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  • 501.
    Schmidt, Mischa
    et al.
    NEC Europe Laboratories.
    Abbadessa, Daniele
    NEC Europe Laboratories.
    Felis, Sebastian
    NEC Europe Laboratories.
    Enriching IMS based IPTV with Virtual Identity Management: Experiences2007Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 502.
    Schmidt, Mischa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. NEC Laboratories Europe, Heidelberg.
    Moreno, M. Victoria
    Research Institute of Energy and Environment of Heidelberg (ifeu), Germany.
    Schülke, Anett
    NEC Laboratories Europe, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Macek, Karel
    Honeywell ACS Global Labs, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Mařik, Karel
    Honeywell ACS Global Labs, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Pastor, Alfonso Gordaliza
    Department of Technical Studies, Veolia Servicios LECAM, Valladolid, Spain.
    Optimizing legacy building operation: the evolution into data-driven predictive cyber-physical systems2017Ingår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 148, s. 257-279Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fossil fuels serve a substantial fraction of global energy demand, and one major energy consumer is the global building stock. In this work, we propose a framework to guide practitioners intending to develop advanced predictive building control strategies. The framework provides the means to enhance legacy and modernized buildings regarding energy efficiency by integrating their available instrumentation into a data-driven predictive cyber-physical system. For this, the framework fuses two highly relevant approaches and embeds these into the building context: the generic model-based design methodology for cyber-physical systems and the cross-industry standard process for data mining. A Spanish school's heating system serves to validate the approach. Two different data-driven approaches to prediction and optimization are used to demonstrate the methodological flexibility: (i) a combination of Bayesian regularized neural networks with genetic algorithm based optimization, and (ii) a reinforcement learning based control logic using fitted Q-iteration are both successfully applied. Experiments lasting a total of 43 school days in winter 2015/2016 achieved positive effects on weather-normalized energy consumption and thermal comfort in day-to-day operation. A first experiment targeting comfort levels comparable to the reference period lowered consumption by one-third. Two additional experiments raised average indoor temperatures by 2 K. The better of these two experiments only consumed 5% more energy than the reference period. The prolonged experimentation period demonstrates the cyber-physical system-based approach's suitability for improving building stock energy efficiency by developing and deploying predictive control strategies within routine operation of typical legacy buildings.

  • 503.
    Seedorf, Jan
    et al.
    NEC Laboratories Europe.
    Ewald, Thilo
    NEC Laboratories Europe.
    Schmidt, Mischa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. NEC Laboratories Europe.
    Jahanpanah, Armin
    NEC Laboratories Europe.
    Stiemerling, Martin
    NEC Laboratories Europe.
    Bąk, Andrzej
    Warsaw University of Technology.
    Pilarski, Marcin
    Warsaw University of Technology.
    Kopertowski, Zbigniew
    Orange Labs Warsaw.
    Towards Operator-managed P2P Content Delivery with Application Layer Traffic Optimization2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    P2P technology provides a flexible and very popular way of content delivery for various services, including networked media applications. However, P2P-based content delivery generates large amount of backbone traffic. Recently, several approaches have been proposed for guiding P2P services based on operator preferences, in order to reduce the amount of costly backbone traffic generated by P2P applications. Application Layer Traffic Optimization (ALTO) is a one key approach for such managed P2P applications. In short, ALTO is a dedicated service, operated by a network operator or ISP, which can provide useful network layer information to application layer clients for improved peer selection and corresponding content delivery. This paper provides an overview of standardisation and research activities for improving P2P content delivery with ALTO which are carried out within the EU FP7 project NAPA-WINE. In particular, we give an overview on standardisation efforts, present simulation results, explain our prototypical implementation of the ALTO concept, and highlight ongoing large-scale operational trials we are currently conducting within the network of Polish Telecom and among NAPA-WINE partners

  • 504. Sehlstedt, Martin
    et al.
    Leblanc, James
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Fransson, Pierre
    Jonsson, Andreas
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköpings universitet.
    Transparent cross-layer rate adaption of progressive multimedia streams for wired and wireless networks2005Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time multimedia transfer through the Internet becomes more difficult when wireless links are in the path, due to the time varying channel capacity, from interference and multipath fading effects which introduce additional stochastic variations beyond the wireline network traffic effects. These wireless variations create problems for existing end-to-end rate adaption using feedback. This paper introduces a framework for cross-layer solutions to the streaming video problem with a focus on graceful degradation under network congestion and/or wireless fading effects without direct coordination between source coder, channel coder, and physical layer modulator. The solution presented includes network transportation and wireless based optimizations and requires little reliance upon end-to-end rate adaption. The suggested method uses progressively coded, leaky prediction source data and physical layer based rate adaption in concert with error tolerant network protocols.

  • 505.
    Seo, Jungryul
    et al.
    Ajou University.
    Laine, Teemu H.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Accurate position and orientation independent step counting algorithm for smartphones2018Ingår i: Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Smart Environments, ISSN 1876-1364, E-ISSN 1876-1372, Vol. 10, nr 6, s. 481-495Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Step counting (SC) algorithms can be applied to different areas such as well-being applications, games, and indoor navigation. Many existing SC algorithms for smartphones use data from inertial sensors to infer the number of steps taken, but their usefulness in real-life situations is limited since typically only a few positions and orientations are supported. Moreover, the algorithms may suffer from dynamic orientation and position changes during walking. To alleviate these shortcomings, we propose the Position and Orientation Independent Step Counting Algorithm (POISCA), which uses an accelerometer and a gyroscope to count the number of steps while allowing the smartphone’s position and orientation to change dynamically. In a nutshell, the algorithm first determines the orientation of the smartphone, and then detects zero crossings with a predetermined buffer range. 48 young adults (36 males, 12 females) participated in an experiment that simulated a real-life scenario to evaluate the performance of POISCA against three other step counting algorithms. The data from 24 participants were randomly assigned to a training group, which was then used to establish threshold parameters for POISCA. The remaining 24 participants’ data were used for accuracy measurement. The results show that POISCA outperforms the other algorithms with a Symmetric Mean Absolute Percentage Error of 4.54%, which can be lower if the algorithm is calibrated for each user. The results suggest that POISCA has potential for use in real-life situations where changes in position and orientation of the smartphone are dynamic.

  • 506.
    Seo, Jungryul
    et al.
    Department of Computer Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon, Korea.
    Laine, Teemu H.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Sohn, Kyung-Ah
    Department of Computer Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon, Korea.
    An Exploration of Machine Learning Methods for Robust Boredom Classification Using EEG and GSR Data2019Ingår i: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 19, nr 20, artikel-id 4561Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, affective computing has been actively researched to provide a higher level of emotion-awareness. Numerous studies have been conducted to detect the user’s emotions from physiological data. Among a myriad of target emotions, boredom, in particular, has been suggested to cause not only medical issues but also challenges in various facets of daily life. However, to the best of our knowledge, no previous studies have used electroencephalography (EEG) and galvanic skin response (GSR) together for boredom classification, although these data have potential features for emotion classification. To investigate the combined effect of these features on boredom classification, we collected EEG and GSR data from 28 participants using off-the-shelf sensors. During data acquisition, we used a set of stimuli comprising a video clip designed to elicit boredom and two other video clips of entertaining content. The collected samples were labeled based on the participants’ questionnaire-based testimonies on experienced boredom levels. Using the collected data, we initially trained 30 models with 19 machine learning algorithms and selected the top three candidate classifiers. After tuning the hyperparameters, we validated the final models through 1000 iterations of 10-fold cross validation to increase the robustness of the test results. Our results indicated that a Multilayer Perceptron model performed the best with a mean accuracy of 79.98% (AUC: 0.781). It also revealed the correlation between boredom and the combined features of EEG and GSR. These results can be useful for building accurate affective computing systems and understanding the physiological properties of boredom.

  • 507.
    Seo, Jungryul
    et al.
    Ajou University.
    Laine, Teemu H.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Sohn, Kyung-Ah
    Ajou University.
    Machine learning approaches for boredom classification using EEG2019Ingår i: Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing, ISSN 1868-5137, E-ISSN 1868-5145, Vol. 10, nr 10, s. 3831-3846Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, commercial physiological sensors and computing devices have become cheaper and more accessible, while computer systems have become increasingly aware of their contexts, including but not limited to users’ emotions. Consequently, many studies on emotion recognition have been conducted. However, boredom has received relatively little attention as a target emotion due to its diverse nature. Moreover, only a few researchers have tried classifying boredom using electroencephalogram (EEG). In this study, to perform this classification, we first reviewed studies that tried classifying emotions using EEG. Further, we designed and executed an experiment, which used a video stimulus to evoke boredom and non-boredom, and collected EEG data from 28 Korean adult participants. After collecting the data, we extracted its absolute band power, normalized absolute band power, differential entropy, differential asymmetry, and rational asymmetry using EEG, and trained these on three machine learning algorithms: support vector machine, random forest, and k-nearest neighbors (k-NN). We validated the performance of each training model with 10-fold cross validation. As a result, we achieved the highest accuracy of 86.73% using k-NN. The findings of this study can be of interest to researchers working on emotion recognition, physiological signal processing, machine learning, and emotion-aware system development.

  • 508.
    Shapin, Alexey
    et al.
    Siberian State University of Telecommunications and Information Sciences.
    Kleyko, Denis
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Lyamin, Nikita
    Halmstad University, Siberian State University of Telecommunications and Information Sciences.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Melentyev, Oleg
    Siberian State University of Telecommunications and Information Sciences.
    Performance Peculiarities of Viterbi Decoder in Mathworks Simulink, GNU Radio and Other Systems with Likewise Implementation2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of convolutional codes decoding by the Viterbi algorithm should not depend on the particular distribution of zeros and ones in the input messages, as they are linear. However, it was identified that specific implementations of Add-Compare-Select unit for the Viterbi Algorithm demonstrate the decoding performance that depends on proportion of elements in the input message. It is conjectured that the modern commercial hard- and software defined communication equipment may also feature similar implementation and as such their decoding performance could also vary.

  • 509.
    Siddiquee, Kazy Noor E Alam
    et al.
    University of Science and Technology Chittagong.
    Andersson, Karl
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Khan, Faria Farjana
    University of Science and Technology Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat
    University of Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    A Scalable and Secure MANET for an i-Voting System2017Ingår i: Journal of Wireless Mobile Networks, Ubiquitous Computing, and Dependable Applications, ISSN 2093-5374, E-ISSN 2093-5382, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 1-17, artikel-id 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet Voting (i-Voting) is an online electronic voting process where a voter can vote staying online from anywhere or connected to a wireless network of a target place. In this paper, a wireless network built with a MANET has been considered for the voting process. National parliamentary voting process of Bangladesh has been taken as the case study. The MANET of the voting process is built using some stationary wireless nodes and mobile wireless nodes. Voters carry mobile wireless nodes using which they can vote. Stationary wireless nodes are installed and deployed in the MANET built in a polling area selected by the National Agency of Election process. These nodes are directly in connection with the national database of voters. Stationary nodes perform the authentication and validation processes of the voter (a mobile node) before the vote is given and casted. The secured transaction of data is the goal to be occurred and routed after a strong authentication and validation of the user has been confirmed. The whole process is completed in a scalable wireless network with a distributed goal based approach. Total processes are followed by secured routing of data in this MANET. The optimal routing protocol among OLSR, AODV, DSR, TORA and GRP has been chosen. Denial of Service (DoS) attacks have been considered as the major threat on nodes in this MANET. The simulation work is done in the OPNET simulator.

  • 510.
    Siddiquee, Kazy Noor E Alam
    et al.
    University of Science and Technology, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    Andersson, Karl
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Moreno Arrebola, Francisco Javier
    HeidelbergCement, Spain.
    Abedin, Md. Zainal
    University of Science and Technology, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat
    University of Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    Estimation of Signal Coverage and Localization in Wi-Fi Networkswith AODV and OLSR2018Ingår i: Journal of Wireless Mobile Networks, Ubiquitous Computing, and Dependable Applications, ISSN 2093-5374, E-ISSN 2093-5382, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 11-24, artikel-id 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For estimation of signal coverage and localization, path loss is the major component for link budget of any communication system. Instead of traditional Doppler shift or Doppler spread techniques, the path loss has been chosen for IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi) signals of 2.5 and 5 GHz to measure the signal coverage and localization in this research. A Wi-Fi system was deployed in a MANET (Mobile Adhoc NETwork), involving both mobile and stationary nodes. The Adhoc network was also assessed in a routing environment under AODV and OLSR protocols. The proposal was evaluated using the OPNET Modeler simulation environment.

  • 511.
    Siddiquee, Kazy Noor E Alam
    et al.
    University of Science and Technology Chittagong.
    Dhiman, Sarma
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Rangamati Science and Technology University, Rangamati.
    Nandi, Avijit
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Chittagong Foy's Lake, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    Akhter, Sharmin
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Chittagong Foy's Lake, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    Hossain, Sohrab
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Chittagong, Foy's Lake, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    Andersson, Karl
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat
    University of Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    Performance analysis of a surveillance system to detect and track vehicles using Haar cascaded classifiers and optical flow method2017Ingår i: 2017 12th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 258-263, artikel-id 17595122Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the real time vehicle detection and tracking system, based on data, collected from a single camera. In this system, vehicles are detected by using Haar Feature-based Cascaded Classifier on static images, extracted from the video file. The advantage of this classifier is that, it uses floating numbers in computations and hence, 20% more accuracy can be achieved in comparison to other classifiers and features of classifiers such as LBP (Local Binary Pattern). Tracking of the vehicles is carried out using Lucas-Kanade and Horn Schunk Optical Flow method because it performs better than other methods such as Morphological and Correlation Transformations. The proposed system consists of vehicle detection and tracking; and it is evaluated by using real data, collected from the route networks of Chittagong City of Bangladesh.

  • 512.
    Siddiquee, Kazy Noor E Alam
    et al.
    University of Science and Technology Chittagong.
    Khan, Faria Farjana
    University of Science and Technology Chittagong.
    Andersson, Karl
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat
    University of Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    Optimal Dynamic Routing Protocols for Agro-Sensor Communication in MANETs2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent developments in the area of Wireless sensor networks and Mobile ad hoc networks provide flexible and easy- to-deploycommunication means for a wide range of appli- cations without any need for an infrastructure being pre-con- figured. Our paper studies performance of proactive and reactive routing protocols in a scenario with agro-sensors. Our results, achieved by simulating a network both in OPNET Modeler and NS2, show that the AODV routing protocol performs better for a large-scale network (where node density is higher) while the DSR routing protocol performs better in a small-scale network given the particular scenario we studied.

  • 513.
    Sierla, Seppo A.
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Kyrki, Ville
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Aarnio, Pekka
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Automatic assembly planning based on digital product descriptions2018Ingår i: Computers in industry (Print), ISSN 0166-3615, E-ISSN 1872-6194, Vol. 97, s. 34-46Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a new concept in which a digital twin derived from a digital product description will automatically perform assembly planning and orchestrate the production resources in a manufacturing cell. Thus the manufacturing cell has generic services with minimal assumptions about what kind of product will be assembled, while the digital product description is designed collaboratively between the designer at an OEM and automated services at potential manufacturers. This has several advantages. Firstly, the resulting versatile manufacturing facility can handle a broad variety of products with minimal or no reconfiguration effort, so it can cost-effectively offer its services to a large number of OEMs. Secondly, a solution is presented to the problem of performing concurrent product design and assembly planning over the organizational boundary. Thirdly, the product design at the OEM is not constrained to the capabilities of specific manufacturing facilities. The concept is presented in general terms in UML and an implementation is provided in a 3D simulation environment using Automation Markup Language for digital product descriptions. Finally, two case studies are presented and applications in a real industrial context are discussed

  • 514.
    Sierla, Seppo
    et al.
    Department of Automation and Systems Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Hurkala, Marcin
    Department of Electrical Engineering, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Charitoudi, Konstantinia
    University of South Wales.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Security risk analysis for smart grid automation2014Ingår i: 2014 IEEE 23rd International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, s. 1737-1744, artikel-id 6864877Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The reliability theory used in the design of complex systems including electric grids assumes random component failures and is thus unsuited to analyzing security risks due to attackers that intentionally damage several components of the system. In this paper, a security risk analysis methodology is proposed consisting of vulnerability analysis and impact analysis. Vulnerability analysis is a method developed by security engineers to identify the attacks that are relevant for the system under study, and in this paper, the analysis is applied on the communications network topology of the electric grid automation system. Impact analysis is then performed through co-simulation of automation and the electric grid to assess the potential damage from the attacks. This paper makes an extensive review of vulnerability and impact analysis methods and relevant system modeling techniques from the fields of security and industrial automation engineering, with a focus on smart grid automation, and then applies and combines approaches to obtain a security risk analysis methodology. The methodology is demonstrated with a case study of fault location, isolation and supply restoration smart grid automation.

  • 515.
    Siivola, Eero
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland .
    Sierla, Seppo A.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Niemistö, Hannu
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland .
    Karhela, Tommi
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland .
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Requirement verification in simulation-based automation testing2017Ingår i: IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 740-743, artikel-id 7819257Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The emergence of the Industrial Internet results in an increasing number of complicated temporal interdependencies between automation systems and the processes to be controlled. There is a need for verification methods that scale better than formal verification methods and which are more exact than testing. Simulation-based runtime verification is proposed as such a method, and an application of Metric temporal logic is presented as a contribution. The practical scalability of the proposed approach is validated against a production process designed by an industrial partner, resulting in the discovery of requirement violations

  • 516.
    Sinha, Roopak
    et al.
    Auckland University of Technology.
    Dowdeswell, Barry
    Auckland University of Technology.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Slicing the Pi: Device-specific IEC 61499 design2015Ingår i: IEEE 13th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), 2015: Cambridge, United Kingdom, 22-24 July 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, s. 1257-1262, artikel-id 7281915Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The IEC 61499 Function Block standard describes an architecture to support the development and reuse of software components for distributed and embedded industrial control and automation systems. Often distributed over heterogeneous execution platforms, IEC 61499 applications are highly re-configurable; users can map individual function blocks to run on any available device. However, the standard does not allow differentiating between the capabilities of different devices in a heterogeneous platform. In this paper, we present a framework that facilitates the utilization of device-specific capabilities during the design of function block applications. Device capabilities are wrapped-up in Basic function blocks linking to low-level device drivers, allowing designers to access device features with ease during the design phase. The framework is completely compatible with the IEC 61499 standard, and remains highly flexible. As a case study, we show how function block applications utilizing low-level capabilities of Raspberry Pi devices can be written and deployed using the Holobloc FBDK development environment. This particular setting of using function blocks to program the Raspberry Pi also results in an ideal, low-cost research and teaching platform for distributed computers

  • 517.
    Sinha, Roopak
    et al.
    Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Dowdeswell, Berry
    Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Zhabelova, Gulnara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Helsinki .
    TORUS: Scalable Requirements Traceability for Large-Scale Cyber-Physical Systems2019Ingår i: ACM transactions on cyber-physicals systems, ISSN 2378-962X, Vol. 3, nr 2, artikel-id 15Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) contain intertwined and distributed software, hardware, and physical components to control complex physical processes. They find wide application in industrial systems, such as smart grid protection systems, which face increasingly complex communication and computation needs. Due to the scale and complexity of the interactions that occur within CPS, tracing requirements through to the system components and software code that implement them is often hard. Existing requirements management systems do not scale well, and traceability is difficult to implement and maintain in highly heterogeneous systems. However, the information trace that links provide is crucial for supporting testing and certification activities in safety-critical environments such as smart grids.

    The well-formed models of power systems provided by the IEC 61850 standard and the software design structure provided by the IEC 61499 Function Blocks standard can be leveraged to automate many traceability operations. We present Traceability of Requirements Using Splices (TORUS), a novel traceability framework for the development of large-scale safety-critical CPS. TORUS introduces splices, autonomous graph-based data structures that automatically create and manage trace links between requirements and components through the inevitable changes that occur during system development. The formal, graph-based structure of TORUS lends itself well to the development of sophisticated algorithms to automate the extraction of useful traceability information such as historical records and metrics for requirements coverage and component coupling. By capturing not only the current state of the system but also historical information, TORUS allows project teams to see a much richer view of the system and its artifacts.

    We apply TORUS to the development of a protection system for smart grid substations. In addition, through a number of experiments in splice creation, modification, and application of automated algorithms, we show that TORUS scales easily to large systems containing hundreds of thousands of requirements and system components and millions of possible trace links.

  • 518.
    Sinha, Roopak
    et al.
    Auckland University of Technology, Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Auckland University of Technology.
    Pang, Cheng
    Department of Electrical and Computer System Engineering, University of Auckland, University of Auckland, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Helsinki.
    Martinez, Gerardo Santillán
    Aalto University, Helsinki, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Helsinki.
    Kuronen, Juha
    Fortum Oyj, Helsinki.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Requirements-Aided Automatic Test Case Generation for Industrial Cyber-physical Systems2016Ingår i: 20th International Conference on Engineering of Complex Computer Systems, ICECCS 2015: Gold Coast, Australia, 9 -11 December 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016, s. 198-201, artikel-id 7384248Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial cyber-physical systems require complex distributed software to orchestrate many heterogeneous mechatronic components and control multiple physical processes. Industrial automation software is typically developed in a model-driven fashion where abstractions of physical processes called plant models are co-developed and iteratively refined along with the control code. Testing such multi-dimensional systems is extremely difficult because often models might not be accurate, do not correspond accurately with subsequent refinements, and the software must eventually be tested on the real plant, especially in safety-critical systems like nuclear plants. This paper proposes a framework wherein high-level functional requirements are used to automatically generate test cases for designs at all abstraction levels in the model-driven engineering process. Requirements are initially specified in natural language and then analyzed and specified using a formalized ontology. The requirements ontology is then refined along with controller and plant models during design and development stages such that test cases can be generated automatically at any stage. A representative industrial water process system case study illustrates the strengths of the proposed formalism. The requirements meta-model proposed by the CESAR European project is used for requirements engineering while IEC 61131-3 and model-driven concepts are used in the design and development phases. A tool resulting from the proposed framework called REBATE (Requirements Based Automatic Testing Engine) is used to generate and execute test cases for increasingly concrete controller and plant models.

  • 519.
    Sinha, Roopak
    et al.
    IT and Software Engineering, Auckland New Zealand.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Gomes, Luis
    Fac. Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Monte de Caparica Portugal.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    A Survey of Static Formal Methods for Building Dependable Industrial Automation Systems2019Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 15, nr 7, s. 3772-3783Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial automation systems need to be highly dependable; they should not merely function as expected but also do so in a reliable, safe and secure manner. Formal methods are mathematical techniques used to describe computer systems, both hardware, and software. Formal methods can greatly aid in developing dependable systems and can be used across all phases of the system development lifecycle, right from customer requirement gathering through design and implementation, verification and validation (testing), maintenance and even documentation. This state-of-the-art survey reports existing formal approaches for creating more dependable industrial automation systems, focussing on static or offline, as opposed to runtime or online, formal methods. This article categorises existing works as per the requirements engineering, design and implementation, and testing phases of the system development life cycle, allowing us to identify gaps in current research and promising future directions for each of these phases.

  • 520.
    Sinha, Roopak
    et al.
    Auckland University of Technology, School of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Auckland University of Technology.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Pang, Cheng
    Department of Electrical and Computer System Engineering, University of Auckland, University of Auckland, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Dowdeswell, Barry
    School of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Auckland University of Technology.
    Requirements engineering of industrial automation systems: Adapting the CESAR requirements meta model for safety-critical smart grid software2016Ingår i: Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2015: Yokohama, Japan, 9-12 Nov. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016, s. 2172-2177, artikel-id 7392423Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements engineering is the first stage in the development of any system. For safety-critical industrial systems like smart-grids, we must ensure that requirements are properly elicited, defined, analyzed and managed. This paper adapts the requirements framework developed in the CESAR European project, called the CESAR requirements meta-model, to support all aspects of requirements engineering for safety-critical systems. This enables the formalization of requirements in order to automate and assist in many aspects of later stages in the system development life cycle. Using a smart grid system from the FREEDM project, we illustrate that the adapted requirements engineering framework is comprehensive and rich for large safety-critical systems. We find that the use of the IEC 61499 function block standard provides an appropriate system modelling and implementation framework, which complements the strengths of the proposed requirements engineering framework. Traceability links between requirements and components of an IEC 61499 system model can help with automatic test case generation and formal analysis of requirements.

  • 521.
    Sinha, Roopak
    et al.
    Auckland University of Technology.
    Pnag, Cheng
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Martinez, Gerardo Santillán
    Aalto University, Helsinki, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Automatic test case generation from requirements for industrial cyber-physical systems2016Ingår i: Automatisierungstechnik, ISSN 0178-2312, Vol. 64, nr 3 (Special Issue), s. 216-230Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial cyber-physical systems require complex software to orchestrate heterogeneous mechatronic components and control physical processes. This software is typically developed and refined iteratively in a model-driven fashion. Testing suchmulti-dimensional systems is extremely difficult as subsequent refinements may not correspond accurately with previous system models.

  • 522.
    Sinha, Roopak
    et al.
    Auckland University of Technology.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Salcic, Zoran
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Park, Hee Jong
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Competitors or Cousins?: Studying the Parallels between Distributed Programming Languages SystemJ and IEC614992014Ingår i: Proceedings of 2014 IEEE 19th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2014): Barcelona, Spain, 16-19 Sept. 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, s. 1-7, artikel-id 7005073Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We face a glut of languages for programming distributed software today. However, only a few languages have proven their potential with wider practical use in different domains of computing. We picked two such languages, meant for different domains, to see if they could cross-pollinate and enrich one another. Specifically, we chose SystemJ, a language to program distributed embedded systems, and IEC61499, the next generation standard for distributed industrial automation control software. Unsurprisingly, we found similar structures and artifacts between the two. We also found significant differences mainly due to differing domain-specific requirements. This comparison leads to observations and guidelines for improving both languages, and we discuss directions towards an “ideal” distributed software programming language.

  • 523.
    Sorouri, M.
    et al.
    University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Salcic, Z.
    University of Auckland.
    Rule-based composition of intelligent mechatronic components in manufacturing systems using prolog2013Ingår i: 2013 11th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, INDIN 2013: Bochum; Germany; 29 July 2013 through 31 July 2013, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013, s. 242-247, artikel-id 6622889Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 524.
    Sorouri, Majid
    et al.
    University of Auckland.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Salcic, Zoran
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Software Composition and Distributed Operation Scheduling in Modular Automated Machines2015Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 865-878Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a new software composition method for automated machines that exploits their mechatronic modularity. It is demonstrated that desired behavior of a certain class of machines can be composed of behaviors of its mechatronic components, including fully decentralized scheduling and operation control. This aims at increased performance of software design and maintenance, as well as systems' flexibility and reconfigurability. The IEC 61499 Function Blocks' (FBs) architecture is used as an implementation platform that enables system-level simulation and transparency of deployment. A configurable pick-and-place (PnP) manipulator with decentralized control synthesized using the proposed approach is chosen as an illustrative example

  • 525.
    Sorouri, Majid
    et al.
    University of Auckland.
    Patil, Sandeep
    The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Distributed control patterns for intelligent mechatronic systems2012Ingår i: 2012 IEEE 10th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN 2012: Beijing, China, 25 - 27 July 2012, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2012, s. 259-264Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a step-by-step approach for developing modular and reusable logic controllers of mechatronic systems. Following that, it presents the results of employing three distributed control methods, including master-slave, peer-to-peer and independent controllers on a pick-and-place robot as a simple showcase of implementing a distributed control system on industrial applications, using the emerged IEC 61499 standard. Moreover, it addresses possibilities and challenges of using each approach.

  • 526.
    Sorouri, Majid
    et al.
    Faculty of Engineering, Science and Research Branch Islamic Azad University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. ITMO University, St. Petersburg, Russia. Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Intelligent product and mechatronic software components enabling mass customisation in advanced production systems2018Ingår i: Service Oriented Computing and Applications, ISSN 1863-2386, E-ISSN 1863-2394, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 73-86Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Up to the present time, the control software design of production systems has been developed to produce a certain number of goods, in a centralised manner and through a case-by-case, timely and costly process. Therefore, the current control design approaches hinder factories in their pursuit to acquire the essential capabilities needed in order to survive in this customer-driven and highly competitive market. Some of these vital production competencies include mass customisation, fault tolerance reconfigurability, handling complexity, scalability and agility. The intention of this research is to propose a uniform architecture for control software design of collaborative manufacturing systems. It introduces software components named as modular, intelligent, and real-time agents (MIRAs) that represent both intelligent products as clients (C-MIRA) and machines or robots as operators (O-MIRAs) in a production system. C-MIRAs are in constant interaction with customers and operators through human machine interfaces, and are responsible for transforming products from concepts up to full realisation of them with the least possible human intervention. This architecture is built upon the IEC 61499 standard which is recognised for facilitating the distributed control design of automation systems; however, it also takes into account the intelligent product concept and envisages the machines’ control to be composed of a set of modular software components with standardised interfaces. This approach makes the software components intuitive and easy to install, to create the desired behaviour for collaborative manufacturing systems and ultimately paves the way towards mass customisation. A simplified food production case study, whose control is synthesised using the proposed approach, is chosen as an illustrative example for the proposed methodology.

  • 527.
    Sorouri, Majid
    et al.
    Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Intelligent Product and Mechatronic Software Components Facilitating Mass Customization in Collaborative Manufacturing Systems2016Ingår i: Collaboration in a Hyperconnected World: 17th IFIP WG 5.5 Working Conference on Virtual Enterprises, PRO-VE 2016, Porto, Portugal, October 3-5, 2016, Proceedings / [ed] Hamideh Afsarmanesh, Luis M. Camarinha-Matos, António Lucas Soares, Springer International Publishing , 2016, s. 394-407Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The intention of this research is to propose a uniform architecture for control software design of collaborative manufacturing systems. It introduces software components known as Modular, Intelligent, and Real-time Agents (MIRAs) that represent both products (C-MIRA) and mechatronic components (O-MIRAs) in a production system. C-MIRAs are in constant interaction with customers and operators through human machine interfaces (HMIs), and are responsible for transforming products from concepts up to full realization of them. It is demonstrated that desired services of a number of machines and mechatronic components can be dynamically allocated to a C-MIRA using a fully decentralized scheduling and operation control. This architecture also envisages the machines’ control to be composed of a set of modular software components, with standardized interfaces. This makes them intuitive and easy to install, to create the desired behavior for collaborative manufacturing systems. A simplified food production case study, whose control is synthesized using the proposed approach, is chosen as an illustrative example for the proposed methodology

  • 528.
    Sorouri, Majid
    et al.
    University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Salcic, Zoran
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland, University of Auckland.
    MIRA: Enabler of Mass Customization through Agent-Based Development of Intelligent Manufacturing Systems2014Ingår i: 2014 IEEE International Conference on Robotics & Automation (ICRA): Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Center, May 31 - June 7, 2014. Hong Kong, China, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, s. 258-263Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This research proposes an innovative agent-based design method known as “MIRA” (Modular, Intelligent and Real-time Agent) to represent products as well as mechatronic components in manufacturing systems. The new agent exploits semantic knowledge representation of its capabilities, tasks and surroundings, and upon which performs rule-based reasoning leading to generation of the IEC 61499 Function Blocks for real time and distributed control of production systems. This approach facilitates product's mass customization through development of intelligent mechatronic systems. Furthermore, the MIRA approach is exemplified in a food production case study.

  • 529.
    Sperens, Martin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Dynamic Memory Managment in C++2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Memory allocation is an important part of program optimization as well as of computer architecture. This thesis examines some of the concepts of memory allocation and tries to implement overrides for the standard new and delete functions in the c++ library using memory pools combined with other techniques. The overrides are tested against the standard new and delete as well as a custom memory pool with perfect size for the allocations. The study finds that the overrides are slightly faster on a single thread but not on multiple. The study also finds that the biggest gain on performance is to create custom memory pools specific to the programs needs. Lastly, the study also lists a number of ways that the library could be improved

  • 530.
    Stouten, Floris
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Big data analytics attack detection for Critical Information Infrastructure Protection2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Attacks on critical information infrastructure are increasing in volume and sophistication with destructive consequences according to the 2015 Cyber Supply Chain Security Revisited report from ESG recently (ESG, 2015). In a world of connectivity and data dependency, cyber-crime is on the rise causing many disruptions in our way of living. Our society relies on these critical information infrastructures for our social and economic well-being, and become more complex due to many integrated systems.

    Over the past years, various research contributions have been made to provide intrusion detection solutions to address these complex attack problems. Even though various research attempts have been made, shortcomings still exists in these solutions to provide attack detection. False positives and false negatives outcomes for attack detection are still known shortcomings that must be addressed.

    This study contributes research, by finding a solution for the found shortcomings by designing an IT artifact framework based on the Design Science Research Methodology (DSRM). The framework consist of big data analytics technology that provides attack detection.

    Research outcomes for this study shows a possible solution to the shortcomings by the designed IT artifact framework with use of big data analytics technology. The framework built on open source technology can provide attack detection, and possibly provide a solution to improve the false positives and false negatives for attack detection outcomes. Three main modules have been designed and demonstrated, whereby a hybrid approach for detection is used to address the shortcomings. Therefore, this research can benefit Critical Information Infrastructure Protection (CIIP) in Sweden to detect attacks and can possibly be utilized in various network infrastructures.

  • 531.
    Strasser, Thomas I.
    et al.
    Electric Energy Systems Energy Department, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Vienna, Robotics and Adaptive Systems, PROFACTOR Produktionsforschungs GmbH.
    Andrén, Filip
    Electric Energy Systems Energy Department, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Vienna.
    Kathan, Johannes
    Electric Energy Systems Energy Department, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Vienna.
    Cecati, Carlo
    Department of Industrial and Information Engineering and Economics, University of L’Aquila.
    Buccella, Concettina
    Department of Industrial and Information Engineering and Economics, University of L’Aquila.
    Siano, Pierluigi
    University of Salerno, Department of Indstrial Engineering.
    Leitao, Paulo
    Polytechnical Institute, Braganca.
    Zhabelova, Gulnara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vrba, Pavel
    Czech Institute of Informatics, Robotics, and Cybernetics, Czech Technical University in Prague.
    Marik, Vladimir
    Czech Institute of Informatics, Robotics, and Cybernetics, Czech Technical University in Prague.
    A Review of Architectures and Concepts for Intelligence in Future Electric Energy Systems2015Ingår i: IEEE transactions on industrial electronics (1982. Print), ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 62, nr 4, s. 2424-2438Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Renewable energy sources are one key enabler to decrease greenhouse gas emissions and to cope with the anthropogenic climate change. Their intermittent behavior and limited storage capabilities present a new challenge to power system operators to maintain power quality and reliability. Additional technical complexity arises from the large number of small distributed generation units and their allocation within the power system. Market liberalization and changing regulatory framework lead to additional organizational complexity. As a result, the design and operation of the future electric energy system have to be redefined. Sophisticated information and communication architectures, automation concepts, and control approaches are necessary in order to manage the higher complexity of so-called smart grids. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art and recent developments enabling higher intelligence in future smart grids. The integration of renewable sources and storage systems into the power grids is analyzed. Energy management and demand response methods and important automation paradigms and domain standards are also reviewed

  • 532.
    Strasser, Thomas I.
    et al.
    Electric Energy Systems Energy Department, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Vienna.
    Andrén, Filip
    Electric Energy Systems Energy Department, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Vienna.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Zhabelova, Gulnara
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Towards an IEC 61499 compliance profile for smart grids review and analysis of possibilities2012Ingår i: IECON 2012 - 38th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IEEE Communications Society, 2012, s. 3750-3757Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The electric energy system is changing more and more into a Smart Grid. A key technology in order to transform the actual grid is the information and communication technology. This means that advanced management, automation, control and communication concepts and systems have to be developed in order to cope with changing and challenging future requirements in the intelligent grid; especially the large-scale integration of distributed energy systems and electric vehicles. As a result of this trend, the future grid will consist of a huge number of intelligent electronic devices in order to manage the distributed and complex nature of Smart Girds. In order to guarantee a high level of interoperability, which is a major requirement for Smart Grids and its related components and devices, the International Electrotechnical Commission has introduced the IEC 61850 standard for power utility automation. Since it covers only interoperability and communication issues, a proper design, modeling and implementation approach is required. The main aim of this paper therefore is to discuss the usage of IEC 61850 together with the IEC 61499 reference model for distributed automation and the development of a related IEC 61499 Compliance Profile for Smart Grids

  • 533.
    Strasser, Thomas I.
    et al.
    Electric Energy Systems Energy Department, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Vienna, Robotics and Adaptive Systems, PROFACTOR Produktionsforschungs GmbH.
    Siano, Pierluigi
    University of Salerno, Department of Indstrial Engineering, Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    New Trends in Intelligent Energy Systems: An Industrial Electronics Point of View2015Ingår i: IEEE transactions on industrial electronics (1982. Print), ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 62, nr 4, s. 2420-2423Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Reports on new technologies, trends, and major areas of research in the field of intelligent energy systems

  • 534.
    Strasser, Thomas
    et al.
    Electric Energy Systems Energy Department, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Vienna.
    Siano, Pierluigi
    Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Department of Computer Science, Computer, and Space Engineering, Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Guest editorial: New trends in intelligent energy systems - An industrial informatics points of view2015Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 207-209Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 535.
    Sundström, Mikael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Some aspects of algorithmic engineering1997Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 536.
    Sundström, Mikael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Time and space efficient algorithms for packet classification and forwarding2007Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet consists of a mesh of routers (nodes) connected by links (edges) and the traffic through the Internet is divided into flows where each flow is an ordered sequence of packets, or datagrams. Each packet consists of a header and a piece of data, also referred to as payload. The header contains information about source and destination of the packet as well as some additional information. The primary function of an Internet router is to inspect the destination address of a packet, determine in which direction, i.e. on which link, to forward the packet on its next step towards its destination and then to forward the packet. This is called forwarding and is one of the problems considered in this thesis. Forwarding is essentially a data structuring problem where a local view of the Internet surrounding the router is represented in the form of a forwarding table, where the destination address can be looked up to determine the forwarding direction. In this thesis we develop a number of forwarding table data structures with different characteristics, both for supporting the current Internet Protocol IP version 4, which uses 32-bit addressing, as well as tomorrows IP version 6 featuring 128-bit addresses. The secondary function is the ability to determine whether to forward a packet or not based on the information from one or more header fields. While the entries stored in a forwarding table are 1-dimensional intervals, the entries used for packet classification are D-dimensional, where D is typically larger than or equal to 5. As a result, packet classification requires some degree of brute force, either in terms of parallel processing or huge amount of memory to achieve guaranteed performance. We have developed efficient algorithms for reducing the number of bits involved in the actual D-dimensional classification. These algorithms can be used to improve performance of both brute force hardware classifiers and heuristic software based classifiers. We first work on a purely theoretical problem called implicit selection where the solution as such does not have any impact whatsoever on forwarding and packet classification. However, in the process of solving the implicit selection problem, we have worked with numerous in-place techniques that becomes extremely useful when dealing with some aspects of packet classification and forwarding later on. It is interesting to see how techniques for achieving good performance in Asymptopia can be used also in the real world. The next step is to develop a data structure called hybrid tree where the keys are stored with minimal storage overhead and the lookup cost is independent of the number of keys in a non-trivial way. We also show how to engineer both static 128-bit single field classification without storage overhead as well as dynamic 128-bit classification with roughly 40% storage overhead that support reasonably fast update operations. Next we deal with compression state lookup for IPv6 header compression, using a dynamic move-to-root Patricia tree which adapts to the traffic pattern in an on-line fashion, followed by classification of fragmented packets, using a highly dynamic dictionary data structure featuring automated garbage collection. This is followed by two forwarding algorithms with completely different properties. The first algorithm is called XTC and supports fast lookups and good average compression but not incremental updates whereas the second algorithm is based on hybrid trees and features fast lookups and updates as well as good table compression. Finally, we present a packet classification algorithm which reduces both silicon area and power consumption for a hardware implementation. Our approach is to use hybrid trees to compress the addresses to reduce the total number of bits involved in final parallel processing. For IPv6 multifield classification, we can reduce the total number of transistors by 50% and the power consumption by over 80% compared to existing technologies for interval matching in hardware.

  • 537. Sundström, Mikael
    et al.
    Larzon, Lars-Åke
    High-performance longest prefix matching supporting high-speed incremental updates and guaranteed compression2005Ingår i: Proceedings - 4th Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies: INFOCOM 2005 / [ed] Kia Makki, IEEE Communications Society, 2005, Vol. 3, s. 1641-1652Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Longest prefix matching is frequently used for IP forwarding in the Internet. Data structures used must be not only efficient, hut also robust against pathological entries caused by an adversary or misconfiguration. In this paper, we attack the longest prefix matching problem by presenting a new algorithm supporting high lookup performance, fast incremental updates and guaranteed compression ratio. High lookup performance is achieved by using only four memory accesses. Guaranteed compression ratio is achieved by combining direct indexing with an implicit tree structure and carefully choosing which construct to use when updating the forwarding table. Fast incremental updates are achieved by a new memory management technique featuring fast variable size allocation and deallocation while maintaining zero fragmentation. An IPv4 forwarding table data structure can be implemented in software or hardware within 2.7 Mb of memory to represent 2/sup 18/ routing entries. Incremental updates require only 752 memory accesses in worst case for the current guaranteed compression ratio. For a hardware implementation, we can use 300 MHz SRAM organized in four memory banks and four pipeline stages to achieve a guaranteed performance of 300 million lookups per second, corresponding to /spl sim/ 100 Gbit/s wire speed forwarding, and 400,000 incremental updates per second. In measurements performed on a 3.0 GHz Pentium 4 machine using a routing table with more than 2/sup 17/ entries, we can forward over 27 million IPv4 packets per second, which is equivalent to wire speeds exceeding 10 Gbit/s. On the same machine and with the same routing table, we can perform over 230,000 incremental updates/second.

  • 538.
    Swain, Adyasha
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Catalyst: A Cloud-based Data Catalog System for a Swedish Mining Company2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s digitization scenario, drivers such as the Internet of Things (IoT), cloud computing and big data lead to many initiatives such as Industry 4.0 or smart manufacturing. Large mining organizations are witnessing the emergence of big data not only through IoT but also through legacy systems and internal processes. Addressing big data is a challenging and time-demanding task that requires an extensive computational infrastructure to ensure successful data processing and analysis. Though most organizations have adopted a wide variety of powerful analytics, visualization tools, and storage options, efficient data usage, and sharing is taxing and may lead to data isolation. The thesis proposes, develops and validates a data catalog system called CATALYST: A Cloud-Based Data Catalog System for a Swedish Mining Company to address the data isolation, access and sharing challenges faced in a large organization. The prototype implementation and the evaluation of our system show that the average query time  was  reduced  from  59.813  milliseconds  to  11.009  milliseconds, as well as the average data count was reduced from 12,691 to 5721.7, which is almost less than 50 per cent, and solving data isolation challenges within Boliden, a large Swedish mining company. Finally, Boliden has confirmed the value of CATALYST in general and finds it beneficial for data management within their organization

  • 539.
    Synnes, Kåre
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Kranz, Matthias
    University of Passau.
    Rana, Juwel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    User-Centric Social Interaction for Digital Cities2017Ingår i: The internet of things: breakthroughs in research and practice, IGI Global, 2017, s. 41-70Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pervasive Computing was envisioned by pioneers like Mark Weiser, but has yet to become an everyday technology in our society. The recent advances regarding Internet of Things, social computing and mobile access technologies however converge to make pervasive computing truly ubiquitous. The key challenge is however to make simple and robust solutions for normal users, which shifts the focus from complex platforms involving machine learning and artificial intelligence to more hands on construction of services that are tailored or personalized for individual users.This chapter therefore discusses Internet of Things together with Social Computing as a basis for components that users in a ’digital city’ could utilize to make their daily life better, safer, etc. A novel environment for user-created services, such as social apps, is presented as a possible solution for this. The vision is that anyone could make simple service based on Internet-enabled devices (Internet of Things) and encapsulated digital resources such as Open Data, which also can have social aspects embedded.This chapter also aims to identify trends, challenges and recommendations in regard of Social Interaction for Digital Cities. This work will help expose future themes with high innovation and business potential based on a timeframe roughly 15 years ahead of now. The purpose is to create a common outlook on the future of information and communication technologies (ICT) based on the extrapolation of current trends and ongoing research efforts.

  • 540.
    Synnes, Kåre
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Kranz, Matthias
    Rana, Juwel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    User-Centric Social Interaction for Digital Cities2013Ingår i: Creating Personal, Social, and Urban Awareness through Pervasive Computing, IGI Global, 2013, s. 318-346Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pervasive Computing was envisioned by pioneers like Mark Weiser, but has yet to become an everyday technology in our society. The recent advances regarding Internet of Things, social computing and mobile access technologies however converge to make pervasive computing truly ubiquitous. The key challenge is however to make simple and robust solutions for normal users, which shifts the focus from complex platforms involving machine learning and artificial intelligence to more hands on construction of services that are tailored or personalized for individual users.This chapter therefore discusses Internet of Things together with Social Computing as a basis for components that users in a ’digital city’ could utilize to make their daily life better, safer, etc. A novel environment for user-created services, such as social apps, is presented as a possible solution for this. The vision is that anyone could make simple service based on Internet-enabled devices (Internet of Things) and encapsulated digital resources such as Open Data, which also can have social aspects embedded.This chapter also aims to identify trends, challenges and recommendations in regard of Social Interaction for Digital Cities. This work will help expose future themes with high innovation and business potential based on a timeframe roughly 15 years ahead of now. The purpose is to create a common outlook on the future of information and communication technologies (ICT) based on the extrapolation of current trends and ongoing research efforts.

  • 541.
    Synnes, Kåre
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Kranz, Matthias
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Rana, Juwel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Technical foresight report on social interaction for digital cities2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims to identify trends, challenges and recommendations in regard of Social Interaction for Digital Cities. This foresight will help expose future themes with high innovation and business potential based on a timeframe roughly 15 years ahead. The purpose is to create a common outlook on the future of ICT and to establish a strong community across EIT ICT Labs nodes and partner organizations.

  • 542.
    Szabo, Florian Akos
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Modelling of secure communication system for IoT enabled waste management system2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 80 poäng / 120 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban expansion is a key driving force of our modern world. Increasing environmental footprint is an example issue that is directly caused by it. The city of St. Petersburg employs on average almost 500 garbage trucks on a daily basis and spends more than 1 million US Dollars every year to collect, process and manage waste. In order for megacities, such as St. Petersburg, to cope with its effects, new ideas are needed. This seems to be an obvious area in which technology can be used to improve current practices and help save resources. In this study, we investigate how the Internet of Things, blockchain and Quantum Key Distribution systems can be integrated to provide a safe and efficient method for improving the waste management process in the context of Smart City projects. Our implemented simulations in Mininet show that there are some clear challenges with regards to the adoption of blockchain technology in an IoT environment. However, the integration of quantum channels and the use of Quantum Key Distribution within the blockchain infrastructure shows good potential for balancing the advantages and disadvantages of blockchain. With the implemented simulations we demonstrate the superior capabilities of the Proof of Infrastructure blockchain solution, which can facilitate secure transactions within the waste management scenario.

  • 543.
    Sûnder, Christoph
    et al.
    Thales GmbH.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Zoitl, Alois
    fortiss GmbH.
    Formal verification of downtimeless system evolution in embedded automation controllers2013Ingår i: ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems, ISSN 1539-9087, E-ISSN 1558-3465, Vol. 12, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a new formal approach to validation of on-the-fly modification of control software in automation systems. The concept of downtimeless system evolution (DSE) is introduced. The DSE is essentially based on the use of IEC 61499 system architecture and formal modeling and verification of the hardware and software of an automation device. The validation is performed by means of two complimentary techniques: analytic calculations and formal verification by model-checking

  • 544. Tan, Cheng Lin
    et al.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    MobiCast: a multicast scheme for wireless networks2000Ingår i: Journal on spesial topics in mobile networks and applications, ISSN 1383-469X, E-ISSN 1572-8153, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 259-271Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we propose a multicast scheme known as MobiCast that is suitable for mobile hosts in an internetwork environment with small wireless cells. Our scheme adopts a hierarchical mobility management approach to isolate the mobility of the mobile hosts from the main multicast delivery tree. Each foreign domain has a domain foreign agent. We have simulated our scheme using the Network Simulator and the measurements show that our multicast scheme is effective in minimizing disruptions to a multicast session due to the handoffs of the mobile group member, as well as reducing packet loss when a mobile host crosses cell boundaries during a multicast session

  • 545.
    Tang, Chen Lin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Lye, Kin Mun
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    A fast handoff scheme for wireless networks1999Ingår i: Proceedings of the Second ACM International Workshop on Wireless Mobile Multimedia: in conjunction with ACM/IEEE MobiCom '99 ; August 20, 1999, Seattle, Washington, USA, New York: ACM Digital Library, 1999, s. 83-90Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 546.
    Theolin, Henrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Video compression optimized for racing drones2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a report on the findings of diifferent video coding techniques and their suitability for a low powered lightweight system mounted on a racing drone. Low latency, high consistency and a robust videostream is of the utmost importance. The literature consists of multiplecomparisons and reports on the effciency for the most commonly used video compression algorithms. These reports and findings are mainly not used on a low latency system but are testing in a laboratory environment with settings unusable for a real-time system. The literature that deals with low latency video streaming and network instability shows that only a limited set of each compression algorithms are available to ensure low complexity and no added delay to the coding process. The findings resulted in that AVC/H.264 was the most suited compression algorithm and more precise the x264 implementation was the most optimized to be able to perform well on the low powered system. To reduce delay each frameneeds to be divided into sub-frames so that encoding and decoding may be done in parallel independently of other sub-parts of the frame. This also improves error propagation when used together with an All-Intra (AI) mode that doesn't utilize any motion prediction techniques.

  • 547.
    Thurley, Matthew
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Jonsson, Håkan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Landström, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Project: VSB - Vision Systems Business Development Platform2012Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 548.
    Thurley, Matthew
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Nellros, Frida
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Jonsson, Håkan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Project: HLRC PIA - Automated Image Analysis for Quantitative Characterisation of Iron Ore Pellet Structures2012Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 549.
    Uddin Ahmed, Tawsin
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat
    University of Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    Alam, Md. Jahangir
    Chittagong University of Engineering & Technology.
    Andersson, Karl
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    An Integrated CNN-RNN Framework to Assess Road Crack2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2019 22nd International Conference on Computer and Information Technology (ICCIT), 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Road crack detection and road damage assessment are necessary to support driving safety in a route network. Several unexpected incidents (e.g. road accidents) take place all over the world due to unhealthy road infrastructure. This paper proposes a deep learning approach for road crack detection and road damage assessment which will contribute to the transport sector of a country like Bangladesh where a plethora of roads undergo the crack problem. The proposed model consists of two phases. In the first phase, the model is trained using transfer learning (VGG16) to detect the existence of crack on the road surface. In the second phase, an integrated framework, combining CNN (VGG16) and RNN (LSTM), is trained to classify the crack in one of the two categories-severe and slight. After experiments, the validation accuracies obtained by the proposed models (VGG16 and VGG16-LSTM) are respectively 99.67% and 97.66%.

  • 550.
    Uddin Ahmed, Tawsin
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    Hossain, Sazzad
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Liberal Arts Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat
    University of Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    Islam, Raihan Ul
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Andersson, Karl
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Facial Expression Recognition using Convolutional Neural Network with Data Augmentation2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the Joint 2019 8th International Conference on Informatics, Electronics & Vision (ICIEV), 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Detecting emotion from facial expression has become an urgent need because of its immense applications in artificial intelligence such as human-computer collaboration, data-driven animation, human-robot communication etc. Since it is a demanding and interesting problem in computer vision, several works had been conducted regarding this topic. The objective of this research is to develop a facial expression recognition system based on convolutional neural network with data augmentation. This approach enables to classify seven basic emotions consist of angry, disgust, fear, happy, neutral, sad and surprise from image data. Convolutional neural network with data augmentation leads to higher validation accuracy than the other existing models (which is 96.24%) as well as helps to overcome their limitations.

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