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  • 51.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Context-sharing and mediated communication for smart environments2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The deployment of pervasive computing technology and services has enabled the creation of smart environments which assist people in their daily activities. However, the deployment of technology and services into these smart environments has been obstructed due to many factors, most notably from the lack of proper models, rules and services. This thesis presents novel solutions for context-sharing intended to make utilisation of smart environments less complex and more cost efficient. It also presents solutions for mediated communication services which uses the power of smart environments to improve quality, flexibility and usability. The proposed solutions have all been evaluated through implementation and testing of proof-of-concept prototypes. Smart environments can provide a range of different services, such as giving warnings or reminders. Nevertheless, creation and personalisation of services can be complex and time consuming tasks, which promotes the creation of a common approach for tackling the heterogeneous nature of services and data. This thesis proposes such a common approach in the form of the openHome Suite which handles data collection, data analysis, and decision support for smart environments using XML. HomeML and HomeRuleML, two core components of the openHome Suite, supports sharing of context and rules with other research organizations and developers. It simplifies deployment through the creation of models which can be reused between smart environments. Tools for mediated communication are common in many smart environments. This thesis proposes how to utilise the smart environment to improve multimedia communication. A smart environment enables a user to transfer media content between devices for better quality, cost, and privacy. This thesis proposes context-aware communication and demonstrates how this can be established automatically by using the developed HomeRuleML approach, an approach which enables the representation and exchange of decision support rules. The study of context-aware communication and automatic establishment of communication has resulted in a new concept for communication called "dynamic groups" which is a simple and powerful group communication service. The concept has been proven through the development and evaluation of a prototype for mobile devices using near field communication. The research solutions presented in this thesis have been evaluated in the area of remote healthcare, for which simpler deployment of services into smart environments and better communication possibilities for patients becomes possible. This has the potential knock-on effect of decreased healthcare costs and improved support for the daily activities to improve a patient's wellbeing. Overall the work is done with an overarching aim for smart environments to help people stay out of hospitals in favour of living a richer life in their own homes.

  • 52.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Dynamic groups - context-aware group communication2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As more and more people choose to live at home as they grow older the need for supportive environments increases. One of the identified needs is social interaction which can keep elders from becoming lonely and isolated. This need can be addressed by technology, but it has to be simple and intuitive to use, as the users may lack computer experience. The dynamic groups model is an attempt to solve this problem and provide users with context-aware group communication tools. A dynamic group model defines "group communication where the participants can be invited based on context and social networks in both physical and virtual settings". This model has similarities to existing communication solutions but dynamic groups offer new functionality such as automatic group formation based on predefined rules. This means a user could automatically be connected to a video-conference meeting with family members while eating breakfast, or be connected to healthcare personnel in the event of an accident.Dynamic groups utilize open standards for both context storage and decision support rules. This means it integrates into smart-environments and work together with other activity support services to provide better functionality. Furthermore it means that decision support rules can be tested and then shared with others for simple deployment. Setting up dynamic groups is then a matter of choosing between available rules, or creating new rules, which suit the user's needs. A user could for instance select rules like "breakfast with the family" or "notify healthcare personnel upon accidents". Furthermore, dynamic groups can be formed between co-located people in a simple manner. Through the user of for example Near Field Communication a group can be formed by reading a small tag. This could be quite useful for nurses who come to visit and wish to follow up on the house-call, or for the patient to help remember visitors, or even to talk to the visitors after they left. Dynamic groups make virtual social interaction simple and users are assisted in maintaining their social network through context-awareness and decision support rules.

  • 53.
    Nugent, C.D.
    et al.
    University of Ulster. School of Computing and Mathematics.
    Davies, R.J.
    Computer Science Research Institute, University of Ulster.
    Donnelly, M.P.
    Computer Science Research Institute, University of Ulster.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Hariz, M.
    INT, Paris.
    Craig, D.
    Belfast City Hospital/Queen’s University of Belfast.
    Meiland, F.
    Department of Psychiatry, Alzheimer centre, VU University Medical Center.
    Moelaert, F.
    Telematica Instituut, Enschede.
    Bengtsson, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology.
    Sävenstedt, Stefan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing Care.
    Mulvenna, M.
    Computer Science Research Institute, University of Ulster.
    Dröes, R-M
    Department of Psychiatry, Alzheimer centre, VU University Medical Center.
    The development of personalised cognitive prosthetics2008In: Proceedings of the 30th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society: EMBS'08 - "Personalized Healthcare through Technology" / [ed] Guy Dumont, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2008, p. 787-790Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Persons suffering from mild dementia can benefit from a form of cognitive prosthetic which can be used to assist them with their day to day activities. Within our current work we are aiming to develop a successful user-validated cognitive prosthetic for persons with mild dementia. We have devised a three phased waterfall methodology to support our developments. Based on the evaluation of the first of these phases which involved the processes of user requirements gathering, prototype development and evaluation of in situ deployment of the technology we have been able to guide the technical development within the second phase of our work. Within this paper we provide an overview of the first phase of our methodology and demonstrate how we have used the results from this to guide the second phase of our work, especially with regards to the notion of personalisation.

  • 54.
    Hallberg, Josef
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Backlund-Norberg, Mia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Kristiansson, Johan
    Ericsson Research AB.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Nugent, Chris
    University of Ulster.
    Creating dynamic groups using context-awareness2007In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia: December 12 - 14, 2007, Oulu, Finland / [ed] Timo Ojala, Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2007, p. 42-49Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the conceptual communication model of dynamic groups, that dynamically utilizes three traditional communication metaphors through the use of context-based information. Dynamic groups makes creation, management and usage of groups easy. It enables social network structures to be maintained in both virtual and face-to-face settings as well as in the combination thereof. This article defines the dynamic management of advanced contact lists which can include presence and status information, a/synchronous multimedia communication tools, and methods for structuring social networks. It also contains an initial evaluation and a proposed architecture for technical realisation.

  • 55.
    Nugent, Chris
    et al.
    University of Ulster.
    Davies, Richard
    University of Ulster.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Donnelly, Mark
    University of Ulster.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Poland, Michael
    University of Ulster.
    Wallace, Jonathan
    University of Ulster.
    Finlay, Dewar
    University of Ulster.
    Mulvenna, Maurice
    University of Ulster.
    Craig, David
    Belfast City Hospital/Queen’s University of Belfast.
    HomeCI - a visual editor for healthcare professionals in the design of home based care2007In: 2007 annual international conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society: [EMBC '07] ; Lyon, France, 22 - 26 August 2007, IEEE Communications Society, 2007, p. 2787-2790Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demands of introducing more practical means of managing and monitoring technology within the home environment to support independent living are increasing. Within this paper we present a prototype solution referred to as HomeCI which allows healthcare professionals to establish the conditions within which technology in the home should operate. The HomeCI concept is based on the use of visual notation and has been designed for use by persons with a non technical background. Within the paper we present the design of the first version of the HomeCI visual editor and present the results of a usability study conducted on 4 healthcare professionals.

  • 56.
    Nugent, Chris
    et al.
    University of Ulster.
    Finlay, Dewar
    University of Ulster.
    Davies, Richard
    University of Ulster.
    Wang, Hui
    University of Ulster.
    Zheng, Huiru
    University of Ulster.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Mulvenna, Maurice
    University of Ulster.
    homeML - an open standard for the exchange of data within smart environments2007In: Pervasive Computing for Quality of Life Enhancement: 5th International Conference on Smart Homes and Health Telematics, ICOST 2007, Nara, Japan, June 21 - 23, 2007 ; proceedings / [ed] Takeshi Okadome; Tatsuya Yamazaki; Mounir Makhtari, Berlin: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2007, p. 121-129Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work describes a potential solution to the problems caused by the heterogeneous nature of the data which may be collected within smart home environments. Such information may be generated at an intra- or interinstitutional level following laboratory testing or based on in-situ evaluations. We offer a solution to this problem in the form of a system/application/format independent means of storing such data. This approach will inevitably support the exchange of data within the research community and form the basis of the establishment of an openly accessible data repository. Within this abstract we present the outline design of homeML, an XML based schema for representation of information within smart homes and through exemplars demonstrate the potential of such an approach. An example of the typical type of software browser required for the data representation is also presented.

  • 57.
    Hallberg, Josef
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Nugent, Chris D.
    IEEE.
    Davies, Richard J.
    University of Ulster. School of Computing and Mathematics.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Donnelly, Mark P.
    University of Ulster. School of Computing and Mathematics.
    Finlay, Dewar
    University of Ulster. School of Computing and Mathematics.
    Mulvenna, Maurice
    University of Ulster. School of Computing and Mathematics.
    HomeRuleML: a model for the exchange of decision support rules within smart environments2007In: IEEE International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering, 2007: CASE 2007 ; 22 - 25 Sept. 2007, Scottsdale, Arizona, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2007, p. 513-520Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demands for smart environments, which can help to facilitate as well as monitor independent living are increasing. With this comes a desire for decision support rules to process data recorded from such environments. However, testing and evaluating rules can be both time-consuming and indeed stressful for the inhabitants. Within this paper we propose a model, referred to as HomeRuleML, for representing decision support rules for smart environments. The motivating factor behind such a proposal is to provide a widely and freely accessible set of rules which can be openly used and exchanged within the research domain and beyond. This model has the potential to decrease the time required for deployment, and inevitability improve the inhabitants' quality of life. In the paper we explain in detail the structure of adopting this approach and also provide an indication of the typical types of software tools required for its use.

  • 58.
    Melander-Wikman, Anita
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehabilitation.
    Jansson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Mörtberg, Christina
    Oslo universitet.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehabilitation.
    The lighthouse alarm and locator trial: a pilot study2007In: Technology and Health Care, ISSN 0928-7329, E-ISSN 1878-7401, ISSN 0928-7329, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 203-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important factor for health is the possibility to be active and mobile. To make this possible different kind of support are needed. Integrating geographical information systems technology and user experiences is important in the development of more user-friendly positioning devices. The Lighthouse Alarm and Locator trial aimed to test a new mobile alarm system with additional functionality such as positioning and monitoring of vital signs which can be used regardless of location (in hospital, at home). The system was tested by elderly persons from a pensioner organisation and home care personnel answered up on the alarms. After the tests qualitative interviews were performed with the two groups. The results showed that their experiences of the new mobile alarm system could be described in three main categories: to be supervised, to feel safe and to be mobile. These categories formed a theme: Positioning - an ethical dilemma. The clients' mobility was perceived to increase. The personnel did not think that positioning was ethical but the clients (elderly) did.

  • 59.
    Svensson, Sara
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Östmark, Åke
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Cross-country skiers go on-line2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a pervasive computing system which give spectators of sport events an enriched media experience. The system utilizes Internet- enabled sensor technology integrated into a context-aware platform and was evaluated during real-life use at the Vasaloppet cross-country ski event. Sensor data was transmitted from contestants, using Bluetooth wireless ad- hoc networking and GPRS technology, to the context-aware platform which in turn presented the sport event spectator with a personalized and context- aware view. The system architecture and integration of components are discussed in this article, together with evaluations from technical and user perspectives. The results confirm that our approach is technically feasible and that the system provides an enriched media-experience for the majority of spectators.

  • 60.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Improving everyday experiences using awareness and rich communication2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate thesis presents ubiquitous systems for human communication and awareness from the perspectives of improving our everyday life experiences and relieving our scarcest resource, ourselves. The thesis also presents different methods of designing such systems with the user needs in focus. The goal of this work is to construct systems which support the user with context-based information and functionality that simplifies the user's tasks. The applied nature of this thesis is indicated by the three prototypes, which has been developed and evaluated. The first prototype provided spectators of sport-events with added information about the contestants and hence improved the experience of the event. The second prototype supported nurses in elderly care with their tasks by making organization and information gathering less time consuming and thus leaving more time for talking to the patients. Finally, the third prototype realized a system for ubiquitous human communication. The third prototype utilizes an algorithm for selecting and using media resources in the environment. This algorithm decouples several difficult problems and can be used to combine leading research in different areas of awareness together to create accurate resource selection. The motivation for creating prototypes has been to get experience from using systems which empower users and to find methods for satisfying user needs. Involving users early in the design process can help satisfy user needs. Hence, it is important to find methods and strategies for involving users, especially as not everyone can see the opportunities a new technology has to offer. In this thesis four methods and strategies are described and tested. These are paper prototypes, wizard of oz studies, questionnaires and real prototypes which were developed and then evaluated. These methods are compared and some of the findings are being discussed in this thesis. The evaluation of the prototypes and the user-studies show that it is possible to improve everyday life experiences using a combination of ubiquitous, pervasive, wearable and context-aware computing. A majority of all the users who answered the questionnaire for the first prototype answered that the system improved their experience of the sport event. The nurses who used the second prototype were positively surprised over how the technology could save both time and create a better group awareness. Most of the users who participated in the user-study for the third prototype were positive to using a mix of media resources to get richer communication, they were also in favour of using resources in the environment to save money and improve quality. The main results in this thesis are valuable insights into user opinions of ubiquitous systems, methods for involving users in the design process, and several design rules which can serve as a guideline for designing future ubiquitous systems.

  • 61. Drugge, Mikael
    et al.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Parnes, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Wearable systems in nursing home care: prototyping experience2006In: IEEE pervasive computing, ISSN 1536-1268, E-ISSN 1558-2590, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 86-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of a wearable prototype systems after studies conducted in a nursing home care is discussed. The specific problems encountered by medical workers at nursing homes includes communication, information dissemination, access to patient charts and organizational issues. The failure of which may cause stress, discomfort, and dissatisfaction among caretakers and patients as well as possible detrimental health consequences for patients. A Wizard of Oz experiments was used to retrieve information, process interrupting phone calls, to simplify communication with others, and to minimize the interaction needed with the wearable computer.

  • 62. Drugge, Mikael
    et al.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Parnes, Peter
    Relieving the medical workers' daily work through wearable and pervasive computing2005In: ICE2005: the 11th International Conference on Concurrent Enterprising : integrated engineering of products, services and organisations, Munich, Germany 20-22 June 2005, Nottingham: Centre for concurrent enterprising, University of Nottongham , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We intend to relieve the daily work at care-centers, allowing medical workers to focus on the patients and their needs. This goal can be achieved by employing technology that automate and simplify tasks previously requiring tedious interventions, giving more time for the important human to human interaction. For any technology to become accepted by the medical workers, we must ensure that it is highly natural and unobtrusive, without interfering with their caregiving. By studying the medical workers’ daily work, we can draw conclusions on what problems they encounter, allowing us to develop prototypes which can be deployed and used at the care-centers. In doing this, we can proceed to study the acceptance and usability of our proposed solution, and see whether and how it solves the problem. In this position paper, we present our current and future research in wearable and pervasive health-care.

  • 63. Kristiansson, Johan
    et al.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Svensson, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Parnes, Peter
    Supporting automatic media resource selection using context-awareness2005In: The Third International Conference on Advances in Mobile Multimedia: (MoMM2005), September 19-21, 2005, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia / [ed] G. Kotsis, Die Österreichische Computer Gesellschaft, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a world of ubiquitous media resources, such as cameras, displays, microphones, provided by a wide variety of multimedia systems, there is a need for automatic resource selection which seamlessly utilizes the best available communication tool from a user perspective. This paper therefore presents an algorithm which uses context-awareness to support automatic media resource selection. The algorithm takes advantage of an abstract classification of privacy, quality, and cost in order to compare media resources to user’s preferences. As a proof of concept implementation, the algorithm has been incorporated into an e-meeting application called Marratech.

  • 64.
    Hallberg, Josef
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Svensson, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Enhanced Experience of Sport Events2004Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a system where Internet-enabled sensor technology was integrated into a context information platform to give viewers of sport events an enriched media experience. The system was developed as a proof of concept and was evaluated during real-life use at the Vasaloppet cross-country ski event. Using Bluetooth wireless ad-hoc networking and GPRS technology, sensor data was transmitted from contestants to a context information platform, which in turn presented the sport event viewer with a personalized, context-aware view.

  • 65.
    Hallberg, Josef
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Svensson, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Östmark, Åke
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Enriched media-experience of sport events2004In: Proceedings: Sixth IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications, WMCSA 2004 : 2 - 3 December 2004, Windermere, Cumbria, United Kingdom, Los Alamitos, Calif: IEEE Communications Society, 2004, p. 2-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a system where Internet-enabled sensor technology was integrated into a context-aware platform to give viewers of sport events an enriched media experience. The system was developed as a proof of concept and was evaluated during real-life use at the Vasaloppet cross-country ski event. Using Bluetooth wireless ad-hoc networking and GPRS technology, sensor data was transmitted from contestants to the context-aware platform Alipes, which in turn presented the sport event viewer with a personalized, context-aware view. In this paper we discuss the system architecture and integration of components. The system was evaluated both from technical and user perspectives, where the evaluation results confirm our approach to be technically feasible and that the system provide an enriched media-experience for the majority of viewers.

  • 66.
    Hallberg, Josef
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Nilsson, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Positioning with Bluetooth2003In: 10th International Conference on Telecommunications: ICT 2003 ; February 23 - March 1, 2003, Sofitel Coralia Maeva Beach Hotel, Tahiti, Papeete, French Polynesia, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2003, p. 954-958Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an evaluation of Bluetooth positioning in a general positioning platform. Proceeding the evaluation a Bluetooth based positioning system was implemented in order to complement the theoretical evaluation with empirical tests. Three different ways of positioning with Bluetooth have been developed. With a registered positioning service a Bluetooth device has an active role in the positioning task as it sends a position on request. A Bluetooth device can also take a more passive role in a positioning task, where the unique address of the device is used by a connected device to look up respective position in a database. It is also possible to forward a position gained from the positioning platform using the peer to peer characteristics in Bluetooth. This paper does also contain a discussion on the theoretical time requirements for a positioning system based on Bluetooth. Empirical tests show that these requirements hold.

  • 67.
    Nilsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Bluetooth positioning2002In: CSEE 2002: Second Annual Conference on Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, Luleå, Sweden May 27-28: Conference Proceedings, Luleå tekniska universitet, 2002Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on positioning systems and context-aware applications are being performed in the Alipes project at CDT, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden. An evaluation of Bluetooth as a possible technology for positioning was performed during autumn of 2001 in this project. Proceeding the evaluation a Bluetooth based positioning system was implemented in order to complement the theoretical evaluation with empirical tests. Three different ways of positioning with Bluetooth have been developed for the Alipes project. With a registered positioning service a Bluetooth device has an active role in the positioning task as it sends a position on request. A Bluetooth device can also take a more passive role in a positioning task, which is when the unique address of the device is used by a connected device to look up a position in a database. It is also possible to forward a position gained from a positioning platform like Alipes over Bluetooth. This paper presents a Bluetooth positioning system where the three ways of positioning are implemented. The evaluation and conclusions of Bluetooth as a positioning source and how well Bluetooth performs in such a task are being discussed. To give support to the statements the implementation and tests are also presented.

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