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  • 451.
    Pathak, Abhijit
    et al.
    BGC Trust University Bangladesh, Chandanaish, Chittagong-4381, Bangladesh.
    Uddin, Mohammad Amaz
    BGC Trust University Bangladesh, Chandanaish, Chittagong-4381, Bangladesh.
    Abedin, Md. Jainal
    BGC Trust University Bangladesh, Chandanaish, Chittagong-4381, Bangladesh.
    Andersson, Karl
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Mustafa, Rashed
    University of Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat
    University of Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    IoT based Smart System to Support Agricultural Parameters: A Case Study2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Emerging Inter-networks, Communication and Mobility (EICM), Elsevier, 2019, s. 648-653Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Now-a-days, the natural irrigation system is under pressure due to the growing water shortages, which are mainly caused by population growth and climate change. Therefore, the control of water resources to increase the allocation of retained water is very important. It has been observed in the last two decades, especially in the Indian sub-continent, the change of climate affects the agricultural crops production significantly. However, the prediction of good harvests before harvesting, enables the farmers as well as the government officials to take appropriate measures of marketing and storage of crops. Some strategies for predicting and modelling crop yields have been developed, although they do not take into account the characteristics of climate, and they are empirical in nature. In the proposed system, a Cuckoo Search Algorithm has been developed, allowing the allocation of water for farming under any conditions. The various parameters such as temperature, turbidity, pH., moisture have been collected by using Internet of Things (IoT) platform, equipped with related sensors and wireless communication systems. In this IoT platform the sensor data have been displayed in the cloud environment by using ThingSpeak. The data received in the ThingSpeak used in the proposed Cuckoo Search Algorithm, allowing the selection of appropriate crops for particular soil

  • 452.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Enhanced engineering of component-based industrial automation systems using formal methods2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial automation is facing challenges related to a manufacturing change from mass pro-duction to mass customization. As a result, the focus of automation has been shifting to flexi-bility, reconfigurability and safety assurance resulting in a new class of systems that is heavilymodular. We call this new class of systems as Component-Based industrial Automation Sys-tems (CBAS).

    Given the current challenges and shift in focus, the current engineering practices and meth-ods need to be changed or upgraded. One of these practices is software verification and valida-tion (V&V) techniques. Simulation is one of the well-known V&V techniques used currentlyin CBAS. Simulation is performed by building simulation models for the physical process,for example, simulation using Matlab. However, development of simulation models is time-consuming and does not guarantee 100% validation of the automation control software makingjust simulation inadequate for CBAS. To address this problem, formal verification has beenconsidered as a proper complementary V&V technique. Discrete state model checking is oneof such approaches, which is the process of automatically verifying whether a set of desiredformal specifications is satisfied over the target system model. While model checking is com-putationally resource hungry, it has been successfully used in other adjacent areas of computersystems engineering, such as hardware design, proving its ability to handle problems of rea-sonably large complexity. This suggests that model checking can be applied in the industrialautomation domain, and there has been an impressive number of works towards this goal.

    Despite moderate successes and promises the reality is that formal techniques are rarelyused in the development practice by industrial automation engineers. It seems that the existingtools and methods do not fit into the current Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) of au-tomation systems engineering. This thesis first looks at current state of art with comprehensiveliterature review, identifying 3 main challenges for lack of industrial adoption of formal verifi-cation. The thesis then presents various formal method approaches to address these challenges.The main contribution of the thesis is a method for the formal verification of IEC 61499 func-tion block applications using Abstract State Machines (ASM) and model checking. A formaldescription for main artifacts of the standard is presented in the thesis. Further, ASM rules fortranslation for function blocks to the input format of the SMV model checker is presented. Inthis way, the proposed verification method enables the formal verification of the IEC 61499control systems.

    As results, the thesis presents an application of this framework to industrial automation usecases to check for functional and non-functional requirements. It also presents use cases wherethe proposed framework is used for verifying portability of IEC 61499 based control applica-tions across different implementation platforms compliant with the IEC 61499 standard.

  • 453.
    Patil, Sandeep
    et al.
    University of Auckland.
    Bhadra, S.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Closed-loop formal verification framework with non-determinism, configurable by meta-modelling2011Ingår i: Proceedings of the 37th IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON 2011), Melbourne, VIC: IEEE Communications Society, 2011, s. 3770-3775Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Formal verification of embedded control systems using closed-loop plant-controller models is getting increasingly popular. In this paper we propose a new method reducing complexity of model-checking on account of infusing non-determinism into certain parts of the plant model during formal verification process guided by a software tool. Net Condition/Event Systems (NCES) formalism is used for modular design of closed-loop models which are verified by ViVe and SESA model-checkers. Its performance is compared to modelling with finite state verified with SMV and UPPAAL and is proven to be superior.

  • 454.
    Patil, Sandeep
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Drozdov, Dmitrii
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Dubinin, Victor
    Computer Science Department, Penza State University, Penza, Penza State University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Cloud-Based Framework for Practical Model-Checking of Industrial Automation Applications2015Ingår i: Technological Innovation for Cloud-Based Engineering Systems: 6th IFIP WG 5.5/SOCOLNET Doctoral Conference on Computing, Electrical and Industrial Systems, DoCEIS 2015, Costa de Caparica, Portugal, April 13-15, 2015, Proceedings / [ed] Luis M. Camarinha-Matos ; Thais A. Baldissera ; Giovanni Di Orio; Francisco Marques, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2015, s. 73-81Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we address practical aspects of applying the model-checking method for industrial automation systems verification. Several measures are proposed to cope with the high computational complexity of model-checking. To improve scalability of the method, cloud-based verification tools infrastructure is used. Besides, closed-loop plant controller modelling and synchronization of transitions in the SMV (input language for symbolic model checking) model aim at complexity reduction. The state explosion problem is additionally dealt with by using an abstraction of the model of the plant with net-condition event systems, which is then translated to SMV. In addition, bounded model-checking is applied, which helps to achieve results in cases when the state space is too high. The paper concludes with comparison of performance for different complexity reduction methods

  • 455.
    Patil, Sandeep
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Drozdov, Dmitrii
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Adapting Software Design Patterns To Develop Reusable IEC 61499 Function Block Applications2018Ingår i: 2018 IEEE 16th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), IEEE, 2018, s. 725-732Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Design patterns in software engineering is a generic solution provided for repeatable problems occurring frequently in a software design. They are used a lot in the field of software engineering, especially for object-oriented software development. Different standards exist for design and development of industrial cyber-physical systems and the IEC 61499 standard is one of them. The standard presents a reference component architecture for design and development of distributed industrial cyber-physical systems. There is a lack of design patterns for application development with IEC 61499 standard and this paper address this by proposing some patterns. The design patterns presented are inspired by popular design patterns used in software engineering.

  • 456.
    Patil, Sandeep
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Drozdov, Dmitrii
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Penza State University.
    Zhabelova, Gulnara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Aalto University, Helsinki.
    Refactoring of IEC 61499 function block application: A case study2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial Cyber-Physical System applications, especially distributed ones are designed and implemented in many standard approaches, one of them being IEC 61499 distributed programming standard. This article presents a case study of applying couple of refactoring methods and techniques in order to improve readability, maintainability, reuse-ability and debugging friendliness of existing function block applications. The article presents some software metrics for pre and post refactoring function block applications for measuring the effectiveness of refactoring.

  • 457.
    Patil, Sandeep
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    University of Auckland, Penza State University, Department of Computer Science, University of Penza.
    Pang, Cheng
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Neutralizing Semantic Ambiguities of Function Block Architecture by Modeling with ASM2015Ingår i: Perspectives of System Informatics: 9th International Ershov Informatics Conference, PSI 2014, St. Petersburg, Russia, June 24-27, 2014. Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Andrei Voronkov ; Irina Virbitskaite, Berlin: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2015, s. 76-91Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Function Blocks Architecture of the IEC 61499 standard is an executable component model for distributed embedded control systems combining block-diagrams and state machines. The standard aims at the portability of control applications that is however hampered by ambiguities in its execution semantics descriptions. In recent years several execution models have been implemented in different software tools that generate mutually incompatible code.This paper proposes a general approach to neutralizing these semantic ambiguities by formal description of the IEC 61499 in abstract state machines (ASM). The model embodies all known execution semantics of function blocks. The ASM model is further translated to the input format of the SMV model-checker which is used to verify formally properties of applications. In this way the proposed verification framework enables the portability checking of component-based control applications across different implementation platforms compliant with the IEC 61499 standard.The paper first discusses different existing execution semantics of function blocks and the portability issues across different IEC 61499 tools. Then a modular formal model of function blocks’ operational semantics in ASM is introduced and exemplified in the paper by the cyclic execution semantics case for a composite function block. Subsequently, the SMV model is generated and model-checking is illustrated for a simple test case.

  • 458.
    Patil, Sandeep
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    University of Auckland, Penza State University, Department of Computer Science, University of Penza.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Formal Modelling and Verification of IEC61499 Function Blocks with Abstract State Machines and SMV: Execution Semantics2015Ingår i: Dependable Software Engineering: Theories, Tools, and Applications : First International Symposium, SETTA 2015, Nanjing, China, November 4-6, 2015, Proceedings / [ed] Xuandong Li; Zhiming Liu; Wang Yi, New York: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2015, s. 300-315Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    IEC 61499 Standard for Function Blocks Architecture is an executable component model for distributed embedded control system design that combines block-diagrams and state machines. This paper proposes approach to formal modelling of IEC61499 function block execution semantics for popular model checking environment of SMV using Abstract State Machines. An operational semantics of IEC 61499 application with two-stage synchronous execution model is presented using this framework. This paper first introduces the importance of model checking function block applications in different execution semantics. It highlights the uses of formal verification, such as, verifying portability (behavior) of component based control applications across different implementation platforms compliant with the IEC 61499 standard. The formal model is applied on an example IEC 61499 application. The paper compares the verification results of this IEC 61499 application with two-stage synchronous execution model and the same application with cyclic execution model presented in the earlier work. With this comparison, we verify the portability of the IEC61499 applications across different platforms.

  • 459.
    Patil, Sandeep
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    University of Auckland, Penza State University, Department of Computer Science, University of Penza, Computer Science Department, Penza State University, Penza.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Formal Verification of IEC61499 Function Blocks with Abstract State Machines and SMV -- Modelling2015Ingår i: IEEE TrustCom-BigDataSE-ISPA 2015: Helsinki, 20-22 Aug. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, Vol. 3, s. 313-320, artikel-id 7345666Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    IEC 61499 Standard for Function Blocks Architecture is an executable component model for distributed embedded control system design that combines block diagrams and state machines. This paper proposes rules for formal modelling of IEC61499 function blocks for popular model checking environment of SMV using Abstract State Machines as an intermediate model. This paper first proposes a formal description of the IEC 61499 in abstract state machines (ASM). The formal description for main artifact of the standard (function block) is presented in the paper. The ASM model is further translated to the input format of the SMV model checker which is used to formally verify properties of applications developed in IEC 61499 standard. In this way the proposed verification framework enables the formal verification of the IEC 61499 control systems. The paper also highlights the other uses of verification such as portability of IEC 61499 based control applications across different implementation platforms compliant with the IEC 61499 standard. The formal model is applied on an example IEC 61499 controller, and the SMV model for the Basic Function block is explained in detail.

  • 460.
    Patil, Sandeep
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    McMillin, Bruce
    Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla.
    Implementation of FREEDM Smart Grid distributed load balancing using IEC 61499 function blocks2013Ingår i: Proceedings of Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2013: 39th Annual Conference of the IEEE, IEEE Communications Society, 2013, s. 8154-8159Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents implementation of one of the Distributed Grid Intelligence (DGI) applications: Load Balancing, using the IEC61499 architecture. This enables system level design of distributed load balancing application with a direct pathway to deployment to hardware. The use of IEC 61499 improves scalability, re-configurability and maintainability of automation software. The application was deployed to commercial programmable automation devices and embedded controller (ARM based TS-7800). The application was verified using co-simulation approach: control and power system simulated using Matlab on PC networked with the number of distributed hardware running load balance algorithm. The use of IEC 61499 facilitates deployment of hardware independent function block model to the variety of compliant hardware.

  • 461.
    Patil, Sandeep
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Pang, Cheng
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Counterexample-guided simulation framework for formal verification of flexible automation systems2015Ingår i: IEEE 13th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), 2015: Cambridge, United Kingdom, 22-24 July 2015, Piscataway, Nj: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, s. 1192-1197, artikel-id 7281905Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a framework for formal verification of industrial automation software in an intuitive way. The IEC 61499 function block architecture is assumed to be the input language, and the Intelligent Mechatronic Components (IMC) architecture is assumed as an underlying design pattern for the applications, which implies autonomous control logic in each IMC and their compositions to systems in a plug-and-play way. Then the system is automatically verified using model checking and the counter examples for the failed model checking properties are played back step-by-step and state-by-state in the simulation model that most industrial automation control systems would have built as the basis for initial testing. Net Condition Event Systems formalism (a modular extension of Petri net) is used to model the decentralized control logic and discrete-state dynamics of the plant. The model is then subjected to model checking using the ViVe/SESA tool chain. The method's application is illustrated using a simple pick and place manipulator. A closed loop model of Plant and Controller is used. Controller is extensively verified for safety, liveliness and functional properties of the robot. We then show how a counter example for deadlock detected by the model checker is played back in the simulation model for visualizing how exactly the system deadlocked.

  • 462.
    Patil, Sandeep
    et al.
    Department of Electrical and Computer System Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Pang, Cheng
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Yan, Jeffrey
    Department of Electrical and Computer System Engineering, University of Auckland.
    On composition of mechatronic components enabled by interoperability and portability provisions of IEC 61499: a case study2013Ingår i: Proceedings of 2013 IEEE 18th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2013): Cagliari, Italy, 10-13 September 2013, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013, s. 4-, artikel-id 6648136Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Interoperability is one of the most important features expected from distributed automation architectures. Achieving interoperability involves addressing issues related to synchronization of behavior, communication protocols, and data presentation formats. In this paper a case study on deployment of an automation application to a network of control devices with three different hardware/software platforms is presented to exploit benefits of the IEC 61499 architecture. Firstly, an overall control application with essentially distributed logic was created. This control application was then validated using closed-loop simulation and finally deployed to a network of control devices

  • 463.
    Patil, Sandeep
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Sorouri, Majid
    University of Auckland.
    Formal verification of intelligent mechatronic systems with decentralized control logic2012Ingår i: Proceedings of the 17th IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2012): Krakow, Poland, 17 - 21 September 2012; [including workshops], Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces an approach to automatic verification of mechatronic systems designed as plug-and-play of Intelligent Mechatronic Components (IMC). The control logic of the system is composed from autonomous controllers of the IMCs and is automatically verified using model-checking. Net Condition Event Systems formalism (a modular extension of Petri net) is used to model the decentralized control logic and discrete-state dynamics of the plant. A re-configurable pick and place robot is used as an illustrative example. At first a three cylinder pick and place robot is used to design our new master-slave architecture for controller design and then the NCES models are re-used without much modification in a new 6 cylinder pick and place robot. The control model is then subjected to model checking using the ViVe/SESA model checker. A multi closed loop model of Plant and Controller is used and controller is extensively verified for safety, liveliness and functional properties of the robot. Computational Tree Logic (CTL) is used to specify these properties.

  • 464.
    Patil, Sandeep
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Zhabelova, Gulnara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    McMillin, Bruce
    Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Department of Computer Science, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla.
    Towards formal verification of smart grid distributed intelligence: FREEDM case2016Ingår i: Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2015: Yokohama, Japan, 9-12 Nov. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016, s. 3974-3979, artikel-id 7392719Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a model-checking framework for the purpose of design and implementation of robust smart grid applications based on distributed intelligence. The paper first introduces distributed grid intelligence approach to smart grid automation and related challenges of their verification. We then introduce the case study example and how model-checking can be applied to the presented system implemented in IEC 61499 standard. In the end we present the initial results of our model-checking application to smart grid applications. The paper will conclude with some issues faced during the research and corrective steps to address these issues in future.

  • 465.
    Peltola, Jukka
    et al.
    Aalto University, Department of Automation and Systems Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Sierla, Seppo
    Department of Automation and Systems Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Adapting Keyword Driven Test Automation Framework to IEC 61131-3 Industrial Control Applications Using PLCopen XML2014Ingår i: Proceedings of 2014 IEEE 19th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2014): Barcelona, Spain, 16-19 Sept. 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, s. 1-8, artikel-id 7005185Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Factory Acceptance Testing should involve customer's experts and knowledge in defining, reading and validating tests, while keeping labor costs at moderate level. This involvement requires a testing approach, which hides implementation details and emphasizes domain terminology. Keyword driven testing is seen a viable test automation solution to reduce cost and enable customer involvement in acceptance testing. We propose an approach for adaptation of Keyword driven testing framework to IEC 61131-3 industrial process control applications. It utilizes importing of application elements, presented with PLCopen XML, and transforming them to proxy objects to be used as variables in test code, with domain specific names. Benefits include simplification of test and keyword specifications and hiding of implementation details from testers

  • 466.
    Poirot, Valentin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Ericson, Mårten
    Ericsson Research, Luleå, Sweden.
    Nordberg, Mats
    Ericsson Research, Luleå, Sweden.
    Andersson, Karl
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Energy efficient multi-connectivity algorithms for ultra-dense 5G networks2019Ingår i: Wireless networks, ISSN 1022-0038, E-ISSN 1572-8196, s. 1-16Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Two radio air interfaces, Evolved-LTE and New Radio, coexist in new 5G systems. New Radio operates in the millimeter band and provides a better bandwidth, but the higher frequencies also imply worse radio conditions. Multi-connectivity, a feature of 5G that allows users to connect to more than one base station simultaneously, can offer the advantages of both interfaces. In this paper, we investigate how multi-connectivity can improve user reliability and the system’s energy efficiency. Five algorithms for secondary cell association are presented and evaluated. We show a decrease in the radio link failure rate of up to 50% at high speeds and improvements of the energy efficiency of up to 20% at low speeds.

  • 467.
    Pondenkandath, V.
    et al.
    Document Image and Voice Analysis Group (DIVA), University of Fribourg, Switzerland.
    Alberti, M.
    Document Image and Voice Analysis Group (DIVA), University of Fribourg, Switzerland.
    Eichenberger, N.
    Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin, Germany.
    Ingold, R.
    Document Image and Voice Analysis Group (DIVA), University of Fribourg, Switzerland.
    Liwicki, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB. Document Image and Voice Analysis Group (DIVA), University of Fribourg, Switzerland.
    Identifying cross-depicted historical motifs2018Ingår i: Proceedings of International Conference on Frontiers in Handwriting Recognition, ICFHR 2018, IEEE, 2018, s. 333-338, artikel-id 8583783Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-depiction is the problem of identifying the same object even when it is depicted in a variety of manners.This is a common problem in handwritten historical document image analysis, for instance when the same letter or motif is depicted in several different ways. It is a simple task for humans yet conventional computer vision methods struggle to cope with it. In this paper we address this problem using state-of-the-art deep learning techniques on a dataset of historical watermarks containing images created with different methods of reproduction, such as hand tracing, rubbing, and radiography.To study the robustness of deep learning based approaches to the cross-depiction problem, we measure their performance on two different tasks: Classification and similarity rankings. For the former we achieve a classification accuracy of 96 % using deep convolutional neural networks. For the latter we have a false positive rate at 95% recall of 0.11. These results outperform state-of-the-art methods by a significant margin

  • 468.
    Prähofer, Herbert
    et al.
    Johannes Kepler University Linz, Linz, Austria.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Zoitl, Alois
    Johannes Kepler University Linz, Linz, Austria.
    Guest Editorial Information Technology in Automation2018Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 14, nr 6, s. 2745-2747Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The papers in this special section focus on information technology in industrial automation applications. Information technologies play a crucial role in the current and future developments of industrial automation. There are numerous strategic agendas on future manufacturing that have appeared recently worldwide and all of them emphasize the role of information technologies in automation in shaping up the future of production industries. For example, according to the German development agenda Industrie 4.0, the main driving force of the new industrial revolution is the Internet of things (IoT) and Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). The IoT concept is becoming a major driver for many industrial applications. In manufacturing, it leads to flattening of the control pyramid, thus, increasing flexibility and enabling unprecedented level of production flexibility and adaptability, making it possible and feasible to produce products in smaller amounts, with shorter time to markets and higher economic efficiency. In the manufacturing environment, CPS comprise smart machines, storage systems, and production facilities capable of autonomously exchanging information, triggering actions, and controlling each other independently. The research community effort has been focusing on systems interoperability, performance, and efficiency of the design process, as well as assurance in the correctness of systems behavior.

  • 469.
    Qureshi, Daniyal Akhtar
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Performance Evaluation of IoT Platforms in Green ICT Applications2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    With the advent of the Internet of Things (IoT), its deployment and applications have grown exponentially in the past decade. This growth has had led scientists and stakeholders to the prediction that about 30 billion of things (IoT) will be connected by 2020 in diverse applications such as transport, healthcare, utility, education, and home automation. Large data streams generated by sensors; it can be data acquisition, storage, or processing, derived the development of cloud-based middleware (or otherwise known as IoT Platform) for IoT. To date, hundreds of IoT platforms fluxing the market (both open-source and commercial) with various complexities, pricing, and services. In this thesis, we proposed an IoT Platform Benchmarking Methodology comprised of four different evaluations namely; Technical, Usability, Sustainability, and Market Competency. We discussed in detail Technical Evaluation based on TPC-IoT benchmarking to evaluate the performance of any IoT platform. The main objective of this research is to provide insight into key parameters in each layer of the platform affecting the overall performance. A preliminary evaluation of data ingestion of open-source IoT platform will be presented based on benchmarking methodology (TPC-IoT).

  • 470.
    Rahimi, Abbas
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California at Berkeley.
    Datta, Sohum
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California at Berkeley .
    Kleyko, Denis
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Frady, Edward Paxon
    Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California at Berkeley.
    Olshausen, Bruno
    Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California at Berkeley.
    Kanerva, Pentti
    Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California at Berkeley.
    Rabaey, Jan M.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California at Berkeley.
    High-Dimensional Computing as a Nanoscalable Paradigm2017Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems Part 1: Regular Papers, ISSN 1549-8328, E-ISSN 1558-0806, Vol. 64, nr 9, s. 2508-2521Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We outline a model of computing with high-dimensional (HD) vectors—where the dimensionality is in the thousands. It is built on ideas from traditional (symbolic) computing and artificial neural nets/deep learning, and complements them with ideas from probability theory, statistics, and abstract algebra. Key properties of HD computing include a well-defined set of arithmetic operations on vectors, generality, scalability, robustness, fast learning, and ubiquitous parallel operation, making it possible to develop efficient algorithms for large-scale real-world tasks. We present a 2-D architecture and demonstrate its functionality with examples from text analysis, pattern recognition, and biosignal processing, while achieving high levels of classification accuracy (close to or above conventional machine-learning methods), energy efficiency, and robustness with simple algorithms that learn fast. HD computing is ideally suited for 3-D nanometer circuit technology, vastly increasing circuit density and energy efficiency, and paving a way to systems capable of advanced cognitive tasks.

  • 471.
    Ramis, Borja
    et al.
    Tampere University of Technology.
    Gonzalez, Luis
    Tampere University of Technology.
    Iarovyi, Sergii
    Tampere University of Technology.
    Lobov, Andrei
    Tampere University of Technology.
    Lastra, José L. Martinez
    Tampere University of Technology.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Aalto University, Helsinki.
    Dai, William
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Knowledge-based web service integration for industrial automation2014Ingår i: 12th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, INDIN 2014: Porto Alegre, Brazil, 27 - 30 July 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, s. 733-739, artikel-id 6945604Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Web services are widely used for enterprise software development. Web service protocols simplify application integration thanks to interface description that can be processed at runtime and, in addition, due to mature and widely used standards for transportation and internetworking. Implementation of service-oriented architecture starts to get acceptance in the field of industrial automation ranging from international research project to the first implementations in industry including first commercial controller devices supporting web service communication protocols and executing deterministic control at the same time. The current research step is to allow knowledge-based integration of industrial automation systems and to exploit full potentials of run-time reconfiguration and adaptation of industrial systems. This paper demonstrates implementation of knowledge-based industrial system, the architecture and ontology model that can be generalized for implementation of other production systems.

  • 472.
    Rantala, Miia
    et al.
    Semantum Oy, Espoo, Finland.
    Niemistö, Hannu
    Semantum Oy, Espoo, Finland.
    Karhela, Tommi
    Semantum Oy, Espoo, Finland; Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Sierla, Seppo
    Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Applying graph matching techniques to enhance reuse of plant design information2019Ingår i: Computers in industry (Print), ISSN 0166-3615, E-ISSN 1872-6194, Vol. 107, s. 81-98Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates how graph matching can be applied to process plant design data in order to support the reuse of previous designs. A literature review of existing graph matching algorithms is performed, and a group of algorithms is chosen for further testing. A use case from early phase plant design is presented. A methodology for addressing the use case is proposed, including graph simplification algorithms and node similarity measures, so that existing graph matching algorithms can be applied in the process plant domain. The proposed methodology is evaluated empirically on an industrial case consisting of design data from several pulp and paper plants. 

  • 473.
    Riliskis, Laurynas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Methodologies and Practical Tools for Realistic Large Scale Simulations of Wireless Sensor Networks2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have evolved into large and complex systems and are now one of the major technologies used in Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) and the Internet of Things (IoT).Extensive research on WSNs has led to the development of diverse solutions for all layers of software architecture, including protocol stacks for communications. For example, more than one hundred distinct medium access control protocols and fifty routing and transport-level solutions have been proposed. This multitude of solutions is due to the limited computational power and restrictions on energy consumption that must be accounted for when designing typical WSN systems. The performance of a given high-level application task may depend strongly on the specific composition of the system's protocol stack, the run-time specifics of the underlying operating system, and the potential non-deterministic behavior of the devices used in the network. This makes it very difficult to identify the optimal software architecture for any particular situation. In many cases, software components must be developed specifically for each combination of task, environment and hardware. It is therefore challenging to develop, test, and validate even small WSN applications and this process can easily consume significant resources.This dissertation investigates various approaches for making the testing and validation of large scale WSN systems more efficient. The theoretical contribution presented is a method that enables the accurate reproduction of phenomena occurring inside real sensor node hardware and software at all layers of abstraction. This will expedite the design, development, and testing of WSN functionality.The main technical contribution is a prototype of a simulation framework named Symphony, which implements the proposed method. The framework's key feature is its ability to perform ultra-large scale holistic experiments on WSN functionality with millions of nodes using configurable levels of abstraction. The behavior observable using Symphony is very similar to the run-time behavior that developers would observe in reality. This is achieved via the virtualization of real-world operating systems and by using measurement-based hardware emulation and software component models.The impact of this dissertation is twofold. First, the proposed methodology and associated development framework will facilitate the education and training of specialists in the future IoT. Second, from a more long-term perspective, the thesis paves the way to solutions for several critical problems that have been highlighted in many strategic research agendas concerning the development of future industrial systems, including the streamlined validation of equipment and service interoperability across different vendors and application domains, and the rapid integrated design of future large scale CPS.

  • 474.
    Riliskis, Laurynas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    On design of dependable communication protocols for wireless sensor networks2011Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis considers a problem of a design of dependable communication protocols for wireless sensor networks. In life critical applications of sensor networks, for example, connected to protection of critical infrastructures or intelligent transportation system dependability (i.e. reliability, availability, security) is the key performance requirement on the underlying communication system.In most of the cases the dependability properties of the system are evaluated a posteriori, after the communication protocols have been already implemented. This approach often leads to complete redesign of the system, which makes the development cycle long and costly.The contribution of this thesis is a proposed methodology for the design of dependable communication protocols. This methodology includes modularization of the existing protocols into functional components with known reliability and security properties. Given a set of defined components the methodology suggests rules for combining them into a protocol which satisfies the dependability requirements of the particular applications. The thesis demonstrates the application of the proposed methodology on an example of a medium access protocol synthesis for two real world applications.Finally, the performance of the resulting protocol should be evaluated prior to the deployment in the real network. Here the thesis highlights the current problem of the absence of a simulation environment for accurate performance evaluation of communication protocols in wireless sensor networks. The second contribution of the thesis is an integrated simulations environment named Symphony. Symphony allows simulating the same code which runs on the real hardware. Using this simulator the development cycle could be further reduced and the obtained performance results will better match the performance of the communication system in reality.

  • 475.
    Riliskis, Laurynas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Berdajs, Jan
    University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Computer and Information Science.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Brodnik, Andrej
    University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Computer and Information Science.
    Reality considerations when designing a TDMA-FDMA based link-layer for real-time WSN2012Ingår i: Multiple Access Communications: 5th International Workshop, MACOM 2012, Maynooth, Ireland, November 19-20, 2012. Proceedings / [ed] Boris Bellalta, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2012, s. 93-96Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we elaborate on reality considerations when deploying wireless sensor networks with strict end-to-end delay requirement. Our improvements are particularly important for a design and implementation of strict real-time systems while at the same time we decrease overall power consumption. Firstly, we design and implement application tailored TDMA-FDMA medium access protocol with guaranteed end-to-end delay. Secondly, we integrate in the implementation of the protocol the bootstrapping mechanism and thirdly, the time synchronization mechanism. Next, we show that by combining medium access protocol, bootstrapping, and time synchronization mechanisms within the link-layer, we can limit on average clock drift in the network to 0.5 micro seconds, as well as achieve 81 % energy efficiency while keeping collision probability at its minimum of 1 %. Finally, we conclude with challenges and lessons learned in real-world deployment of TDMA/FDMA based link-layer with guaranteed end-to-end delay in wireless sensor networks.

  • 476.
    Riliskis, Laurynas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Coexistence of Cloud Technology and IT Infrastructure in Higher Education2013Ingår i: 2013 Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE 2013): Oklahoma City, Olöahoma, USA, 23-26 October 2013, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013, s. 805-807Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the current IT-infrastructures at Universities were designed and deployed at times of mostly campus based education, following the "one solution fits all" approach. Nowadays, with the growing number of courses given on distance and unique requirements on software content in almost every course in all disciplines the existing infrastructure became extremely stiff and inefficient. In many cases it fails providing flexible services with acceptable quality both to teachers and students. Another problem appears with the all growing mobility of students in the scope of Erasmus Mundus programme and numerous bilateral agreements between universities. The uncertainty in number of students to be handled in each semester (even in the scope of a particular course) makes it difficult for the IT departments to estimate the need and to correspondingly dimension the IT-system. Normally, IT administrations at universities over-dimension their infrastructures in order to stay competitive and provide satisfactory quality of experience. This obviously leads to an increased cost associated with purchasing and maintaining the equipment. Besides the economical component the environmental impact becomes one of the critical factors that universities have to deal with nowadays. Universities as governmental organizations need to take environmental considerations into account when implementing European Union policies on ICT sustainability. Cloud technology and specifically infrastructure as a service (IaaS) providers is an excellent alternative to an outdated inefficient local infrastructures. Early 2012 Luleå University of Technology started a project on adopting cloud technology for implementing the university's IT-infrastructure. This work-in-progress article will describe the results of its pre-study phase aiming at understanding a feasibility of integrating and/or migrating key infrastructure components into an IaaS system and opening ways for making university's resources more accessible to wider public. Numbers of logistical, technical and education related challenges, however, make such transition far from being trivial. This article focuses on the educational aspect of the pre-study. Specifically, work flows in education process of several courses in different disciplines in natural and engineering sciences were analysed from the student and teacher perspectives. In the article a schematic of a sustainable IT infrastructure adjusted to the needs of higher education will be drafted. Further, technical readiness and challenges of using cloud technology for university scale IT-infrastructure will be discussed.

  • 477.
    Riliskis, Laurynas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Introduction to component based design of dependable protocols for wireless sensor networks: modeling of MAC protocols2009Ingår i: SNCNW + Adhoc 2009: 6th Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop and 9th Scandinavian Workshop on Wireless Adhoc Networks, 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 478.
    Riliskis, Laurynas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Maestro: an orchestration framework for large scale WSN simulations2014Ingår i: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 14, nr 3, s. 5392-5414Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have evolved into large and complex systems and are one of the main technologies used in cyber-physical systems and the Internet of Things. Extensive research on WSNs has led to the development of diverse solutions at all levels of software architecture, including protocol stacks for communications. This multitude of solutions is due to the limited computational power and restrictions on energy consumption that must be accounted for when designing typical WSN systems. It is therefore challenging to develop, test and validate even small WSN applications, and this process can easily consume significant resources. Simulations are inexpensive tools for testing, verifying and generally experimenting with new technologies in a repeatable fashion. Consequently, as the size of the systems to be tested increases, so does the need for large-scale simulations. This article describes a tool called Maestro for the automation of large-scale simulation and investigates the feasibility of using cloud computing facilities for such task. Using tools that are built into Maestro, we demonstrate a feasible approach for benchmarking cloud infrastructure in order to identify cloud Virtual Machine (VM)instances that provide an optimal balance of performance and cost for a given simulation.

  • 479.
    Riliskis, Laurynas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Symphony - simulation, emulation and virtualization framework for accurate WSN experimentation2013Ingår i: ICSE 2013: proceedings of the 2013 International Conference on Software Engineering,, New York: ACM Digital Library, 2013, s. 1-6Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have developed a simulation framework for testing and validation of WSN applications which closely resembles processes happening inside real equipment including hardware and software induced delays. The core of the framework consists of a virtualized operating system and an emulated hardware platform integrated with a general purpose network simulator ns-3. Besides an ability of experimenting with the real code base as in the real deployments our framework allows testing the boundary effects of different hardware components on the performance of distributed applications and protocols. All in all the presented framework allows to substantially shorten the development cycle of WSN applications.

  • 480.
    Riliskis, Laurynas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Symphony: A Framework for Accurate and Holistic WSN Simulation2015Ingår i: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 15, nr 3, s. 4677-4699Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on wireless sensor networks has progressed rapidly over the last decade, and these technologies have been widely adopted for both industrial and domestic uses. Several operating systems have been developed, along with a multitude of network protocols for all layers of the communication stack. Industrial Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) systems must satisfy strict criteria and are typically more complex and larger in scale than domestic systems. Together with the non-deterministic behavior of network hardware in real settings, this greatly complicates the debugging and testing of WSN functionality. To facilitate the testing, validation, and debugging of large-scale WSN systems, we have developed a simulation framework that accurately reproduces the processes that occur inside real equipment, including both hardware- and software-induced delays. The core of the framework consists of a virtualized operating system and an emulated hardware platform that is integrated with the general purpose network simulator ns-3. Our framework enables the user to adjust the real code base as would be done in real deployments and also to test the boundary effects of different hardware components on the performance of distributed applications and protocols. Additionally we have developed a clock emulator with several different skew models and a component that handles sensory data feeds. The new framework should substantially shorten WSN application development cycles.

  • 481.
    Riliskis, Laurynas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    A component-based approach to design and analysis of dependable MAC protocols for wireless sensor networks2009Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses a new methodology for the systematic composition of wireless sensor networks utilizing component-based modeling of MAC protocols. The methodology is intended for the use in applications that have a predefined topology and traffic pattern while requiring dependable performance, which is typical for critical infrastructures. The need for such methodology stems from the variety of applications with different performance and dependability requirements on the one hand and unavailability of unified system architectures for sensor networks on the other. The paper suggests a work flow for the composition of protocols where the performance requirements and characteristics of the installation environment are used in the selection for components and their parametrization. It is shown how different instances of MAC protocols (known as monolithic solutions) could be achieved by different parameterizations of an abstract MAC model. For the selection of the components and parameterizations deterministic models for the communication process are suggested in order to quantify the significance of parameters and components for the performance. The quantification is expected to be achieved using concept from the areas of control structure design and performance limitations in control theory.

  • 482.
    Riliskis, Laurynas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Hostettler, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Mäkitaavola, Henrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Enabling remote controlled road surface networks for enhanced ITS2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) will, in the future, play a key role to improve transportation efficiency and safety. However, cost-benefit of deploying traditional ITS is retarded by expensive equipment, infrastructure, installation and maintenance. The demo presents a replica of a real world experimental ITS application using recently proposed Road Surface Network architecture. The demonstrated "intelligent roundabout'' application is intended to warn and inform drivers about an upcoming roundabout and to prevent driving straight into collision. We show a lab prototype system consisting of: an authentic sensor node platform enabled for car detection, secure multihop communications and the running light application, a base station with system control center.

  • 483.
    Riliskis, Laurynas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Maróti, Miklós
    Bolyai Institute, University of Szeged.
    TOS-NS3: a framework for emulating wireless sensor networks in the ns3 network simulator2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 484.
    Rutqvist, David
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Data-Driven Emptying Detection for Smart Recycling Containers2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste Management is one of the biggest challenges for modern cities caused by urbanisation and increased population. Smart Waste Management tries to solve this challenge with the help of techniques such as Internet of Things, machine learning and cloud computing. By utilising smart algorithms the time when a recycling container is going to be full can be predicted. By continuously measuring the filling level of containers and then partitioning the filling level data between consecutive emptyings a regression model can be used for prediction. In order to do this an accurate emptying detection is a requirement.

    This thesis investigates different data-driven approaches to solve the problem of an accurate emptying detection in a setting where the majority of the data are non-emptyings, i.e. suspected emptyings which by manual examination have been concluded not to be actual emptyings. This is done by starting with the currently deployed legacy solution and step-by-step increasing the performance by optimisation and machine learning models. The final solution achieves the classification accuracy of 99.1 % and the recall of 98.2 % by using a random forest classifier on a set of features based on the filling level at different given time spans. To be compared with the recall of 50 % by the legacy solution.

    In the end, it is concluded that the final solution, with a few minor practical modifications, is feasible for deployment in the next release of the system.

  • 485.
    Sandin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Emruli, Blerim
    SICS Swedish ICT, SE-722 13 Västerås .
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    SICS Swedish ICT, SE-164 29 Kista .
    Random indexing of multi-dimensional data2017Ingår i: Knowledge and Information Systems, ISSN 0219-1377, E-ISSN 0219-3116, Vol. 52, nr 1, s. 267-290Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Random indexing (RI) is a lightweight dimension reduction method, which is used for example to approximate vector-semantic relationships in online natural language processing systems. Here we generalise RI to multi-dimensional arrays and thereby enable approximation of higher-order statistical relationships in data. The generalised method is a sparse implementation of random projections,which is the theoretical basis also for ordinary RI and other randomisation approaches to dimensionality reduction and data representation. We present numerical experiments which demonstrate that a multi-dimensional generalisation of RI is feasible, including comparisons with ordinary RI and principal component analysis (PCA). The RI method is well suited for online processing of data streams because relationship weights can be updated incrementally in a fixed-size distributed representation,and inner products can be approximated on the fly at low computational cost. An open source implementation of generalised RI is provided.

  • 486.
    Sandin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Khan, Asad I.
    Clayton School of Information Technology, CSIT, Monash University.
    Dyer, Adrian G.
    Department of Physiology, Monash University.
    Amin, Anang Hudaya M.
    Faculty of Information Science & Technology (FIST), Multimedia University, Melaka.
    Indiveri, Giacomo
    Institute of Neuroinformatics, University of Zurich and ETH Zurich.
    Chicca, Elisabetta
    Cognitive Interaction Technology, Center of Excellence, Bielefeld University.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Concept Learning in Neuromorphic Vision Systems: What Can We Learn from Insects?2014Ingår i: Journal of Software Engineering and Applications, ISSN 1945-3116, E-ISSN 1945-3124, Vol. 7, nr 5, s. 387-395Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Vision systems that enable collision avoidance, localization and navigation in complex and uncertain environments are common in biology, but are extremely challenging to mimic in artificial electronic systems, in particular when size and power limitations apply. The development of neuromorphic electronic systems implementing models of biological sensory-motor systems in silicon is one promising approach to addressing these challenges. Concept learning is a central part of animal cognition that enables appropriate motor response in novel situations by generalization of former experience, possibly from a few examples. These aspects make concept learning a challenging and important problem. Learning methods in computer vision are typically inspired by mammals, but recent studies of insects motivate an interesting complementary research direction. There are several remarkable results showing that honeybees can learn to master abstract concepts, providing a road map for future work to allow direct comparisons between bio-inspired computing architectures and information processing in miniaturized “real” brains. Considering that the brain of a bee has less than 0.01% as many neurons as a human brain, the task to infer a minimal architecture and mechanism of concept learning from studies of bees appears well motivated. The relatively low complexity of insect sensory-motor systems makes them an interesting model for the further development of bio-inspired computing architectures, in particular for resource-constrained applications such as miniature robots, wireless sensors and handheld or wearable devices. Work in that direction is a natural step towards understanding and making use of prototype circuits for concept learning, which eventually may also help us to understand the more complex learning circuits of the human brain. By adapting concept learning mechanisms to a polymorphic computing framework we could possibly create large-scale decentralized computer vision systems, for example in the form of wireless sensor networks.

  • 487.
    Sandström, Helena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Bodin, Ulf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Adaptive threshold-based admission control2005Ingår i: ICC 2005: 2005 IEEE International Conference on Communications ; 16 - 20 May 2005, Seoul, Korea, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2005, s. 48-52Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an algorithm for performing dynamic per-link admission control. It is designed to be suitable for deployment using existing quality of service and router techniques. The rationale for the algorithm is to find a bitrate limit for reserved capacity, which enables efficient capacity utilization and statistical multiplexing gain. By using simple traffic meters configured with respect to defined service levels, a network resource controller estimates an admission limit. The estimated limit reflects the ratio between reserved capacity and the aggregate behavior of current flows. Simulations indicate that reliable admission limits can be estimated already at low reservation levels.

  • 488.
    Santillán Martínez, G.
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Helsinki .
    Sierla, S.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Helsinki .
    Karhela, T.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Helsinki .
    Lappalainen, J.
    VTT Technical Research Center of Finland Ltd, Espoo.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Helsinki .
    Automatic Generation of a High-Fidelity Dynamic Thermal-hydraulic Process Simulation Model from a 3D Plant Model2018Ingår i: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 6, s. 45217-45232, artikel-id 434288Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic thermal-hydraulic simulation models have been extensively used by process industry for decision support in sectors such as power generation, mineral processing, pulp and paper, and oil and gas. Ever-growing competitiveness in the process industry forces experts to rely even more on dynamic simulation results to take decisions across the process plant lifecycle. However, time-consuming development of simulation models increases model generation costs, limiting their use in a wider number of applications. Detailed 3D plant models, developed during early plant engineering for process design, could potentially be used as a source of information to enable rapid development of high-fidelity simulation models. This paper presents a method for automatic generation of a thermal-hydraulic process simulation model from a 3D plant model. Process structure, dimensioning and component connection information included in the 3D plant model is extracted from the machine-readable export of the 3D design tool and used to automatically generate and configure a dynamic thermal-hydraulic simulation model. In particular, information about the piping dimensions and elevations is retrieved from the 3D plant model and used to calculate head loss coefficients of the pipelines and to configure the piping network model. This step, not considered in previous studies, is crucial for obtaining high-fidelity industrial process models. The proposed method is tested using a laboratory process and the results of the automatically generated model are compared with experimental data from the physical system as well as with a simulation model developed using design data utilized by existing methods on the state-of-the-art. Results show that the proposed method is able to generate high-fidelity models which are able to accurately predict the targeted system, even during operational transients.

  • 489.
    Santillán Martínez, Gerardo
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Karhela, Tommi
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland .
    Ruusu, Reino
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Espoo.
    Sierla, Seppo A.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    An Integrated Implementation Methodology of a Lifecycle-Wide Tracking Simulation Architecture2018Ingår i: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 6, s. 15391-15407Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A tracking simulator is a decision support application in which dynamic estimation is used to continuously align the results of an online first principle simulation model with the measurements of the targeted plant. They are a holistic application where current and future plant information is available for operation support of process plants. Existing tracking simulators have focused on the application of online and offline methods for estimation of their underlying first principle models (FPMs). However, these systems have been less attractive than similar alternatives based on empirical modeling, due to the lack of systematic approaches that address challenges across the tracking simulation lifecycle, such as laborious development of FPMs and high integration costs with the process or with other systems and simulation methods. In contrast, the approach presented in this paper integrates a tracking simulation architecture and various simulation methods to address the described challenges as follows. In order to tackle time-consuming development of FPMs, a method for generating tracking simulation models from models created during design phase is proposed. The process of connecting the tracking simulator to the physical plant and initializing the tracking simulator is automated. An optimization method for tracking simulation applications is developed to overcome drawbacks of available methods. The simulation architecture developed applies the proposed methodology during the various phases of tracking simulation. Furthermore, it exploits industrial communication standards to avoid the need for point-to-point integration of various simulators and other systems used over the course of the tracking simulator lifecycle. The work is demonstrated with laboratory process equipment.

  • 490.
    Savolainen, Roope
    et al.
    Systems Modelling and Simulation, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Espoo.
    Sierla, Seppo A.
    Systems Modelling and Simulation, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Espoo.
    Karhela, Tommi
    Systems Modelling and Simulation, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Espoo.
    Miettinen, Tuomas
    Systems Modelling and Simulation, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Espoo.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    A framework for runtime verification of industrial process control systems2017Ingår i: Proceedings: 2017 IEEE 15th International Conference on Industrial Informatics, INDIN 2017, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 687-694, artikel-id 8104856Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

     Despite the significant research on automation systems verification, further work is needed on methods for the industrial scale verification of automated processes that are able to cover control software errors, sensor and actuator errors as well as design errors in the process to be controlled. In this paper, such an approach is based building on previous work on runtime verification using plant simulation models created during the plant design process. A framework for runtime verification is proposed based on keyword driven testing that is applied to the entire automated process rather than only to control software. Through the use of ontologies, the framework is made independent of any particular simulator. The approach is demonstrated with a case study from the mineral processing industry.

  • 491.
    Schartel, Andreas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik. Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg, Chair of Computer Science VIII: Aerospace Information Technology.
    Increasing Spacecraft Autonomy through Embedded Neural Networks for Semantic Image Analysis2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In the scope of this thesis, a possible usage of embedded artificial neural networks for on-board image analysis is investigated. After an introduction which imparts basic knowledge about artificial neural network and autonomy in spaceflight, a possible system design is elaborated based on previously defined reference scenarios. The reference scenarios are based on two projects that are currently under development at the professorship of Space Technology at the University of Würzburg: ASMET and SONATE. As base for the neural network architecture, a convolutional neural network called SqueezeNet was chosen, since it was developed for similar input data and performs sufficiently well. In addition, the SqueezeNet architecture requires extremely little memory for the trained-in model compared to other architectures which makes in-orbit updates of the model feasible. The system concept in this thesis is designed for offline learning, i.e. the training phase will be done on an ordinary computer. The resulting, trained-in model is then transferred to the embedded system. On the embedded side, a FPGA-based approach was chosen since FPGAs allow to parallelize the neural network execution and therefore accelerate it significantly. Even though not all components of the designed concept could be implemented in the scope of this thesis, all key elements were implemented and tested, either on real hardware or by using testbenches. Especially the tests conducted with the convolution unit of the embedded system went well and allowed to make a quite promising assessment of the expected execution speed. In addition, a tool with graphical user interface was developed to guide a potential user of the system through the steps of training-in and setting up the system. For the training process, a neural network framework called Caffe was used within this tool. In summary, this thesis provides as intended a profound starting point for further research on artificial neural network for space applications at the professorship of Space Technology of the University of Würzburg.

  • 492.
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Quality of service agents in the internet1998Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet is a multi-purpose communication network supporting users and applications with different service demands. To meet these demands, mechanisms for service differentiation in the network are proposed. This thesis presents an admission control architecture where clients can make resource reservations through agents. For each domain in the network there is an agent responsible for admission control. The architecture provides scalable resource reservations for virtual leased lines. Reservations from different sources to the same destination domain are aggregated in agents as their paths merge toward the destination. We support advance reservations where resources are shared between advance and immediate reservations without being pre-partitioned. Immediate admission control uses information about resources to be allocated for advance reservations in the near future and, if necessary, makes resources available by rejecting immediate requests. In rare cases, immediate reservations are preempted. Simulations show the cost in terms of resource utilization, rejection probability and preemption probability.

  • 493.
    Schelén, Olov
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Brännström, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Åhlund, Christer
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    A sensor-data acquisition grid architecture2013Ingår i: 2013 IEEE International Conference on Networking, Sensing and Control, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013, s. 361-366Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents SAGA, a functional software architecture for distributing sensor data. The recursive architecture is dynamically instantiated for collecting, composing and storing data at multiple locations. Objectives are to support devices that are intermittently connected over different access-technologies, to save energy by avoiding repetitive transmission from sensors, and to scale out data compositions for different application services. When the architecture is instantiated the entities form a directed graph across organizational boundaries between sensors and applications. Data may be retrieved from sensors on-demand or be disseminated in real-time, for composition and delivery to the applications. The architecture is based on current sensor network principles such as client-server, representational state transfer and web services. The architecture is presented together with identified key requirements and design choices, and it has been instantiated in a prototype implementation for a smart city application. Some key issues for further research are presented.

  • 494.
    Schelén, Olov
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Norrgård, Joakim
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Performance of QoS agents for provisioning network resources1999Ingår i: 1999 Seventh International Workshop on Quality of Service: IWQoS '99, London, England, May 31 - June 4, 1999, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 1999, s. 17-26Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have designed an agent-based architecture for quantitative service provisioning in differentiated services capable networks. For each link-state routing domain in the network there is a topology-aware QoS agent (also known as a bandwidth broker) responsible for admission control. The architecture provides resource reservations for aggregated virtual leased lines between network domains. In this paper, we present performance measurements for resource provisioning in a prototype QoS agent. This includes an evaluation of two data structures for advance reservations and accompanying algorithms. We also compare the cost for on-demand route computations with pre-computation of routes. The objective in this paper is to evaluate the performance of end-to-end admission control within a single link-state routing domain. In a domain with 15 routers, 28 transition networks and 64 stub networks, our prototype performs approximately 25000 end-to-end admission decisions per second. The results show that an ordinary PC can be used for running a QoS agent that performs path-sensitive admission control and maintains per link resource reservations in a link-state routing domain.

  • 495.
    Schelén, Olov
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Aggregating resource reservations over multiple routing domains1998Ingår i: Sixth International Workshop on Quality of Service: IWQoS 98 Napa, California, USA, May 18 - 20, 1998, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 1998, s. 29-32Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Presents an agent-based architecture for resource reservations. For each domain in the network, there is an agent that is responsible for admission control. The architecture provides scalable per-link resource reservations in agents and low per-packet overhead in routers. The key ideas are the following. First, reservations from different sources to the same destination are aggregated as their paths merge toward the destination. Second, an agent in charge of resources at the final destination can generalize reservations for specific end-points so that they are valid for any end-point in the destination domain, thereby allowing more aggregation. Third, agents can do bulk reservations in advance with neighboring agents, thereby allowing aggregation over time. Fourth, agents are responsible for setting up policing points at edge routers for checking commitments. Agents can minimize the per-packet policing overhead in routers by varying the granularity of policing over time

  • 496.
    Schelén, Olov
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    An agent-based architecture for advance reservations1997Ingår i: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 1997, s. 451-459Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose an architecture where clients can make advance reservations through agents. For each routing domain in the network there will be an agent responsible for admission control on behalf of the routers in the domain. Requests involving several routing domains are forwarded for admission control with agents along the path for the requested service. Agents maintain hard reservation state using a reliable protocol for agent intercommunication. Agents start allocating resources for advance reservations in the routers by setting up forwarding state shortly before resources are needed for packet forwarding. Resources are made available for advance reservations by means of rejecting further immediate requests and ultimately by preempting some immediate reservations. We have shown that the risk of preemption can be kept very low. Thus, agents can set up packet classifiers and schedulers in their routers, allowing routers to get on with their main task, packet forwarding.

  • 497.
    Schelén, Olov
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Resource reservation agents in the Internet1998Ingår i: 8th International Workshop on Network and Operating Systems Support for Digital Audio and Video: New Hall, Cambridge ; 8 - 10 July, 1998, Cambridge, 1998Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 498.
    Schelén, Olov
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Resource sharing in advance reservation agents1998Ingår i: Journal of High Speed Networks, ISSN 0926-6801, E-ISSN 1875-8940, Vol. 7, nr 3-4, s. 213-229Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an architecture where clients can make end-to-end resource reservations through agents. For each domain in the network, there is an agent responsible for immediate and advance admission control. Reservations from different sources to the same destination domain are aggregated as their paths merge toward the destination. We show that network resources can be shared between immediate and advance reservations without being pre-partitioned. Admission control for immediate reservations use information about resources to be allocated for advance reservations in the near future. An important parameter in the admission control algorithm is the so called lookahead time, i.e., the point at which we actually start making resources available for approaching advance reservations by rejecting immediate requests. In our model, preemption of immediate reservations is made in cases where the admission control cannot make resources available through rejection of immediate requests. The risk of preemption can be varied by changing the lookahead time. We explore, with simulations, the effects of providing advance reservations with this model. The results show the cost in terms of resource utilization, rejection probability and preemption probability.

  • 499.
    Schelén, Olov
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Sharing resources through advance reservation agents1997Ingår i: Proceedings, IFIP Fifth International Workshop on Quality of Service: IWQoS'97, 1997Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose an architecture where clients can make advance reservations through agents responsible for advance admission control. The agents allocate resources in the routers just before they are needed for packet forwarding. In this paper we show that network resources can be shared between immediate and advance reservations without being pre-partitioned. The admission control schemes for immediate and advance reservations still operate with little interaction. Admission control decisions for immediate reservations use information about resources to be allocated for advance reservations in the near future. An important parameter in the admission control algorithm is the so called lookahead time, i.e., the point at which we actually start making resources available for approaching advance reservations by rejecting immediate requests. In our model, preemption of immediate reservations is made in cases where the admission control cannot make resources available through rejection of immediate requests. The risk of preemption can be varied by changing the lookahead time when making immediate admission control. We explore, with simulations, the effects of providing advance reservations according to this model. The results show the cost in terms of resource utilization, rejection probability and preemption probability.

  • 500.
    Schmidt, Mischa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. NEC Laboratories Europe.
    EVOX-CPS: A Methodology For Data-Driven Optimization Of Building Operation2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Existing building stock’s energy efficiency must improve due to its significant proportion of the global energy consumption mix. Predictive building control promises to increase the efficiency of buildings during their operational phase and thus lead to a reduction of the lion’s share of buildings’ lifetime energy consumption. Predictive control complements other means to increase performance, such as refurbishments as well as modernization of systems.

    This thesis contributes EVOX-CPS, a holistic methodology to develop data-driven predictive control for (existing) buildings and deploy the control in day-to-day use. EVOX-CPS evolves buildings into Cyber-Physical Systems and addresses the development of data-driven predictive control using computational methods. The thesis’ focus rests on accounting for the situation of existing buildings - which vary greatly regarding their physical characteristics, usage patterns, system installation, and instrumentation levels. The methodology addresses the aspect of building stock variety with its capability to flexibly adapt to different buildings’ characteristics, e.g., by supporting the integration of varying levels of pre-existing building instrumentation. Furthermore, EVOX-CPS supports using different data mining, regression, or control techniques (i) to strengthen the support for a variety of buildings, and (ii) to cater to researchers’ and practitioners’ differing skills, experiences, or preferences concerning different data analysis techniques. Through its flexibility, the methodology addresses a vast potential installation base and lowers the barriers for adoption in day-to-day use, e.g., by being able to leverage prior investments in building instrumentation and supporting different data-analysis techniques. At the same time, EVOX-CPS provides researchers and practitioners with comprehensive guidance relevant to their daily work. Besides, EVOX-CPS supports addressing a building’s known limitations in the daily operation, e.g., uncomfortable indoor conditions.

    The experimentation in two real buildings validates the effectiveness of EVOX-CPS’ data-driven control with high reliability due to prolonged experimentation periods combined with applying energy normalization and inferential statistics. The experiments during routine heating system operation establish high confidence in the recorded effect sizes: the improvements in operational efficiency are profound and statistically significant. More specifically, the experiments of controlling the grass heating system of the soccer stadium Commerzbank Arena, Frankfurt, Germany, in two winters saved up to 66% (2014/2015) and 85% (2015/2016) of energy consumption. Extrapolation to an average heating season leads to expected savings of 775 MWh (148 t of CO2 emissions) and 1 GWh (197 t CO2), respectively. The experiments also show that EVOX-CPS allowed alleviating the known operational limitation of heating supply shortages which required nightly preheating in the stadium’s standard operating procedures. In another set of experiments, we applied the methodology to control the heating system of the Sierra Elvira School in Granada, Spain. The experimentation occurred during the regular class hours of 43 school days in winter 2015/2016. A first experiment demonstrated the possibility to lower consumption by one-third while maintaining indoor comfort. Another experiment raised average indoor temperatures by 2K with 5% additional energy consumption. Again, that illustrates EVOX-CPS’ capability to address a building’s known operational issues.

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