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  • 401.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Forsell, Nicklas
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Ouraich, Ismail
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Rise.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Large-scale implementation of biorefineries: New value chains, products and efficient biomass feedstock utilisation2018Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 402.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Hjalmarsson, Lennart
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Skatt i retur2009Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 403.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå University.
    Olofsson, Elias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Wenchao, Zhou
    Umeå University.
    Meeting challenges in forestry: improving performance and competitiveness2020Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving the efficiency of the forestry sector will have an important impact on our possibility to attain long-term sustainability and mitigate climate change. In this study, attainable, and sustainable, efficiency improvements in the harvesting of forest products are analysed using data envelopment analysis (DEA). The price impacts of the efficient harvesting volumes are evaluated in a second step using a spatial forest sector model. The results indicate that the harvested volumes of forest products, both for the industry and energy sectors, can be significantly increased if a more efficient forest management is adopted. This supply-side effect will also result in general price decreases for sawlogs, pulpwood, fuelwood and harvesting residues. However, in certain counties, and for specific forest products, the estimated decreasing price effect from a more efficient forest management cannot fully offset the increasing price effect of the energy sector expanding its use of forest products. More forest biomass enters the market, which is need in the transition towards a bioeconomy, and the increased availability of forest biomass will restrict the price effect making investments in the bioeconomy more likely to be profitable.

  • 404.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Mansikkasalo, Anna
    European trade of forest products in the presence of EU policy2009Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 17, nr Suppl. 1, s. 18-26Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing the share of renewable energy is of principal concern for the EU energy policy. A number of policies have been adopted, and, in part, been implemented by the EU member countries. An increasing share of renewable energy implies an increasing utilisation of biofuels in general and of forest-based biomass in particular. However, in the EU, the endowment and uses of forest-base biomass are diverse suggesting that an increasing trade would become necessary in order to cost effectively increase the utilisation of forest-based biomass. The purpose of this study is to, in the presence of EU energy policy, quantify and analyse possible trade levels for forest fuels in the EU. Particularly, the consequences on trade after implementing the White Paper and the RES-E Directive are analysed. Investigating the European trade in forest fuels is important for understanding how industry sectors in the EU will be affected by the policies. The results suggest that the implementation of the White Paper and the RES-E Directive will increase the trade in forest fuels, resulting in total trade increases of up to 67 percent. Furthermore, the national net trading levels are possible to derive. Depending on policy implementation the results differ - a country that was net importing given the White Paper implementation can instead be net exporting when applying the RES-E Directive. The fact that the policy implementations will increase the trade may mitigate potential industry problems to secure the needed inputs. On the other hand, the integration of countries increases the possibility for some industries to increase their production even more, possibly strengthening any input scarcity problems. It is therefore not possible to generally conclude if a more integrated European forest fuel market, and hence an increased European forest fuel trade, will mitigate industry problems to secure their needed inputs or not.

  • 405.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Increasing rates of paper recycling and the locational behaviour of newsprint producing facilities in Europe2001Ingår i: Journal of Forest Economics, ISSN 1104-6899, E-ISSN 1618-1530, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 245-262Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper determines the impact wastepaper recovery has on the investment decision for the European pulp and paper industry, with an emphasis on newsprint production. It begins by describing the changes in newsprint production and wastepaper recovery that occurred in the past two decades. A formal model to test the hypothesized implication of increasing wastepaper recovery on the locational choice is then outlined and empirically tested on data from 13 European countries (Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and UK). We found a clear correlation between wastepaper recovery and the locational choice for newsprint investment projects, and suggest that this should have policy implications for the recycling of paper. That is, policies that increase wastepaper recovery will have a positive effect on the probability to attract newsprint investment projects.

  • 406.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Swedish Energy Agency.
    What do economic simulations tell us?: recent mergers in the iron ore industry2004Ingår i: Resources policy, ISSN 0301-4207, E-ISSN 1873-7641, Vol. 29, nr 3-4, s. 111-118Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the European Commission's decision to allow a merger between two Brazilian iron ore mining companies, CVRD and Caemi, using data on the Direct Reduced Iron pellet market. By using a simulation model, we can directly simulate the total welfare effects from the merger and hence evaluate the merger from a new perspective. The results from our simulations suggest that the welfare effects are negative from the merger between CVRD and Caemi, which supports the conclusion drawn by the European Commission decision. By performing different simulations between hypothetical merger candidates, our results show that only mergers between small candidates have the potential to be welfare enhancing.

  • 407.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Vattenfall.
    Gustafsson, Kristian
    Vattenfall.
    Evaluation of the liberalisation process of the Swedish electricity market2007Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this pre-study is to map the literature covering the liberalisation of the Swedish electricity market, elaborating on the possible consensus, as well as highlight any patterns that may explain differences in opinions. Moreover, the aim is to present material that accommodates decisions on the directions further research in the social sciences on the electricity market may take.

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  • 408.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Olofsson, Casper
    Luleå tekniska universiet.
    Joel, Wadsten
    Luleå tekniska universiet.
    Renewable energy trade in Europe: Efficient use of biofuels2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 409.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Olsson, Anna
    Factor substitution and procurement competition for forest resources in Sweden2015Ingår i: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 169, s. 99-109Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The utilisation of forest resources in the energy sector has been increasing, partly caused by economic policies introduced to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. This in turn has led to an increase in the procurement competition between the forest industries and the energy sector. A translog cost function approach is used to analyse the factor substitution in the sawmill industry, the pulp and paper industry and the heating industry in Sweden over the period 1970–2008. The estimated parameters are used to calculate the Allen and Morishima elasticities of substitution as well as the price elasticities of input demand. The results indicate that it is easier for the heating industry to substitutes between by-products and logging residues than it is for the pulp and paper industry to substitute between by-products and roundwood. This suggests that the pulp and paper industry could suffer from an increase in the procurement competition. However, overall the substitutions elasticities estimated in our study are relatively low. This indicates that substitution possibilities could be rather limited due to rigidities in input prices. This result suggests that competition of forest resources also might be relatively limited.

  • 410.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Ouraich, Ismail
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Nolander, Carl
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Andersson, Stefan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Olofsson, Elias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Bryngemark, Elina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Österrike.
    Forsell, Nicklas
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Österrike.
    Kindermann, Georg
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Österrike.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Chamlers tekniska högskola.
    Projekt: Storskalig utbyggnad av bioraffinaderier: Nya värdekedjor, produkter och effektivt utnyttjande av skoglig biomassa2016Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Utvecklingen av kommersiella bioraffinaderikoncept är av strategisk betydelse för Sveriges utveckling till en biobaserad ekonomi. Bioraffinaderier bidrar till att ersätta fossila med biobaserade råvaror. Dessutom bidrar de till en smartare användning av biomassa, ökat förädlingsvärde samt utvecklingspotentialen av nya bioprodukter. Tekniska potentialer och industriella tillämpningar sammanlänkas med råvaruförsörjning samt marknads-, innovations- och policyaspekter. Projektet är tvärvetenskapligt och omfattar integration av modeller som kan redogöra för samspelet mellan olika sektorer, som inkluderar geografiska variationer av utbud och efterfrågan av skoglig biomassa, och som kan fånga effekterna av förändrade marknadsvillkor och styrmedel. För modellintegrationen kommer verktyg tas fram för att underlätta kommunikation och återkoppling mellan de ingående modellerna. Projektet syftar till att generera ny kunskap och ett modellramverk för avancerade systemanalyser relaterade till (i) den svenska biomassa och dess roll i ett hållbart energisystem och (ii) industriell omvandling av processindustrin i riktning mot ett framtida bioraffinaderi branschen. Genomförandefasen bygger på tre uppgiftsområden.

  • 411.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Pettersson, Fredrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Investment decisions and uncertainty in the power generation sector2008Ingår i: IAEE International Energy Conference: Bridging Energy Supply and Demand: Logistics, Competition and Environment, IAEE , 2008, s. 1-14Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper has been to analyse how increased market uncertainties affects the timing and technological choice of investment projects in the power sector with focus on the Swedish situation using two different investment behavioural assumptions. The investment model assumes stochastic input prices (fuel prices), output price (electricity) and emission permit price. In addition, the green certificate scheme presently used in Sweden is deterministically incorporated in the model. The technology choices included are offshore wind power, gas-fired power and biomass power. The results suggests that biopower is the most likely technology choice under both investment behavioural assumptions and regardless if investment timing, driven by the policies. The likelihood of choosing gas power increases over time and likelihood of choosing wind power decreases over time, driven by the relative capital requirements per unit of output for the two technologies. Wind power would benefit is a lower discount rate is used.

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  • 412.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Pettersson, Fredrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    The economics of power generation technology choice and investment timing in the presence of policy uncertainty2012Ingår i: Low Carbon Economy, ISSN 2158-7000, E-ISSN 2158-7019, Vol. 3, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to analyze how market and policy uncertainties affect the general profitability of new investments in the power sector, and investigate the associated investment timing and technology choices. We develop an economic model for new investments in three competing energy technologies in the Swedish electric power sector. The model takes into account the policy impacts of the EU ETS and the Swedish green certificate scheme. By simulating and modeling policy effects through stochastic prices the results suggest that bio-fuelled power is the most profitable technology choice in the presence of existing policy instruments and under our assumptions. The likelihood of choosing gas power increases over time at the expense of wind power due to the relative capital requirement per unit of output for these technologies. Overall the results indicate that the economic incentives to postpone investments into the future are significant.

  • 413.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Samakovlis, Eva
    Konjunkturinstitutet.
    Avfall: Återvinna, bränna eller slänga?2011 (uppl. 1)Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 414.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Shahrammehr, Shima
    Armington elasticities and induced industrial roundwood specialization in Europe2012Ingår i: Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research, ISSN 1939-0459, E-ISSN 1939-0467, Vol. 4, nr 3, s. 161-170Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate Armington elasticities for industrial roundwood in eight European countries for the period 1961–2007, and analyze how the estimated elasticities change over time. Results indicate increasing differentiation between domestic and imported volumes during the first half of the time period. However, for the latter half, a decreasing degree of specialization is observed. A plausible explanation is the removal of trade barriers during development of the internal European market. This trend of decreasing specialization is arguably going to continue in the future. For instance, the technical feasibility of using more heterogeneous feed-stock in the paper industry is increasing. Moreover, energy and climate policy is stimulating the use of wood as fuel in the energy sector. These changes in technology and new uses might further decrease the differentiation between domestic and imported industrial roundwood.

  • 415.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Shahrammehr, Shima
    Armington elasticities of intra-European trade with wood bioenergy products2009Ingår i: Energy, policies and technologies for sustainable economies: executive summaries of the 10th IAEE European Conference 7-10 September 2009 in Vienna, Austria / [ed] Reinhard Haas, Cleveland: International Association for Energy Economics (IAEE) , 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to provide estimated Armington elasticities for selected European countries and for three forest commodities of main interest in many energy models: roundwood, chips & particles and wood residues. The Armington elasticity is based on the assumption that a specific forest commodity is differentiated solely by its origin. The statistically significant estimated Armington elasticities range from 0.52 for roundwood in Hungary to approximately 4.53 for roundwood in Estonia. On average, the statistically significant Armington elasticity for chips & particles over all countries is 1.7 and for wood residues and roundwood 1.3 and 1.5, respectively. These elasticities provide benchmark values for partial equilibrium models trying to assess trade patterns of forest commodities and energy policy effects for individual European countries or the European Community as a whole.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 416.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Shahrammehr, Shima
    Forest biomass and Armington elasticities in Europe2011Ingår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 35, nr 1, s. 415-420Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to provide estimated Armington elasticities for selected European countries and for three forest biomass commodities of main interest in many energy models: roundwood, chips & particles and wood residues. The Armington elasticity is based on the assumption that a specific forest biomass commodity is differentiated by its origin. The statistically significant estimated Armington elasticities range from 0.52 for roundwood in Hungary to approximately 4.53 for roundwood in Estonia. On average, the statistically significant Armington elasticity for chips & particles over all countries is 1.7 and for wood residues and roundwood 1.3 and 1.5, respectively. These elasticities can provide benchmark values for simulation models trying to assess trade patterns of forest biomass commodities and energy policy effects for European countries or for the EU as a whole.

  • 417.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Shahrammehr, Shima
    Sweden’s import substitution possibilities for roundwood2011Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 26, nr 2, s. 146-153Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The substitution possibilities between imports and domestically produced goods and commodities are usually measured by Armington elasticities. These elasticities are essential parameters that have large affect on the result of trade models. The purpose of this study is to estimate disaggregated Armington elasticities for different segments of roundwood for Sweden. The data-set spans 1967-2007. The time-series are tested for non-stationary properties. The estimation fails to produce statistically significant elasticities for pulpwood but for sawlogs the estimated elasticity is 3.2. This is a relatively high estimate and indicates that imported and domestic sawlogs are easily substituted. In addition, event cases on the effect of various surrounding events (the fall of the Soviet Union and Sweden's membership in the EU) on the estimated Armington elasticities are tested. The results for these event cases indicate that the substitutability between imported and domestic pulpwood increased both with the fall of the Soviet Union and Sweden's membership in the EU. However, no such pattern could be observed for sawlogs.

  • 418.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Brännhett om svensk skog: en studie om råvarukonkurrensens ekonomi2004Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 419.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Estimating and decomposing the rate of technical change in the Swedish pulp and paper industry: A general index approach2004Ingår i: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 91, nr 1, s. 17-35Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the rate and the impacts of technical change in the Swedish pulp and paper industry. In contrast to earlier research on this industry we replace the standard time trend with time-specific dummy variables enabling the estimation and decomposing of a general index of technical change. The analysis is made within a Translog cost function model, which is estimated using a panel data set with observations across individual paper and board mills over the time period 1974–1994. Our results indicate that the highest rates of technical change have generally occurred during the latter part of this period. Pure technical change is the primary component that has directed technical change over the entire time period. We also find evidence of non-neutral technical change. Energy use has been stimulated by technical improvements while labour use has been discouraged. Also, technical change has had wastepaper and woodpulp using impacts. However, the magnitudes of these latter impacts are relatively small, implying that the increase in wastepaper use during the last decades has mainly been stimulated by relative price changes.

  • 420.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Structural changes in Swedish wastepaper demand: a variable cost function approach2003Ingår i: Journal of Forest Economics, ISSN 1104-6899, E-ISSN 1618-1530, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 41-63Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary purpose of this paper is to analyse the short-run price responsiveness of wastepaper demand in Sweden for four different paper and board products, as well as any structural changes in demand behaviour for these products over time. The analysis is done within a variable Translog cost function model, and we employ data for individual paper and board mills over the time period 1974-1994. The results suggest that the short-run own-price sensitivity of waste paper demand is relatively high compared to those of other input factors, and it has also tended to increase over time for some of the paper products. In addition, wastepaper demand has also become more sensitive to changes in energy prices, and its use increases with increases in the price of energy. However, the relationship between wastepaper and woodpulp is more complex, and in many instances wastepaper and woodpulp are short-run complements. Overall this implies that price based recycling policies will be relatively successful in promoting wastepaper use, but they will not necessarily lead to the conservation of virgin forest resources.

  • 421.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Technical change in the swedish pulp and paper industry: a general index approach2002Ingår i: Policy modelling: International Conference, Brussels, July 4-6, 2002, 2002Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this paper is to analyze the rate and the impacts of technical change in the Swedish paper and pulp industry. In contrast to earlier research in this field we replace the time trend with time-specific dummy variables enabling the estimation and decomposing of a general index of technical change. The analysis is made within a Translog cost function model, which is estimated using a panel data set with observations across paper and board mills over the period 1974-1994. Our results indicate that the highest rates of technical change have generally occurred during the latter part of the period. Pure technical change is the primary component that has directed technical change over the entire time period. We also find evidence of non-neutral technical change. Energy use has been stimulated by technical improvements while labour use has been discouraged. Also, technical change has had wastepaper and woodpulp using impacts. However, the magnitude of theselatter impacts is small.

  • 422.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Ouraich, Ismail
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Bryngemark, Elina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Zetterholm, Jonas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Olofsson, Elias
    Nolander, Carl
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Sverige.
    Harvey, Simon
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Sverige.
    Ahlström, Johan
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Andersson, Stefan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Projekt: En hållbar omställning av energisystemet mot en ökad andel bioenergi2016Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    3 PhD projects: Markets and price formulation (LTU, economics); Technologies and value chains (Chalmers) and; Location and industrial change (LTU, energy engineering). The general system perspective has its starting point in the importance of biomass and bioenergy in the transition to a long-run sustainable energy system and to an efficient spatial resource utilization and production with increased value chains. Focus is on biorefineries. A spatial approach will be applied in combination with national energy system modelling in connection with technological development potentials and industrial applications is linked to the feed-stock supply as well as market and policy issues.

  • 423.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Wårell, Linda
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Horizontal mergers in the iron ore industry: an application of PCAIDS2008Ingår i: Resources policy, ISSN 0301-4207, E-ISSN 1873-7641, Vol. 33, nr 3, s. 129-141Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate and analyse the price effects of the iron ore mergers between Rio Tinto and North Ltd in 2000, and CVRD and Caemi in 2001. The analyses are conducted using a merger simulation model that, based on the pre-merger situation, estimates the post-merger outcome. This paper applies the so-called proportionality-calibrated almost ideal demand system (PCAIDS) model, which assumes that the product is differentiated and that the strategic variable is price. The results from the merger simulations show that in the case of the merger between Rio Tinto and North Ltd, the merged firm has a combined market share of almost 20%. However, the estimated market weighted average price effect is only 2.6%. Regarding the merger between CVRD and Caemi, the merged firm's market share is about 29%, and the estimated market weighted average price effect is 4.6%. When removing Caemi's Canadian asset, which was the Commission decision in order to allow the merger, the market price effect decreases to 3.1%. Overall the results in this study support the Commission's decisions regarding both merger cases, and shows that merger simulations of price effects can be valuable tools in merger assessments.

  • 424.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Wårell, Linda
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Simulation of the competitive effects of a horizontal merger in the iron ore industry2005Ingår i: Iron Ore Conference 2005: 19 - 21 September 2005, Fremantle, Western Australia ; [proceedings], Carlton, Victoria: The Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy , 2005, s. 411-418Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During recent years the iron ore industry has experienced a continuous consolidation trend following increased merger and acquisition activities. Analysing and evaluating these mergers is important in order to establish potential effects. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the price effects caused by the merger between Rio Tinto and North Ltd in 2000. The merger was cleared by the European Commission, as well as the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, shortly after its announcement. The analysis will be conducted using a simulation model based on a proportionality calibrated almost ideal demand system, which uses the premerger situation in order to estimate the post-merger outcome. The relevant market is defined using shipments data. This is followed by the simulation model applied to the defined relevant market. The results show that the concentration on the market, given by the HHI, increases approximately 15 per cent, and that the market share of the new company's reaches almost 20 per cent. Compared to the Commission's assessment the results indicate a more concentrated market and thus a higher concern for possible competitive effects. Furthermore, the results suggest that the predicted average market price increase from the merger is 1.6 per cent. However, the merged firm is able to increase their average price by 5.1 per cent.

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  • 425.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Wårell, Linda
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Simulations of the competitive effects of a horizontal merger in the iron ore industry2005Ingår i: Iron ore conference 2005: 19 - 21 September 2005, Fremantle, Western Australia ; [proceedings], The Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy , 2005, s. 411-418Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 426.
    Löf, A.
    et al.
    RMG Consulting, Stockholm.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Löf, O.
    RMG Consulting, Stockholm.
    Iron ore market review 20182019Ingår i: CIS Iron and Steel Review, ISSN 2072-0815, Vol. 17, s. 4-9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Iron ore prices remained at relatively high levels during 2018. Premia paid for high quality ores increased and are substantial. Global iron ore production is estimated to grow by around 2% in 2018. Sharp cuts in production of un-beneficiated ore have taken place in China during 2018. Demand for iron ore in general and for high grade products in particular has however increased. Future developments in China, both in the steel and iron ore industries, will be crucial to the global iron ore markets in 2019. This review is written in March 2019 and incorporates as much as possible figures and trends for the full year 2018, in some cases this is however not yet possible. 

  • 427.
    Löf, Anton
    et al.
    Raw Materials Group, Stockholm.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Iron ore market report 20162016Ingår i: Engineering and mining journal (1926), ISSN 0095-8948, E-ISSN 0361-395X, Vol. 217, nr 11, s. 22-26Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 428.
    Löf, Anton
    et al.
    Raw Materials Group, Stockholm.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Iron ore market report 20172017Ingår i: Engineering and mining journal (1926), ISSN 0095-8948, E-ISSN 0361-395X, Vol. 218, nr 11, s. 32-37Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 429.
    Löf, Olof
    et al.
    RMG Consulting, Stockholm.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Mining's Contribution to National Economies: he extraction and export of minerals spurs economic developmen2018Ingår i: Engineering and mining journal (1926), ISSN 0095-8948, E-ISSN 0361-395X, Vol. 219, nr 8, s. 48-56Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The article discusses contribution of mining in middle and low income countries to national economic and social development and mentions statistical analysis of the contribution of non-fuel minerals mining. Topics discussed include contribution of minerals and mining to gross domestic product (GDP), production value at mine stage of metallic minerals, and value of mineral production at the mine stage.

  • 430.
    MacGregor, James
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Determining an optimal strategy for energy investment in Kazakhstan2017Ingår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 107, s. 210-224Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The economy of Kazakhstan is locked into reliance on fossil fuel energy sources. Its government is seeking to diversify and deliver sustainable development. We develop an approach to decision-making to support critical decisions over the necessary $67 billion in electricity investments to 2050 that can simultaneously contribute to a sustainable economy. We apply structured decision-making and cost-benefit analysis, align politically by incorporating the collective expertise of an interdisciplinary group of stakeholders to identify Policy Options, commercial assumptions and externalities, and fill data gaps using technical, economic and environmental data from global sources. Our approach quantifies net present value of these identified Policy Options, explores sensitivities, and suggests alternative investment pathway. Our results indicate policymakers should switch from coal and focus on harnessing the commercial and economic advantages of gas and hydropower for electricity generation. These options would be cheaper and have considerably lower emissions and water usage than the current production mix.

  • 431.
    MacGregor, James
    et al.
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, WorleyParsons, EcoNomics Group.
    Nordin, Åsa
    Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Strategic alliances in Kenyan smallholder farming2014Ingår i: Business Excellence, ISSN 1846-3355, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 49-64Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Implementing and complying with standards and certifi cation oft en increases costs for supply chain actors. These increased costs are caused by upgrading production, logistics and marketing needed to achieve compliance, and can lead to the exclusion of actors from the supply chain. In particular, the exclusion of small-scale growers in developing countries as the result of the expansion and proliferation of private voluntary standards (PVS) used by large procurers has been extensively reported. Costs of PVS are per certification and the unit is usually the individual farm, regardless of its size. In much of the developing world smallholder production dominates domestic food production, and these small farms face proportionately higher costs per unit area for certification and compliance. Benefits of PVS are per production unit, giving benefits to larger farms. Developing world smallholder production tends to be on less than one hectare, giving relatively small production. Compared with the costs per farm, there is an inherent bias in many standards and certification towards larger farms. Standards in export horticulture can, potentially, incentivize a more active role for the private sector in investing in small-scale growers in ways that are mutually benefi cial for growers and exporters. Such co-investment is a feature of trading relationships and business models that are inclusive of small-scale growers. In Kenyan horticulture, donors, exporters and smallholders have in some cases managed to leverage PVS requirements into profitable local agricultural developments. In this paper, we use resource-based strategic alliance theory to explain the patterns that have evolved. We propose greater use of cooperation theory to help make more efficient economic development interventions which are complementary with private-sector investments. We explore how standards might be used to accelerate development initiatives.

  • 432.
    Makkonen, Mari
    et al.
    Lappeenranta University of Technology.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Viljainen, Satu
    Lappeenranta University of Technology.
    All quiet on the western front?: Transmission capacity development in the Nordic electricity market2015Ingår i: Economics of Energy & Environmental Policy, ISSN 2160-5882, E-ISSN 2160-5890, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 161-176Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Infrastructure plays an obvious and crucial role in electricity markets. Physical infrastructure must exist for the supply to meet demand in real time. In addition, it accommodates the efficient exchange of cost-efficient production across borders, and can be an important part of sharing resources for reliability purposes. Howeven in the historically successful Nordic electricity market, the cross-border transmission grid investments are lagging behind the original schedule agreed between the Nordic TSOs. Moreoven in early 2013, the Norwegian and Swedish Transmission System Operators (TSOs) cancelled the planned, by many considered critical, Hasle (Westlink) transmission capacity increase. This paper addresses several issues concerning the cross-border transmission planning and its role for successful integration of the electricity markets. We aim at evaluating the impact of different institutional requirements for key entities as well as the changing governance structure to highlight how the infrastructure development paths are dependent on these. The evaluation of the governance structure presented in this paper is based on the historical experiences of the Nordic electricity market. Our findings suggest that the national goals in transmission development contradict the Nordic capacity development targets

  • 433.
    Malmström, Malin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Voitkane, Aija
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design. Halmstad University.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design. School of Economics.
    When stereotypical gender notions see the light of day, will they burst?: Venture capitalists' gender constructions versus venturing performance facts2018Ingår i: Journal of Business Venturing Insights, ISSN 2352-6734, Vol. 9, s. 32-38Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although often discussed, there has been limited effort to match venture capitalists’ construction of gender notions with specific facts about the entrepreneurs’ venturing activities. This study shows how stereotypical gender notions of both men and women entrepreneurs are embedded in venture capitalists’ assessments and analyses as well as explores whether or not these notions have substance based on actual performance. Drawing on interview data and statistical analysis of objective key performance information from accounting reports, we identify four myths in the evaluations of 126 venture capital applications for governmental capital that do not have any significant empirical substance. We discuss these findings’ implications for the study of myths in women's entrepreneurship.

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  • 434.
    Mansikkasalo, Anna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Changes in European forest raw material trade: Consequences of implementing the RES2020 Directive2012Ingår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 37, s. 150-160Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to assess possible changes in the European trade patterns of forest raw material arising from the implementation of the RES2020 Directive. The analysis is done by developing a partial general equilibrium model of the European trade in forest raw materials. The results suggest that the ambitious EU energy policy goal, stimulating the use of forest raw materials, will boost its trade. In the RES2020 scenario the total trade in by-products will increase with 61 percent – from 38 million to 61 million cubic metres solid volume compared to the baseline scenario. For logging residues the amount increases from 50 million to 104 million cubic metres solid volume – or by 110 percent in the RES2020 scenario compared to the baseline. Since the national goals in the RES2020 Directive are mandatory in contrast to the indicative recommendations stated in previous EU energy policies on renewables this study concludes that a more ambitious goal will inevitably affect the input competing industries. This stresses the need to thoroughly account for different aspects when evaluating the consequences of different policies.

  • 435.
    Mansikkasalo, Anna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Greening Industry: Essays on industrial energy use and markets for forest raw materials2013Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this thesis is to investigate market developments and policy issues that influence the environmental performance of the industry sector. The analysis concentrates mainly on the industry’s input use in the form of energy and forest raw materials. The thesis consists of an introductory part, and five self-contained papers. Paper I addresses important market signals and firm specific management practices that may explain differences in observed energy intensities across industrial firms. The paper combines interview statistics with secondary data on energy prices, output etc., that are used in a simple econometric model in which the energy intensities of 89 process firms over the time period 2004-2010 are analyzed. The descriptive results show a significant increase in firm and top management energy efficiency awareness. The respondents stress that increased awareness is due to rising energy costs. In line with this, the model estimations show that awareness will not have an effect on firm’s energy intensity. Instead, rising energy prices will significantly reduce the energy intensity. Paper II addresses the role of voluntary energy efficiency programs in the industrial sector. We expand on earlier work by explicitly considering the self-selection mechanism in these programs as well as the role of different management and decisionmaking practices for understanding program outcomes. The results show that the probability for choosing to participate in PFE as well as the level of self-reported energy savings for those who participate tend to increase with increased electricity intensity and electricity use. Different management practices also affect the probability of participation; firms in which the energy manager has fewer responsibilities and works closer to the CEO have been more likely to participate in the program. The above suggests that PFE may primarily have attracted firms that already have had plenty of experience with energy efficiency issues. Increasing the use of renewable energy is of principal EU energy policy concern. In this respect, investigating European trade in forest raw materials is important for understanding how industry sectors in the EU will be affected by these policies. Papers III and IV therefore, quantify and analyze possible trade patterns in forest raw materials in the presence of EU energy policy. Specifically, in Paper III the White Paper and the RES-E Directive are analyzed whilst the RES2020 Directive is of focus in Paper IV. The analysis builds on developing and employing a partial equilibrium model of trade in selected forest raw materials in Europe. In Papers III and Paper IV, the results suggest that the policy implementations will increase the trade in forest raw materials by up to 67 and 110 percent, respectively. Since the national goals in the RES2020 Directive are mandatory in contrast to the indicative recommendations stated in previous EU energy policies on renewables, Paper IV concludes that more ambitious goals will inevitably affect the input competing industries. Finally, Paper V provides a critical survey of previous econometric analyzes of supply and demand elasticities in wastepaper markets. A key finding is that the own-price elasticity of wastepaper supply is overall low (around 0.20-0.30). This adds to our understanding of the price volatility in wastepaper markets, and carries important implications for the impacts of – and the efficient choice between – price- and quantity-based waste management policies.

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  • 436.
    Mansikkasalo, Anna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    The European forest trade model: EU policy and the impact on forest raw material use2007Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study is to develop a numerical simulation model of the European trade in forest fuels and analyse the possible trade levels for forest fuels in Europe following the implementation of EU energy policy. The White Paper and the RES-E Directive have been designed partly to support an increased use of forest fuels as sources for energy generation. An increased demand for forest fuels in Europe as a whole can imply higher forest fuel prices in some countries for which the aggregated demand curve shifts outward and the demanded quantity increases. An increase in European trade can both strengthen as well as mitigate national upward pressures on the forest fuel prices. Hence, investigating the European trade in forest fuels is important for understanding how industry sectors in the European economies will be affected by the EU policy. The analysis of policy consequences ex ante requires modelling. Since there are few existing models suitable for our purpose a new model needs to be developed. Besides outlining a new model, labelled the European Forest Trade Model (EFTM), as well as coding it using the GAMS software, substantial efforts were made to collect available European statistics on forest fuels. Since the available data generally were insufficient and the estimations made therefore were many, the results from the EFTM should only be discussed on a general level. Future research efforts should therefore aim not only at refining the model; it is equally important to provide the necessary statistical data and resolve any standardisation problems attached to this data. The simulations show that the implementation of the White Paper and the RES-E Directive will boost the trade in forest fuels, resulting in total trade increases of up to 67 percent. Furthermore, the simulation results show national net trading levels. Depending on policy implementation the results differ - one country that was net importing by- products given the White Paper implementation can instead be net exporting by-products when applying the RES-E Directive. The fact that the policy implementations will boost the trade may mitigate potential industry problems to secure the needed inputs. On the other hand, the integration of countries increases the possibility for some industries to increase their production even more, possibly strengthening any input scarcity problems. It is therefore not possible to generally conclude if a more integrated European forest fuel market, and hence an increased European forest fuel trade, will mitigate industry problems to secure their needed inputs or not.

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  • 437. Mansikkasalo, Anna
    et al.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Market behavior and policy in the recycled paper industry: a critical survey of price elasticity research2014Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 38, s. 17-29Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of this paper are to: (a) provide a critical survey of existing econometric analyses of supply and demand elasticities in recycled paper markets and (b) discuss a number of implications of the results from this work. Specifically, the survey adds to our understanding of the functioning of recycled paper markets, points towards some important policy lessons, and identifies gaps in the economic literature on recycled paper market behavior. The analysis builds on the scope, methodology and data used by 21 previous studies, which all estimate the own-price elasticities of recycled paper demand and/or supply. One key finding is that the own-price elasticity of recycled paper supply is positive but low (around 0.20–0.30). This helps explain the often high price volatility in recycled paper markets, and carries important implications for the impacts of, and the choice between, price- and quantity-based waste management policies. Finally, the analysis also suggests that future research should devote increased attention to different non-environmental market imperfections (e.g., market power, information asymmetries) that could discourage the uptake of recycled materials in the market place. A stronger research focus on recycled paper use in developing countries, not the least China, is also needed.

  • 438.
    Mansikkasalo, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Michanek, Gabriel
    Uppsala universitet.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Industrins energieffektivisering: styrmedlens effekter och interaktion2011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 439.
    Matti, Simon
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Value hierarchies and public deliberations: do people deliberate about core values?2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Ever since Aristotle’s outline of the political animal in his Politics, the notion of dialogue as at the center of political life has been strong, and inspired a vibrant tradition within democratic theory to designate public deliberations as a cornerstone of participatory democracy and representative government. Although the literature on deliberation has grown rapidly over the past decades, it has mostly been theoretical. to date we also have a rather limited knowledge of the content of deliberative processes, i.e. what actually transpires when people deliberate on a given issue and how participants process the value-based appeals presented to them. This is surprising as the level of abstraction on which the deliberations revolve should have significant bearing on the outcomes in terms of value elicitation and –change. The purpose of this paper is to explore the content of a public deliberation. We do so in a case that should present ideal conditions for enlightened deliberations on core values: the planning of a large-scale on-shore wind-farm. Do the deliberations concern the value-conflicts presented by political elites and media (and subsequently applied to construct attributes in e.g. a choice experiments and non-market valuations)? Or, do deliberations rather revolve round more salient, issue-specific opinions? Furthermore, what does this tell us about the prospects for applying public deliberations as a tool for raising moral and value concerns, and for solving or amending values-based conflicts of interest?

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  • 440.
    Matti, Simon
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Lundmark, Carina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Managing Participation: prospects for learning and legitimacy-creation in Swedish water management2017Ingår i: Water Policy, ISSN 1366-7017, E-ISSN 1996-9759, Vol. 19, nr 1, s. 99-114Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The article evaluates whether the participatory arrangements in Swedish water management following from the European Union's Water Framework Directive contribute to legitimacy by increased learning and knowledge-generation. In contrast to most evaluations of collaborative arrangements, we use a three-tiered approach analyzing actors, processes and structures jointly, which allows us to more fully consider the merits and challenges facing this new management system. Based on original data collected from the Water councils in one of five Swedish Water Districts, we conclude that the prospects for learning and legitimacy-creation in Swedish water management are favorable. Despite the absence of decision-making power, a majority of the participants find the management system overall positive and meaningful, as new knowledge is collected and distributed through the Water councils. Thus, the management processes seem to work in favor of reaching the overarching goal of internal legitimacy, i.e. among the participating stakeholders. The main challenge, following our data, is for the new management system to serve as an arena for broad public involvement. As long as only a small number of stakeholders partake in the Water councils, the potential for creating external legitimacy for this new governance system is limited.

  • 441. Michanek, Gabriel
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Licensing of nuclear power plants: the case of Sweden in an international comparison2009Ingår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 37, nr 10, s. 4086-4097Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient power plant licensing procedures are essential for the functioning of deregulated electricity markets. The purpose of this paper is to review and analyse the licensing process for nuclear power plants in Sweden, and in part contrast the Swedish case with the corresponding approaches in a selection of other countries. This approach permits a discussion of how licensing processes can be altered and what the benefits and drawbacks of such changes are. The paper highlights and discusses a number of important legal issues and implications, including, for instance: (a) the role of political versus impartial decision-making bodies; (b) the tension between national policy goals and implementation at the local level; (c) public participation and access to justice; (d) consistency and clarity of the legal system; and (e) the introduction of license time limits.

  • 442. Michanek, Gabriel
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Medvind i uppförsbacke!: en studie av den svenska vindkraftspolitiken2006Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 443.
    Miliute-Plepienea, Jurate
    et al.
    Lund University Centre for Sustainability Studies (LUCSUS), Lund University.
    Hage, Olle
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Plepys, Andrius
    The International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics (IIIEE) at Lund University.
    Reipas, Algirdas
    Alytus Region Waste Management Centre, Vilniaus.
    What motivates households recycling behaviour in recycling schemes of different maturity?: Lessons from Lithuania and Sweden2016Ingår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 113, s. 40-52Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the determinants of household recycling behaviour in a recycling system at an early stage of development (Lithuania) and compares them with those of a more mature recycling scheme (Sweden). The analysis builds on the empirics from household surveys and focuses on four fractions of household packaging waste. Several similarities within the two recycling schemes were found, including convenience, norm-based motivators, and the interactions between such factors. The analysis tested and confirmed the so-called ABC Hypothesis of moral norms being less important as motivators to recycle when it is easy and convenient to collect packaging waste, e.g. when kerbside collection is in place. One important difference between the two schemes was that social norms were found to be important for source sorting in the early-stage recycling system but not in the mature recycling system. This suggests not only that more effort should be devoted to shaping social norms that facilitate household recycling behaviour when collection systems are launched, but also that the focus should be on moral norms when the convenience factors in waste management schemes are still underdeveloped.

  • 444.
    Mlozi, Shogo
    et al.
    Department of Tourism, National College of Tourism, Dar Es Salaam.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Antecedents of national park knowledge in Tanzania2019Ingår i: Journal of Ecotourism, ISSN 1472-4049, E-ISSN 1747-7638, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 199-220Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Over time, national park knowledge has come to constitute the gap between the full social freedom and individual consciousness of the ecological conditions inside a park. While other visitors have a rigorous knowledge of transportation, nature, and culture, some visitors naively enter the area in order to enjoy their tourism rights. Theoretically, our model proposes that national park knowledge can change as a result of knowing about eco-tourist attractions; also, knowledge of public infrastructure and accessibility is strongly correlated to knowledge of what you can and cannot do in the protected area. Eco-tourist attractions include natural resources, cultural attractions, and recreational facilities. The argument is that all the infrastructure is developed around these, as that these are the sources of attraction. Based on the literature, we link these variables with the ecotourism concept, thus positioning our paper as an ecotourism study. A total of 103 questionnaires were returned on the basis of convenience sampling. A satisfying underlying factor structure was confirmed by CFA and EFA, in which four hypotheses were tested. With 103 observations, the model sufficiently met the minimum sample size for SEM. This paper provides some evidence for its cross validity and may inspire more studies in future.

  • 445.
    Moritz, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Wårell, Linda
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    The local employment impacts of mining: an econometric analysis of job multipliers in northern Sweden2017Ingår i: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 30, nr 1, s. 53-65Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The way in which mining contributes to job opportunities in the region where it takes place has become increasingly important for the industry’s relations to the local community. The employment impacts of mining are however far from straightforward to assess. Considering these uncertainties about real-life job impacts, it is vital that there are sound assessments of these employment effects. The purpose of this paper is to apply a novel econometric approach to assess mining-induced job multipliers in the empirical context of northern Sweden. This analysis employs data on the number of employees in selected non-mining sectors and in the mining sector, respectively, and covering the relatively recent mining boom period (2003-2013). We also highlight differences across the two main mining counties in northern Sweden. The results show a positive statistical relationship between increases in the number of employees in the mining sector and changes in the number of employees in other sectors. The private services sector is particularly affected, while the industrial sector also benefits in the specific case of mining municipalities. The results also indicate relatively large inter-county differences, in turn highlighting the importance of addressing the context-specific circumstances when estimating the employment effects of mining.

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  • 446.
    Mossberg, Johanna
    et al.
    CIT Industriell Energi AB, Chalmers Teknikpark.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Hellsmark, Hans
    Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Nordqvist, Sofia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Crossing the biorefinery valley of death?: A role-based typology for understanding actor networks ability to overcome barriers in sustainability transitions2018Ingår i: Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, ISSN 2210-4224, E-ISSN 2210-4232, Vol. 27, s. 83-101Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pilot and demonstration plants (PDPs) play important roles in technological development; they represent bridges between basic knowledge generation and technological breakthroughs, on the one hand, and industrial application and commercial adoption, on the other. This paper addresses the importance of the actor networks around the PDPs at which different biorefinery technologies have been demonstrated and verified. The aim of the paper is to propose a role-based typology that can be used as an illustrative tool to facilitate a more generic analysis – and enhanced understanding – of PDP actor networks and their dynamics. For this purpose the paper investigates the barriers experienced by the actors in their joint efforts to further utilise and transform the PDPs into permanent test facilities after the initial technology verification and demonstration. To aid the analysis the actor networks surrounding four Swedish biorefinery PDPs are investigated. 

  • 447.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    et al.
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.
    Köhlin, Gunnar
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.
    Wildlife management in zimbabwe: Evidence from a contingent valuation study2008Ingår i: South African Journal of Economics, ISSN 0038-2280, E-ISSN 1813-6982, Vol. 76, nr 4, s. 685-704Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    If communities living adjacent to the elephant see it as a burden, then they cannot be its stewards. To assess their valuation of it, a contingent valuation method study was conducted for one CAMPFIRE district in Zimbabwe. Respondents were classified according to their preferences over the elephant. The median willingness to pay for the preservation of 200 elephants is ZW$260 (US$4.73) for respondents who considered the elephant a public good and ZW$137 (US$2.49) for those favouring its translocation. The preservation of 200 elephants yields an annual net worth of ZW$10,828 (US$196) to CAMPFIRE households. However, the majority of households (62%) do not support elephant preservation. This is one argument against devolution of elephant conservation. External transfers constitute one way of providing additional economic incentives to local communities

  • 448.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap. Department of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    Nielson, Daniel
    Department of Political Science, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT.
    Parks, Bradley
    AidData Center for Development Policy, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA.
    Strange, Austin M.
    Zhejiang University.
    Tierney, Michael J.
    Government, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA.
    ‘Ground-Truthing’ Chinese Development Finance in Africa: Field Evidence from South Africa and Uganda2016Ingår i: Journal of Development Studies, ISSN 0022-0388, E-ISSN 1743-9140, Vol. 52, nr 6, s. 780-796Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    new methodology, Tracking Underreported Financial Flows (TUFF), leverages open-source information on development finance by non-transparent, non-Western donors. If such open-source methods prove to be valid and reliable, they can enhance our understanding of the causes and consequences of development finance from non-transparent donors including, but not limited to, China. But open-source methods face charges of inaccuracy. In this study we create and field-test a replicable ‘ground-truthing’ methodology to verify, update, and improve open-source data with in-person interviews and site visits in Uganda and South Africa. Ground-truthing generally reveals close agreement between open-source data and answers to protocol questions from informants with official roles in the Chinese-funded projects. Our findings suggest that open-source data collection, while limited in knowable ways, can provide a stronger empirical foundation for research on development finance

  • 449.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    et al.
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    The economic impacts of tourism in Botswana, Namibia and South Africa: Is poverty subsiding?2013Ingår i: Natural resources forum (Print), ISSN 0165-0203, E-ISSN 1477-8947, Vol. 37, nr 2, s. 80-89Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism in southern Africa is based on the region’s wildlife and nature assets and is generally environmentally sustainable, but the extent to which it contributes to other aspects of sustainable development — overall income generation or poverty eradication — is less well explored. In this paper, we use social accounting matrices to compare the economic impacts of foreign tourism in Botswana, Namibia and South Africa. Overall impacts on GDP range from 6% (South Africa) to 9% (Namibia). However, South Africa’s economy is more diversified than its neighbours’ and more of the goods and services used by tourists and by the tourism industry are supplied domestically. Consequently, the impact per Rand spent is considerably larger for South Africa than for Botswana or Namibia. The poorer segments of the population appear to receive shares of tourism income that are smaller than their share of overall income in all three countries.

  • 450.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    et al.
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap. Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Whereto with institutions and governance challenges in southern African wildlife conservation?2015Ingår i: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 10, nr 9, artikel-id 95013Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    African wildlife conservation has been transformed, shifting from a traditional, state-managed government approach to a broader governance approach with a wide range of actors designing and implementing wildlife policy. The most widely popularized approach has been that of community-managed nature conservancies. The knowledge of how institutions function in relation to humans and their use of the environment is critical to the design and implementation of effective conservation. This paper seeks to review the institutional and governance challenges faced in wildlife conservation in southern and eastern Africa. We discuss two different sets of challenges related to the shift in conservation practices: the practical implementation of wildlife governance, and the capacity of current governance structures to capture and distribute economic benefits from wildlife. To some extent, the issues raised by the new policies must be resolved through theoretical and empirical research addressed at wildlife conservation per se. However, many of these issues apply more broadly to a wide range of policy arenas and countries where similar policy shifts have taken place.

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