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  • 401. Todorovic, Jelena
    et al.
    Ecke, Holger
    Hébert, Valérie
    Predicting the release of chlorides from MSWI bottom ash reused in road construction2004Ingår i: The 3rd Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium November 29th - December 2nd, 2004 in Toya, Hokkaido Japan / [ed] Morton Barlaz; Anders Lagerkvist; Toshihiko Matsuto, Hokkaido: Center for Applied Ethics and Philosophy, Hokkaido University, 2004, s. 22-23Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 402. Todorovic, Jelena
    et al.
    Ecke, Holger
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Solidification with water as a treatment method for air pollution control residues2003Ingår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 23, nr 7, s. 621-629Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of solidification with water was studied on air pollution control (APC) residues from incineration of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) regarding mechanical strength and leaching behaviour of solidified material. Factorial design in two levels was applied to investigate the impact of water addition, time, and temperature to mechanical strength of solidified material. Factors time and temperature, as well as the interaction between the addition of water and time significantly (α=0.05) influenced the mechanical strength of solidified material. The diffusion-leaching test NEN 7345 was performed to investigate if the leaching behaviour of elements from solidified material was determined by diffusion. Since it was found that leaching is not diffusion controlled, the long-term leaching behaviour was not assessed. However, the investigation showed that some of the studied components (Al, Hg, Mn, Pb, Si, and Zn) could be considerably demobilised by solidification with water. Concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, and Ni were either below or not quite above the detection limits to be included in the analysis of leaching behaviour. The elements least demobilised by solidification were Cl, Cr, K, and Na.

  • 403.
    Todorovic, Jelena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Svensson, Malin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Herrmann, Inga
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Ecke, Holger
    Artificial carbonation for controlling the mobility of critical elements in bottom ash2006Ingår i: Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, ISSN 1438-4957, E-ISSN 1611-8227, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 145-153Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI), bottom ash, generated at a stoker grate type incinerator, the critical elements were identified in terms of EU regulation. The stabilizing effect of moderate carbonation (pH 8.28 ± 0.03) on critical contaminants was studied through availability and diffusion leaching protocols. Data from the performed tests were evaluated with the goal of reusing MSWI bottom ash as secondary construction material. To investigate the mobilizing effect of CO2, suspended MSWI bottom ash was severely carbonated (pH 6.40 ± 0.07). The effect of CO2 and its interaction with other leaching factors, such as liquid/solid (L/S) ratio, leaching time, pH, ultrasound treatment, and leaching temperature, were examined using a reduced 26-1 experimental design. Contaminants identified as critical were Cr, Cu, Mo, Sb, Cl-, and SO4 2-. Although moderate carbonation decreased the release of Cr, Cu, Mo, and Sb from compacted bottom ash, the main disadvantage remains its inability to demobilize Cl- and SO4 2-. The hypothesized mobilizing effect of severe carbonation was proven. The treatment enhanced the separation of critical components (α = 0.05) (except for Cl-), i.e., about fivefold for Sb and about twofold for Cr, Cu, and S. Nevertheless, the prospect is good that severe carbonation could constitute the deciding key parameter to facilitate the technical feasibility of a future washing process for MSWI bottom ash.

  • 404.
    Touceda-Gonzalez, M.
    et al.
    Instituto de Investigaciones Agrobiologicas de Galicia (IIAG), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC).
    Prieto-Fernandez, A.
    Instituto de Investigaciones Agrobiologicas de Galicia (IIAG), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC).
    Renella, Giancarlo
    Department of Agrifood Production and Environmental Sciences, University of Florence.
    Giagnoni, Laura
    Department of Agrifood Production and Environmental Sciences, University of Florence.
    Sessitsch, A.
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Center for Health & Bioresources.
    Brader, G.
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Center for Health & Bioresources.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Dimitriou, Ioannis
    Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences, Department of Crop Production Ecology.
    Eriksson, J.
    Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences, Department of Soil and Environment.
    Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology.
    Gałązka, Rafał
    Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation - State Research Institute.
    Janssen, Jolien
    Hasselt University, Centre for Environmental Sciences.
    Mench, Michel
    Agence Nationale de Sécurité Sanitaire (Anses).
    Müller, Ingo
    Saxon State Agency for Environment, Agriculture and Geology.
    Neu, Silke
    Saxon State Office for Environment, Agriculture and Geology.
    Puschenreiter, Markus
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna.
    Siebielec, Grzegorz
    Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation - State Research Institute.
    Vangronsveld, Jaco
    Hasselt University, Centre for Environmental Sciences.
    Kidd, Petra S.
    Instituto de Investigaciones Agrobiológicas de Galicia (IIAG), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Santiago de Compostela .
    Microbial community structure and activity in trace elementcontaminatedsoils phytomanaged by Gentle Remediation Options (GRO)2017Ingår i: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 231, nr 1, s. 237-251Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Gentle remediation options (GRO) are based on the combined use of plants, associated microorganisms and soil amendments, which can potentially restore soil functions and quality. We studied the effects of three GRO (aided-phytostabilisation, in situ stabilisation and phytoexclusion, and aided-phytoextraction) on the soil microbial biomass and respiration, the activities of hydrolase enzymes involved in the biogeochemical cycles of C, N, P, and S, and bacterial community structure of trace element contaminated soils (TECS) from six field trials across Europe. Community structure was studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting of Bacteria, α- and β-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Streptomycetaceae, and sequencing of DGGE bands characteristic of specific treatments. The number of copies of genes involved in ammonia oxidation and denitrification were determined by qPCR.

    Phytomanagement increased soil microbial biomass at three sites and respiration at the Biogeco site (France). Enzyme activities were consistently higher in treated soils compared to untreated soils at the Biogeco site. At this site, microbial biomass increased from 696 to 2352 mg ATP kg−1 soil, respiration increased from 7.4 to 40.1 mg C-CO2 kg−1 soil d−1, and enzyme activities were 2–11-fold higher in treated soils compared to untreated soil. Phytomanagement induced shifts in the bacterial community structure at both, the total community and functional group levels, and generally increased the number of copies of genes involved in the N cycle (nirK, nirS, nosZ, and amoA). The influence of the main soil physico-chemical properties and trace element availability were assessed and eventual site-specific effects elucidated. Overall, our results demonstrate that phytomanagement of TECS influences soil biological activity in the long term.

  • 405.
    Travar, Igor
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Environmental impact of ashes used in a landfill cover construction2006Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The landfilling ban for combustible waste in EU countries and the extended use of bio fuels in heat and electricity production will result in an increasing generation of incineration residues, such as fly ash and bottom ash. Instead of landfilling, ashes used as a construction material in, e.g., roads or landfill covers can result in saving natural resources and economical advantages. The main aim of this work is to assess how ashes used in landfill cover construction affect the environment and how the potential environmental impact can be assessed. The main pollution pathway of using ashes in landfill cover construction is leaching. Laboratory leaching tests can be used as a tool to assess the possible environmental impact of ashes before their use in a landfill cover. Solubility leaching tests, e.g. batch leaching test, pH-stat test and percolation test, can be useful tools to predict contaminants that can be released from ashes used in a protection and drainage layer. The diffusion leaching test together with the availability test are suitable to assess the release from ash used as liner material. However, predicting contaminant release in the field is difficult due to the complexity of the processes occurring in the field. Leachate and drainage water are two types of water generated in landfill cover. Leachate samples were mainly contaminated by As, Mo, Cl and N. Drainage water contained high concentrations of Ni, Cl and N with the addition of As, Cu, Mo, Pb and Zn in the areas where bottom ash is in the protection layer. Since leaching of most pollutants showed no clear tendency to decline over time, assessing how long leachate and drainage water need treatment is difficult. However, it is expected that salt forming elements will be depleted from ashes within some decades. A lower release of other trace elements, such as Cu, Pb and Zn, to ash leachate is expected due to immobilization by Al/Fe hydr(oxides) and clay minerals.

  • 406.
    Travar, Igor
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    The use of air pollution control residues in landfill covers and for soil stabilization2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    About 66% of all heat energy generated in Sweden originates from the incineration of municipal solid waste and biofuels such as wood, cardboard and peat. In addition to heat energy, incinerators generate about 1.7 Mt of ashes each year, of which 500 000 t are air pollution control (APC) residues. APC residues from municipal solid waste incineration are usually landfilled whereas those from biofuel incinerators are used in roads, as soil fertilizers, and as amendments for stabilizing APC residues classified as hazardous waste. The physico-chemical properties of compacted APC residues are such that they could be viable alternatives to clay in landfill cover liners, and could also replace cement in cases where a solidified structure is desired. However, APC residues are classified as waste and their use may rise concern due to the release of harmful substances into the environment. This thesis examines the environmental impact of APC residues when used together with other waste materials (e.g. sewage sludge, bottom ash, compost) in a landfill cover. In addition, the suitability of APC residues as amendments for stabilizing contaminated soil and their effect on the stability of treated soil under landfill conditions was investigated. The environmental impacts of alternative landfill cover were evaluated by field and laboratory tests that examined two water streams: the landfill cover’s drainage water and its leachate. The drainage water that seeps above the landfill cover liner and is drained away from a landfill cover was contaminated with Cl-, N, TOC and the trace elements As, Cu, Mo, Ni, Se, Pb and Zn. This water stream will need treatment for at least three to four decades. The amounts of landfill cover leachate that percolated through the liner in the field test ranged from 3 to 30 l (m2 y)-1, which was below the legal limit on the leachate flow in non-hazardous waste landfills (

  • 407.
    Travar, Igor
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Development of drainage water quality from a landfill cover built with secondary construction materials2015Ingår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 35, s. 148-158Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the drainage water quality from a landfill cover built with secondary construction materials (SCM), fly ash (FA), bottom ash (BA) sewage sludge, compost and its changes over time. Column tests, physical simulation models and a full scale field test were conducted. While the laboratory tests showed a clear trend for all studied constituents towards reduced concentrations over time, the concentrations in the field fluctuated considerably. The primary contaminants in the drainage water were Cl−, N, dissolved organic matter and Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn with initial concentrations one to three orders of magnitude above the discharge values to the local recipient. Using a sludge/FA mixture in the protection layer resulted in less contaminated drainage water compared to a sludge/BA mixture. If the leaching conditions in the landfill cover change from reduced to oxidized, the release of trace elements from ashes is expected to last about one decade longer while the release of N and organic matter from the sludge can be shortened with about two–three decades. The observed concentration levels and their expected development over time require drainage water treatment for at least three to four decades before the water can be discharged directly to the recipient.

  • 408.
    Travar, Igor
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Tham, Gustav
    Telge AB.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Development of drainage water quality from landfill covers built with ashes and sewage sludge2009Ingår i: SARDINIA 2009: Twelfth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium ; [5 - 9 October 2009, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy] / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An alternative to virgin and artificial materials in landfill cover can be various types of waste materials like ashes and sewage sludge. From the environmental point of view, the most interesting question to study is the quality of the drainage water generated above the liner in landfill cover built with waste materials. Thus, the main aim of this paper is the evaluation of drainage water quality and time required for its treatment. Results from a full scale test, physical models and a column test were used in the evaluation of the drainage water quality development. The main contaminants identified in drainage water were N-tot, As, Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn and Ni. The laboratory tests showed higher concentrations of N-tot, NH4-N, TOC, As and Pb, but lower values of Cl, Zn, Ba and Ni in comparison with drainage water from the field.  It was probably a result of different factors that may have influence on leaching but interactions of the protection layer with the vegetation layer and the liner surface are expected to influence the results from the field. According to results from the laboratory experiments, drainage water will probably need treat­ment for at least two-three decades after covering.

  • 409.
    Travar, Igor
    et al.
    Telge Återvinning AB.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Tham, Gustav
    Telge AB.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Environmental impact of ashes used in a land­fill cover construction2007Ingår i: SARDINIA 2007: Eleventh International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium ; [1 - 5 October 2007, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy] / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Large amounts of construction materials will be needed both in Sweden and other European countries for capping landfills that will be closed in the near future. In order to reduce exploitation of virgin materials and to save natural resources, an option can be utilization of various types of secondary construction materials (SCM) e.g. ash, slag, sand from fluid bed incineration and compost. However, at the same time this may represent potential risks due to the release of trace elements and other pollutants into environment. The main aim of this work is to evaluate the environmental impact of water that discharges from different parts of a landfill cover built with ashes and other SCM.From 2003 to 2005, a four hectares large test area was established at Tveta landfill, southwest of Stockholm, Sweden. Test area is divided into six sub areas with regard to different recycled materials used in different layers of the cover construction (Figure 1).Figure 1. Design of the landfill cover test area at the Tveta landfill. BA = Bottom ash; FA = Fly ash; FC = Friedland clay Infiltrating water through the landfill cover either drains off in the drainage layer as drainage water or percolates through the liner into landfill body as leachate. At Tveta landfill, leachate amounts between 1 l (m2 yr)-1 and 30 l (m2 yr)-1 have been observed below highly compacted ash liner. Results show that leachate samples have higher pH, salt forming elements (e.g. K, Na, Ca and Cl) and concentrations of Cd, Ba As, Al, and Mo, and lower concentrations of Mn, Zn, Mg, Fe, Ni, and Pb compared to drainage water. The concentrations of Cr and total N are in the same range in leachate and drainage water while NH4-N is higher in leachate. Leachate of areas 1 and 4 shows higher content of organic matter than drainage water in these areas. A strong correlation is observed between EC, K, Na and Cl as well as between Cu and TOC. The comparison of the leachate and drainage water quality with different limit values showed that the leachate had elevated concentrations of As, Mo, Cl and nitrogen while the drainage water was mainly contaminated by Ni, Zn, Cl and nitrogen with the addition of As, Cu, Mo, and Pb in areas 2 and 4.Following conclusions can be drawn by now:The hydraulic properties of the landfill cover satisfy legislative requirements for non hazardous waste landfills; in some cases/areas also for hazardous waste landfills.Most of the infiltrating water through the landfill cover is discharged as drainage water. Thus, the design of layers above the liner is most important with regard to the environmental impact of the construction. Both leachate and drainage water need treatment before discharge into the local recipient. Organic matter in the protection layer is likely to contribute to the mobilization of Cu and Ni in short term.The sea might be a suitable recipient in cases where ashes are used in landfill covers be­cause both leachate and drainage contain salt forming elements in elevated con­cen­tra­tions which may harm groundwater or freshwater but do not pose a risk to salt-water.The leaching of most pollutants did not show any clear tendencies during first three years. Thus, assessing the time period for treatment needs is difficult. However, it is expected that the contaminants in the drainage water will be depleted within few decades.Leachate might be contaminated by salt forming and trace elements for one hundred years. However, generated leachate amounts are low and it is expected that leachate from landfill cover will not influence overall landfill leachate with full extent.The ageing of the ashes in connection with mineral transformations is an important process that is expected to reduce the release of pollutants. Further research is needed with regard to long term changes of the material properties and the treatment needs for water.

  • 410. Travar, Igor
    et al.
    Andreas, Lale
    Tham, Gustav
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Field test of landfill covers with secondary construction materials2005Ingår i: SARDINIA 2005: Tenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium ; S. Margerita di Pula, Sardinia, Italy, 3 - 7 October 2005 / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 411. Travar, Igor
    et al.
    Andreas, Lale
    Tham, Gustav
    Telge AB, Södertälje.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Use of secondary construction materials in a landfill covers2006Ingår i: Abstract proceedings of the 4th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium, [June 14th to 16th 2006, Gällivare, Sweden] / [ed] Anders Lagerkvist, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2006, s. 207-208Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 412.
    Travar, Igor
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Kihl, Anders
    Rang-Sells Avfallsbehandling AB.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    The release of As, Cr and Cu from contaminated soil stabilized with APC residues under landfill conditions2015Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 151, s. 1-10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the stability of As, Cr and Cu in contaminated soil treated with air pollution control residues under landfill conditions. The influence of landfill gas and temperature on the release of trace elements from stabilized soil was simulated using a diffusion test. The air pollution control residues immobilized As through the precipitation of Ca–As minerals (calcium arsenate (Ca5H2(AsO4)3 × 5H2O), weilite (CaAsO4) and johnbaumite (Ca5(AsO4)3(OH)), incorporation of As into ettringite (Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 × 26H2O) and adsorption by calcite (CaCO3). The air pollution control residues generally showed a high resistance to pH reduction, indicating high buffer capacity and stability of immobilized As in a landfill over time. Generation of heat in a landfill might increase the release of trace elements. The release of As from stabilized soil was diffusion-controlled at 60 °C, while surface wash-off, dissolution, and depletion prevailed at 20 °C. The air pollution control residues from the incineration of municipal solid waste immobilized Cr, indicating its stability in a landfill. The treatment of soil with air pollution control residues was not effective in immobilization of Cu. Contaminated soils treated with air pollution control residues will probably have a low impact on overall leachate quality from a landfill.

  • 413.
    Travar, Igor
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Kihl, Anders
    Rang-Sells Avfallsbehandling AB.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Utilization of air pollution control residues for the stabilization/solidification of trace element contaminated soil2015Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, nr 23, s. 19101-19111Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stabilization/solidification (S/S) of trace element-contaminated soil using air pollution control residues (APCRs) prior to disposal in landfill sites. Two soil samples (with low and moderate concentrations of organic matter) were stabilized using three APCRs that originated from the incineration of municipal solid waste, bio-fuels and a mixture of coal and crushed olive kernels. Two APCR/soil mixtures were tested: 30 % APCR/70 % soil and 50 % APCR/50 % soil. A batch leaching test was used to study immobilization of As and co-occurring metals Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. Solidification was evaluated by measuring the unconfined compression strength (UCS). Leaching of As was reduced by 39–93 % in APCR/soil mixtures and decreased with increased amounts of added APCR. Immobilization of As positively correlated with the amount of Ca in the APCR and negatively with the amount of soil organic matter. According to geochemical modelling, the precipitation of calcium arsenate (Ca3(AsO4)2/4H2O) and incorporation of As in ettringite (Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O) in soil/APCR mixtures might explain the reduced leaching of As. A negative effect of the treatment was an increased leaching of Cu, Cr and dissolved organic carbon. Solidification of APCR/soil was considerably weakened by soil organic matter.

  • 414.
    Travar, Igor
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Kihl, Anders
    Rang-Sells Avfallsbehandling AB.
    Stabilization of As-contaminated soil with fly ashes2014Ingår i: One Century of the discovery of arsenicosis in Latin America (1914-2014): As 2014 - proceedings of the 5th international congress on arsenic in the environment / [ed] Marta I. Litter, Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press, 2014, s. 847-849Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this study is to evaluate the stabilization of As-contaminated soil with Fly Ash (FA) and the environmental impact assessment of a soil/ash mixture after treatment. Two soil samples heavily contaminated with As were stabilized with two FA that originate from incineration of biofuels (BFA) and mixture of coal and crushed olive kernel (CFA). The As solubility was reduced between 39 and 93% in soil/ash mixtures. Leaching of As from soils decreased with increased amount of ash. Immobilization of As was positively correlated to pH and negatively correlated to the amount of organic matter in soil. Geochemical modeling showed that the release of As was controlled by Ca3(AsO4)2:4H2O in soil/ash mixtures that can be a possible explanation for the reduced solubility of As from soil/ash mixtures. A negative effect of the treatment was the mobilization of Cu from ashes and Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) from soil.

  • 415.
    Travar, Igor
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Tham, Gustav
    Telge Återvinning AB.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Assessing the environmental impact of ashes used in a landfill cover construction2009Ingår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 1336-1346Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Large amounts of construction materials will be needed in Europe in anticipation for capping landfills that will be closed due to the tightening up of landfill legislation. This study was conducted to assess the potential environmental impacts of using refuse derived fuel (RDF) and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ashes as substitutes for natural materials in landfill cover designs. The leaching of substances from a full-scale landfill cover test area built with different fly and bottom ashes was evaluated based on laboratory tests and field monitoring. The water that drained off above the liner (drainage) and the water that percolated through the liner into the landfill (leachate) were contaminated with Cl-, nitrogen and several trace elements (e.g., As, Cu, Mo, Ni and Se). The drainage from layers containing ash will probably require pre-treatment before discharge. The leachate quality from the ash cover is expected to have a minor influence on overall landfill leachate quality because the amounts generated from the ash covers were low, <3-30 l (m2 yr)-1. Geochemical modelling indicated that precipitation of clay minerals and other secondary compounds in the ash liner was possible within 3 years after construction, which could contribute to the retention of trace elements in the liner in the long term. Hence, from an environmental view point, the placement of ashes in layers above the liner is more critical than within the liner.

  • 416.
    Trublet, Mylene
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Scukins, Edvards
    Aeronautics, Department of Flight Data and Navigation, SAAB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Carabante, Ivan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Rusanova-Naydenova, Daniela
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Competitive Sorption of Metal Ions on Titanium Phosphate Sorbent(TiP1) in Fixed-Bed Columns: A Closed-Mine Waters Study2019Ingår i: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 7, nr 9, s. 8145-8154Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sorptionfixed-bed column experiments were performed using atitanium phosphate ion-exchanger composed of−H2PO4units [TiO(OH)(H2PO4)·H2O]. Model mine water containingfive divalent metal ions (Cu2+,Zn2+,Mn2+,Ni2+,and Co2+) and a few closed-mine water samples were treated to evaluate the sorptionpreference of the material. For thefirst time, dynamic ion-exchange capacities(estimated to be between 3.2 and 4.2 mequiv g−1) and static ion-exchange uptakes(calculated to be between 3.1 and 3.5 mequiv g−1) were obtained for the same TiP1sorbent and data were discussed in terms of sorption behavior. It was found thatsorption processes on TiP1 in model and closed-mine waters during a columnexperiment could be accurately predicted from the corresponding batch experiment(including the sorbent’s capacities in different types of waters). A competitivesorption phenomenon in favor of Cu2+on TiP1 was established for all cases, pointingtoward the possibility of isolating pure copper concentrate from closed-mine waters.The relatively high amounts of calcium and magnesium ions present in mine waters did not appear to considerably affect theselectivity of TiP1 material. Exploratory experiments for sorbent regeneration and desorption using a low concentration of nitricacid were demonstrated.

  • 417.
    Uibu, Mai
    et al.
    Laboratory of Inorganic Materials, Tallinn University of Technology.
    Kuusik, Rein
    Laboratory of Inorganic Materials, Tallinn University of Technology.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Kirsimäe, Kalle
    Department of Geology, University of Tartu.
    The CO2-binding by Ca-Mg-silicates in direct aqueous carbonation of oil shale ash and steel slag2011Ingår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 4, s. 925-932Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was focused on carbonation of waste materials having low water-solubility in which Ca and Mg are generally bound as silicates. Here, pulverized firing oil shale ash (PFA from Narva Power Plants, Estonia), electric arc furnace slag (EAFS, types 1 and 2 from Uddeholm Tooling, Sweden) and ladle slag (LS from Uddeholm Tooling, Sweden) were studied as sorbents for binding CO2 from flue gases in direct aqueous mineral carbonation process. The experiments were carried out at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Results showed that Ca-Mg-silicate phases bound up to 9 g of CO2 per 100 g of initial ash, which formed 30% of the total CO2 bound in direct aqueous carbonation of PFA. The CO2 uptakes for steel slags (EAFS1, EAFS2 and LS) were 8.7g CO2/100 g EAFS1, 1.9 g CO2/100 gEAFS2 and 4.6 g/100g LS. Quantitative XRD analysis indicated that Ca2SiO4 and Ca3Mg(SiO4)2 were the main CO2 binding low solubility components of oil shale ash as well as steel slags. The main carbonation product was calcite (CaCO3), indicating that Mg-compounds were not reactive towards CO2 at these mild conditions. Based on multifaceted studies on carbonation of oil shale ash, a new method for eliminating CO2 from flue gases by Ca-containing waste material was proposed. The process includes contacting the aqueous suspensions of Ca-containing waste material with CO2 containing flue gas in two steps: in the first step the suspension is bubbled with flue gas keeping the pH levels in the range of 10-12 and in the second step keeping the pH levels in the range of 7-8. The water-soluble components such as free lime are carbonated in the first step and the components of low solubility, in which Ca is generally contained in the form of silicates, are carbonated in the second step.

  • 418.
    Vestin, Jenny
    et al.
    Statens Geotekniska Institut.
    Arm, Maria
    Statens Geotekniska Institut.
    Nordmark, Desiree
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Hallgren, Per
    Skogsstyrelsen.
    Tiberg, Charlotta
    Statens Geotekniska Institut.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lind, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Effektivt askutnyttjande i vägar2011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Två provsträckor, uppgraderade med olika mängd aska, utvärderades med avseende på ask-grusblandningens homogenitet och skillnader mellan de båda sträckorna. Askgrusblandningens homogenitet varierade i vägen även om den förväntade askhalten uppnåddes i medeltal. Packningsgraden blev lägre än förväntat vilket visar på vikten av omsorgsfull vattning och packning. Provsträckan med störst askhalt hade högst styvhet.

  • 419.
    Vestin, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute (SGI), Sundsvall.
    Nordmark, Desiree
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Arm, Maria
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute (SGI), Linköping.
    Lind, Bo B.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute (SGI), Göteborg.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Biofuel ash in road stabilization: Lessons learned from six years of field testing2018Ingår i: Transportation Geotechnics, ISSN 2214-3912, Vol. 14, s. 146-156Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2009, pulp mill fly ash was used for stabilizing the road base of a low-volume gravel road. Six years after stabilization, a two-year monitoring program and a complementary study were conducted to study the environmental and technical properties of the road and road material. Environmental properties were studied through chemical analysis of road samples by X-ray diffraction (XRF), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) technique and colorimetric techniques. The strength development was studied by falling weight deflectometer (FWD) and compressive strength tests. Potassium (K) and sulphate sulfur (SO4-S) concentrations in road material decreased by 40 and 55%, respectively during this time. Absolute concentrations of most trace elements increased. Leaching of chloride (Cl) salts from road samples decreased with time, while leaching of magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) increased. Leaching of trace elements was below 0.5 mg/kg at all sampling occasions. The bearing capacity increased by 30-50%, and the infiltration capacity decreased compared to a reference section. The results showed that the ash-stabilized sections performed better than conventionally upgraded sections and achieved increased bearing capacity over time. Since the acid neutralizing capacity of the stabilized layer was high and lumps of unreacted ash were still left in the road, it was concluded that the ash material could be utilized once more in a potential end-of-life road recycling.

  • 420.
    Vicenzi, Edward P
    et al.
    Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, Suitland, MD, USA; National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD USA.
    Pearce, Carolyn I
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA.
    Weaver, Jamie L
    National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD USA.
    McCloy, John S
    School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA USA.
    Wight, Scott
    National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD USA.
    Lam, Thomas
    Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, Suitland, MD, USA.
    Whittaker, Scott
    National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Peeler, David K
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA.
    Schweiger, Michael J
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA.
    Kruger, Albert A
    Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, WA USA.
    Compositional Imaging and Analysis of Late Iron Age Glass from the Broborg Vitrified Hillfort, Sweden2018Ingår i: Microscopy and Microanalysis, ISSN 1431-9276, E-ISSN 1435-8115, Vol. 24, nr S1, s. 2134-2135Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 421.
    Vinnerås, B.
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Biometry and Engineering.
    Palmqvist, Helena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Balmér, P.
    GRYAAB.
    Jönsson, H.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Biometry and Engineering.
    The characteristics of household wastewater and biodegradable solid waste: a proposal for new Swedish design values2006Ingår i: Urban Water Journal, ISSN 1573-062X, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 3-11Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present Swedish design values (DV) for urine, faeces, greywater and biodegradable solid waste were scrutinised and compared to the composition of these fractions in two blocks of flats, Gebers and Ekoporten. For evaluation of the greywater composition, two additional areas were included: the housing area Vibyåsen and a calculation based upon the composition of the sewage sludge in Ryaverken sewage treatment plant in Gothenburg. The parameters scrutinised were dry mass, wet mass, BOD7, COD, N, P, K, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb. Based on the results, new updated Swedish DV were proposed for these parameters in the fractions urine, faeces, greywater and biodegradable solid waste

  • 422.
    Wall, Göran
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Exergi, ekologi och demokrati: redskap i ett kretsloppssamhälle1994Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 423.
    Wang, Y.
    et al.
    Lahti Center, School of Science and Technology, Aalto University.
    Pelkonen, Markku
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Kaila, J.
    Lahti Center, School of Science and Technology, Aalto University.
    Strategies to enhance the biological nitrogen removal of high-strength ammonium and low C/N landfill leachate with the SBR process2012Ingår i: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 33, nr 5, s. 579-588Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The treatment of high ammonium-nitrogen concentration landfill leachate has become an increasing problem because of the requirements to reduce nutrient emissions. A laboratory-scale sequential batch reactor (SBR) was operated and tested in order to optimize the operational strategies of a cost-saving method to enhance the removal of ammonium-nitrogen from a real landfill leachate. Two sequence schemes were tested, one with long non-aerated/aerated sequences and another with short sequences. The air supply levels with low to intermediate dissolved oxygen (DO) and external carbon addition were altered. With both schemes a high ammonium reduction (>99%) and a reasonable total nitrogen (TN) reduction (around 60%) could be achieved with strong carbon limitation (BOD 7/N=1.1). Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was lower with longer sequences. Denitrification via nitrite seemed to be an important part of TN removal, controlled with the low DO. With increasing nitrite accumulation COD/N removed decreased in both schemes indicating clearly a more efficient use of COD. The scheme with short sequences indicated advantages to save the air supply preventing nitrite oxidation under low air supply conditions and better TN and COD removal efficiencies. The results show that an applicable operational strategy can be found resulting in a reasonable pre-treatment option in landfills, requiring less carbon and aeration energy.

  • 424.
    Wang, Yu
    et al.
    School of Engineering, Aalto University, Espoo, Lahti Center, School of Science and Technology, Aalto University, Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Pelkonen, Markku
    Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Impacts of temperature and liquid/solid ratio on anaerobic degradation of municipal solid waste: An emission investigation of landfill simulation reactors2009Ingår i: Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, ISSN 1438-4957, E-ISSN 1611-8227, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 312-320Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Management of landfill emissions, i. e., landfill gas (LFG) and landfill leachate, is an important and resource-intensive task. A long-term demonstration pilot, consisting of landfill simulation reactors (LSRs), was used to study the impact of temperature and the applied liquid/solid ratio (L/S ratio) on landfill emissions, characteristics, and trends. This pilot has already run for more than 1000 days since the end of 2004 and will continue to run for some time. The degradation of waste at different temperatures has impacts on the overall degradation degree and on the length of post-closure care required. Higher temperatures accelerated the degradation, but also resulted in higher leachate chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia concentrations, which prolong the aftercare period. Meanwhile, at a given stabilization degree [e. g., 70 l gas/kg waste (dry)], the total leached nitrogen under psychrophilic conditions was 3. 5 times that under mesophilic/thermophilic conditions, which resulted in a higher required effort for leachate treatment. The impact of L/S ratio or simulated annual L/S rates was also evaluated. The results show the significance of efficiently obtaining the targeted L/S ratio in order to achieve low landfill emission potential

  • 425.
    Wang, Yu
    et al.
    Lahti Center, School of Science and Technology, Aalto University.
    Pelkonen, Markku
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Kaila, J.
    Lahti Center, School of Science and Technology, Aalto University.
    Cost-saving biological nitrogen removal from strong ammonia landfill leachate2011Ingår i: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 29, nr 8, s. 797-806Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to develop an improved management mode in Ammassuo landfill (Finland) for leachate ammonium-nitrogen removal, to minimize the leachate management costs and secure compliance with the uptrend requirements of regulations for on-site leachate management. With a single sequential batch simulation reactor, the minimum C/N ratio was detected as 1.7 (adjusted by external carbon addition), to achieve the acceptable removal efficiency of 99, 62 and 74% in NH(4)-N, total nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand, respectively. Both total nitrogen removal and efficiency of carbon use were correlated with an increasing NO(2)(-)/NO(x)(-) ratio indicating higher performance with denitrification via nitrite. It was estimated that the leachate management cost could be reduced by 28 to 38%.

  • 426.
    Wang, Yu
    et al.
    School of Engineering, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Pelkonen, Markku
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Kaila, Juha
    School of Engineering, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Are there carbon and nitrogen sinks in the landfills?2014Ingår i: Sustainable Environment Research, ISSN 1022-7636, Vol. 24, nr 6, s. 423-429Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The management of sanitary landfills after closure is an important engineering, economic and sustainability issue. The society needs sustainable methods for landfilling from an environmental perspective but it has to be cost-effective and affordable for a society as well. Compared with inorganics, carbon and nitrogen are more reactive. It is important to identify the time needed for them to achieve the limit values of leachate emission (i.e., the length of aftercare period). However, does it mean that the environmental impacts have been minimized after the active aftercare period? Especially at low temperature, the decomposition rate and release rate of carbon and nitrogen are lower; so the leachate emission concentrations are lower and it is easier to achieve the emission limit values. In these conditions the residual carbon and nitrogen remaining in the landfill are higher, but according to the results this is not a practical problem. In the degradation of stable humic compounds, carbon and nitrogen sinks are formed. Their fraction in the organics seems to be comparable with waste treated in mechanical-biological way and has impact as a sink. The humification process seems to be affected by temperature, but more knowledge is still needed like total balances of humic substances. It is necessary to discuss the performance of carbon and nitrogen within aftercare (active aftercare) and after aftercare (passive aftercare). The solutions should be designed accordingly from both environmental and economic considerations.

  • 427.
    Wang, Yu
    et al.
    School of Engineering, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Pelkonen, Markku
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Kaila, Juha
    School of Engineering, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Optimization of landfill leachate management in the aftercare period2012Ingår i: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 30, nr 8, s. 789-799Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The management of sanitary landfills after closure is an important engineering, economic and sustainability issue and is referred to as the greatest unresolved landfill challenge. Most sanitary landfills are operated according to the dry tomb principle, resulting in aftercare periods of hundreds of years. To study landfill body behaviour, long-term leachate emissions were studied with anaerobic landfill simulators, and a forecast model was developed targeting the behaviour of NH4-N, COD and chlorides as a function of temperature and the L/S-ratio (liquid-to-solid). It was found that NH4-N is the decisive factor in leachate management, requiring the highest L/S-ratio (around 6) to meet the direct discharge limit values. Various scenarios were constructed to find optimal leachate management strategies both in large (waste height H = 25 m) and medium-sized landfills (H = 10 m) with corresponding temperature ranges. The results show that by minimizing the aftercare period length with leachate pre-treatment and recirculation, both sustainability and economic benefits can be achieved. The results provide new views on how to manage the long-term leachate aftercare problem. In the case of large landfills, further efforts are needed to reach stabilization within a reasonable time frame.

  • 428.
    Wang, Yu
    et al.
    School of Engineering, Aalto University, Espoo, Lahti Center, School of Science and Technology, Aalto University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Pelkonen, Markku
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Kotro, Mikko
    Nordic Envicon Oy.
    Treatment of high ammonium-nitrogen wastewater from composting facilities by air stripping and catalytic oxidation2010Ingår i: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 208, nr 1-4, s. 259-273Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Composting municipal wastewater sludge may generate composting wastewater (acid washer water and tunnel wastewater) with high ammonium-nitrogen (NH 4-N) concentration; this kind of wastewater is usually generated in a rather small daily amount. A procedure of air stripping with catalytic oxidation was developed and tested with pilot-scale and full-scale units for synthetic disposal of the high NH4-N wastewaters from composting facilities. In air stripping, around 90% NH4-N removal efficiency was reliably achieved with a maximum of 98%. A model to describe the stripping process efficiency was constructed, which can be used for process optimization. After catalytic oxidation, the concentrations in the outlet gas were acceptable for NH3, NOX, NO2, and N2O, but the NH3 and N2O concentrations limited the feasible loading range. The treatment costs were estimated in detail. The results indicate that air stripping with the catalytic oxidation process can be applied for wastewater treatment in composting facilities

  • 429.
    Wang, Zengzhang
    et al.
    Taiyuan University of Technology.
    Niu, Zhi Qing
    Taiyuan University of Technology.
    Pelkonen, Markku
    Helsinki University of Technology.
    Management of process performance at low water temperatures in respect of filamentous organisms2004Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Sciences(China), ISSN 1001-0742, E-ISSN 1878-7320, Vol. 16, nr 1, s. 113-116Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The management of sludge-settling properties in Nordic conditions is of importance during the low temperature (spring) season because of the peak settler load. A survey was made in 10 Finnish waste water treatment plants(WWTP's) and the total extended filament length and DSVI in half of the plants exceeded the limits, which indicates sludge bulking(15 km/g SS and 150 ml/g respectively). The dominant organism was Microthrix parvicella, the abundance of which was 59.22% of total extended filament length on average. Chemicals were tested to control the filaments, and it was found that special attention has to be paid to maintaining the nitrification at low temperature. A dosage of(H2O2-based) oxidants controlled the growth of Microthrix parvicella effectively and rapidly, whereas with the use of aluminium hydroxidechloride a 2 to 5-week period was needed to decrease the filament length.

  • 430.
    Weaver, Jamie L
    et al.
    National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, USA.
    Pearce, Carolyn I
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, USA.
    Arey, Bruce
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, USA.
    Conroy, Michele
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, USA.
    Vicenzi, Edward P
    Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, Suitland, USA .
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Koestler, Robert
    Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, Suitland, USA.
    DePriest, Paula T
    Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, Suitland, USA .
    Lam, Thomas F
    Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, Suitland, USA .
    Peeler, David K
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, USA.
    McCloy, John S
    School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, USA.
    Kruger, Albert A
    Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, USA.
    Microscopic Identification of Micro-Organisms on Pre-Viking Swedish Hillfort Glass2018Ingår i: Microscopy and Microanalysis, ISSN 1431-9276, E-ISSN 1435-8115, Vol. 24, nr S1, s. 2136-2137Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 431.
    Weaver, Jamie L.
    et al.
    National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland.
    Pearce, Carolyn I.
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland. National Institute of Standards and Technology.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    McCloy, John S.
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland. School of Materials and Mechanical Engineering, Washington State University, USA.
    Miller, Micah
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland.
    Varga, Tamas
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland.
    Arey, Bruce W.
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland.
    Conroy, Michele A.
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland.
    Peeler, David K.
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland.
    Koestler, Robert J.
    Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, USA.
    DePriest, Paula T.
    Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, USA.
    Vicenzi, Edward P.
    Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, USA.
    Hjarthner‐Holdar, Eva
    The Archaeologists, Geoarchaeological Laboratory, National Historical Museums (SHMM).
    Ogenhall, Erik
    The Archaeologists, Geoarchaeological Laboratory, National Historical Museums (SHMM).
    Kruger, Albert A.
    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, USA.
    Pre‐Viking Swedish Hillfort Glass: A Prospective Long‐Term Alteration Analogue for Vitrified Nuclear Waste2018Ingår i: The International Journal of Applied Glass Science (IJAGS), E-ISSN 2041-1294, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 540-554Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Models for long‐term glass alteration are required to satisfy performance predictions of vitrified nuclear waste in various disposal scenarios. Durability parameters are usually extracted from short‐term laboratory tests, and sometimes checked with long‐term natural experiments on glasses, termed analogues. In this paper, a unique potential ancient glass analogue from Sweden is discussed. The hillfort glass found at Broborg represents a unique case study as a vitrified waste glass analogue to compare to Low Activity Waste glass to be emplaced in near surface conditions at Hanford (Washington State). Glasses at Broborg have similar and dissimilar compositions to LAW glass, allowing the testing of long‐term alteration of different glass chemistries. Additionally, the environmental history of the site is reasonably well documented. Initial investigations on previously collected samples established methodologies for handling and characterizing these artifacts by laboratory methods while preserving their alteration layers and cultural context. Evidence of possible biologically influenced glass alteration, and differential alteration in the two types of glass found at the Broborg site is presented.

  • 432.
    Wikman, Karin
    et al.
    ÅF Energi & Miljö AB.
    Berg, Magnus
    ÅF Energi & Miljö AB.
    Andreas, Lale
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Jannes, Sara
    Telge Återvinning AB.
    Tham, Gustav
    Telge Återvinning AB.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Injektering av flygaska i hushållsavfallsdeponi2003Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Totalt har cirka 100 ton askslurry injekterats vid pilotförsök på Tveta Återvinningsanläggning, vilket uppskattningsvis motsvarar en utfyllnad av cirka 12-16 % av de tillgängliga hålrummen inom injekteringsområdet på deponin. Slutsatsen när det gäller injekteringen är att aska blandar sig väl med vatten till en pumpbar slurry som kan injekteras utan risk för härdning i injekteringsutrustningen. Varken avfallet eller det injekterade materialet gav under pilotförsöken något mottryck och inget tyder på att avfallet i deponin trycks undan av den injekterade askan utan istället rinner askslurryn genom håligheter i avfallet. I deponin stelnar askan, inom uppskattningsvis några dagar, till hårda men något spröda klumpar som kan bidra till en ökad stabilitet i deponin.Den ekonomiska bedömningen är att kostnaden för injektering med en utrustning med en kapacitet på 10 ton/h i perforerade rör i en hushållsavfallsdeponi blir cirka 800 SEK/ton torr aska. Emellertid kan kostnaden troligtvis komma ner i nivå med dagens skatt för deponering, d.v.s. 370 SEK/ton, genom att borrning och injektering sker i ett steg samt genom införandet av två skift.

  • 433.
    Wikman, Karin
    et al.
    ÅF-Process AB.
    Berg, Magnus
    ÅF-Process AB.
    Svensson, Malin
    Ecke, Holger
    Nedbrytningshastigheten för tätskikt uppbyggda av slam och aska2005Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Resultaten från de experimentella studierna tyder på att aska-slam-blandningar mycket väl kan användas som tätskikt utan att nedbrytningen av organiskt material kommer att påverka täckningens funktion negativt. Om tätskiktet initialt har en tillräckligt låg permeabilitet så kommer utlakningen av organiskt material att vara av mindre betydelse. En viss utlakning av det organiska materialet kan ske till en början men denna avstannar efter en relativt kort tid. Materialförlusten efter att utlakningen avstannat är enligt analyserna så pass liten att det inte ger någon påverkan på tätskiktets genomsläpplighet.

  • 434.
    Wikman, Karin
    et al.
    ÅF Energi & Miljö AB.
    Svensson, Malin
    Ecke, Holger
    Berg, Magnus
    ÅF Energi & Miljö AB.
    Nedbrytningsmönster för cellulosa i närvaro av aska2003Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Alkalisk nedbrytning av cellulosa och dess inverkan på metallutlakningen har studerats för kombinationer av aska och cellulosahaltiga material. Den främsta nedbrytningsprodukten vid spjälkning av cellulosa är den lösliga syran isosackarinsyra (ISA) som kan komplexbinda till metaller i askan så att dessa mobiliseras och lakas ut. De experimentella försöken i denna studie har visat att nedbrytningsprodukten ISA bidrar till ökat innehåll av Pb och Zn i lakvattnet från flygaska. För nedbrytningen av cellulosa kan en kombination av aska och cellulosahaltigt material ha vissa positiva effekter genom att pH-värdet i det cellulosahaltiga materialet höjs. Om en starkt alkalisk miljö erhålls bryts dock cellulosan ned långsamt. Ytterligare studier med avseende på nedbrytningshastigheten av cellulosa under inverkan av alkaliskt lakvatten med hög metallhalt är emellertid nödvändigt för att klargöra detta.

  • 435.
    Wikström, Tommy
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Nordmark, Desiree
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Pelkonen, Markku
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Fluorescent in situ hybridization technique in anaerobic process studies2012Ingår i: Abstract proceedings of 7th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium :: Södra Sunderbyn, June 25th to 27th, 2012 / [ed] Anders Lagerkvist, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2012, s. 130-131Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 436.
    Windt, L. De
    et al.
    Ecole des Mines de Paris.
    Dabo, D.
    Ecole des Mines de Paris.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Badreddine, R.
    INERIS, Wastes and Contaminated Sites Unit.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Reactive transport modeling of leachate evolution of MSWI bottom ash used as road basement: Hérouville (France) and Dåva (Sweden) sites2009Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The recycling of municipal solid waste of incineration (MSWI) bottom ash as aggregates for road basement requires a better characterization of the evolution of leachate chemistry over a timescale of many decades. In this paper, a common reactive transport model is applied to the Hérouville (France) and Dåva (Sweden) pilot roads whose leachate emissions have been sampled during 10 and 6 years, respectively. The model considers simultaneously the hydrodynamic processes (rain water infiltration, advective and diffusive transport), pH-buffering and solubility-controlled processes by secondary minerals, ageing by atmospheric carbonation, and the leachate chemistry (major elements and trace metals such as Al, Cu, Pb). The evolution of pH is fairly well simulated with the following pH-buffering sequence: portlandite, calcium silicate hydrate (CSH), ettringite and, finally, calcite. The quantity of CO2 dissolved in the percolating rain water is generally not sufficient to explain the pH evolution and carbonation processes, requiring atmospheric gaseous inputs. The relation between pH evolution and element release is discussed for both sites. Calculated Pb release is overestimated when based on solubility-controlled mechanisms only. Edge effects are shown to be important at both sites with an emphasis of carbonation and release of non reactive elements. Temperature has no significant effect on the calculated leachate chemistry in the range of 5 - 30° C, except at high pH.

  • 437.
    Windt, Laurent De
    et al.
    Ecole des Mines de Paris.
    Dabo, David
    Ecole des Mines de Paris.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Badreddine, Rabia
    INERIS, Wastes and Contaminated Sites Unit.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    MSWI bottom ash used as basement at two pilot-scale roads: comparison of leachate chemistry and reactive transport modeling2011Ingår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 267-280Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The recycling of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash as aggregates for road basement requires assessing the long-term evolution of leachate chemistry. The Dåva (Sweden) and Hérouville (France) pilot-scale roads were monitored during 6 and 10 years, respectively. Calculated saturation indices were combined to batch test modeling to set a simplified geochemical model of the bottom ash materials. A common reactive transport model was then applied to both sites. At Hérouville, pH and the concentration of most elements quickly drop during the first two years to reach a set of minimum values over 10 years. The decrease is less pronounced at Dåva. The evolutions of pH and major element concentrations are fairly well related to the following pH-buffering sequence: portlandite, C-S-H phases or pseudo-wollastonite and, finally, calcite in equilibrium with atmospheric CO2. Al(OH)3, barite, ettringite and monohydrocalcite may also control leachate chemistry. Cu release is correctly modeled by DOM complexation and tenorite equilibrium. Temperature has no significant effect on the modeling of leachate chemistry in the range 5-30 °C, except at high pH. Effects at road edges and roadside slopes are important for the release of the less reactive elements and, possibly, for carbonation processes.

  • 438.
    Xiao, Gang
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University.
    Jin, Baosheng
    Thermo-Energy Engineering Research Institute, School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing.
    Ni, Mingjiang
    State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University.
    Cen, Kefa
    State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University.
    Tan, Zhongxin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    A steam dried municipal solid waste gasification and melting process2011Ingår i: Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering in China, ISSN 1673-7415, E-ISSN 1673-7520, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. 193-204Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Considering high-moisture municipal solid waste (MSW) of China, a steam dried MSW gasification and melting process was proposed, the feasibility was tested, and the mass and energy balance was analyzed. Preliminary experiments were conducted using a fixed-bed drying apparatus, a 200 kg per day fluidized-bed gasifier, and a swirl melting furnace. Moisture percentage was reduced from 50% to 20% roughly when MSW was dried by slightly superheated steam of 150A degrees C-350A degrees C within 40 min. When the temperature was less than 250A degrees C, no incondensable gas was produced during the drying process. The gasifier ran at 550A degrees C-700A degrees Cwith an air equivalence ratio (ER) of 0.2-0.4. The temperature of the swirl melting furnace reached about 1240A degrees C when the gasification ER was 0.3 and the total ER was 1.1. At these conditions, the fly ash concentration in the flue gas was 1.7 g center dot(Nm(3))(-1), which meant over 95% fly ash was trapped in the furnace and discharged as slag. 85% of Ni and Cr were bound in the slag, as well as 60% of Cu. The mass and energy balance analysis indicates that the boiler heat efficiency of an industrial MSW incineration plant reaches 86.97% when MSW is dried by steam of 200A degrees C. The boiler heat efficiency is sensitive to three important parameters, including the temperature of preheated MSW, the moisture percentage of dried MS Wand the fly ash percentage in the total ash.

  • 439.
    Xu, Jingying
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Feasibility study of soil washing to remediate mercury contaminated soil2013Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Mercury (Hg) cannot be degraded. Therefore only two principal processes are available for the treatment of Hg-contaminated soil: (1) the separation of Hg from the soil or (2) the stabilisation of Hg within the soil. Prior to selecting a suitable treatment technique, it is necessary to have an understanding of Hg behaviour in contaminated soil, i.e., distribution in particle size fractions, dissolution at different pH and in the presence of chlorides, and mobilisation using various extractants. The thesis aims to evaluate the potential for applying soil washing to decontaminate the Hg-contaminated soil. The Hg contamination originated from inappropriate waste disposal, chlor-alkali process and harbour activities, and the soil was also polluted by other trace elements, i.e., Zn, Cu and Pb, etc. The soil was fractionated from fine to coarse particles to study the effectiveness of physical separation. A pH-static titration ranging from pH 3 to 11 was performed to assess the mobility of Hg in response to pH changes. The chloride influence on Hg mobilisation was studied using an HCl solution of different concentrations as the leachant. Batch leaching tests were used to evaluate Hg solubility in water, and extraction efficiency by various extractants. The extractants derived from wastes were acidogenic leachates generated from biodegradable wastes, and alkaline leachates produced from fly/bottom ashes. The studied soil consisted of dominant coarse-grained fractions, which is usually suitable for particle size separation. However, dry sieving has been shown to be insufficient to separate clean from contaminated soil fractions although the Hg concentrations decreased with increasing particle sizes. The reasons are likely to be: (i) the physical attachment of fines to coarse particles; (ii) the strong chemical bond of soil organic matter (OM) and minerals for Hg. Distilled water could barely mobilise the Hg from the soil, most likely due to firm chemical bonding between the soil and Hg. Despite the fact that enhanced Hg dissolution was observed at pH 5 and 11 in this study, soil washing by pH adjustment was insufficient for Hg removal. The introduction of chlorides did not facilitate the Hg mobilisation either. Retention of Hg in the soil by OM seemed to be predominant over Hg mobilisation by chlorides. Chemical extraction by leachates from wastes as well as EDTA solution and NaOH solutions showed that neither alkaline nor acidic leachates could facilitate Hg removal from the soil. Mercury was firmly bound in the soil matrix and no more than 1.5% of the total Hg could be removed by any of the tested extractants. Future research should therefore focus on the development of Hg immobilisation techniques.

  • 440.
    Xu, Jingying
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Bravo, Andrea Garcia
    Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology, University of Uppsala.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology, University of Uppsala.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Sources and remediation techniques for mercury contaminated soil2015Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 74, s. 42-53Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mercury (Hg) in soils has increased by a factor of 3 to 10 in recent times mainly due to combustion of fossil fuels combined with long-range atmospheric transport processes. Other sources as chlor-alkali plants, gold mining and cement production can also be significant, at least locally. This paper summarizes the natural and anthropogenic sources that have contributed to the increase of Hg concentration in soil and reviews major remediation techniques and their applications to control soil Hg contamination. The focus is on soil washing, stabilisation/solidification, thermal treatment and biological techniques; but also the factors that influence Hg mobilisation in soil and therefore are crucial for evaluating and optimizing remediation techniques are discussed. Further research on bioremediation is encouraged and future study should focus on the implementation of different remediation techniques under field conditions.

  • 441.
    Xu, Jingying
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser.
    Kleja, Dan B
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Biester, Harald
    Department of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geoecology, University of Braunschweig.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Influence of particle size distribution, organic carbon, pH and chlorides on washing of mercury contaminated soil2014Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 109, s. 99-105Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Feasibility of soil washing to remediate Hg contaminated soil was studied. Dry sieving was performed to evaluate Hg distribution in soil particle size fractions. The influence of dissolved organic matter and chlorides on Hg dissolution was assessed by batch leaching tests. Mercury mobilization in the pH range of 3–11 was studied by pH-static titration. Results showed infeasibility of physical separation via dry sieving, as the least contaminated fraction exceeded the Swedish generic guideline value for Hg in soils. Soluble Hg did not correlate with dissolved organic carbon in the water leachate. The highest Hg dissolution was achieved at pH 5 and 11, reaching up to 0.3% of the total Hg. The pH adjustment was therefore not sufficient for the Hg removal to acceptable levels. Chlorides did not facilitate Hg mobilization under acidic pH either. Mercury was firmly bound in the studied soil thus soil washing might be insufficient method to treat the studied soil.

  • 442.
    Xu, Jingying
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Kleja, Dan Berggren
    Department of Environmental Engineering, Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Influence of soil particle size, organic carbon and pH on mercury distribution and dissolution in contaminated soil2013Ingår i: Influence of soil particle size, organic carbon and pH on mercury distribution and dissolution in contaminated soil, 2013, s. 45-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mercury (Hg) cannot be destroyed therefore only two principal processes are available for the treatment of Hg-contaminated soil: 1) separation of Hg from soil (through wet-sieving and/or chemical extraction), or 2) stabilization of Hg within the soil (through chemical immobilisation or stabilisation/solidification). If Hg separation is used, soil can be cleaned while Hg recovered. A complex matrix may, however, cause low treatment efficiency. Therefore, prior to selecting the suitable treatment technique, an understanding of Hg solubility and distribution in particle size fractions of the contaminated soil is necessary. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential for applying soil washing technology to clean Hg contaminated soil based on Hg distribution in soil particle size fractions, Hg solubility in water and pH-dependant Hg dissolution. Soil contaminated by different industrial processes (e.g. waste dump, chlor–alkali process, harbour activities) was collected from Tidermans padding area upstream of Göta River, Sweden during the site remediation. The soil was dry sieved into particle-size fractions of <0.063 mm, 0.063–0.125 mm, 0.125–0.25 mm, 0.25–0.5 mm, 0.5–1 mm, 1–2 mm and 2–4 mm and along with the bulk soil were analysed for total Hg and total organic carbon (TOC). A batch leaching test at liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S) 10 was performed to determine water soluble Hg and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). A pH-static leaching test was performed to determine Hg solubility in the pH range of 3-11. All particle size fractions contained Hg above the Swedish guideline value for contaminated soil (2.5 mg/kg for less sensitive land use). Total Hg concentrations decreased with increasing particle size (except fraction 1-2 mm), ranging from 48.70 mg/kg to 10.29 mg/kg. The TOC contents were similar in all size fractions from 8.72 to 10.88 and had no correlation with the total Hg. Water soluble Hg was low in all size fractions, making up for 0.04% to 0.12% of the total Hg. Contents of DOC declined from fine to large fractions, however, no correlation between Hg solubility and DOC content has been observed. Mercury desorption was affected by pH and fluctuated throughout the tested pH range. The least Hg dissolution was achieved at pH=3 and pH 9 in all fractions and the bulk soil, while the dissolution peaks were observed at pH=5 and pH=11. The results show that the soil washing applying wet-sieving and particle separation method would be unfeasible since elevated Hg concentrations are distributed in all tested soil particle fractions and water solubility of Hg is very low. Chemical extraction focusing on pH 5 or pH 11 might improve the Hg removal. Geochemical modelling is being performed to understand this Hg behaviour in the studied soil.

  • 443.
    Xue, K.
    et al.
    Institute for Environmental Genomics and Department of Microbiology and Plant Biology, University of Oklahoma, Norman.
    Nostrand, J.D. van
    Institute for Environmental Genomics and Department of Microbiology and Plant Biology, University of Oklahoma, Norman.
    Vangronsveld, Jaco
    Hasselt University, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek.
    Witters, N.
    Hasselt University, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek.
    Janssen, Jolien
    Hasselt University, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Siebielec, Grzegorz
    Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation - State Research Institute.
    Galazka, Rafal
    Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation - State Research Institute.
    Giagnoni, L.
    University of Florence, Department of Agrifood Production and Environmental Sciences, P.le delle Cascine 28, I-50144 Florence.
    Arenella, Mariarita
    Department of Plant, Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Florence.
    Zhou, J-Z
    Institute for Environmental Genomics and Department of Microbiology and Plant Biology, University of Oklahoma, Norman.
    Renella, Giancarlo
    University of Florence, Department of Agrifood Production and Environmental Sciences, P.le delle Cascine 28, I-50144 Florence, Department of Plant, Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Florence, University of Florence.
    Management with willow short rotation coppice increase the functional gene diversity and functional activity of a heavy metal polluted soil2015Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 138, s. 469-477Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the microbial functional diversity, biochemical activity, heavy metals (HM) availability and soil toxicity of Cd, Pb and Zn contaminated soils, kept under grassland or short rotation coppice (SRC) to attenuate the risks associated with HM contamination and restore the soil ecological functions. Soil microbial functional diversity was analyzed by the GeoChip, a functional gene microarray containing probes for genes involved in nutrient cycling, metal resistance and stress response. Soil under SRC showed a higher abundance of microbial genes involved in C, N, P and S cycles and resistance to various HM, higher microbial biomass, respiration and enzyme activity rates, and lower HM availability than the grassland soil. The linkages between functional genes of soil microbial communities and soil chemical properties, HM availability and biochemical activity were also investigated. Soil toxicity and N, P and Pb availability were important factors in shaping the microbial functional diversity, as determined by CCA. We concluded that in HM contaminated soils the microbial functional diversity was positively influenced by SRC management through the reduction of HM availability and soil toxicity increase of nutrient cycling. The presented results can be important in predicting the long term environmental sustainability of plant-based soil remediation.

  • 444.
    Zhou, Guanghong
    et al.
    KTH, Industriell ekologi.
    Singh, Jagdeep
    KTH, Industriell ekologi.
    Wu, Jiechen
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten. KTH, Industriell ekologi.
    Sinha, Rajib
    KTH, Industriell ekologi.
    Laurenti, Rafael
    KTH, Industriell ekologi.
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, Industriell ekologi.
    Evaluating low-carbon city initiatives from the DPSIR framework perspective2015Ingår i: Habitat International, ISSN 0197-3975, E-ISSN 1873-5428, Vol. 50, s. 289-299Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Current low-carbon city initiatives were evaluated using the DPSIR (Drivingforces-Pressures-State-Impacts-Responses) causal-effect framework for investigating interactions between environmental issues and human activities. For effective management towards achieving a low-carbon city, integrating the pressure-based, driver-oriented DPSIR approach could help decision makers examine whether greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction approaches deal with the root causes of GHG emissions and work to-wards low-carbon city development goals. The DPSIR framework was used on 36 global cities to analyse the socio-economic dynamics of GHG emissions and their pressures on the environment, the state of the environment, related climate change impacts and responses from society. The results indicated that numerous cities have awareness of low-car bon plans and that most of these plans are pressure-based and driver-oriented. Most city plans recognise energy, transportation and building as the main driving forces for GHG emissions, which cause environmental pressures, and highlight technical responses to reduce GHG emissions pressures from these root causes. Inaddition, most plans recognise institutional and cognitional responses to low-carbon city development, such as: policies and legislation; departmental planning and cooperation; measuring, monitoring and reporting performance; capital invest-ment; community education and outreach; and stakeholder involvement.

  • 445.
    Åberg, Annika
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Ecke, Holger
    Evaluation and prediction of emissions from a road built with bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI)2006Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 355, nr 1-3, s. 1-12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In autumn 2001, a full-scale test road was built with municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash at the Dåvamyran landfill, Umeå, Northern Sweden. Leachates were collected from asphalted sections with either bottom ash or gravel as filling material. In this research, 12 months of ash leachate sampling were evaluated with respect to emissions of contaminants such as trace metals and chlorides (Cl). The usefulness of regression models describing trace metal mobility from bottom ash was also tested as predictive tools for reusability applications of MSWI bottom ash. Cl, Cu, and Cr had the highest mobility (considering leachate concentrations) in the ash leachate, though concentrations of Cl and Cu decreased during the sampling period (Cl from 10,000 to 600 mg l- 1; Cu from 1600 to 500 μg l- 1). An increased mobility of Cr during the autumns (about 3-4 times higher compared to the summer) was noted with a maximum value of nearly 70 μg l- 1 during autum 2001. Pb showed a very low mobility over the entire year with leachate concentrations of around 3-4 μg l- 1. Chemical equilibrium calculations using Minteq indicated that several Cu minerals were oversaturated in the leachate, thus mineral precipitation could be responsible for declining amounts of Cu in the leachate. Adsorption to iron oxides was found to be a probable explanation for the low mobility of Pb. A reasonably good agreement between regression models and field values were achieved for Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cu, while the models for Cd and Cr were less promising. Even though a large part of the variation (R2 = 61-97%) in the leaching experiment could be explained by only pH and L / S, field data were much more scattered than expected from field pH.

  • 446.
    Lagerkvist, Anders (Redaktör)
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Abstract proceedings of 7th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium: Södra Sunderbyn, June 25th to 27th, 20122012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 447. Lagerkvist, Anders (Redaktör)
    Landfill technology1999Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 448. Lagerkvist, Anders (Redaktör)
    Landfill Technology2003Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Revised edition of the 9th consecutive edition of the textbook for the Landfill technology course

  • 449. Lagerkvist, Anders (Redaktör)
    Samordnad deponigas: forskning, utveckling, demonstration : slutrapport1997Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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