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  • 43351.
    Åberg, Alf
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Mutagena effekter av thiokarbanater1985Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
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  • 43352.
    Åberg, Anna Christina
    et al.
    Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala.
    Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för Samhällsmedicin och Rehabilitering.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Förebygg fall och fallskador i samband med vård: nationell satsning för ökad patientsäkerhet2008Report (Other academic)
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  • 43353.
    Åberg, Anna Christina
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences/Geriatrics, Uppsala University.
    Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Implementation of evidence-based prevention of falls in rehabilitation units: A staff's interactive approach2009In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 41, no 13, p. 1034-1040Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To provide strategies to assist healthcare professionals in the area of rehabilitation to improve prevention of falls. Design: A conceptual framework is described as a foundation for the proposal of 2 intertwined strategies, of intervention and implementation, which target the questions: Which strategies for intervention represent the current best evidence? and: How can these strategies be implemented and continuously developed? Results: Strategies for multifactorial and multiprofessional fall preventive interventions are presented in terms of a "fall prevention pyramid model", including general, individualized, and acute interventions. A systematic global fall risk rating by the staff is recommended as an initial procedure. Fall event recording and follow-up are stressed as important components of local learning and safety improvement. Development of implementation strategies in 3 phases, focusing on interaction, facilitation and organizational culture, is described Conclusion: A well-developed patient safety culture focusing on prevention of falls will, when successfully achieved, be seen by staff, patients and their significant others as being characteristic of the organization, and will be evident in attitudes, routines and actions. Moreover, it provides potential for positive side-effects concerning organizational and clinical improvements in additional areas

  • 43354.
    Åberg, Anna Cristina
    et al.
    School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University.
    Halvorsen, Kjartan
    Department of Information Technologies, Division of Systems and Control, Uppsala University.
    From, Ingrid
    School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University.
    Bergman Bruhn, Åsa
    School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University.
    Oestreicher, Lars
    Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction, Uppsala University.
    Melander Wikman, Anita
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehabilitation.
    A Study Protocol for Applying User Participation and Co-Learning: Lessons Learned from the eBalance-Project2017In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 14, no 5, article id E512Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The eBalance project is based on the idea that serious exergames-i.e., computer gaming systems with an interface that requires physical exertion to play-that are well adapted to users, can become a substantial part of a solution to recognized problems of insufficient engagement in fall-prevention exercise and the high levels of fall-related injuries among older people. This project is carried out as a collaboration between eight older people who have an interest in balance training and met the inclusion criteria of independence in personal activities of daily living, access to and basic knowledge of a computer, four staff working with the rehabilitation of older adults, and an interdisciplinary group of six research coordinators covering the areas of geriatric care and rehabilitation, as well as information technology and computer science. This paper describes the study protocol of the project's initial phase which aims to develop a working partnership with potential users of fall-prevention exergames, including its conceptual underpinnings. The qualitative methodology was inspired by an ethnographical approach implying combining methods that allowed the design to evolve through the study based on the participants' reflections. A participatory and appreciative action and reflection (PAAR) approach, accompanied by inquiries inspired by the Normalization Process Theory (NPT) was used in interactive workshops, including exergame testing, and between workshop activities. Data were collected through audio recordings, photos, and different types of written documentation. The findings provide a description of the methodology thus developed and applied. They display a methodology that can be useful for the design and development of care service and innovations for older persons where user participation is in focus.

  • 43355.
    Åberg, Anne-Maj
    et al.
    Åbo universitet.
    Lahtinen, Sinikka
    Åbo universitet.
    Toropainen, Outi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Används explicita grammatikregler under skrivprocessen?2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43356.
    Åberg, Anne-Maj
    et al.
    Åbo universitet.
    Mäkilä, Mari
    Åbo universitet.
    Vaakanainen, Veijo
    Åbo universitet.
    Toropainen, Outi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Lahtinen, Sinikka
    Åbo universitet.
    Om användning av explicita grammatikregler under en skrivprocess.2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43357.
    Åberg, Annika
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ecke, Holger
    Evaluation and prediction of emissions from a road built with bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI)2006In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 355, no 1-3, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In autumn 2001, a full-scale test road was built with municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash at the Dåvamyran landfill, Umeå, Northern Sweden. Leachates were collected from asphalted sections with either bottom ash or gravel as filling material. In this research, 12 months of ash leachate sampling were evaluated with respect to emissions of contaminants such as trace metals and chlorides (Cl). The usefulness of regression models describing trace metal mobility from bottom ash was also tested as predictive tools for reusability applications of MSWI bottom ash. Cl, Cu, and Cr had the highest mobility (considering leachate concentrations) in the ash leachate, though concentrations of Cl and Cu decreased during the sampling period (Cl from 10,000 to 600 mg l- 1; Cu from 1600 to 500 μg l- 1). An increased mobility of Cr during the autumns (about 3-4 times higher compared to the summer) was noted with a maximum value of nearly 70 μg l- 1 during autum 2001. Pb showed a very low mobility over the entire year with leachate concentrations of around 3-4 μg l- 1. Chemical equilibrium calculations using Minteq indicated that several Cu minerals were oversaturated in the leachate, thus mineral precipitation could be responsible for declining amounts of Cu in the leachate. Adsorption to iron oxides was found to be a probable explanation for the low mobility of Pb. A reasonably good agreement between regression models and field values were achieved for Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cu, while the models for Cd and Cr were less promising. Even though a large part of the variation (R2 = 61-97%) in the leaching experiment could be explained by only pH and L / S, field data were much more scattered than expected from field pH.

  • 43358.
    Åberg, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    General relativistic quantum mechanics: intrinsic spin theory1993Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On a Lorentz-manifold, a mathematically intrinsic spin-theory (meaning that the spin-operators and spin-fields themselves are tensors) is constructed (for arbitrary spin), the reason being that this is what you need in order to compute the generalization of the Einstein equation in general relativity, for particles with spin. Some of the corresponding (total) metric variations are also described, and from those, one can see that it gives rise to stress-energy tensors with positive statistical energy-densities, the latter being necessary in order to create a quantum field theory. This spin-theory only exists, in its completeness, in a four-dimensional Lorentz metric space, since it depends on the fact that the square of the Hodge star operator is minus one when acting on two-forms.

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  • 43359. Åberg, J. A.
    et al.
    Weihed, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Geochemical alteration associated with Au-bearing quartz veins at the Björkdal gold deposit, Skellefte district, northern Sweden1999In: Gold '99 Trondheim: bPrecambrian gold in the Fennoscandian and Ukrainian shields and related areas : abstract volume / [ed] Nigel J. Cook; Krister Sundblad, Trondheim: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 1999, p. 173-175Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 43360. Åberg, J. A.
    et al.
    Weihed, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Petrographic- and chemical characteristics of alteration associated with Au-bearing quartz veins at the Bjorkdal gold deposit, Skellefte District, northern Sweden1999In: Mineral deposits; processes to processing: proceedings of the Fifth biennial SGA meeting and the Tenth quadrennial IAGOD symposium / [ed] C.J. Stanley, Rotterdam: Balkema Publishers, A.A. / Taylor & Francis The Netherlands , 1999, p. 1005-1008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43361. Åberg, Sture
    Smörjning av hjul och räls med fordonsinstallerat smörjsystem2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Nötningen av räl och hjul uppstår i kontakytan mellan räl och hjul. Den är störst i kurvor i kontaktytan mellan räl och hjul. De faktorer som påverkar nötningen är bland annat kurvradie, trafikbelastning i Mbton, STAX, fordonshastigheter, rälsmaterial, fordonstyp, rälsstatus, hjulstatus, antalet axelpassager och friktionen mellan räls - hjul. Normalt nöts rälsens yttersträng i kurvor och motsvarande hjulringar ned kraftigast. För att minska slitage på hjul och räls tillsätts smörjmedel. Man skiljer på två olika principer när det gäller smörjning: Flange wear (smörjmedel appliceras på lokens hjulflänsar) Friction management (smörjmedel appliceras på rälshuvudet Top of Rail) Genom att applicera smörjmedel på rälshuvudena i kurvor minskar slitaget på rälsmaterialet. Detta görs i Sverige med fasta Clicomaticutrustningar som är i drift under vår - höst i norra Sverige och hela Sverige i södra delarna av landet. Ingen smörjning sker vintertid. SJ och Green Cargo har lokinstallerade system för smörjning direkt på rälshuvudet i syfte att minska slitaget på efterföljande vagnshjul. Syftet med denna förstudie är att: Översiktligt beskriva befintliga fordonsmonterade system för smörjning av räls och hjulflänsar Kartlägga behovet i Sverige avseende smörjning från lok. Kortfattat beskriva vilka leverantörers smörjsystem som kan uppnå kraven som finns i Sverige avseende kurvradier, vinterförhållanden och STAX. Prisbilder på loksmörjningssystem Styrning av rälssmörjapparater. Förstudien visar att det är tekniskt, underhållsmässigt och ekonomiskt motiverat att använda smörjapparater som är monterade på lok för att minska sidoslitaget i kurvor och samtidigt ge minskat hjulslitage på lok och vagnar. Som ett led i målsättningen att effektivisera smörjningen av hjul och räls bör en fordonsmonterad smörjutrustning provas. Ett på marknaden etablerat system bör testas med dokumenterad erfarenhet från kallt klimat och tunga transporter typ norra USA eller Kanada. Smörjmedlet bör antingen appliceras som Top of Rail alltså på rälshuvudet eller direkt på lokets flänsar. Smörjutrustning bör installeras dels på det första drivande loket dels på det sista multipelkopplade lokets bakre del för smörjning av efterföljande vagnshjul enligt bild 3. Systemet ska kunna avläsa när kurva uppträder samt kurvans radie, lämpligast via inbyggda sensorer. Olika smörjmedel bör testas för att klara kraven avseende risken för glidning, miljökrav, friktion mellan hjul och räls i kurvor och funktion i kallt klimat samt appliceras utan problem med igenstoppning av munstycken. Följande två leverantörer bör studeras närmare före val av testutrustning: Friction Management Services system TrackGlide - Top of Rail Willy Vogel AG system för hjulflänssmörjning. Eftersom det finns flera intressanta leverantörer för hjulflänssmörjning kan inbjudan gå till ytterligare någon eller några. Utifrån en närmare analys där såväl applikation på lok, kostnad för utrustning, styrning, service, förutsättningarna för körning vintertid, dokumenterade smörjeffekter mm väljs en leverantör ut. Installation av testutrustning bör göras på ett av MTAB:s IORE-lok

  • 43362. Åberg, Sture
    et al.
    Sundgren, Anders
    Förstudie ReRail2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Visionen är att Rerail skall bli en framtida ny produkt inom järnvägssektorn som förlänger livslängden, effektiviserar underhållet och ger en lägre livstidskostnad. Design och tillverkning av Rerail ska göras i Norrbotten och levereras till olika kunder runt om i världen. Målet med detta arbete är att: Beskriva och verifiera kraven för att få göra skarpa test i Banverkets spåranläggningar Definiera produkterna och koppling till kundbehov och kundnyttan Definiera krav som underlag för godkännande av Banverket för test Beskriva marknadspotentialen för produkterna Utföra vissa grundläggande tester i laboratoriemiljö Kostnadsanalys för kommande steg enligt projektplanen Analysera konkurrenter och möjliga samarbetspartners Skissa på finansieringsmodeller för det fortsatta arbetet Skapa förutsättningarna för skarpa test hos potentiella kunder Förväntade sluteffekter är att utifrån genomförda mål kunna starta nästa etapp i arbetet med ReRail.

  • 43363.
    Åborg, Carl
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Fernström, Elisabeth
    Statshälsan Research.
    Ericson, Mats O.
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Work content and satisfaction before and after a reorganisation of data entry work1998In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 29, no 6, p. 473-480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to analyse the psychosocial and physical effects of a reorganisation of data entry work at a data processing unit with 153 employees. The reorganisation was planned to redistribute the repetitive work and improve health and satisfaction as well as efficiency. Methods used were questionnaires and, for a sub-group of 22 participants, interviews, diaries and video recordings. During the one-and-a-half-year study period the data processing unit was closed down and the employees transferred to units with more varied tasks. The reorganisation gave opportunities to improve working conditions. The results of this study show that important improvements were achieved. The majority of the 22 participants got less data entry work and the changes permitted a better work-load distribution. However, the work content after the reorganisation still did not provide satisfactory mental variation for most of the subjects, and the changes did not seem to affect health complaints.

  • 43364.
    Ågren, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Acoustic highlights in Nordic light weight building tradition - focus on ongoing development in Swedish: Distinguished lecture at BNAM 2010 in Bergen, Norway2010In: BNAM 2010, Bergen Norway, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper shows a selection of common light weight structures that are predominant today in the Nordic countries. Construction drawings are shown as well as measurement results from labs and in situ. Special focus is addressed towards modern Swedish constructions which will be included in the new Swedish national research programme for sound insulation in light weight houses. The ways to construct that are most predominant today can be categorised in mainly five types: timber in combination with boards, steel beams in combination with boards, thin board beams in combination with boards, more massive plywood board beams in combination with relatively massive plywood boards, integrated massive timber T-beams integrated with massive cross laminated plates. Production concepts vary from a delivery of flat elements to delivery of almost key-ready apartment volumes. The acoustic key question is not to produce breaking sound insulation at any cost, but to deliver cost-efficient solutions that can be designed for the sound insulation class that is ordered and paid for. Some solutions how this is dealt with are presented where examples for flanking transmission, suspended ceiling problems and floor stiffness solutions are shown.

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  • 43365.
    Ågren, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Aspects on how to design less noisy diesel engines1996In: Proceedings of Nordic Acoustical Meeting, NAM 96 / [ed] Klaus Riederer; Tapio Lahti, Espoo: Helsinki University of Technology , 1996, p. 113-120Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43366.
    Ågren, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Design av tysta dieselmotorer1997In: SVIB Vibrationsforskningsdag, 1997Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43367.
    Ågren, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Interrelations between diesel engine combustion noise and exhaust emissions under varied running conditions1997In: Help quiet the world for a higher quality life: proceedings / [ed] Fülöp Augusztinovicz, Budapest: Scientific society for optics, acoustics, motion picture and theater technology, OPAKFI , 1997Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43368.
    Ågren, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Ljudutbredning i stora lokaler: speciellt valsverket vid SSAB Luleå1981Report (Other academic)
  • 43369.
    Ågren, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Noise control in mineral processing plants1987Report (Other academic)
  • 43370.
    Ågren, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Noise radiation from the timing transmission side of a 9L inline TC diesel engine1991Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43371.
    Ågren, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    On measurement, assessment and control of diesel engine noise1994Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis comprises six papers with the overall theme of measurement, assessment and control of diesel engine noise, with an emphasize on control. The radiation of noise is shown to be dominated by the low end of the engine sides and by the engine front. The mode shapes of the crankcase, the oil sump and the timing transmission cover are investigated. The vibrations are measured and analysed through running mode, modal analyses and SEA. The noise radiation is explored in detail with near-field measurements of sound intensity. In the engine front, the noise radiation is shown to have contributions from the timing casing, the oil-sump front and the crankshaft torsion vibration damper. The radiation from the torsion damper is analysed by a regression analysis of measured intensity data and the vibrations of the damper are investigated with a laser-doppler vibrometer. The results show that the damper vibrates in the axial directions with vibration modes that both radiate noise and interfere with the radiation from the engine structure. It is shown that there in the engine front are strong coupled vibration modes between the timing cover and the oil sump front m the frequency range 500 Hz - 1 kHz. The importance of the strong vibration modes in the crankcase and the oil-sump sides is shown. The propagation paths of noise and vibration to the engine front have been examined with an SEA powerflow analysis and by opening the front cover to measure the sound power from the timing gears. The main excitations of the front cover are found to be by engine block vibrations below 1.25 kHz and by tuning gears noise above 2 kHz. Various constructions to control the noise are tested. Two stiffeners are designed and tested to reduce vibrations m the engine low end, one ladder frame introducing stiffness at the crankcase flange and one bearing beam introducing stiffness at the main bearing caps. The stiffeners have hem evaluated by sound intensity measurements and mobility measurements. The ladder frame gave good noise reductions but the bearing beam merely caused frequency shifts of the bearing modes. A decoupling of the oil sump resulted in significant noise and vibration reductions. The timing cover is modified by increasing the damping and by decrease the radiation efficiency. Various interior panels are tested, like plexiglass and aluminium panels of different thicknesses, a rubber damping layer and a combined rubber/steel-sheet damping layer. A thin plastic sheet has low radiation efficiency and may thereby lower the noise emission. A slightly improved model for calculation of radiation efficiency of small irregularly shaped plates is suggested. The traditional SEA prediction model is shown to be ill-conditioned for engine applications. An improved model using geometric averaging is suggested and evaluated. The results show that the new SEA model is working well for frequencies down to 800 Hz for predictions of damping treatments, decoupling of the oil sump and for power-flow determinations. The concept of equivalent mass is found valuable and validations are made according to the consistency and reciprocity theories. A hemi-anechoic engine laboratory is constructed and evaluated. New efficient low-cost diffusing absorbers have been designed, the performance is evaluated with standard deviation analysis of sound pressure measurements. The performance of the absorbers is found to be compeatable with much more expensive commercial designs. Measured sound intensity in three-dimensional vectors is a powerful tool to identify and illustrate sound fields. When used in near-fields to identify complex noise sources large errors may occur. It is shown that the low relative levels of vector components and the reactivity of the sound field give large errors m repeated measurements. Analyses and comparisons are performed on a simple source and on an engine. A two- and a six-microphone probe were used that were hand-held and robot-controlled. It is concluded dig in point-intensity measurements on engineering noise sources, a 4-6 microphone probe and a precision positioner should be used to get reliable measurements.

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  • 43372.
    Ågren, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Shield with cooling media for gas cutting flame1986In: Progress in noise control: proceedings / [ed] Robert Lotz, Poughkeepsie, N.: Noise control foundation , 1986, p. 1433-1438Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In continuous casting of steel, an endless slab is produced. The slabs which can be both wide and thick are beeing cut to proper lengths by high performance gas cutting burners. The burners operate at high oxygen pressure so that the cutting flame is launged at speed up to 1.4 Mach. By optimizing the construction of the cutting nozzles and the oxygen pressure the noise levels can be reduced by about 10 dB(A). If doing so the noise problems still exist as the levels will remain at 90-100 dB(A). In this paper the authors persent a method of enclosing the burner with a shield that is supplied with cooling water, where the water acts both as a cooling media and a noise barrier.

  • 43373.
    Ågren, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Sound propagation in industrial halls: application of FFT-analysis in measurements1981In: Practice of noise control engineering: Inter-Noise 81, 1981 International Conference on Noise Control Engineering, Amsrerdam, the Netherlands, 6 - 8 October, 1981; proceedings, Delft: Nederlands Akoestisch Genootschap , 1981, p. 373-376Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43374.
    Ågren, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Statistical energy analysis for determination of vibration propagation and sound radiation from noise sources: a summary of theory for use in engine applications the theory is examplified by experiments with a simple two-plate structure1991Report (Other academic)
  • 43375.
    Ågren, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    The design and evaluation of a hemi-anechoic engine test room1991Report (Other academic)
  • 43376.
    Ågren, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    The design and evaluation of a semi-anechoic engine test room1990In: Proceedings / Nordic Acoustical Meeting 90 - NAM 90: June 11-13, 1990 Luleå, Sweden / [ed] Ulrik Sundbäck, Luleå: CENTEK , 1990, p. 33-38Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43377.
    Ågren, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    The design and evaluation of a semi-anechoic engine test room1992In: Applied Acoustics, ISSN 0003-682X, E-ISSN 1872-910X, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 151-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A low-cost hemi-anechoic laboratory for study of diesel engine emissions has been constructed. The laboratory has been equipped for research in acoustics as well as on exhaust emissions. The facilities for acoustic research are described. A low-budget wall absorber with durable, inexpensive and easily exchangeable wedges has been designed. Various ways of evaluating the acoustic properties of hemi-anechoic rooms are investigated. Finally, measurements are presented that show sound level decay with distance from a source and the standard deviation for sound level when the source and microphone are rotated in a so-called carousel measurement. For sound level decay measurements a special extremely low loudspeaker must be used to avoid interfering floor reflections. Carousel measurements give good results even for a standard loudspeaker. Our carousel measurements show that the absorbers are as appropriate as other more expensive absorbers for measurements up to 2 m from a sound source.

  • 43378.
    Ågren, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Two new solutions for adjustable acoustics in multi purpose concert halls2007In: 19th International congress on acoustics, ICA 2007 : Madrid: Acoustics for the 21st century / [ed] Antonio Calvo-Manzano et.al.., Madrid: Spanish Acoustical Society , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Swedish cities Lulea and Pitea two new multi purpose halls for classic concerts and amplified popular music, are being built. The sizes are around 650-900 seats. Both halls have been designed for adjustable reverberation time from 1,1 to 1,8 seconds. Two completely different solutions where chosen. The Lulea hall has a combination of solutions; adjustable wall absorbers, curtains and adjustable absorbing ceiling boxes. The new wall absorber construction is covering the side walls and comprises two panels with slots in front of each other and absorbers behind. One panel is driven by electric motors so that the slots are combined into openings or as closed panels. On the panels there are studs that act both as diffusors and as stiffeners to reduce low frequency losses. Measurements of absorption in lab and T60 in situ are presented, as well as analyses of the acoustic qualities. The Pitea hall is under construction and will have a completely different solution. The inner ceiling is constructed as a number of stiffened panels that can be lowered by a large number of chain hosts, thus reducing the volume by 30%.

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  • 43379.
    Ågren, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Johansson, Örjan
    Experimental study of repeatability errors in 3D sound intensity measurements in narrow frequency bands1994In: Applied Acoustics, ISSN 0003-682X, E-ISSN 1872-910X, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 95-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When investigating the 2D or 3D intensity of complex ‘real life’ noise sources, rather than the intensity normal to a surface, to obtain more detailed information about the radiated sound field great care has to be taken both in measuring and in interpreting the results. In this study it is shown that in measurements of 3D intensity for fixed points and in narrow frequency bands, large errors can be expected for a well-defined simple source if the positioning is imprecise and for a complex source even if the positioning device and the probe are of highest quality. Comparisons have been made between a two-microphone and a six-microphone probe, hand-held and robot-controlled. The comparisons show that, except for the case of an ideal measurement with a simple source and a high-precision robot, significant errors can be expected for all the tested measurement cases. The measurements also show that the positioning of the microphone is of major importance for the repeatability accuracy. The accuracy obtained with a 3D-probe is notably better than with a 1D-probe. The errors when measuring the complex source with a robot-controlled 3D-probe, however, are still so high, especially for the non-dominant directions, that interpretations have to be made with great care. Under non-ideal measurement conditions, the errors are found to be exponentially dependent upon the sound field pressure/intensity relationship (the pI-index).

  • 43380.
    Ågren, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Johansson, Örjan
    Repeatability errors in 3D sound intensity measurements: an experimental study with comparisons between hand-held two- microphone probe and robot-controlled six-microphone probe1993Report (Other academic)
  • 43381.
    Ågren, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Johansson, Örjan
    Giessman, R.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Noise reduction of a diesel engine with internal stiffeners1993In: People versus noise: proceedings of the 1993 International congress on noise control engineering, Inter-Noise 93 ;, Noise control foundation , 1993Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43382.
    Ågren, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Johansson, Örjan
    Klopotek, M.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Noise reducing modifications of the lower half and front end on a diesel engine1994In: Noise - quantity and quality: proceedings / The 1994 International Congress on Noise Control Engineering, Inter-Noise 94 ; Yokohama, Japan, August 29 - 31, 1994, Poughkeepsie, NY: Noise control foundation , 1994, p. 399-402Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43383.
    Ågren, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Johansson, Örjan
    Klopotek, M.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Reduction of noise from the timing-transmission cover on a diesel truck engine1995In: Proceedings of the 1995 Noise and Vibration Conference, Warrendale, Pa.: Society of Automotive Engineers, Incorporated , 1995Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents the sources, the propagation paths, the vibration mode behaviors and thenoise radiation properties that control thenoise radiation in the front side ofadieseltruckengine. Measurements and analyses of vibrations and radiated noise have revealed that the overall noisefromtheengine front radiates fromthetimingtransmission casing, the oil sump front and the belt pulley/torsion damper arrangement. Thetransmissioncoveronthe investigated engine is coupled directly to the oil sump front and it is manufactured in cast aluminum. Thecover and the oil sump front show strong coupled modes that are dominant radiators ofnoise in the frequency range 630 Hz - 1 kHz. Thenoisefromthetransmissioncover has been reduced by replacing the interior plate ofthecover with plastic plates that have decreased radiation efficiency and increases damping. The radiation fromthe narrow opening between the torsion damper and thetransmissioncover was found to be an important radiator and to be caused both by thecover and the damper. A damping ring covering the opening was found to produce substantial reductions ofnoise.

  • 43384.
    Ågren, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Johansson, Örjan
    Klopotek, Manfred
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Noise reduction of diesel engines with internal stiffeners1997In: Noise Control Engineering Journal, ISSN 0736-2501, E-ISSN 2168-8710, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years there has been an increased interest from truck manufacturers in reducing the noise from internal combustion engines through stiffening solutions like bearing beams, ladder frames, and bedplates. This paper presents a short literature review of experiences published on the topic. Results of an experimental study of engine modifications with a bearing beam, a ladder frame, and an isolated oil sump are presented as well. The beam and the frame were designed so that they can be installed together without vibration propagating connections and to give high stiffness in the areas where they are most effective. The study was performed on a relatively light 9-liter six-cylinder diesel engine with an engine block of deep skirt type. The influence of the engine modifications was investigated through measurements of sound intensity, sound pressure, running modes, internal and external vibrations, and mobility. The results show that a ladder frame effectively reduces the noise from a deep skirt engine and that the reductions are substantially increased by isolation of the oil sump. The results also show where the components of the ladder frame are effective and that a bearing beam can be an unsuitable solution for deep skirt engines as resonances are shifted to higher frequencies that can be more effectively transferred and radiated.

  • 43385.
    Ågren, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Johnsson, Roger
    NVH caused by ABS and ESP in cold climates2009Report (Other academic)
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  • 43386.
    Ågren, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Klopotek, M.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Noise reductions of diesel engines through low-end modifications1994In: Proceedings of Nordic acoustical meeting, NAM 94 / [ed] Henrik S. Olesen, Aarhus: Danish technological institute , 1994Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43387.
    Ågren, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Ljunggren, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    In situ measured flanking transmission in light weight timber houses with elastic flanking isolators2013In: InterNoise 2013: Noise control for quality of life, INnsbruck, 2013, Vol. 3, p. 1899-1908, article id 1019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a strong trend to industrially produce multi-storey light weight timber based houses. This concept allows the buildings to be manufactured to a more or less prefabricated extent. Most common types are volume/room modules or flat wall and floor modules. When assembling the modules at the building site, elastomer isolators are used in several constructions to reduce flanking transmission. The sound insulation demands in the Nordic countries are relatively high and therefore the flanking transmission must be well controlled, where elastomer isolators are an alternative. Decoupled radiation isolated walls is another. There are though no working studies or mathematical models of the performance of these isolators. They are only treated as simple mass-springs systems that operate vertically, i.e. one degree of freedom. In this paper there is an analysis of experimentally data of the structure borne sound isolating performance of elastomer isolators that are separating an excited floor from receiving walls. The performance dependence of structure type is also presented. An empirically based regression model of the vibration level difference is derived. The model is based on measurements of six elastomer field installations, which are compared to five comparable installations without elastomers. A goal is that the model can be used for input in future SEN prediction models for modeling of sound insulation.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 43388.
    Ågren, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Ljunggren, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    In situ measured flanking transmission in light weight timber houses with elastic flanking isolators: Part II2016In: InterNoise 2016: 45th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Towards a Quieter Future / [ed] von Estorff O., Kropp W., Schulte-Fortkamp B, German Acoustical Society , 2016, p. 3772-3781Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a strong trend to industrially produce multi-storey light weight timber based houses. The concept allows the buildings to be manufactured to a more or less prefabricated extent. Most common types are volume/room modules or flat wall and floor modules. When assembling the modules at the building site, elastomer isolators are used in several constructions to reduce flanking transmission. The sound insulation demands in the Nordic countries are relatively high and therefore the flanking transmission must be well controlled, where elastomer isolators are an established alternative. Decoupled shielding wall elements is another. There are though no working studies or mathematical models of the performance of these isolators. They are treated as simple mass-springs systems that operate vertically, i.e. one degree of freedom. In this paper there are analyses of an expanded set of experimental data of the structure borne sound isolating performance of elastomer isolators, which are separating an excited floor from receiving walls. This part II study now includes all in all 9 buildings. The isolation performance dependence on structure type is analyzed. An empirically based regression model of the vibration level difference is derived. The model is based on measurements of 8 elastomer field installations, which are compared to an installation without elastomers. A goal is that the data can be used for input in future SEN prediction models for modeling of the flanking transmission part of sound insulation

  • 43389.
    Ågren, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Ljunggren, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Jarnerö, Kirsi
    SP Wood Technology Växjö.
    Bolmsvik, Åsa
    Department of Timber Engineering, Lineaus University.
    Flanking transmission in light weight timber houses with elastic flanking isolators2012In: InterNoise 2012, 2012, Vol. 3, p. 2289-2300Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a strong trend to industrially produce multi-storey light weight timber based houses. This concept allows the buildings to be manufactured to a more or less prefabricated extent. Most common types are volume/room modules or flat wall and floor modules. When assembling the modules at the building site, elastomer isolators are used in several constructions to reduce flanking transmission. The sound insulation demands in the Nordic countries are relatively high and therefore the flanking transmission must be well controlled, elastomer isolators is one choice. Decoupled radiation isolated walls is another. There are though no working studies or mathematical models of the performance of these isolators. They are only treated as simple mass-springs systems that operate vertically. In this paper there is a first approach of an analysis of the structure borne sound isolating performance of elastomer isolators that are separating floors and walls. The performance dependence of structure type is also presented. An empirically based regression model of the insertion loss is derived. The model will be based on measurements of more than ten field installations. In this paper the first three are presented. A goal is that the model can be used for input in future SEN prediction models for modeling of sound insulation.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 43390.
    Ågren, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Shi, W.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ljunggren, Fredrik
    Sound insulation in light weight building structures: A. Development of a full scale test house and a steel beam floor B.Omproved model for impact sound predictions2000In: Proceedings: Inter.Noise 2000 : August 27 - 30, 2000, Nice, France / [ed] Didier Cassereau, Paris: SFA , 2000, p. 348-354Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43391.
    Ågren, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Shi, Wanqing
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Modelling of impact sound insulation of lightweight steel framing floors2000Report (Other academic)
  • 43392.
    Ågren, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Zurita-Villarroel, G.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Johnsson, Roger
    Inverse transfer function method to estimate the combustion1998In: Proceedings Inter-noise 98: Sound and silence: setting the balance / [ed] V.C. Goodwin, Auckland: Ministry of Transport , 1998, p. 433-436Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43393.
    Ågren, Janet
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    Nyyssölä, Carita
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    The potential for monopoly rents from Etosha National Park, Namibia2003In: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences, ISSN 1015-8812, E-ISSN 2222-3436, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 459-472Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43394.
    Åhlund, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Department of Computer Science.
    Mitra, Karan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Johansson, Dan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Åhlund, Christer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Zaslavsky, Arkady
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Context-aware application mobility support in pervasive computing environments2009In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Mobile Technology, Application & Systems : 2009, Nice, France, September 02 - 04, 2009, New York: ACM Digital Library, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the future, application mobility can play a crucial role and prove to be an enabler for next generation distributed applications. Application mobility lets an application follow the users while they roam between networks using several devices. In order to achieve seamless application mobility, several issues need to be considered such as device heterogeneity, GUI-adaptation and application loss. Thus, in this paper our contributions are two-fold. Firstly, we present our novel architecture called the Application Mobility Manager (A2M) which provides seamless application mobility. The proposed architecture is context-aware and decentralized. Finally, we present a novel application called the Mobile YouTube Player which is capable of moving between heterogeneous devices and provide users with seamless video experience. We validate the proposed system through rigorous experimentation and user studies based on the real-world test bed and prototype implementation. The results clearly validate that the proposed system can support seamless application mobility.

  • 43395.
    Åhlund, Christer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Extended mobile IP and support for global connectivity in hybrid networks2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobility is an essential and necessary feature for roaming users who connect to wireless networks via access points. Access points may have different capabilities, be connected to different networks and be installed by different providers. A mobile host will discover multiple access points in this environment. A mobile host should be able to use the best available connectivity to communicate with a correspondent host and perhaps use multiple connections for different hosts. In areas with wireless local area network access, pockets with limited or no coverage could exist. Such restricted connectivity could be compensated by neighbor hosts who form an ad hoc network and relay packets until they reach an access point. This thesis describes and discusses the proposed solutions towards enabling and supporting connectivity in wireless access networks. In the proposed solutions the network layer software will evaluate and decide which wireless network connections to use. This thesis proposes a Running Variance Metric (RVM) and a Relative Network Load (RNL) as performance metrics to classify the traffic load of access points in wireless access networks. RVM and RNL can be efficiently used for infrastructure networks and ad hoc networks. This thesis proposes an extension to Mobile IP in order to enable mobile hosts to use multiple care-of addresses simultaneously. These extensions enhance network connectivity by enabling the mobile host, the home agent and correspondent hosts to evaluate and select the best connection. The proposed extension to Mobile IP is called Multihomed Mobile IP to emphasize support for multiple connections for a mobile host at the same time. This thesis describes a proposed gateway architecture that integrates wired IP networks with ad hoc networks. Routes between a mobile host and gateways are maintained continuously where multi-hop ad hoc connections are supported. Communication between peers in ad hoc networks is based on reactive ad hoc routing. Mobile hosts moving between ad hoc networks are supported by Multihomed Mobile IP. This thesis describes developed prototypes and simulation results to validate multihomed Mobile IP and the gateway architecture which integrates ad hoc networks and wired IP networks.

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  • 43396.
    Åhlund, Christer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Supporting global connectivity in heterogeneous IP networks2002Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobility of user devices connecting to the Internet is of major interest in today's research in networking. Users with portable devices, like laptops and personal digital assistants (PDA), connecting to foreign networks in the Internet want the same functionality as when connected to the home network as well as accessibility through the home IP address. For the users as well as for the applications, network mobility should be transparent. To achieve this transparency, the Mobile IP is deployed. Connecting wireless devices through an access point for network access enables mobility. Geographical areas are covered with wireless high bandwidth connections, creating so-called hot spot areas. The access points may have different capabilities, be connected to different networks and be installed by different providers. A mobile host will sense multiple access points in this environment. To make use of the dynamic capability, a device should be able to use the best available connectivity for a network flow and perhaps different connections for different flows. In hot spot areas it may be difficult to cover everything with good radio coverage, and therefore a mobile host may have to use an intermediate, peer mobile host for connectivity to an access point. Also, co-operating mobile users who require connectivity between their devices, should be able to quickly and easily establish a multi-hop ad hoc network between them. This thesis proposes and describes a number of solutions towards enhancing network connectivity in wireless broadband network areas, where the networking software will evaluate and decide which wireless network connections to use. Multi-hop ad hoc connections can be used between peers and in the connecting to access points. Modifications are proposed to Mobile IP to manage multihoming of a mobile host simultaneously connecting it to multiple access points. The connectivity between mobile hosts and access points is evaluated to enable usage of the best connections. The mobile host, the home agent and the correspondent host are able to decide on which network connections to use. A gateway is proposed to enable a reactive ad-hoc routing protocol to interoperate with wired IP networks and to support mobility of hosts between ad hoc networks.

  • 43397.
    Åhlund, Christer
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Brännström, Robert
    Andersson, Karl
    Tjernström, Örjan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Multimedia flow mobility in heterogeneous networks using multihomed mobile IPv62006In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Advances in Mobile Computing and Multimedia: MoMM 2006, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Communication in next generation networks will use multiple access technologies, creating a heterogeneous network environment. To enable end-user terminals to move between access networks with minimal disruption, the terminals should be able to maintain multiple active network connections. Such a multihomed mobile host will experience different capabilities and coverage area depending on the access technologies. This paper proposes and evaluates an extension to Mobile IPv6 enabling multihoming, regardless of the access technology. Mobility of multimedia communication in this environment should adapt to changing conditions and be base on dynamic measurements and user preferences. The proposed architecture gives opportunities for mobile multimedia applications to use multiple access networks simultaneously and the possibility to move individual flows. Media flows are identified by destination IP address, protocol and port number. Results from a real world prototype are presented using three different wireless access technologies: 802.11, UMTS and 802.16-2004.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 43398.
    Åhlund, Christer
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Brännström, Robert
    Andersson, Karl
    Tjernström, Örjan
    Port-based multihomed mobile IPv6 for heterogeneous networks2006In: Proceedings: the 31st IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks, LCN 2006 : Tampa, Florida, U.S.A., November 14 - 16, 2006, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2006, p. 567-568Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future wireless networks are expected to be based on coexistence of multiple different access network technologies. Mobile devices will then be equipped with multiple wireless interfaces enabling connectivity via multiple architectures. Different wireless techno-logies differ widely considering their capabilities and coverage. This requires a mobile node to maintain multiple active connections depending on the appli-cations used and available access networks. To enable this, a mobile node needs to be multihomed and able to direct traffic flows via different interfaces. This paper describes a proposal extending Mobile IPv6 with multihoming functionality. Multihoming is managed using IP address, protocol and port number.

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  • 43399.
    Åhlund, Christer
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Brännström, Robert
    Zaslavsky, Arkady
    A multihoming approach to mobile IP2003In: Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop - Proceedings: SNCNW 2003, Stockholm, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile IP is the standard for mobility management in IP networks. With today's emerging possibilities within wireless broadband communication, mobility within networks will increase. New applications and protocols will be created and Mobile IP is important to this development, since Mobile IP support can be used to allow mobile hosts to move between networks with maintained connectivity. This article describes multihomed Mobile IP enabling mobile hosts to register multiple care-of addresses at the home agent, to enhance the performance of wireless network connectivity. Flows can be load-balanced between care-of addresses to achieve a more reliable connectivity. A prototype is also described.

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  • 43400.
    Åhlund, Christer
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Brännström, Robert
    Zaslavsky, Arkady
    Agent selection strategies in wireless networks with multihomed mobile ip2004In: Service Assurance with Partial and Intermittent Resources: First International Workshop, SAPIR 2004, Fortaleza, Brazil, August 1-6, 2004. Proceedings / [ed] Petre Dini; Pascal Lorenz; José Neuman DeSouza, Berlin: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2004, p. 197-206Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile IP is a proposed standard for mobility management in IP networks. With today’s emerging possibilities within wireless broadband communication, mobility within networks will increase. New applications and protocols will be created and Mobile IP is important to this development, since Mobile IP support is needed to allow mobile hosts to move between networks with maintained connectivity. This article describes multihomed Mobile IP enabling mobile hosts to register multiple care-of addresses at the home agent, to enhance the performance of wireless network connectivity. A prototype is described and a simulator evaluation shows the performance of our approach.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
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