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  • 51.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Block, Jan
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Risk based maintenance deferral for components subject to hidden failure2012In: 2012 proceedings: Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS 2012) : Reno, Nevada 23-26 Jan. 2012, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the aviation industry, it may be necessary to employ a combination of Failure Finding Inspection (FFI) and a scheduled discard task at a specific threshold, when a component is aging and its failures are hidden and exert a “safety effect”. This is to ensure an adequate level of availability of hidden functions, and to reduce the risk of multiple failures to an acceptable level. However, in some situations, operators prefer to extend the discard life of components beyond their recommended life limit, due to operational needs or logistic issues. This necessitates the definition of an optimal Failure Finding Inspection interval for the extended life period. The main purpose of this paper is to develop analytical and graphical methodologies to identify the optimal FFI interval for extension of the discard life of aircraft components. The paper considers repairable components which are periodically tested. The methodology assumes that the inspection and repair actions lead to as-bad-as-old (ABAO) reliability characteristics.The graphical approach proposed in this paper considers inspection and repair times, as well as the costs associated with accidents, inspection, and repair, and it takes into account the opportunity losses due to the maintenance downtime. The analytical approach for calculating the unavailability of the hidden function is based on the Mean Fractional Dead Time (MFDT).

  • 52.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Kumar, Uday
    Cost based risk analysis to identify inspection and restoration intervals of hidden failures subject to aging2011In: IEEE Transactions on Reliability, ISSN 0018-9529, E-ISSN 1558-1721, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 197-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The analytical model presented in this paper aims to study possible maintenance strategies considering risk constrains, to preserve or assure availability of hidden functions of a repairable unit in aircraft systems considering ageing effect. The paper discusses two known strategies for hidden failure management aviation and other high risk industries, namely Failure Finding Inspection (FFI), and a combination of a series of FFI and restoration after a specific number of FFI cycles ( i.e., FFI-Rs strategy). Based on discussions, the paper introduces a new approach named Dynamic Failure Finding Inspection strategy (DFFI) to assure the acceptable level of risk and also the unit's hidden function availability continuously . The paper presents analytical methods to estimate optimal FFI, and optimal thresholds for restoration of degradation (refreshing risk level) within FFI-Rs strategy. It also discusses criteria used to select appropriate thresholds to change the FFI intervals within DFFI strategy, i.e. reducing inspection intervals after specific thresholds, to reduce the risk. The method is based on the mean proportion of time i.e. (Mean Functional Dead Time, MFDT) that the unit is not functioning during the inspection intervals and the average unavailability behavior within the restoration/discard period. The proposed method considers inspection, repair, and restoration times, and takes in to account costs associated with inspection, repair, restoration, potential losses due to non-availability of aircraft due to maintenance downtime or accident often caused multiple failures.

  • 53.
    Ghodrati, Behzad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Markeset, Tore
    Centre for Industrial Asset Management, University of Stavanger.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Enhancement of mining machineries performance through supportability2011In: International Journal of COMADEM, ISSN 1363-7681, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 35-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost analysis of mining operations in general shows that 30 to 50 percent of direct mining costs are related to maintenance and losses related to lost production during equipment downtime. To reduce these losses one first needs to improve the equipment reliability and thereafter to reduce the downtime losses through improved maintainability and supportability. The mining operational environment is often harsh and may severely impact all three of these abilities. In this paper we focus on how to improve the estimation of spare parts by taking into account the operating environment in the estimation models. By having better models to predict spare parts needs, one can avoid logistics delays and thereby reduce downtime. In this study we develop an improved statistical-reliability (S-R) analysis approach that take into account the system/ machine operating environment. The analysis approach is multiple regressions based on Cox’s proportional hazards modeling (PHM). Subsequently, in a case study, the management of the spare parts inventory based on the economic order quantity and required performance of the product is addressed.

  • 54. Ahmadi, Alireza
    et al.
    Kumar, Uday
    Ghodrati, Behzad
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Risk based maintenance decision for periodically tested repairable components subject to hidden failure2011In: Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Reliability, Safety and Hazard - ICRESH 2010: Mumbai Dec 15-16, 2010 / [ed] P V Varde, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2011, p. 197-204Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to develop a graphical method to facilitate the identification of risk and cost of postponement of restoration for repairable components which are periodically tested and whose failures are hidden, i.e, are detectable by inspection or upon demand. The paper focuses on the items which are under aging, however, the methodology is flexible to implement for any aging pattern. The paper considers Failure Finding Inspection (FFI) with restoration actions (FFI+Res), for the “safety effect” categories of hidden failures. As-bad-as-old (ABAO) inspection effectiveness and as-good-as-new (AGAN) restoration effectiveness are considered. In case of repair due to findings by inspection, as-bad-as-old repair effectiveness is considered. The graphical methodology proposed in this paper considers inspection and repair times, as well as the costs associated with accident, inspection, repair, and restoration, and takes into account the opportunity losses due to the maintenance downtime. The analytical approach is based on the Mean Fractional Dead Time. In the case of an operational limit, when it is not possible to remove the unit for restoration, or one needs to use the unit longer than the expected operating time, the paper introduces an approach to analyzing the possibility of and conditions for providing an extension to the restoration interval that satisfies the risk constraints and the business requirements at the same time.

  • 55.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Aircraft scheduled maintenance programme development: decision support methodologies and tools2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The air transport business is large in its operations, integrated, automated and complex. Air carriers are constantly striving to achieve high standards of safety and simultaneously to attain an increased level of availability performance at minimal cost. This needs to be supported through an effective maintenance programme which has a major impact on the availability performance and which ultimately can enhance the aircraft’s capability to meet market demands at the lowest possible cost. The development of a maintenance programme is challenging, but can be enhanced by supporting methodologies and tools. The purpose of this study is to develop decision support methodologies and tools for aircraft scheduled maintenance programme development within the framework of Maintenance Review Board (MRB) process. To achieve the purpose of the research, literature studies, case studies, and simulations have been conducted. Empirical data have been collected through document studies, interviews, questionnaires, and observations from the aviation industry. For data analysis, theories and methodologies within risk, dependability and decision making have been combined with the best practices from the aviation industry. One result of the research is the identification of potential areas for improving the use of MSG-3 methodology in aircraft scheduled maintenance development. Another result is the development of a systematic methodology guided by the application of an Event Tree Analysis (ETA) for the identification and quantification of different operational risks caused by aircraft system failures, to support decision making for maintenance task development. A third result is a proposed methodology, based on a combination of different Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) methodologies, for selecting the most effective maintenance strategy for aircraft scheduled maintenance development. Finally, the fourth result is a proposed Cost Rate Function (CRF) model supported by a graphical approach. The approach can be used to identify the optimum maintenance interval and frequencies of Failure Finding Inspection (FFI) and to develop a combination of FFI and restoration tasks for the aircraft’s repairable items which are experiencing aging. These results are related to some of the specific industrial challenges, and are expected to enhance the capability of making effective and efficient decisions during the development of maintenance tasks. The results have been verified through interaction with experienced practitioners within major aviation manufacturers and air operators.

  • 56.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Söderholm, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    On aircraft scheduled maintenance program development2010In: Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, ISSN 1355-2511, E-ISSN 1758-7832, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 229-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present issues and challenges of scheduled maintenance task development within the maintenance review board (MRB) process, and to find potential areas of improvement in the application of the MSG-3 methodology for aircraft systems. Design/methodology/approach – The issues and challenges as well as potential areas of improvement have been identified through a constructive review that consists of two parts. The first part is a benchmarking between the Maintenance Steering Group (MSG-3) methodology and other established and documented versions of reliability-centred maintenance (RCM). This benchmarking focuses on the MSG-3 methodology and compares it with some RCM standards to identify differences and thereby find ways to facilitate the application of MSG-3. The second part includes a discussion about methodologies and tools that can support different steps of the MSG-3 methodology within the framework of the MRB process. Findings – The MSG-3 methodology is closely related to the RCM methodology, in which the anticipated consequences of failure are considered for risk evaluation. However, MSG-3 considers neither environmental effects of failures nor operational consequences of hidden failures. Furthermore, in MSG-3, the operational check (failure-finding inspection) is given priority before all other tasks, whereas in RCM it is considered as a default action, where there is no other applicable and effective option. While RCM allows cost-effectiveness analysis for all failures that have no safety consequences, MSG-3 just allows it for failures with economic consequences. A maintenance program that is established through the MRB process fulfils the requirements of continuous airworthiness, but there is no foundation to claim that it is the optimal or the most effective program from an operator’s point-of-view. The major challenge when striving to achieve a more effective maintenance program within the MRB process is to acquire supporting methodologies and tools for adequate risk analysis, for optimal interval assignments, and for selection of the most effective maintenance task. Originality/value – The paper presents a critical review of existing aircraft scheduled maintenance program development methodologies, and demonstrates the differences between MSG-3 and other RCM methodologies.

  • 57. Ahmadi, Alireza
    et al.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Barabady, Javad
    Prerequisites for a business-oriented fleet availability assurance program in aviation2010In: Proceedings of the 1st international workshop and congress on eMaintenance, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2010, p. 168-175Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The air transport business is a large, integrated, automated and complex domain with high requirements on safety, security and dependability. In order to achieve customer satisfaction and gain a global competitive advantage, provision of services is essential. In air transport business with an extensive competition, the consequences of unreliable services become more critical which may increase cost of operation and reduce productivity. Furthermore, occurrence of unreliable services might also lead to annoyance, inconvenience and a lasting customer dissatisfaction that can create serious problem with regarding the responsible company‟s marketplace position. Hence, it is crucial for air transport companies to continuously improve the quality of the services they provide to customer. In the context of air transport, maintenance process and maintenance-related services have a high impact on effectiveness, productivity and costs. Maintenance departments are required to ensure that their fleet is expected to meet, or continues to meet, airline‟s established availability performance goals (e.g. operational readiness, dispatch reliability and cost affectivity) and to ensure that demands for deliveries will met. One way to align maintenance decisions and business objectives and at the same time highlight where the potential weakness in the systems and maintenance performance can be expected, is through Fleet Availability Assurance Program (FAAP). However, an effective implementation of FAAP needs adaptation to the usage context. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to present an availability assurance program in airline industries, in which the essential functional elements of such a program are discussed. The paper also proposes an integrated information logistic infrastructure for this management system.

  • 58. Ahmadi, Alireza
    et al.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Söderholm, Peter
    Risk of operational consequences of aircraft system failure2010In: International Journal of Pedagogy, Innovation and New Technologies, ISSN 0973-1318, E-ISSN 2392-0092, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 149-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a methodology for identifying different operational consequences and associated costs caused by aircraft system failure, in order to facilitate and enhance the capability of taking correct and efficient decisions when analyzing the cost-effectiveness of maintenance tasks. The paper focuses on the operational consequences of failures that lead to delay. To identify the operational consequences of aircraft system failures, Empirical studies of possible scenarios involving aircraft failures and their operational consequences for a commercial airline have been performed. Empirical data were extracted through document studies and interviews, guided by the application of an Event Tree Analysis (ETA). In order to effectively utilize the knowledge of field experts in the assessment process, a pairwise comparison technique was adopted for quantifying the contribution of different factors to the operational. The work was performed together with experienced practitioners from both an aircraft manufacturer and commercial airlines, which contributed to a continuous verification of the outcome of the study.The study shows that the proposed methodology based on ETA and pairwise comparison can be used to identify and quantify the cost of operational consequences of failures in aircraft operation, when there is no sufficient and reliable data.

  • 59. Ahmadi, Alireza
    et al.
    Gupta, Suprakash
    Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi.
    Karim, Ramin
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Selection of maintenance strategy for aircraft systems using multi-criteria decision making methodologies2010In: International Journal of Reliability, Quality and Safety Engineering (IJRQSE), ISSN 0218-5393, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 223-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper, proposes the Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) methodology for selection of a maintenance strategy to assure the consistency and effectiveness of maintenance decisions. The methodology is based on an AHP-enhanced TOPSIS, VIKOR and benefit-cost ratio, in which the importance of the effectiveness appraisal criteria of a maintenance strategy is determined by the use of AHP. Furthermore, in the proposed methodology the different maintenance policies are ranked using the benefit-cost ratio, TOPSIS and VIKOR. The method provides a basis for consideration of different priority factors governing decisions, which may include the rate of return, total profit, or lowest investment. When the preference is the rate of return, the benefit-cost ratio is used, and for the total profit TOPSIS is applied. In cases where the decision maker has specific preferences, such as the lowest investment, VIKOR is adopted. The proposed method has been tested through a case study within the aviation context for an aircraft system. It has been found that using the methodology presented in the paper, the relative advantage and disadvantage of each maintenance strategy can be identified in consideration of different aspects, which contributes to the consistent and rationalized justification of the maintenance task selection. The study shows that application of the combined AHP, TOPSIS, and VIKOR methodologies is an applicable and effective way to implement a rigorous approach for identifying the most effective maintenance alternative.

  • 60.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Franson, Torbjörn
    Saab Aerosystems, Linköping.
    Crona, Anneli
    Saab Aerosystems, Linköping.
    Klein, Markus
    Saab Aerosystems, Linköping.
    Söderholm, Peter
    Integration of RCM and PHM for the next generation of aircraft2009In: 2009 IEEE Aerospace Conference: Big Sky, Montana, USA, 7 - 14 March 2009, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With global cuts in defense budgets, air forces have to sustain the same level of readiness with a reduced number of aircraft. To succeed with this challenge, it is not sufficient to improve current maintenance concepts, but new ones also have to be introduced.Traditionally, the development of on-board functions and maintenance concepts has been performed rather independently. The new approach is to focus on an integration of these two developments and to adapt a life cycle view together with a disregard of organizational boundaries.To facilitate the necessary change, a study is performed by Saab and Luleå University of Technology. The study focuses on the possibilities to integrate RCM and PHM in a cost-effective way. The aim is to reduce the workload of maintenance development and to find out how to combine RCM and PHM to achieve a joint development of the aircraft and its maintenance program throughout the aircraft's whole life cycle.The paper describes some similarities and differences between RCM and PHM. Furthermore, the paper describes some aspects of how RCM and PHM are complementing each other and what kind of adaptations that has to be done to achieve a successful integration. For example, a good application of RCM early in system design might generate a pull for PHM-technology integration and motivate design changes of the aircraft. Simultaneously, available PHM-technologies might strongly affect the selection of applicable and effective maintenance tasks in the development of the initial maintenance program. PHM might also support a surveillance of the maintenance program's performance. The description is highlighted with examples and experiences from the Swedish Gripen fighter aircraft. Finally, the paper also outlines some suggestions for further research.

  • 61.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Arasteh Khouy, Iman
    Kumar, Uday
    Schunnesson, Håkan
    Selection of maintenance strategy, using analytical hierarchy process2009In: Communications in Dependability and Quality Management, ISSN 1450-7196, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 121-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selection of appropriate maintenance strategy is key to economic viability of aviation and manufacturing industries. The study discusses and presents an approach to facilitate the selection of the most appropriate maintenance strategy on the basis of the cost-benefit analysis by using Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP). The goal is to select the most cost-effective alternative, among Run-To-Failure (RTF), Preventive Maintenance (PM), incorporating Prognostic Health Management(PHM) capability, or any possible Design-Out Maintenance (DOM) strategies, which positively affects on aircraft operational availability. In this paper we proposed a stepwise algorithm to guide the selection process, based on two criteria of operational availability (benefit) and cost of failure.

  • 62. Ahmadi, Alireza
    et al.
    Söderholm, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Assessment of the operational consequences of aircraft failures: using event tree analysis2008In: 2008 IEEE Aerospace Conference: 1-8 March 2008 : [Big Sky, Montana]., Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2008, p. 1-14Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a methodology that supports an assessment of the operational consequences of failures in aircraft systems and its associated costs, in order to facilitate a correct and efficient decision-making during cost-effectiveness analysis of maintenance tasks within scheduled aircraft maintenance program development. The paper is based on empirical studies of possible scenarios from aircraft failure to operational consequences in commercial airlines. Empirical data was extracted through document studies and interviews, guided by the application of an Event Tree Analysis (ETA). The analysis was performed together with experienced practitioners from both an aircraft manufacturer and commercial airlines, which contributed to a continuous verification of the outcomes of the study. The proposed methodology, which is based on ETA, is considered as a valuable support in the assessment of the operational consequences of failures within a MSG-3 framework. The proposed methodology focuses on assessing the operational consequences of failures and associated economical losses. Hence, in order to enable an estimation of the maintenance tasks' cost-effectiveness, the methodology should be further developed to include a cost assessment of the applicable maintenance tasks. The proposed methodology could be adapted as a support to those involved in the development of aircraft maintenance program. The operational consequences and the probabilities of the proposed event tree can be quantified by the aid of historical data or expert judgment.

  • 63.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    An assessment of operational consequences of failures to support aircraft scheduled maintenance program development2007Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A majority of the direct and indirect maintenance costs in the life cycle of aircraft stems from the consequences of decisions taken during the initial maintenance program development. In particular, the preventive and corrective maintenance requirements, which greatly influence both the system availability and life cycle cost, need to be defined in order to perform only those preventive actions that are absolutely necessary and costeffective. Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) is a systematic methodology used to identify the preventive maintenance tasks that are necessary to realize the inherent reliability of equipment at the lowest possible cost. Developing a scheduled maintenance program by means of RCM consists of identifying those preventive tasks which are both applicable (technically feasible) and effective (worth doing). An applicable maintenance task must satisfy the requirements of the type of failure to restore the item's initial performance capability. To be effective, a preventive maintenance task must lead to a reduced risk (or expected loss) of the consequence classes to a level which is acceptable to the user. In the design development phase, in order to identify the most cost effective solution, a design trade-off study is needed. This involves choosing the correct balance of the cost of consequences of failure and its correction, with their cost of prevention. However, during initial aircraft maintenance program development, lack of a methodology that supports the assessment of the operational consequences of failures has made the costeffectiveness analysis of maintenance tasks a challenging issue. This might reduce the accuracy of the analysis, which results in higher maintenance costs and may decreases the punctuality of operation, which ultimately increases the total aircraft life cycle cost. The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology for identifying different operational consequences and associated costs caused by aircraft system failure, in order to facilitate and enhance the capability of taking correct and efficient decisions when analyzing the cost-effectiveness of maintenance tasks. Some empirical studies of possible scenarios involving aircraft failures and their operational consequences for a commercial airline have been performed. Empirical data were extracted through document studies and interviews, guided by the application of an Event Tree Analysis (ETA). The analysis was performed together with experienced practitioners from both an aircraft manufacturer and commercial airlines, which contributed to a continuous verification of the outcomes of the study. Finally, the study has also estimated the associated cost of the identified operational consequences of failures. In order to quantify the operational consequences of failures, in the absence of adequate and reliable data, a methodology using pair-wise comparison technique has been applied to extract judgments of experts efficiently

  • 64.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Söderholm, Peter
    Kumar, Uday
    An overview of trends in aircraft maintenance program development: past, present, and future2007In: Risk, Reliability and Societal Safety: Pproceedings of the European Safety and Reliability Conference 2007 (ESREL 2007), Stavanger, Norway, 25 - 27 June 2007 / [ed] Terje Aven; Jan Erik Vinnem, London: Taylor and Francis Group , 2007, p. 2067-2076Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the trends in aircraft maintenance program development during the last 50 years, including the reasons for the aircraft industry to change its view of maintenance. The major milestones and fundamental reasons for such development are also discussed and illustrated in relation to a flow diagram, which shows the logical and chronological order of the trends. Finally, the paper describes some possibilities and challenges as regards applying Information & Communication Technology (ICT) within the emerging approach of e-Maintenance in order to enhance the surveillance of aircraft maintenance program performance.

  • 65.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Gupta, Suprakash
    Kumar, Uday
    Assessment of the cost of operational consequences of failures in aircraft operation2007In: Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Reliability and Safety, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maintenance decisions regarding aircraft require consideration of the operational impact of failures. The cost of the operational impact of failure is difficult to assess due to the influence of a large number of contributory factors. This study attempts to assess the cost of operational consequences of failures using the expertise of the field experts following a pairwise contribution technique. The study shows that the proposed model can be a tool to assess the cost of operational consequences of failures in aircraft operation, when there is not sufficient and reliable data

12 51 - 65 of 65
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