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  • 51.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Organizational ambidexterity in the Construction Industry2011In: Management and innovation for a sustainable built environment: CIB International Conference of WO55, WO65, WO89, W112, TG76, TG78, TG81, Delft: Delft university of technology , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 52.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Partnering and the four dimensions of collaboration2011In: Proceedings of the 6th Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organisation: Shaping the Construction/Society Nexus / [ed] Kim Haugbølle; Stefan Christoffer Gottlieb; Kalle E. Kähkönen; Ole Jonny Klakegg; Göran A. Lindahl; Kristian Widén, Hørsholm: Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University , 2011, Vol. 2 : Transforming Practices, p. 259-270Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 53.
    Osipova, Ekaterina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Professional Support. EXTfinansiering.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Projekt: Systematisk gemensam riskhantering i byggprojekt2011Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta forskningsprojekt avser att utveckla och testa en modell för systematisk gemensam riskhantering som kan ge vägledning om hur riskhantering bör utformas vid olika typer av projekt för att främja projektframgång. De flesta byggprojekt påverkas i hög grad av osäkerhet. Snabbare förändringar i en globaliserad värld, nya material och tillverkningsmetoder samt ökad tidspress är exempel på faktorer som gör att osäkerheten har ökat och spås fortsätta öka. Dessa osäkerheter leder i sin tur till ökad risk som ofta orsakar mer eller mindre allvarliga problem i byggprojekt. Byggbranschens aktörer har fått kritik för otillfredsställande projektresultat, som till exempel bristande kvalitet och kundtillfredsställelse, förseningar och kostnadsökningar. Dessa problem härstammar från ökad risk och bristande hantering av dessa risker. Med ökad osäkerhet har därför riskhantering blivit allt viktigare i dagens byggbransch. Riskhantering baseras oftast på erfarenhet och subjektiva bedömningar. Detta är olämpligt och har visat sig leda till dåliga resultat ur ett riskhanteringsperspektiv. För att minska risken för tids- och kostnadsöverskridanden bör projektaktörerna istället använda sig av systematiska och analytiska kalkylmodeller där aktörerna gemensamt identifierar och hanterar risker.

  • 54.
    Osipova, Ekaterina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    The effects of cooperative procurement procedures on joint risk management in Swedish construction projects2011In: International Journal of Project Organisation and Management, ISSN 1740-2891, E-ISSN 1740-2905, Vol. 3, no 3/4, p. 209-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper reports the results of a questionnaire survey and a case study about the effects of cooperative procurement procedures on joint risk management (JRM). The purpose is to investigate how common the use of JRM is in Sweden and how the occurrence is affected by the utilised procurement procedures. The results show a limited use of JRM in Sweden, but clients that work on a national/international level use JRM to a greater extent than those on local/regional markets. The use of JRM is positively affected by cooperative procurement procedures. In particular, the most significant relationship has been found between collaborative tools and JRM – the higher the use of collaborative tools, the higher the use of JRM. The case project is used as an illustrative example where the project management team tried to overcome the traditional construction culture by using a cooperative procurement approach and creating a collaborative environment that supports JRM.

  • 55.
    Vennström, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Client perceived barriers to change of the construction process2010In: Construction Innovation, ISSN 1471-4175, E-ISSN 1477-0857, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 126-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To identify client perceived barriers to a change towards increased client influence on the end result of the construction process. Additionally, the variables of size of clients' markets and the extent of external project management are investigated in order to see how they influence the perceptions concerning important barriers to change. Methodology/approach: Empirical data was collected through a survey responded to by 87 Swedish construction clients. Findings: Identified barriers are divided into three types: attitudinal, industrial and institutional. Attitudinal barriers (adversarial attitudes, lack of ethics and morality, focus on projects instead of processes, and a short-term focus) and industrial barriers (traditional organization of the construction process, conservative industry culture, industry structure, and traditional production processes) were perceived to be important, whereas institutional barriers (standard contracts, laws, and traditional procurement procedures) were not perceived to be critical. Each different type of barrier was tested against the use of internal or external project management and the sphere of activity of the client. Attitudinal barriers were perceived as being more critical by clients using external project management. ‘Nearness' in terms of the sphere of activity (e.g. how large is the client's market?) also had an effect on how clients perceived the barriers. Locally active clients did not consider attitudinal barriers to be as influential on the end result of the construction process as nationally active clients. Research limitations/implications - Since the empirical results are based on data collected only from Swedish clients, international generalizations should be made with caution.Practical implications - Clients wishing to act as change agents need to be aware that their use of internal versus external project management affects their chances to influence the other construction actors and implement change and innovation. Large national and international client organizations, which due to their size have significant opportunities to influence the industry, rely heavily on external project management, which may hamper their change agent role. Hence, such clients should make careful and purposeful selections of project management companies. Another more influential alternative is to strengthen their organisation and rely less on external project management. Originality/value - This paper presents a unique investigation of the connections between the use of internal/external project management and perceived barriers to change.

  • 56. Pesämaa, Ossi
    et al.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Coopetition among nature-based tourism firms: competition at local level and cooperation at destination level2010In: Coopetition Strategy: Winning Strategies for the 21st Century, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, Incorporated , 2010, p. 166-180Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 57.
    Laurell-Stenlund, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Design factors' influence on value creation when building Houses of Culture2010In: Proceedings 26th Annual ARCOM Conference September 6-8, 2010, Leeds / [ed] Charles O. Egbu; Eric Lou, Reading: Association of Researchers in Construction Management , 2010, Vol. 2, p. 929-938Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public clients have an interest in understaning how a public building can be developed into a successful landmark and perhaps also an iconic building. An explorative case study has been undertaken, studying strategic briefing processes when building ‘houses of culture', i.e. public buildings with a cultural content. Within the case study, a survey of end-users has been conducted, with the aim of exploring design factors' influence on end-users' evaluation of a house of culture. The survey was responded to by 452 people visiting a house of culture. A questionnaire was handed out randomly on seven different occasions when different cultural activities in the building were performed. A factor analysis was conducted resulting in four design factors describing end-user evaluation of a house of culture: (1 technical design (2) multifunctional design regarding spaces for experiences (3) multifunctional design regarding spaces for consumption (4) experience of activities. Multiple hierarchical regression analyses revealed that technical and multifunctional design factors have an impact on endusers' experience of the activity. However, the relation between design factors and visiting frequency is slight and almost negligible. The visiting frequency is thus not a useful measure of describing how a public building attracts its visitors. More interesting is the number of visitors coming to building. These different types of design factors contribute to the understanding of how clients and construction professionals can develop public buildings for cultural activities creating landmarks in small cities.

  • 58.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Improving construction supply chain collaboration and performance: a lean construction pilot project2010In: Supply chain management, ISSN 1359-8546, E-ISSN 1758-6852, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 394-403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving construction supply chain collaboration and performance is central for achieving short-term business objectives as well as long-term competitive advantage. Lean thinking is an approach that has been adopted in many different industrial settings as a means for improving supply chain performance. In the project-based construction industry, lean thinking has however not yet been widely adopted. The purpose of this paper is to increase the understanding of how various aspects of lean thinking can be implemented in a construction project and how they affect supply chain actors and their performance. Action research was performed in a case study of a lean construction pilot project. Empirical data was collected through three surveys and follow-up workshops, document studies, and interviews of twelve project participants. The findings show that many of the lean related aspects identified in the literature review were utilized in the pilot project. These aspects have mostly focused on increasing the cooperation among supply chain actors, for which reason the pilot project is very similar to a partnering project. Hence, much work remains in order to obtain full-fledged lean construction, but the pilot project may serve as a starting point for continuous improvements and development of lean construction in future projects.

  • 59.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Partnering: what is it, when should it be used, and how should it be implemented?2010In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 28, no 9, p. 905-917Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in construction partnering has increased during the last decade. Much research have, however, found that cooperation and its benefits are not easily obtained, partly due to a lack of understanding of the partnering concept and when and how to implement it. The aim is therefore to increase this understanding by investigating three research questions: 1) What is partnering? 2) When should partnering be used and to what extent? 3) How should partnering be implemented? A thorough literature review and four case studies are utilized to develop a definition of partnering and discuss when and how partnering should be implemented through cooperative procurement procedures. Partnering is defined as a cooperative governance form that is based on core and optional cooperative procurement procedures to such an extent that cooperation-based coopetition is facilitated. Mandatory core procedures are: soft parameters in bid evaluation, compensation form based on open books, and usage of the core collaborative tools start-up workshop, joint objectives, follow-up workshops, teambuilding, and conflict resolution techniques. Complementary optional procedures are: early involvement of contractors in concurrent engineering, limited bid invitation, joint selection and involvement of subcontractors in broad partnering teams, collaborative contractual clauses, incentives based on group performance, usage of complementary collaborative tools (e.g. partnering questionnaire, facilitator, joint risk management, joint project office, and joint IT-tools), and increased focus on contractors' self-control.

  • 60.
    Sjödin, David Rönnberg
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Procurement procedures for supplier integration and open innovation in mature industries2010In: International Journal of Innovation Management, ISSN 1363-9196, E-ISSN 1757-5877, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 655-682Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development and installation of new process equipment in production plants typically require strong collaborative efforts by a process firm and its equipment suppliers. However, existing knowledge about how such supplier integration and open innovation practices should be organized and managed is scarce. The purpose of this investigation is therefore to explore how process firms can organize and manage supplier integration and open innovation practices when developing and installing new process technology. By means of a literature review and a case study of two process firms, a lifecycle perspective on procurement is adopted. Our results show that the process firms utilize different interconnected cooperative procurement procedures in different stages of the equipment's lifecycle, in order to enhance integration both in buyer-supplier dyads and among the suppliers in the project network. The contributions of the paper are summarized and illustrated in a developed lifecycle-based procurement model that guides practitioners in organizing and managing supplier integration and open innovation practices

  • 61. Khalfan, Malik
    et al.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Oyegoke, A
    Maqsood, T.
    Supply chain management in construction: case studies from the UK, Sweden, and Finland2010In: International Journal of Construction Project Management, ISSN 1944-1436, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 157-173Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 62.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    A case study of partnering in lean construction2009In: Proceedings of 5th Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organisation: Reykjavík University, Iceland 10-12 June 2009, Reykjavik: University of Reykjavik , 2009, Vol. 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean construction is a relatively immature literature field in need of unbiased theoretical reasoning and case studies in order to investigate how lean thinking can be applied in a construction project context. The purpose of this paper is to increase the understanding of how various measures of lean thinking can be implemented in a construction project and how these measures work. In order to enhance unbiased theoretical reasoning a frame of reference is first developed through a literature review of peer-reviewed journal articles. The empirical part of the research utilises a lean construction pilot project as a case study. Empirical data was mainly collected through a series of three questionnaire surveys, responded to by project participants who were involved in the lean implementation effort (approximately 30 responses) and three follow-up workshops in which the key individuals from all partner companies participated (15-20 individuals). The author functioned as a facilitator and action researcher, responsible for the design and analysis of the surveys and for planning and facilitating the workshops. Document studies and interviews of 12 project participants were also conducted in order to increase the richness of the case study data. The empirical results show that many of the lean related measures identified in the literature review have been utilised, either implicitly or explicitly, in the pilot project. These measures have mostly focused on increasing the cooperation among project actors, for which reason the pilot project is very similar to a partnering project. Much work remains in order to obtain a full-fledged lean construction approach. The pilot project, however, has the potential to serve as a well-built starting point for long-term continuous improvements and development of lean construction in future projects.

  • 63.
    Löfgren, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Effects of collaboration in projects on construction project performance2009In: Twenty-Fifth Annual Conference, 2009, September 7-9, Albert Hall, Nottingham / [ed] Andrew Dainty, Reading: Association of Researchers in Construction Management , 2009, p. 595-604Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaboration among project actors has been subjected to much attention in recent years within the field of construction management. Several case studies support the argument that collaboration has positive effects on project performance. There is however, a need for quantitative studies investigating statistical relationships between collaboration and performance. Joint activities and collaborative tools (e.g. workshops, joint objectives, and teambuilding activities) are commonly used in order to establish a collaborative spirit among project actors. The purpose of this research is to investigate how collaborative tools affect collaboration and further collaboration’s effect on project performance. The empirical data was collected through a survey responded to by 106 Swedish construction clients. Results from hierarchical regression analyses show a positive relationship between collaborative tools and collaboration suggesting that joint activities are crucial for collaboration to emerge. A positive relationship was also found between collaboration and project performance. The statistical results support previous case study findings where collaboration is positively affected by joint activities and project performance is enhanced by collaboration.

  • 64.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Effects of procurement on construction project performance2009In: IAMOT 2009: 18th International Conference on Management of Technology, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 65.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Vennström, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Effects of procurement on project performance: a survey of Swedish construction clients2009In: Proceedings of CIB Joint International Symposium, Construction Facing Worldwide Challenges / [ed] Anita Ceric; Radujkovic Mladen, ArCiBel Editores, 2009, p. 19-28Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to increase the efficiency of the construction industry development and improvement of procurement procedures is vital. The purpose of this investigation is to increase the understanding of how procurement procedures affect project performance. A procurement model including eight hypotheses is first developed on the basis of a literature review and then tested through multivariate statistical techniques based on empirical data collected through a survey investigation of 106 Swedish construction clients. The results of hierarchical regression analyses show that cooperative procurement procedures positively affect collaboration among project actors and that collaboration in turn have positive effects on project performance. In general, however, cooperative procurement procedures do not have direct effects on project performance.

  • 66.
    Osipova, Ekaterina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Joint risk management as a driver of project performance improvement2009In: Proceedings of 5th Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organisation, Reykjavik: University of Reykjavik , 2009, Vol. 2, p. 109-116Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a concept of joint risk management (JRM) that is about working together on managing project risks. Despite the fact that JRM is argued to be the best option when it comes to unforeseen and changing risks, the use of JRM is still uncommon in Sweden. The limited usage of collaborative tools in general and JRM in particular is obviously a weakness in current practice that negatively affects project performance improvements. Traditional construction culture and the lack of competence among the project actors are identified as the main obstacles towards effective collaboration and JRM. In order to overcome these obstacles, a number of factors must be successfully incorporated in the project. Two groups of factors, procurement-related and relationship-related, are described in detail. The main conclusion is that there is room for improvements regarding overall collaboration in projects and JRM in particular. However, the Swedish construction industry is not efficient enough to expect rapid progress.

  • 67.
    Sjödin, David Rönnberg
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Open innovation in the process industries: managing the process of collaborative development2009In: 10th International CINet Conference: Enhancing the Innovation Environment : 6-8 September, 2009, Brisbane, Australia, Adelaide: Continuous Innovation Network (CINet) , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development and installation of new or upgraded process technology in production plants may require strong collaboration among the process firm and the equipment suppliers. Such collaborations however entail both advantages and disadvantages to the partners. By means of an explorative case study in two process firms, we aim to shed light on the problems and opportunities arising from such collaborative efforts. By combining literature on open innovation, collaborative development and complex procurement, we address the questions of why, when and how such collaboration should be organized and managed. As such, the article contributes to management practice by helping process firms and equipment suppliers to better reap the benefits arising from joint collaborative efforts, while simultaneously avoiding the risks. Collaborative development was found important due both cost and competence reasons, especially during the early design stages and start-up activities. While collaborative performance was chiefly based on careful partner selection coupled with incentives and joint objectives.

  • 68. Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Atkin, Brian
    Department of Construction Management, Lund Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, Torbjörn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Overcoming barriers to partnering through cooperative procurement procedures2009In: Engineering Construction and Architectural Management, ISSN 0969-9988, E-ISSN 1365-232X, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 598-611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to report on research into investigating ways in which construction clients can overcome barriers to partnering through the adoption of purposeful procurement procedures within an overall project management context. Design/methodology/approach - Data were collected through interviews, document analysis, surveys and workshops as part of a longitudinal case study using an action-research approach. Findings - Analysis reveals how the early involvement of partners, selected for their long-term perspective and willingness to use collaborative working arrangements, can help to overcome cultural and organizational barriers. Research limitations/implications - The research results are based on empirical study for which reasonable generalisations could be made, albeit cautiously. Clients' implementation of partnering requires an appropriate use of a broad range of suitable procurement procedures that are quite different from more commonly used procedures. Hence, clients need to reassess their procurement procedures and tailor them to different project situations. Additionally, a long-term perspective is crucial in order to facilitate continual improvement over time. Originality/value - The case study data support the analysis of how utilised procurement procedures affect project results.

  • 69.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Så får Scania fokus på minskat slöseri i byggprocessen2009In: Byggindustrin, ISSN 1104-5981Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 70.
    Osipova, Ekaterina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    The effects of procurement procedures on joint risk management2009In: Twenty-Fifth Annual Conference, 2009, September 7-9, Albert Hall, Nottingham / [ed] Andrew Dainty, Reading: Association of Researchers in Construction Management , 2009, p. 1305-1314Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decade, researchers and practitioners have recognised that the relationships between the client and the contractor play a significant role for successful project implementation. The interest in joint risk management (JRM) has increased as it strengthens collaboration between project actors and contributes to a more effective risk management process.  The lack of an iterative and cooperative approach to risk management is a weakness in current procurement practice; although several empirical studies show that the project actors are positive about implementation of JRM. The purpose of this research is to investigate how common the use of JRM is in Sweden and if the occurrence is affected by the chosen procurement procedures. Empirical data was collected through a questionnaire survey of 106 members of the Swedish Construction Clients Forum. The results show limited use of JRM in construction projects. Clients that work on a national/international level use JRM to a greater extent than those on the local/regional market. The analysis also indicates that the use of JRM is positively affected by cooperative procurement procedures. In particular, the most significant relationship is found between collaborative tools and JRM - the higher the use of collaborative tools, the higher the use of JRM.

  • 71. Pesämaa, Ossi
    et al.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Hair, Joseph F.
    Kennesaw State University, Department of Marketing.
    Validating a model of cooperative procurement in the construction industry2009In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 552-559Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Project management in the construction industry involves coordination of many tasks and individuals, affected by complexity and uncertainty, which increases the need for efficient cooperation. Procurement is crucial since it sets the basis for cooperation between clients and contractors. This is true whether the project is local, regional or global in scope. Traditionally, procurement procedures are competitive, resulting in conflicts, adversarial relationships and less desirable project results. The purpose of this paper is to propose and empirically test an alternative procurement model based on cooperative procurement procedures that facilitates cooperation between clients and contractors in construction projects. The model is based on four multi-item constructs - incentive-based compensation, limited bidding options, partner selection and cooperation. Based on a sample of 87 client organisations, the model was empirically tested and exhibited strong support, including content, nomological, convergent and discriminant validity, as well as reliability. Our findings indicate that partner selection based on task related attributes mediates the relationship between two important pre-selection processes (incentive-based compensation and limited bid invitation) and preferred outcome of cooperation. The contribution of the paper is identifying valid and reliable measurement constructs and confirming a unique sequential order for achieving cooperation. Moreover, the findings are applicable for many types of construction projects because of the similarities in the construction industry worldwide.

  • 72.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Achieving suitable coopetition in buyer-supplier relationships: the case of AstraZeneca2008In: Journal of Business-to-Business Marketing, ISSN 1051-712X, E-ISSN 1547-0628, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 425-454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to deal with the two crucial managerial challenges of first identifying and then achieving a suitable balance between cooperation and competition in buyer-supplier relationships.Methodology/Approach: First, a purchasing framework is developed by utilizing principal-agent theory to bridge the literature on transaction cost economics and industrial buying behavior. The practical use of this framework is then empirically illustrated by a case study description of how a construction client's purchasing procedures affect coopetition in a partnering project.Findings: The developed purchasing framework shows how actions taken during the different stages of the buying process affect coopetition in buyer-supplier relationships. It highlights the deficiencies of both the neoclassical competitive focus and the cooperative focus found in the literature on interorganizational relationships. Instead it emphasizes the importance of balancing cooperation and competition.Research Implications: This research shows how the traditional analysis of governance structure can be transformed into an analysis of coopetition. Furthermore, it explores how purchasing procedures affect governance forms through different control mechanisms. It also shows how trust and social context can be integrated into a transaction cost framework through social control.Practical Implications: The developed framework can be used for guiding purchasing decisions. Managers planning to implement coopetitive (cooperative and competitive) relationships should recognize the importance of considering all stages of the buying process. Collaborative tools (e.g., teambuilding, joint objectives, and a shared project office) are useful but not enough to transform an otherwise competitive relationship into a cooperative one. Hence, technical aspects of the buying process need to be addressed as well (e.g., joint specification, bid evaluation, etc.).

  • 73.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Nilsson, Torbjörn
    Atkin, Brian
    Department of Construction Management, Lund Institute of Technology.
    Client perceptions of barriers to partnering2008In: Engineering Construction and Architectural Management, ISSN 0969-9988, E-ISSN 1365-232X, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 527-539Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to identify critical barriers to partnering, as perceived by construction clients, and the specific measures that are taken to overcome them during implementation. Design/methodology/approach - Empirical data were collected through a survey study of 87 professional construction clients in Sweden. Findings - Clients regard the most critical barriers as those attributable to cultural and organisational aspects. The analysis also shows that clients' perceptions of these barriers do not, in fact, affect their procurement procedures. Two-thirds of clients in the survey wish to increase cooperation with actors in the belief that it will favour project success. Their intention does not have any bearing on their procurement and project management procedures, which are still aligned to competitive bidding. Two potential reasons for this inconsistency are discussed: clients may be unaware of how their procurement procedures affect cooperation, and/or the individual decision maker may not have strong enough incentives to start using new and less familiar procurement procedures even though they are potentially more suitable than traditional procedures. Research limitations/implications - The quantitative data are limited to clients' perceptions of barriers to partnering; a contractor perspective is not included in the survey. Practical implications - The research results can serve as an alert for construction clients that their procurement procedures need to be adapted if they want to achieve the move towards increased cooperation that they say they do. Originality/value - This paper offers a unique analysis of the correlations between desired outcome in the form of increased cooperation, and actual behaviour in the form of procurement procedures.

  • 74.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Coopetition: projektstyrningsformen som balanserar samarbete och konkurrens2008In: V-byggaren : väg- och vattenbyggaren, ISSN 0283-5363, no 3, p. 65-68Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 75.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Nilsson, Torbjörn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Partnering the construction of a Swedish pharmaceutical plant: case study2008In: Journal of Management in Engineering, ISSN 0742-597X, E-ISSN 1943-5479, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 227-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years increased interest in cooperative arrangements, such as partnering, has been noticeable in the construction industry in many countries. To facilitate cooperative relationships many aspects of the traditional procurement procedures need to be changed. The research presented in this paper offers an analysis that compares empirically observed partnering procurement procedures with conceptual prescriptions provided by a transaction cost economics framework. The empirical illustration shows that the case client has reduced the focus on price and authority and instead facilitated a relationship based on trust and cooperation, through procurement procedures involving joint specification, limited bid invitation, bid evaluation based on soft parameters, joint selection of subcontractors, standard contracts coupled with relational norms, usage of collaborative tools, and contractor self-control. The procurement procedures chosen result in a governance form rather similar to the one prescribed by the conceptual model. Furthermore, the project participants are satisfied with the project result and also consider the procurement procedures performed suitable. Hence, the results provide both theoretical and empirical support to the implementation of partnering procurement procedures in construction projects characterized by high complexity and uncertainty

  • 76.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Procurement effects on coopetition in client-contractor relationships2008In: Journal of construction engineering and management, ISSN 0733-9364, E-ISSN 1943-7862, Vol. 134, no 2, p. 103-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Client-contractor relationships are often criticized for being competitive and adversarial, rather than cooperative. The main purpose of this paper is to examine how construction clients' procurement procedures affect the balance between cooperation and competition (i.e., coopetition) in client-contractor relationships. The empirical results, based on a survey to 87 Swedish construction clients, show that clients' procurement procedures facilitate a focus on competition. It was also found that clients' earlier experience of a certain procedure heavily affects their procurement choices, thereby preserving old behaviors. Although two-thirds of the clients wish to increase cooperation with contractors, this does not affect their procurement decisions. This study therefore concludes that the theoretical framework, based on transaction cost economics, is correct in prescribing more cooperation than is empirically observed in the construction sector. The theoretical framework can increase clients' awareness of how procurement affects cooperation and competition, thereby serving as a basis for more unbiased and systematic procurement decisions, facilitating cooperation-based coopetition

  • 77.
    Osipova, Ekaterina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    The impact of procurement options on risk management2008In: Transformation through Construction: Joint 2008 CIB WO65/WO55 Symposium / [ed] Kate Carter; Stephen Ogunlana; Ammar Kaka, Heriot-Watt University, School of the Built Environment , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to achieve an expected final result of construction activities, professional risk management as well as conscious risk allocation among the project actors are required. Various procurement options imply different risk allocation and different degree of actors' involvement in risk management. This paper investigates the impact of the chosen procurement option on risk management in construction projects. Three major options currently used in Sweden are analysed: design-bid-build contracts, design-build contracts and collaboration through partnering. A questionnaire survey and a series of interviews with clients, contractors and consultants involved in nine construction projects were conducted. The major finding of the study is that there is a clear connection between the procurement option and risk management. The options that support early involvement of the actors, their participation throughout the project and opportunities for open dialogue and collaboration result in a more effective risk management process and a better final result.

  • 78.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Hair, Joseph
    Kennesaw State University, Georgia.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    To protect and attract: firms cooperating in nature-based tourism destinations2008In: Tourism, Culture & Communication, ISSN 1098-304X, E-ISSN 1943-4146, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 159-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores solutions to potential communication problems that arise from cooperation in nature-based tourism (NBT) destinations. The questions posed in this article are: "When is a local firm in an NBT destination likely to cooperate with other firms?" and "How can cooperation be facilitated among NBT firms?" The primary focus of our research, therefore, is how to facilitate cooperation in NBT destinations. To do so, we first review different risk elements by describing a simulated scenario in which two participants (NBT firms) confront a prisoner's dilemma with different options-cooperation and competition. The outcome of that scenario demonstrates that cooperation is only rational when the benefits of cooperation are greater than those for competition. Such situations do not occur in single games involving the prisoner's dilemma, but only in infinitely repeated games. Because cooperation may not be rational from a game theoretic perspective, policy makers and the firms involved should work actively to increase the benefits of cooperation. We conclude that cooperation is best achieved by having activities coordinated either by a strong, aggressive company or a strategic hierarchical network. Our logic is that coordinating activities from one point will increase the likelihood that partners have the same information and thus minimize conflicts.

  • 79.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Cooperation and partnering in facilities construction: empirical application of prisoner's dilemma2007In: Facilities, ISSN 0263-2772, E-ISSN 1758-7131, Vol. 25, no 1/2, p. 7-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - To investigate if game theoretic reasoning may be used to explain a lack of cooperation in buyer-supplier relationships within construction and facilities management. In order to make an empirical application of the Prisoner's dilemma game possible important variables are operationalized and empirically measured Methodology/approach - Empirical data concerning pay-offs and the variables in the discount parameter formula (created in this paper) have been obtained through interviews with clients and contractors in the Swedish construction sector. Findings - This paper suggests a way to operationalize pay-offs and the discount parameter, making empirical measurements possible. Due to differences in pay-offs and the discount parameter, different forms of contracts will affect cooperation. Cumulative values of cooperation are much higher in lasting relationships than in occasional transactions. Thus, the best way to facilitate cooperation between rational players is long-term contracts.Research limitations/implications - Since the values used are based on empirical data collected from a few respondents, they should be viewed as illustrative empirical examples, rather than statistical generalizations.Practical implications - From a game theoretic perspective the practice of project partnering may not solve problems regarding lack of cooperation. To increase the incentives for cooperation the actors should work together in long-term relationships instead of focusing on single projects. Long-term strategic partnering is therefore beneficial for the construction and management of facilities.Originality/value - This paper makes empirical application of the Prisoner's Dilemma game possible by operationalizing and empirically measuring game theoretic variables that previously have been given values set by the researcher rather than by the players in the game.

  • 80.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Efficient governance of construction projects through cooperative procurement procedures2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research is to increase the understanding of how efficient governance of construction projects can be achieved through appropriate procurement procedures. In this PhD project, literature reviews, a pre-study, a longitudinal case study and a survey study have been conducted in order to investigate five research questions and thereby fulfil the research purpose. The main theoretical field in this thesis is transaction cost economics, which forms the basis of the developed conceptual procurement model. Other literature fields that have been reviewed are: game theory, innovation, partnering, industrial buying behaviour and principal-agent theory. All these different theories and fields of literature have one thing in common: they are all well suited to analysing different aspects of buyer-supplier relationships.The research presented in this thesis contributes to theory and practice in four main ways. 1) The developed conceptual procurement model adds knowledge to transaction cost economics through a broad process perspective that makes it possible to describe how governance prescriptions can be achieved by suitable procurement procedures. The model also contributes to procurement practice since it may be utilised as a useful framework, guiding procurement decisions in order to tailor procurement procedures to transaction characteristics. In this way it increases the understanding of how to procure different types of projects in order to facilitate efficient governance. 2) The survey study shows that the current procurement procedures used by Swedish construction clients are still of the traditional type, facilitating governance forms focusing on price and authority, which according to the conceptual model are unsuitable in construction transactions. This finding can hopefully serve as an alert to practitioners that their procurement procedures have become obsolete due to the increased complexity and uncertainty of construction projects. 3) The case illustrations and the structural equation model show that cooperative procurement procedures facilitate the establishment of cooperation and thereby efficient governance of complex, customised and lengthy construction projects with high uncertainty. These procedures are therefore more suitable and up to date than the most common ones. 4) A side effect of this research is a suggestion of how to look upon the concept of partnering. The research results suggest that different governance forms are facilitated through different procurement procedures. An indirect finding is therefore that partnering can be viewed as a cooperative governance form, which is facilitated through cooperative procurement procedures. The TCE-perspective of this definition makes sure that partnering is not used for its own sake, but only to achieve efficient governance, tailored to the characteristics of the transaction.

  • 81.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Modelling procurement effects on cooperation2007In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 25, no 8, p. 893-901Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative arrangements, such as partnering, have received increased interest in recent years. Several studies show however that cooperative relationships are not easily achieved in construction. Implementation of cooperative relationships requires changes in several elements of the traditional procurement procedures. The purpose of this paper is therefore to propose and test a sequential model regarding clients' cooperative procurement procedures. We especially ask: what elements in clients' procurement procedures facilitate the establishment of cooperation and trust in their relationships with contractors? The model was tested through structural equation modelling. The empirical data required for the test were collected through a survey responded to by 87 Swedish professional construction clients. The empirical results show that cooperative procurement procedures are triggered by clients' wish to involve contractors early in specification, which has a simultaneous effect on procedures regarding bid invitation and compensation. Furthermore, these simultaneous effects breed a certain kind of partner selection based on task-related attributes, which also has a direct positive effect on trust and above all on cooperation in client-contractor relationships. Besides these implications from the model, the improvement of measurements for future modelling is discussed.

  • 82.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Laan, Albertus
    University of Twente.
    Procurement effects on trust and control in client-contractor relationships2007In: Engineering Construction and Architectural Management, ISSN 0969-9988, E-ISSN 1365-232X, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 387-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To investigate how construction clients currently deal with procurement and analyze how the choices made during the buying process stages affect the combination of governance mechanisms and control types in client-contractor relationships.Methodology/approach: Empirical data was collected through a survey to 87 Swedish construction clients. Findings: Current procurement procedures establish governance forms facilitating a focus on price, through output control, and authority, through process control. Since construction transactions are mostly characterized by high complexity and customization and long duration, the theoretical framework prescribes a focus on trust and a somewhat lower focus on price and authority. Hence, from a transaction cost perspective, construction clients focus too much on price and authority and too little on trust. Since current procedures may cause problems in all stages of the buying process, the result suggests that partnering arrangements, entailing completely different choices during the buying process, may be a suitable way to facilitate trust and cooperation through informal social control.Research limitations/implications - Since the empirical results are based on data collected from only Swedish clients, international generalizations should be made cautiously.Practical implications - Clients wishing to implement trust-based collaborative relationships need to reconsider their procurement procedures entirely; joint objectives, teambuilding and other "fuzzy" techniques are not enough to transform adversarial relationships into cooperative ones.Originality/value - Earlier research has focused on one or a few aspects of procurement and governance, while this paper adopts an overall process perspective, taking into account clients' procurement procedures in their entirety.

  • 83.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Dickinson, Michael
    SCRI Research Centre, University of Salford, Manchester.
    Khalfan, Malik M.A.
    SCRI Research Centre, University of Salford, Manchester.
    The influence of partnering and procurement on subcontractor involvement and innovation2007In: Facilities, ISSN 0263-2772, E-ISSN 1758-7131, Vol. 25, no 5/6, p. 203-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The aim of this paper is to investigate how a client's cooperative procurement procedures influence subcontractor involvement, value creation, and innovation in the construction of complex facilities. Design/methodology/approach - Empirical data were collected through interviews, surveys and participation in workshops during a longitudinal action research case study. The case project was located in Sweden and concerned the construction of plant facilities for manufacturing of pharmaceutical products. Findings - The case study findings reveal that the client's procurement procedures affect the level of subcontractor involvement and integration, but that this does not necessarily result in increased subcontractor value creation and innovation in the construction process. Research limitations/implications - Since the empirical results are based on data collected from only one case project, the possibilities for generalisations are limited. Practical implications - Clients' procurement procedures heavily affect subcontractor involvement, but in order to increase subcontractor contributions to innovation and value creation the actors should adopt a long-term perspective and actively work to establish an innovation-friendly climate. Originality/value - This paper focuses on the often-neglected importance of subcontractors and their contributions to innovation and value creation.

  • 84. Toolanen, Bengt
    et al.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Client-led do as I say, don't do as I do: Discrepancies between clients' advice and their procurement behaviour2006In: Construction in the XXI Century: Local and Global Challenges / [ed] Roberto Pietroforte; Enrico De Angelis; Francesco Polverino, Edizione Scientifiche Italiane SpA , 2006, p. 104-105Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 85.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Dickinson, Michael
    Khalfan, Malik M A
    Client-led subcontractor involvement: A way to increase value creation and innovation?2006In: Construction in the XXI Century: Local and Global Challenges / [ed] Roberto Pietroforte; Enrico De Angelis; Francesco Polverino, Edizione Scientifiche Italiane SpA , 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 86.
    Wennström, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Clients as initiators of change: barriers to increased influence over project results2006In: Construction in the XXI Century: Local and Global Challenges / [ed] Roberto Pietroforte; Enrico De Angelis; Francesco Polverino, Edizione Scientifiche Italiane SpA , 2006, p. 348-349Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 87. Pesämaa, Ossi
    et al.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Coopetition among nature-based tourism firms: competition at a local level and cooperation at a destination level2006In: 2nd Workshop on Coopetiton Strategy: European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management (EIASM), 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 88.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Coopetition in Buyer-Supplier Relationships: An empirical investigation of Swedish construction clients' procurement procedures2006In: 2nd Workshop on Coopetiton Strategy: European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management (EIASM), 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 89.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Procurement and governance management: development of a conceptual procurement model based on different types of control2006In: Management Revue, ISSN 0935-9915, E-ISSN 1861-9908, Vol. 17, p. 30-49Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 90.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Coopetition in the supply chain: How Swedish construction sector clients' procurement of contractors affects competition and cooperation in client-contractor relationships2005In: NFF 2005: The 18th Scandinavian Academy of Management Meeting, Aarhus: Aarhus School of Business , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 91.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Laan, Albertus
    Trust and control in buyer-supplier relationships: How construction clients' procurement procedures affect trust and control in client-contractor relationships2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 92.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Cooperation in construction projects: a game theoretic reasoning based on Prisoner's dilemma2003In: Construction economics and organization: proceedings of the 3rd Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organization, 24-24 April 2003, Lund, Sweden / [ed] Bengt Hansson; Anne Landin, Lund: Lund Institute of Technology , 2003, p. 139-148Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 93.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Förslag till modell vid förändring av organisationskultur2003Report (Other academic)
  • 94.
    Järvenpää, Anna-Therése
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Control systems in inter-organizational multi-cultural infrastructure projectsIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 95.
    Järvenpää, Anna-Therése
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Exploring entry barriers in the public infrastructure marketManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
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