studies, all conducted during the time period 1995-2010. The empirical results indicate that the choice of the geographical domain of learning, and thus implicitly of the assumed presence of learning spillovers, is an important determinant of wind power learning rates. We also find that the use of extended learning curve concepts, thus integrating most notably public R&D effects into the analysis, tends to result in lower learning rates than those generated by so-called single-factor learning curve studies.Finally, in paper III a critical analysis of the choice of model specification in learning curve analyses of wind power costs is presented. Special attention is paid to the question of the choice of national or global learning (cumulative capacity), and the inclusion of other variables such as R&D, scale effects and the inclusion of a time trend. To illustrate the importance of these methodological choices, a data set of pooled annual time series data over five European countries - Denmark (1986-1999), Germany (1990-1999), Spain (1990-1999), Sweden (1991-2002) and the United Kingdom (1991-2000) - is used to compare the results from different types of model specifications. The empirical results support the notion that the estimates of learning-by-doing rates may differ across different model specifications. In our data set the presence of global learning for wind power appears more important than that of national learning, but the estimates of the (global) learning rate are only marginally influenced by the introduction of R&D and scale effects. The results also show, though, that the impact of cumulative capacity on wind power costs appears to be very sensitive to the inclusion of a time trend in the traditional learning curve model.

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  • 358.
    Lindman, Åsa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Essays on Renewable Energy Technology Development and Voluntary Carbon Offsets2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of an introduction and five self-contained papers addressing the issues of renewable energy technology development and voluntary carbon offsets, respectively. Paper I presents the results from a semi-experimental study of Swedish students’ stated willingness to purchase emission allowances for carbon dioxide within the European emissions trading scheme. Methodologically the analysis draws on recent developments in the literature on integrating norm-motivated behaviour into neoclassical consumer theory. The results indicate that students’ willingness to purchase emission allowances is determined by both price and the presence of norms; people who feel personally responsible for contributing to reduced climate damages are also the ones who appear more inclined to purchase emission allowances. The empirical findings are also consistent with the notion that perceptions about others’ stated willingness to purchase emission allowances imply improvements in people’s self-image and ultimately behavioural change. In paper II we conduct a conceptual review and a meta-analysis of wind power learning rates, including an assessment of a number of important model specification and data issues that influence these learning rates. The econometric analysis in this paper relies on over 100 learning rate estimates presented in 35 studies. The results indicate that the choice of the geographical domain of learning, and thus implicitly of the assumed presence of learning spillovers, is an important determinant of wind power learning rates. We also find that the use of extended learning curve concepts, thus integrating, most notably, public R&D effects into the analysis, tends to result in lower learning rates than those generated by the so-called single-factor learning curve model specification. In paper III a critical analysis of the choice of model specification in learning curve analyses of wind power costs is presented. Special attention is devoted to the choice of either national or global cumulative capacities as learning indicators, as well as the inclusion of other independent variables such as public R&D, scale effects and a time trend. A data set of pooled annual time series over eight European countries is used. The empirical results indicate that the estimates of the learning rates may differ considerably across different model specifications. The presence of global learning for wind power appears more important than that of national learning. Moreover, the use of extended learning curve concepts, thus integrating either scale effects or public R&D (or both) into the analysis, adds to our understanding of cost decreases in wind power technology. In paper IV we examine how effective different public policies have been in encouraging innovation in the wind energy sector. The analysis is conducted using patent counts data on a panel of European countries over the time period 1977-2009. The contribution of the paper lies primarily in its in-depth empirical efforts to address the innovation impacts of different public policies, including tests of different model specifications and important policy interaction effects. An important result is that the marginal impact of public R&D support to wind power has a more profound effect on patenting activity when implemented jointly with a feed-in tariff scheme. Finally, paper V provides an econometric analysis of the technology development patterns in the European wind power sector. The invention, innovation and diffusion phases of wind power development are brought together to assess important interaction effects. The dataset covers the time period 1991-2008 for eight western European wind power countries. We find evidence of national and international knowledge spillovers in the invention model. The results from the innovation models show that there exists global learning, but also that the world market price of steel has been an important determinant of wind power investment costs. The diffusion model results indicate that investment cost is an important determinant of the development of installed wind power capacity. The results also identify natural gas prices and feed-in tariffs as vital factors behind the observed wind power diffusion patterns.

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  • 359.
    Lindman, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Voluntary citizen participation in carbon allowance markets: the role of norm-based motivation2013Ingår i: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 13, nr 6, s. 680-697Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The results from a semi-experimental study of Swedish students' stated willingness to purchase emission allowances for carbon dioxide are presented. Drawing heavily on recent developments in the literature on integrating norm-motivated behaviour into neoclassical consumer theory, it is assumed that individuals have a preference for maintaining a self-image as a responsible (and thus norm-compliant) person. The results indicate that students' willingness to purchase carbon allowances is determined by both price and the presence of norms: those who feel personally responsible for contributing to reducing climate damages also appear more inclined to buy allowances. The empirical findings are consistent with the notion that a person's beliefs about others' stated willingness to purchase carbon allowances imply improvements in their own self-image and ultimately behavioural change. This suggests that information campaigns that attempt to influence beliefs about others' intentions could promote 'green' consumer behaviour in the carbon allowance market. Such (stated) behaviour also appears to be influenced by a person's awareness of the problem of climate change and their beliefs about their own ability to contribute to solving it. Policy relevance Although there is a concern that public goods such as reduced climate change may be under-provided in the free market, individual concern for the environment occasionally has profound impacts on consumer choice and voluntary action. This research suggests that information campaigns that attempt to influence beliefs about others' intentions could promote 'green' consumer behaviour in carbon allowance markets. Publicly-provided information about the impacts of climate change and the ways in which these damages stem from individual choices could also induce this type of behaviour

  • 360.
    Lindman, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Avståndsskatters effekt för Norrbotten: En konsekvensanalys2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 361.
    Lindman, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Uppföljning innovationsbidraget2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 362.
    Lindman, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Wind energy and green economy in Europe: Measuring policy-induced innovation using patent data2016Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 179, s. 1351-1359Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The green economy policy discourse has devoted a lot of attention to the design of public policy addressing low-carbon technologies. In this paper we examine the impacts of public R&D support and feed-in tariff schemes on innovation in the wind energy sector. The analysis is conducted using patent application data for four western European countries over the period 1977–2009. Different model specifications are tested, and the analysis highlights important policy interaction effects. The results indicate that both public R&D support and feed-in tariffs have positively affected patent application counts in the wind power sector. The (marginal) impact on patent applications of increases in feed-tariffs has also become more profound as the wind power technology has matured. There is also some evidence of policy interaction effects in that the impact of public R&D support to wind power is greater at the margin if it is accompanied by the use of feed-in tariff schemes. These results support the notion that technological innovation requires both R&D and learning-by-doing, and for this reason public R&D programs should typically not be designed in isolation from practical applications. The paper ends by outlining some important avenues for future research.

  • 363.
    Lindman, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Wind power learning rates: a conceptual review and meta-analysis2012Ingår i: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 34, nr 3, s. 754-761Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In energy system models endogenous technological change can be introduced by implement-ting so-called technology learning rates specifying the quantitative relationship between the cumulative experience of a technology and its cost. The objectives of this paper are to: (a) provide a conceptual review of learning curve model specifications; and (b) conduct a meta-analysis of wind power learning rates. This permits an assessment of a number of important specification and data issues that influence these learning rates. The econometric analysis builds on 113 estimates of the learning-by-doing rate presented in 35 studies. The meta-analy-sis indicates that the choice of the geographical domain of learning, and thus the assumed presence of learning spillovers, is an important determinant of wind power learning rates. We also find that the use of extended learning curve concepts, e.g., integrating public R&D effects, appears to result in lower learning rates than those generated by so-called single-factor learning curve studies. Overall the empirical findings suggest that future studies should pay increased attention to the issue of learning and knowledge spillovers in the renewable energy field, as well as to the interaction between technology learning and R&D efforts.

  • 364.
    Lindman, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Wind power innovation and policy in Europe: a patent data approach2012Ingår i: Proceedings of the 12th IAEE European Energy Conference: Energy challenge and environmental sustainability, International Association for Energy Economics (IAEE) , 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
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  • 365.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University.
    Nguyen Thu, Huong
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap. Division of Mathematical Statistics, Department of Mathematics, Stockholm University.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Weak support for weak sustainability: Genuine savings and long-term wellbeing in Sweden, 1850 – 20002018Ingår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 145, s. 339-345Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We study genuine savings as an indicator of long-term welfare for Sweden for the period 1850 to 2000. Sweden has developed long series of comprehensive ‘green’ national accounts for this entire period and is, therefore, interesting as a testing ground for the hypotheses linking green accounting and sustainability. We find support for the weakest of the hypotheses in the theoretical literature on weak sustainability and genuine savings, namely that genuine savings are correlated with future economic well-being. However, the stronger hypotheses in this literature are not supported: there is no one-to-one relationship between genuine savings and prosperity, there is no indication that the relationship becomes stronger for longer time horizons, or with more comprehensive savings measures. The findings suggest that genuine savings, at least as currently measured in national accounts and satellite accounts, may not be a good forward-looking indicator of future prosperity.

  • 366.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Department of Economic History, Umeå university, Umeå universitet.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Thu, Huong Nguyen
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Weak support for weak sustainability: Genuine savings and long term wellbeing in Sweden, 1850 - 20002016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study genuine savings as an indicator of long term welfare for Sweden for the period 1850 to 2000. Sweden has developed long series of comprehensive “green” national accounts for this entire period and is therefore interesting as a testing ground for the hypotheses linking green accounting and sustainability. We find support for the weakest of the hypotheses in the theoretical literature on weak sustainability and genuine savings, that genuine savings is correlated with future economic well-being. However, we find little support for any of the stronger hypotheses in the literature; there is no one-to-one relationship between genuine savings and prosperity, there is no indication that the relationship becomes stronger for longer time horizons, and other hypotheses linked to this literature are also rejected. The findings suggest that genuine savings, at least as currently measured in national accounts and satellite accounts, may not be a good predictor of future prosperity.

  • 367.
    Lissmyr, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Skattning av byteskostnader på den svenska bankmarknaden2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska bankmarknaden har länge präglats av ett oligopol. Trots nya aktörer och enökad digitalisering har storbankerna fortfarande majoriteten av marknadsandelarna.Vilket skulle kunna förklaras med byteskostnader. Syftet är därmed att skattabyteskostnader på den svenska bankmarknaden, därefter har en analys gjorts på priser ochkonkurrensen. Studien är avgränsad till inlåningsmarknaden med åtta bolag. Studien ären kvantitativ studie med deduktiv ansats, skattningen av byteskostnaderna gjordesutifrån en metod där värdet av byteskostnaden skattas med hjälp av data på avgifter och marknadsandelar. Resultatet visade att prisutvecklingen på bankmarknaden visar en trendpå stabilisering under de tio senaste åren. Byteskostnaderna skapar inlåsningseffekter förhushåll på den svenska bankmarknaden, vilket hindrar konkurrensen på svenskabankmarknaden. Resultatet är i enlighet med tidigare studier där höga byteskostnaderexisterar på bolag med höga marknadsandelar – låga byteskostnader på bolag med lågamarknadsandelar.

  • 368.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Department of Economics, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Tangerås, Thomas
    Institutet för Näringslivsforskning.
    Carlén, Björn
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, VTI.
    Energimarknaden, ägandet och klimatet2013Bok (Refereegranskat)
  • 369.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    A comparison of approaches towards measuring technical change: the case of Swedish newsprint production2005Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 7, nr 4, s. 563-577Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate and analyze technical change in the Swedish newsprint industry over the time period 1974-1994. Using a variable Translog cost function as the basis, three different approaches toward estimating technical change are developed: (a) the Tornqvist index, (b) the standard time trend specification, and (c) the general index approach. The empirical results indicate that considerable differences exist between the three approaches, both in terms of their mean estimates of technical change and in their variation over time. Finally, the main determinants of technical change in the Swedish newsprint industry are identified and used to explain the three technical change indices within a simple econometric model. The results indicate that capacity utilization has been the dominant determinant of technical change, but that regulatory intensity and output prices are also important determinants.

  • 370.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Analysis and projection of global iron ore trade: a panel data gravity model approach2018Ingår i: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 31, nr 1-2, s. 191-202Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, an empirical model of global trade in iron ore is developed and applied. The empirical specification is based on the trade gravity theory in which the trade is determined by the income of the trading countries, the distance between the countries, and other characteristics of the countries. The model is specified allowing for country-specific effects. The estimation is performed with panel data for global bilateral iron ore trade flows from 1980 to 2016 including 121 countries and almost 14,000 observations. The results indicate a strong support of the gravity model hypotheses. On average, the trade value is projected to increase by approximately 5% per year up until 2035. The trade potential of iron ore is estimated to 410 million USD per year. Applied to forecasting and policy analysis, the results represent another worthwhile source of information providing an alternative view of the global trade in iron ore that can be helpful for decision-makers.

  • 371.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Avfallspolitiken måste fokusera på rätt saker2012Ingår i: Goeteborgs Fria Tidning, ISSN 1651-1190, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 8-11Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 372.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Changes in Namibia’s energy market2001Ingår i: Journal of Development Alternatives and Area Studies, ISSN 1651-9728, Vol. 20, nr 1/2, s. 103-112Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 373.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Choice of location for investments in the European paper industry: the impact of wastepaper2001Ingår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 33, nr 3, s. 167-180Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper identifies and estimates the relative impact that factor input prices, output market size and agglomeration effects have on the choice of location for investment projects in the European pulp and paper industry, with special focus on the price of waste paper A conditional logit model was developed to fit investment projects across 16 European countries for the period 1985-95. The results suggest that factor input prices, in general, and the price for waste paper in particular, are neither a statistical nor an economic significant location determinant for a paper manufacturer. Furthermore, the results suggest that market size and agglomeration effects are considered more important than the price of raw material when an investment site is chosen.

  • 374.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Consequence analysis of changing market conditions for the Swedish sawmill industry2006Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    An applied partial equilibrium model of the forest cluster has been developed and implemented to assess the impact of changing market conditions for the sawmill industry in Sweden. The focus of this study was thus to analyse the sawmill industry and the interdependencies between the different sectors in the forest cluster. The dependencies and relationships between the sectors using forest-based raw materials implies that changing market conditions in one sector could have profound effects on the other sectors. In this research report the forest cluster is defined and a partial equilibrium model is developed and implemented (FCM) that simulates the results from changing market conditions for the sawmill industry and its effects on the other sectors in the forest cluster. Three scenarios are simulated using the FCM: (i) a ten percent decrease in demand for sawn wood products; (ii) a 30 percent decrease and; (iii) a ten percent increase. The results indicated that both production and consumption patterns are sensitive to changes in the demand for sawn wood products. There are also significant differences between different intermediate inputs and between different sectors in their responses to these changes. Also, certain sectors and inputs would gain market share while others would lose market shares. Changing output market conditions for the sawmill industry have significant effects on the factor prices and on the flow of intermediate inputs between the forest cluster sectors. In general, in the minor reduction and the worse case scenarios the price for sawlogs is reduced by between nine and 25 percent depending on scenario. Even a small reduction in the demand for sawn wood products has serious effects on the price formation and on the quantitative flows in the cluster. The factor prices for woodchips and sawdust increases by 21 and 34 percent, respectively, as a consequence of a 30 percent reduction in the demand for awn wood products while the price of sawlogs decrease by 25 percent. The reduced supply of the sawmill by-products, i.e., sawdust and woodchips, causes significant price increases forcing the woodboard industry to close down entirely. The forest value will, depending on scenario, decrease by as much as 5.5 billion SEK due to reductions in the demand for sawn wood products. The value of the forest is reduced since forest owners can not fully meet the reduced domestic demand by increasing export volumes. The difference between the sawlogs and pulpwood prices are diminishing considerately mainly as a result of a reduction in the demand for sawlogs from 160 SEK in the baseline scenario to only 51 SEK in the worst case scenario. This complicates the traditional classification between the two types of roundwood. What has traditionally been considered as sawlogs and primarily purchased by the sawmill industry are now close to being classified as “pulpwood” and can thus be diverted to the pulp and paper industry reinforcing the predicaments for the sawmill industry.

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  • 375.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Cost structure of and the competition for forest-based biomass2006Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 21, nr 3, s. 272-280Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass has become a popular alternative to satisfy expanding energy demand and as a substitute for fossil fuels and phased-out nuclear energy in Europe. The European Union White Paper stipulates that the utilization of biomass shall increase to 1566 TWh by 2010. However it is often overlooked that the forest resources are already, to a large extent, used by the forest industries. When promoting biomass for energy generation the consequences for the forest industries also need to be considered. Sweden is an excellent case study, as there are vast quantities of forest resources, nuclear power is starting to be phased out, there are restrictions on expanding hydropower and the political desire exists to "set an example" with respect to carbon dioxide emissions. This paper attempts to estimate and analyse the supply of two types of forest resource, namely, roundwood and harvesting residues derived from final harvesting and commercial thinnings. Two separate supply curves are estimated: one forroundwood and one for harvesting residues. The cost structure is based on an economic-engineering approach where the separate cost components are constructed from the lowest cost element into aggregates for labour, capital, materials and overhead costs for each forest resource. The results indicate an unutilized economic supply of 12 TWh of harvesting residues in Sweden. However, after these 12 TWh have been recovered it becomes more profitable to use roundwood for energy purposes than to continue extracting further amounts of harvesting residues.

  • 376.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Dependencies between forest products sectors: a partial equilibrium analysis2007Ingår i: Forest products journal, ISSN 0015-7473, Vol. 57, nr 9, s. 79-86Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An applied partial equilibrium model of the forest cluster has been developed and implemented to assess the impact ofchanging market conditions for the sawmill industry. The focus of this study was to analyze the sawmill industry and the interdependencies between the different sectors in the forest cluster. The dependencies and relationships between the sectors using forest-based raw materials implies that changing market conditions in one sector could have profound effects on other sectors. The analysis indicated that both production and consumption patterns are sensitive to changes in the demand for sawn wood products. There are also significant differences between different intermediate inputs and between different sectors in their responses to these changes. Also, certain sectors and inputs would gain market share while others would lose market shares. Furthermore, changing output market conditions for the sawmill industry have significant effects on the factor prices and on the flow of intermediate inputs between the forest cluster sectors. In general, the price for sawlogs is reduced by between 9 and 25 percent depending on scenario. Even a small reduction in the demand for sawn wood products has serious effects on the price formation and on the quantitative flows in the cluster.

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  • 377.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Determinants of trade for forest fuels and products2009Ingår i: Energy, Economy, Environment: The Global View: 32nd IAEE International Conference, San Francisco CA, June 21-24, 2009, International Atomic Energy Agency. IAEA, Publications, Sales and Promotion Unit , 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
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  • 378.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Empirical specification of cost reductions associated with accumulated knowledge in the Swedish kraft paper industry2008Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 10, nr 7-8, s. 460-466Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an alternative approach in estimating the effect that technological knowledge has on the cost structure facing individual firms. The suggested method is applied to the Swedish kraft paper industry and relies on a comprehensive dataset for eight individual integrated kraft paper mills. The developed model is based on a two-step process. Step one, the estimation of a pure cost reduction index is derived using a flexible variable cost function which is utilising mill-specific dummy variables. In addition, this approach allows for an estimation of the pure unit cost reduction index that is devoid of scale and price effects which, if not dealt with can produce spurious results when estimating learning effects. Step two, is the estimation of a two factor dynamic learning curve model (2FDLC) using the estimated pure unit cost reduction index as dependent variable. The results suggest that the Swedish kraft paper industry has relatively little to gain in terms of cost reduction through a further technological learning. However, the method performed well, producing intuitive and statistically significant estimates indicating its usefulness in further analyses.

  • 379.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Energy Price Volatility: The Link between Fossil Energy and Woody Bioenergy2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
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  • 380.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    European trade in forest products and fuels2010Ingår i: Journal of Forest Economics, ISSN 1104-6899, E-ISSN 1618-1530, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 235-251Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose has been to determine to what extent differences in net trade and revealed comparative advantage between EU member states could be explained by differences in forest endowments, domestic demand, energy policies and other country specific characteristics. An adopted model of the Heckscher-Ohlin theory, suggesting a direct relationship between a country's trade, forest endowments and income (HOV model), has been empirically estimated for three forest products (roundwood, chips & particles and wood fuel), 19 European countries and for the period 1994-2006. Both net export and an index of revealed comparative advantages was constructed and used as dependent variables. Moreover, different model specification was estimated using different measures of forest endowments. The results suggest that forest endowments are an important determinant for explaining differences in net trade of the included forest commodities. However, domestic demand, measured by income level, is not. Thus, the results provide mixed support for the HOV model

  • 381.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Factor demand and price sensitivity of forest-based biomass in the European energy and forest sectors2009Ingår i: Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research, ISSN 1939-0459, E-ISSN 1939-0467, Vol. 1, nr 3, s. 229-239Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing utilization of biomass is, in the short-term, one of the most realistic alternatives to meet the energy and the environmental goals established by the European Union. As a result, the demand for forest-based products from European forests will increase. However, glaringly little research effort has been made towards analyzing the price effect resulting from the increasing demand for forest-based biomass and how the relevant industry sectors adjust their input demands due to these price changes. The purpose of this paper is thus to provide a disaggregated and detailed empirical estimation and analysis of the various input demand elasticities, as well as of the relevant substitution elasticities. The model is estimated using a panel of 23 European countries for the period between 1999 and 2005, thus allowing for specific country effects. The results indicate that the energy sector is relatively more price sensitive in its input demand for fossil fuels compared to the fibrous fuel categories. Thus, higher fibrous input prices will have a relatively small effect on the quantity of fibrous inputs that the energy sector demands. The forest industry is comparatively more price sensitive in its procurement of fibrous inputs than the energy sector, and will therefore reduce its input demand relatively more as a consequence from a fibrous input price increase. Furthermore, the cross-price elasticities reveal some interesting findings. In general, the energy sector will increase its utilization of fossil fuels as a result of increasing fibrous input price. Conversely, the energy sector will increase the utilization of fibrous input relatively less as a consequence of increasing fossil fuel prices

  • 382.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Fuel choice for energy generation in the Swedish kraft pulp/paper industry2003Ingår i: Minerals & Energy - Raw Materials Report, ISSN 1404-1049, E-ISSN 1651-2286, Vol. 18, nr 2, s. 16-23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the economic possibilities for the Swedish pulp and paper industry in general and the kraft pulp industry in particular of increasing the share of internally generated energy by using readily available production residues such as black liquor. It is suggested that the industry's reliance on fossil fuels and purchased electricity has decreased over time, thereby reducing the impact of external energy prices on energy investments. The results suggest that the use of biomass will only increase to the point where the existing capacity to do so is met unless heavy investment subsidies are made available.

  • 383.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Glädjekalkyler kan locka till dyr energieffektivisering2009Ingår i: Dagens Industri, ISSN 0346-640X, s. 3-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 384.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Investment behaviour in the European pulp and paper industry2003Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 18, nr 2, s. 184-192Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analysed the location of investments in the European pulp and paper industry. Three continuous investment models were estimated allowing for fixed as well as random effects using data for 10 European countries over the period 1978-1995. The results indicated that labour wages, market size and agglomeration effects were the most important determinants of investment levels. The impacts of raw material prices were somewhat ambiguous. However, in the long run waste paper availability seems to matter in the sense of attracting investments. A comparison of the economic significance of changes in the costs of input factors with changes in the market size indicated that proximity to output markets had a larger impact on the decision to invest than proximity to abundant raw materials or cheap access to electricity and labour. Furthermore, the agglomeration coefficient indicated that the power of sunk costs is important.

  • 385.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Mikroekonomi: teori och tillämpning2010Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Mikroekonomi är det vetenskapsområde som analyserar hur marknader för olika varor eller tjänster fungerar. Många av de samhällsekonomiska problem som uppstår kan lättare förstås och lösas genom att tillämpa mikroekonomisk teori. Boken presenterar grundläggande begrepp, förhållanden och teorier som ligger till grund för hur individer eller hushåll fattar sina konsumtionsbeslut. Till detta kopplas hur företag fattar sina produktionsbeslut, det vill säga vad som ska produceras och hur det produceras.Boken inleds med en presentation av hur utbud och efterfrågan samspelar för att bestämma pris och kvantitet av en vara eller tjänst som handlas på en marknad. Detta följs av en djupare analys av nyttoteori och av produktionsteori som ligger till grund för utbudet och efterfrågan. Vidare presenteras hur avsteg från den ideala marknadsformen, fullständig konkurrens, kan ske och hur statligt marknadsingripande kan vara motiverat. Boken innehåller rikligt med diagram och figurer för att visuellt förklara flertalet av de ekonomiska förhållanden som presenteras.Mikroekonomi är skriven för att användas som lärobok i mikroekonomi på grundnivå för universitets- och högskolestudier. Den vänder sig även till en bred grupp av läsare utan förkunskaper i mikroekonomi.

  • 386.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Mikroekonomi: Teori och tillämpning2013 (uppl. 2)Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 387.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    On the existence of learning effects in Swedish kraft paper mills2003Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an alternative approach in estimating the effect learning has on the cost structure facing individual firms. The suggested method is applied to the Swedish kraft paper industry and relies on a comprehensive dataset for eight individual integrated kraft paper mills. The analysis is conducted through two steps. First, using a flexible cost function, utilizing mill-specific dummy variables, a cost reduction index can be estimated devoid of scale and price effects that if not dealt with can produce spurious results when estimating learning effects. The second step is to regress the estimated cost reduction index on the traditional determinants that are thought to influence the learning process. The results suggest that the Swedish kraft paper industry has relatively little to gain in terms of cost reduction through a further learning process. However, the method performed well, producing intuitive and statistically significant estimates indicating its usefulness in further analyses.

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  • 388.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Outnyttjade samhällsekonomiska vinster inom byggsektorn2004Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Betydande kostnadsreduktioner för byggnaders och anläggningars uppförande och förvaltning kan frambringas genom att analysera byggnadsverkens livscykelkostnad. Minskat energibehov och annat resursutnyttjande tillsammans med ökad materialåtervinning ger dessutom upphov till lägre samhällsekonomiska kostnader. Det är därför en utomordentligt central uppgift för den politiska makten att skapa institutionella incitament som styr de enskilda aktörernas handlande i en riktning som gynnar hela samhället. Det är på så sätt den ekonomiska utvecklingen kan styras mot långsiktig miljömedvetenhet. Byggsektorn är en av de större aktörerna i den svenska ekonomin. Den totala byggverksamheten uppgick år 2003 till 125 miljarder SEK och sysselsatte 238 000 personer. Samma år byggdes det motsvarande drygt 160 000 kvm bruttoarea kontorsyta, cirka 1,2 miljoner kvm bruttoarea boyta i flerbostadshus och cirka 5 000 km statlig väg fick ny beläggning samtidigt som 370 km nybyggda eller förbättrade statliga vägar öppnades. Förvaltningskostnaden för denna produktion förväntas motsvara 270 miljarder SEK per år. Ställt i relation till den totala byggverksamhetens omfattning är det förvånande att förvaltningskostnaden inte åtnjuter större uppmärksamhet. Detta förefaller än mer förvånansvärt med tanke på byggnadernas och anläggningarnas förväntade livslängd. Livscykelkostnaden kan bestå av upp till 90 procent av förvaltningskostnader. För att samhällets resurser ska användas optimalt måste nya kriterier för livscykelekonomiska analyser utvecklas och konsekvent tillämpas vid, framför allt, offentlig upphandling av byggnadsverk. En genomgång av den svenska byggpolitiken måste ske och nya beslutsmodeller utvecklas för att de rättaavvägningarna ska kunna göras.

  • 389.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Paper recovery and investment behaviour in the European pulp and paper industry2000Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of an introductory part followed by two self-contained papers both analysing the effect recovered paper has on the locational choice for investments in the European pulp and paper industry. In the first paper we develop a continuous Cobb-Douglas investment model with the purpose of finding and estimating the investment determinants for the European pulp and paper industry, with special focus on the impact of recovered paper. The analysis is carried out within a neo-classical locational framework in which firms minimise the production and transportation costs for both input factors and for output products. We use a panel of data consisting of ten European countries over the period 1978 to 1995. The results suggests that both short and long run aspects of wastepaper recovery tend not to be important determinants of investment activities in the pulp and paper industry, whereas the price of wood pulp and electricity together with existing capacity seem to be more important. In the second paper we employ a different approach to the same problem. In this paper we develop a conditional logit model and compile the number of investment projects that were scheduled to be finished in 16 European countries between 1985 and 1995. In contrast to the first paper, which used continuous data, this model employs discrete data for the dependent variable. A discrete variable counts the actual number of times a certain event has taken place, i.e., the number of investment projects. The same set of determinants as in the first paper is used to ease comparing the two papers. We further break down the investment projects into four paper grades, which allow us to analyse the effects of wastepaper in greater detail. The results suggest that factor input prices in general and the price for wastepaper in particular are neither statistically nor economically significant location determinants for a paper manufacturer. Furthermore, the results suggest that market size and agglomeration effects are more important than the price of raw materials for location. On the basis of the results from the two papers, we can conclude that the price of wastepaper is not an important determinant for the European pulp and paper industry when choosing investment sites. Price driven policies aimed at stimulating paper recovery may therefore fail to achieve increased investments in the industry. At the same time, both papers suggests that agglomeration effects, i.e., existing productive capacity, is an important determinant. The economic significance of the agglomeration coefficients suggests that the power of sunk costs is important. Investments are largely diverted to existing capacity and the ability to attract new establishments is limited.

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  • 390.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Produktion och marknad: utdrag ur Mikroekonomi2018 (uppl. 1)Bok (Refereegranskat)
  • 391.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Substitution and price effects from increased utilisation of forest-based biomass in the European energy sector2007Ingår i: From research to market development: 15th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition ; proceedings of the international conference held in Berlin, Germany, 7 - 11 May 2007 / [ed] K. Mariatis, Florence: ETA - Renewable Energies , 2007, s. 2537-2544Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 392.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Så bromsar vi sopökningen2011Ingår i: Dagens SamhälleArtikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 393.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    The role of wastepaper in the pulp and paper industry: investments, technical change and factor substitution2002Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental concerns, both public and private, has resulted in, among other things, an increased wastepaper recovery. The segment of the economy this has had a major impact on is the pulp and paper industry since they are the prime user of wastepaper in the production of paper and paperboard. This, together with the fact that the pulp and paper industry is one of the larger actors in the European economies, has raised the question whether the increasing wastepaper recovery has in any profound way altered the structure of the pulp and paper industry. Hence, the overall purpose of this dissertation is to analyse the alleged increased importance of wastepaper as an input factor in the production of new paper and paperboard products. Specifically, the impact wastepaper has on the pulp and paper industry is analysed from three different aspects: (a) investment behaviour; (b) technological change; and (c) input factor substitutability. The dissertation contains six detached papers of which the three first analyse the investment behaviour, while the remaining three analyse technical change and input factor substitution possibilities. Papers I-III attempts to answer the question whether wastepaper availability

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  • 394.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    The supply of forest-based biomass for the energy sector: the case of Sweden2003Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass has become a popular alternative to fossil fuels in energy generation. Especially in Sweden, where vast quantities of forest resources are available, nuclear power is starting to be phased out, there are restrictions on expanding hydro power and there is the political will to "set an example" with respect to carbon dioxide emissions.These are the main drivers for the increased usage of biomass in energy generation. However, an issue often neglected is that domestic forest resources are already, to a large extent, used by the forest industries. By promoting biofuel the consequences for the forest industries need to be considered. This paper attempts to construct and analyze the supply of two types of forest resources, namely, roundwood and forest residues derived from either final harvest or commercial thinning operations. Two separate supply curves are constructed and estimated, one for pulp usable and the other for pulp unusable forest resources. The cost structure is based on an economic-engineering approach where the separate cost components are built up from the lowest cost element into aggregates for labor, capital, materials and overhead costs for each forest resource.The results indicate an untapped potential of 12 TWh of pulp unusable forest residues. However, after this 12 TWh has been recovered it becomes more profitable to use roundwood for energy purposes than to continue extracting further amounts of forest residues.

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  • 395.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Utbudet av biobränslen på kort och lång sikt2009Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med rapporten är att ekonomiskt bedöma utbuden av biobränslen i Sverige. Detta sker genom att konstruera utbudskurvor för relevanta kategorier biomassa. Vidare sker bedömningar om de framtida utbuden med ett 10- respektive 25-årigt perspektiv bland annat för att tillåta en anpassning av skogs- och jordbruksektorns tekniska lösningar till effektivare tillvaratagande av biomassan. Förekomsten av regionala och international marknader inkluderas också i analysen. Modellen möjliggör en skattning av ett utbud för varje kategori biomassa. Dessa ligger sedan till grund när olika aggregerade utbudskurvor konstrueras. Resultaten pekar på ekonomiska möjligheter att öka uttagen av biomassa givet ett referenspris. Denna ökning är beroende av rådande prisnivå. Emellertid visar resultaten att tidigare studier överskattar uttagspotentialen varför en högre grad av tillförsikt måste ske vid utformningen av olika policy åtgärder.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 396.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Utvärdering av högskoleutbildningarna i nationalekonomi2012Ingår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, nr 5, s. 58-67Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 397.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Welfare and the case of recent mergers in the iron ore industry2004Ingår i: Minerals & Energy - Raw Materials Report, ISSN 1404-1049, E-ISSN 1651-2286, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 3-8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 398.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Athanassiadis, Dimitris
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Supply assessment of forest biomass: A bottom-up approach for Sweden2015Ingår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 75, s. 213-226Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As there is increasing interest in the use of biomass for energy in Sweden, the potential availability and harvesting costs of forest roundwood, harvesting residues and stumps were estimated up to the year 2069 in 10-year intervals, using a high spatial resolution GIS. In each individual forest area, an average harvesting cost per forest assortment was estimated, based on the geographic and other properties of the area. Using cost structure and resource availability, marginal cost curves were constructed to allow analyses of the effects of changing market conditions and different policy frameworks. Based on geographically explicit data, the results indicated that the average harvesting costs would be 21–24 € m−3 for roundwood, depending on the type of harvesting and extraction operation. The corresponding cost estimate for harvesting residues was 23–25 € m−3 and 35 € m−3 for stumps. The harvesting cost estimates lie on the steeper part of the marginal cost curve, suggesting that increases in the supply of woody biomass can only occur at significantly higher harvesting costs. From a policy perspective, this suggests that subsidies aimed at reducing the harvesting costs will only have limited success in increasing the harvested volumes, given current technology. Therefore, for future development in the supply of forest assortments for energy generation, it is important to consider not only the supply potential, but also the integration of improvements in harvesting and transportation systems.

  • 399.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Bäckström, Kristoffer
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Bioenergy innovation and energy policy2015Ingår i: Economics of Innovation and New Technology, ISSN 1043-8599, E-ISSN 1476-8364, Vol. 24, nr 8, s. 755-775Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using panel data on 13 OECD countries between 1979 and 2008 this paper examines the affect climate and energy policies have had on the rate of biotechnology innovations. The explanatory variables include a vector of important determinants of patenting activity for biotechnologies (e.g. specific and general research and development expenditures, energy consumption, energy prices and total number of registered patents). Fixed effects are employed to capture unobservable country-specific heterogeneity using a negative binomial model. The empirical results indicate that policies are important for stimulating innovations in biotechnologies. The development of feed-in-tariffs (FITs) and the implementation of tradable green certificates have had a positive and statistically significant impact on patent activity. The economic impact of green certificates is found to be larger than that of FITs. In addition, R&D activities have also had a positive and statistically significant effect on innovation.

  • 400.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Bäckström, Kristoffer
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Bioenergy innovation and the role of energy and climate policies2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
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