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  • 51.
    Aulestia, Shane
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wiklund, Viktor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Dossey, Michelle
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Knutsson, Roger
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Effect of increased vertical stress on the state of grains in tailingsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The mining industry has experienced rapid growth, leading to the accumulation of substantial mine waste, commonly referred to as tailings. Tailings are typically stored in tailings storage facilities, conventionally consisting of an impoundment surrounded by tailings dams. The construction of tailings dams can involve various methods, with the upstream method being commonly used in the industry. It is crucial to comprehend the long-term mechanical and geochemical behavior of deposited tailings to ensure the safety of upstream constructed tailings dams. The mineral composition, particle size distribution, and particle shape all affect the susceptibility to particle breakage or physical alternation. Therefore, there is an interest in understanding how grain size and grain shape relate to mineral composition and potential particle breakage to ensure the understanding of the long-term mechanical behavior. This study focuses on characterizing deposited tailings from various depths and investigates the impact of increased vertical stress on tailings, particularly examining the potential for crushing effects. The findings highlight the importance of considering these factors for a comprehensive understanding of tailings behavior and their implications for the long-term safety of tailings dams.

  • 52.
    Backlund, Daniela
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Palmenäs, Jenny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Termisk vattenavsaltning med industriell spillvärme: En förstudie om att avhjälpa sötvattenbristen på södra Öland genom att nyttja spillvärmen från Cementa i Degerhamn2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    År 2016 upplevde Öland historiskt låga grundvattennivåer, vilket skapade svårigheter för både allmänheten och jordbruket att tillgodose färskvattenbehovet. Tankbilar med sötvatten kördes från Kalmar till Öland för att stödja vattenförsörjningen. Därefter anlades även en vattenledning över Kalmarsund för att förstärka resurserna ytterligare. Öns begränsade grundvattenresurser är en kombination av geologiska och meteorologiska förutsättningar. Ön har ett tunt jordlager och ett utbrett spricksystem i berggrunden, vilket medför att mycket utav den nederbörd som faller över Öland avdunstar eller rinner ned i dessa sprickor. Årsmedelnederbörden på ca 500 mm är låg jämfört med andra ställen i Sverige. I och med ökningen av permanenta boenden, turism och jordbruk har vattenresurserna blivit än mer ansträngda.

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om södra Ölands vattenbrist kan avhjälpas genom att på konstgjord väg infiltrera vatten från Kalmarsund till grundvattnet, efter att det avsaltats med hjälp av spillvärme från Cementas fabrik i Degerhamn. Syftet med konstgjord infiltration till grundvattnet är, förutom att använda marken som ett vattenmagasin, även en möjlighet att remineralisera vattnet, bidra till markstabilisering samt motverka saltvatteninträngning.

    Metoden var främst teoretisk i form av en litteraturstudie, beräkningar av spillenerginivåer samt modellering av grundvattenpåverkan vid infiltration. Inledningsvis genomfördes även ett platsbesök på Cementas fabrik på Öland för att överblicka deras process och kartlägga möjliga placeringsalternativ för spillvärmeuttag ur fabrikens processgaser.

    Resultaten från studien visade att spillvärmeuttaget bör ske antingen vid fabrikens kyltorn eller vid dess skorsten. Kyltornet erbjuder det maximala potentiella energiuttaget och därmed också högst produktionskapacitet av renat vatten, motsvarande 560 m3/dygn. Dock erbjuder skorstenen en billigare installation och underhåll av avsaltningsutrustningen tack vare mer utrymme och lägre partikelhalt i processgasen.

    Studien visade att det framställda destillatet skulle ha en positiv inverkan på Ölands grundvattennivåer, även de mängder som är mindre än 560 m3/dygn. Med en infiltration av det potentiellt maximala destillatet, som är möjligt att framställa med tillgänglig energi, skulle uttagen från de befintliga grundvattentäkterna kunna ökas med 200-230 % utan att influensområdet för grundvattennivåer förändras nämnvärt, förutsatt att fler uttagsbrunnar installeras.

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  • 53.
    Bagheri, Marzieh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Integrated sewage sludge treatment scenarios – techno-economic analysis on energy and phosphorus recovery2022Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sewage sludge is a by-product of wastewater treatment that simultaneously gathers contaminants, valuable organic matter, and nutrients. The treatment of the increasing amount of sewage sludge is important from both pollution prevention and resource recovery perspectives as i) large shares of mineral phosphorus, listed as a critical raw material, terminate in the sewage sludge, and ii) energy recovery from sewage sludge can cover the energy-intensive demand of the treatment process. Previous research has identified sewage sludge combustion as a suitable treatment approach as it both addresses contaminant destruction and paves the way for efficient phosphorus recovery from the sewage sludge ash. The commercial development of this practice has, however, been slow. Therefore, this thesis aims to investigate the challenges in sustainable sewage sludge management, and to, in more detail, identify the economic viability of energy and phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge through combustion.

    The thesis’ aim is divided into two objectives addressed in three papers. First, to investigate how different aspects of sewage sludge management, such as contaminants, economic efficiency, technical aspects, and legislation, evolve and interact. This has been done by a review of sewage sludge management research over fifty years (Paper I). Second, to investigate the economic viability of simultaneous energy and phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge by comparing different technology and market scenarios. This has been done for i) new sewage sludge mono-/co-combustion plants (Paper II), and ii) the integration of treatment technologies, mainly anaerobic digestion, hydrothermal carbonization, and combustion, in an existing wastewater treatment plant (Paper III). 

    Results from the analysis of sewage sludge management research (Paper I) show a narrow-focused perspective that often excludes inseparable aspects such as combination of economic consideration and advanced extraction technology. The investment viability of a new mono-/co-combustion of sewage sludge (Paper II) is highly conditional on heat, electricity, and fertilizer price, and external financial support is often a crucial requirement. Sewage sludge co-combustion with potassium-rich biomasses improves sewage sludge quality and forms usable ash as fertilizer without further need for phosphorus recovery technology. In this case, the economic feasibility of the process is independent of usable ash revenue, which stimulates a competitive selling price for the ash, thereby improving the marketing of sludge-based fertilizer. Avoided disposal costs of sewage sludge for a retrofitted wastewater treatment plant by introducing hydrothermal carbonization (Paper III) shows good economic feasibility while recovering phosphorus. Integrating anaerobic digestion, hydrothermal carbonization, and combustion may also improve investment incentives by improving energy outputs and phosphorus recovery. The economic feasibility is contingent on product (hydrochar, heat, electricity) prices and sensitive to added equipment costs, and costs for sludge transportation and disposal. 

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  • 54.
    Bagheri, Marzieh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Sewage Sludge Treatment Scenarios: Techno-Economic Analyses of Energy and Phosphorus Recovery Focusing on Implementation Challenges2024Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing sewage sludge, an inevitable by-product of wastewater treatment processes rich in both contaminants and valuable resources, presents a dual challenge: ensuring pollution prevention by immobilizing or destroying contaminants, and facilitating resource recovery. Balancing these objectives is critical given the growing volumes of sewage sludge and the imperative to both protect the environment and recover valuable resources. The unknown risks of land application of sludge, the currently most common disposal method, make thermal conversion a promising alternative, as it enables energy recovery, the breakdown of potentially harmful organic compounds, and the formation of volume-reduced, sanitized products. Despite the technical feasibility, the commercial development of advanced recovery technologies has been slow. 

    This thesis aims to expand knowledge on different sewage sludge treatment and disposal scenarios under varying conditions; thereby shedding light on implementation challenges, local opportunities, and the financial dynamics critical for phosphorus and energy recovery from the perspectives of wastewater treatment plants, investors, and policymakers. The aim is primarily addressed by performing techno-economic analysis of sewage sludge treatment scenarios, covering the entire sludge treatment process from sludge treatment to end products and disposal (Paper II-V). The techno-economic analysis is supplemented by a review of academic research on sewage sludge management from 1971 to 2019 (Paper I). 

    Results from the analysis of sewage sludge management research (Paper I) show a narrow-focused perspective that often misses the broader, interconnected aspects of sewage sludge management, leading to research that, while detailed, fails to capture the complexity of the field. The investment viability of a new mono-/co-combustion plant for sewage sludge (Paper II) is highly conditional on heat, electricity, and fertilizer prices, and external financial support is often a crucial requirement. Cocombustion of sludge (in low ratios) with K-rich agricultural biomass requirement in and energy demand of a thermal dryer, and by yielding ash that contains phosphorus in a plant-available form. Utilizing existing heat facility (Paper III) and co-combustion to mitigate investment costs and energy demand in sludge management showed the potential to offer a cost-effective alternative to land application. However, the viability of co-combustion hinges on both a high heat market price (Paper II) and the proximity of affordable biomass resources (Paper III). Without these conditions, co-combustion may increase the financial burden of sludge management on wastewater treatment plants and policymakers. 

    Retrofitting a wastewater treatment plant by integrating hydrothermal carbonization in sludge treatment (Paper IV), demonstrated good economic feasibility, primarily due to the avoided disposal costs, while also recovering phosphorus. However, integrating hydrothermal carbonization in a system designed for a thermal dryer may cause a significant reduction in electricity production.

    Given the high moisture content of sludge and the low market prices for fertilizer, the potential revenue from energy and phosphorus recovery is inadequate to solely drive investment in advanced sewage sludge treatment technologies (Papers II-V). This issue is exacerbated by the fact that most wastewater treatment plants are small in scale. Collaborative sludge management across neighboring wastewater treatment plants (Paper V) increases phosphorus recovery capacity and leverages economies of scale, fostering investment in advanced technology. This strategy presents a significant opportunity to lower the treatment costs and offers a competitive alternative to land application, while encompassing energy and phosphorus recovery into the sludge treatment.

    In conclusion, resource recovery and pollution prevention in sludge management is a complex task that necessitates simultaneous consideration of technical aspects, product quality, site-specific conditions, and profitability to ensure a comprehensive and viable approach. Leveraging local infrastructure and resources in sewage sludge management is crucial, highlighting the ecessity for strategies to be tailored to the local opportunities and limitations. Such an approach outperforms mono-combustion by eliminating the investment ensures that solutions are not only environmentally sustainable but also economically viable and socially acceptable. 

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  • 55.
    Bagheri, Marzieh
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bauer, Torben
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ekman Burgman, Linus
    Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change at Linköping University, 58183, Linköping, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Fifty years of sewage sludge management research: Mapping researchers' motivations and concerns2023In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 325, article id 116412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sewage sludge management is torn between a desire for pollution prevention and reuse of a valuable resource. Reconciling these interests in sustainable management is a challenge for researchers. This study focuses on how research on sewage sludge management practices has evolved and scrutinizes how this research is interlinked with concerns and societal issues such as contaminants, economic efficiency, and legislation. Based on published academic papers on sewage sludge management between 1971 and 2019, this study found four trends in research focused on sewage sludge management: a decreasing interest in disposal (landfilling and sea dumping), a dominant interest in land application, a growing interest in sewage sludge as product, and a stable interest in energy recovery. Research on disposal focuses on increasing sludge volumes, legislative changes, and economic challenges with an interest in waste co-treatment. Research on land application concerns nutrient use and contaminants, mainly heavy metals. Research on sewage sludge as a product focuses on the extraction of certain resources and less on use of sewage sludge specifically. Research on energy recovery of sewage sludge focuses on volume reduction rather than contaminants. Two-thirds of the papers are detailed studies aiming to improve single technologies and assessing single risks or benefits. As management of sewage sludge is multifaceted, the narrow focus resulting from detailed studies promotes some concerns while excluding others. Therefore, this study highlights potential gaps such as the combination of nutrient use and disposal and energy recovery and nutrient use. 

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  • 56.
    Bagheri, Marzieh
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Introducing hydrothermal carbonization to sewage sludge treatment systems—a way of improving energy recovery and economic performance?2023In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 170, p. 131-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) can mitigate the disposal costs of sewage sludge in a wastewater treatment plant. This study analyzes the impact of integrating HTC with anaerobic digestion (AD) and combustion from a combined energy and economic performance perspective. Net energy balance and investment opportunity are investigated for a number of technical scenarios considering i) different combinations of the technologies: AD + HTC, AD + thermal dryer + combustion, and AD + HTC + combustion, ii) different options for HTC process water treatment: wet oxidation (WO) + AD, and direct return to AD, and iii) different products: heat-only, heat and electricity, hydrochar, and phosphorus.

    The results show trade-offs between investment cost, self-supplement of heat, and output electricity when WO is used. In AD + HTC, net heat output decreases compared to the reference plant, but avoided disposal costs and hydrochar revenue result in profitable investment when the process water is directly returned to the AD. Although HTC has a lower heat demand than the thermal dryer, replacing the thermal dryer with HTC is only possible when AD, HTC, and combustion are connected, or when WO covers HTC’s heat demand. HTC may impair the electricity production because of the necessity for a high-temperature heat source, whereas the thermal dryer can utilize a low-temperature heat source. In conclusion, energy advantages of HTC in AD + HTC + combustion are insufficient to provide a promising investment opportunity due to high investment costs of HTC. The investment opportunity improves by co-combustion of hydrochar and external sludge.

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  • 57.
    Bagheri, Marzieh
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Economic viability of co-combusting sewage sludge with agricultural biomasses: a resource-efficient strategy for sludge treatment and phosphorus recovery in SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 58.
    Bagheri, Marzieh
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Techno-Economic Analysis of Scenarios on Energy and Phosphorus Recovery from Mono- and Co-Combustion of Municipal Sewage Sludge2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 5, article id 2603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluates the techno-economic feasibility of energy and phosphorus (P) fertilizer (PF) recovery from municipal sewage sludge (MSS) through incineration in new combustion plants. We evaluated the economic impact of five critical process design choices: (1) boiler type, (2) fuel (MSS mono-combustion/co-combustion with wheat straw), (3) production scale (10/100 MW), (4) products (heat, electricity, PF), and (5) ash destination. Aspen Plus modeling provided mass and energy balances of each technology scenario. The economic feasibility was evaluated by calculating the minimum selling price of the products, as well as the MSS gate fees required to reach profitability. The dependency on key boundary conditions (operating time, market prices, policy support) was also evaluated. The results showed a significant dependency on both energy and fertilizer market prices and on financial support in the form of an MSS gate fee. Heat was preferred over combined heat and power (CHP), which was feasible only on the largest scale (100 MW) at maximum annual operating time (8000 h/y). Co-combustion showed lower heat recovery cost (19–30 €/MWh) than mono-combustion (29–66 €/MWh) due to 25–35% lower energy demand and 17–25% higher fuel heating value. Co-combustion also showed promising performance for P recovery, as PF could be recovered without ash post-treatment and sold at a competitive price, and co-combustion could be applicable also in smaller cities. When implementing ash post-treatment, the final cost of ash-based PF was more than four times the price of commercial PF. In conclusion, investment in a new combustion plant for MSS treatment appears conditional to gate fees unless the boundary conditions would change significantly.

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  • 59.
    Bakhtiari, Hamed
    et al.
    Electrical Engineering Department, Hamedan University of Technology, Mardom Street, Shahid Fahmideh Boulevard, Hamedan, Iran.
    Naghizadeh, Ramezan Ali
    Electrical Engineering Department, Hamedan University of Technology, Mardom Street, Shahid Fahmideh Boulevard, Hamedan, Iran.
    Multi-criteria optimal sizing of hybrid renewable energy systems including wind, photovoltaic, battery, and hydrogen storage with ɛ-constraint method2018In: IET Renewable Power Generation, ISSN 1752-1416, E-ISSN 1752-1424, Vol. 12, p. 883-892Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES) should be designed appropriately with an adequate combination of different renewable sources and various energy storage methods to overcome the problem of intermittency of renewable energy resources. A multi-criteria approach is proposed in this study to design an HRES including wind turbine, photovoltaic panels, fuel cell, electrolyser, hydrogen tank, and battery storage unit with an intermittent load. Three design criteria including loss of power supply probability, total energy loss (TEL), and the power difference between generation and storing capacity (as TELSUB) are taken into account in minimising the total cost of the system considering the interest rate and lifetime. The justifications and advantages of using these criteria are thoroughly discussed along with appropriate presentation of the results. The purpose of considering TEL and TELSUB is discussed thoroughly. The ɛ-constraint method is used to handle practical constraints of the proposed multi-criteria problem to construct a multi-objective fitness function. Shuffled frog leaping algorithm is implemented to achieve better optimal results. The proposed approach is implemented using real wind speed and solar irradiance data for a specific location with an intermittent load demand. The results verify performance of the proposed multi-criteria design procedure.

  • 60.
    Bakhtiari, Hamed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Zhong, Jin
    University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Alvarez, Manuel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Risk-Averse Pricing Strategy for Demand ResponseManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Interruptible/curtailable demand response program (ICDRP) is a valuable ancillary service resource in electricity markets. Due to the uncertainty of customer behavior in a market, risk-based pricing for ICDRP is needed. It is also necessary to evaluate the eligibility conditions for utilizing uncertain ICDRP as an ancillary service. In this paper, we first propose a pricing strategy that allocates payoffs to the coalition of ICDRP participants considering risk management costs caused by the uncertain responsiveness of ICDRP participants while maximizing the system operator’s ability to cope with uncertainties and optimizing generation outputs and regulation price in the frequency regulation market. Then, we investigate the flexibility of predetermined reserves in the forward electricity market as an eligibility condition for risk-averse utilization of ICDRP. A risk-averse Shapley value method is developed in the proposed pricing strategy. Finally, we carry out numerical studies to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed pricing strategy to determine the incentives and penalties in a fair way. We also demonstrate the necessity of considering the uncertainties of ICDRP responsiveness in the required reserve selection process to successfully exploit the benefits of ICDRP in the frequency regulation market.

  • 61.
    Bakhtiari, Hamed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Zhong, Jin
    The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Alvarez, Manuel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    The Utilization of Demand Response Programs In Renewable-based Microgrids: Benefits and Challenges2021In: CIRED 2021 - The 26th International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution, Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2021, p. 2999-3003, article id 0213Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 62.
    Banach, Agata
    et al.
    SWECO, Sweden.
    Sundström, Staffan
    SWECO, Sweden.
    Ekelund, Björn
    SWECO, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Jonas
    SWECO, Sweden.
    Assargård, Hanna
    SWECO, Sweden.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Gestaltning av dagvatten: Exempel och framgångsfaktorer2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 63.
    Bannister, Jonathan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Chemical degradation of PFAS using hydrogen peroxide and persulfate2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    PFAS are a group of relatively newly discovered man-made pollutants. PFAS contains a C-F bond which is one of the strongest bonds in organic chemistry. Therefore, PFAS are not easily degradable and, once release into nature, are very persistent. PFAS are also labile in natural environments and therefore, they can sometimes be found far from the source of pollution. Their persistent and labile nature, in combination with their bioaccumulation ability and human health effects make of this compounds an important contaminant to take care of. Currently there are not stablish, wellfunctioning methods to treat contaminated soils and waters. A lot of research is performed at the moment to find good treatment options. In this work a test to chemically degraded spiked samples of PFOA, PFOS and PFBA was performed. By means of experimental design tools, we aim to evaluate which operational factors are relevant for this treatment. Best results when using hydrogen peroxide as a reactant was 70% degradation for PFOS and 42% degradation for PFOA. When persulfate was used as a reactant, a 57% degradation of PFOS, 99% degradation of PFOA and 99% degradation of PFBA was achieved.

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  • 64.
    Bark, Emma
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Jonsson, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Solutions to Close an Informal Dumpsite in Debre Berhan, Ethiopia2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid urbanisation in developing countries has outran the deployed financial and manpower resources that are supposed to handle public utility services in cities. One important service is solid waste management. The most common method used for solid waste management in developing countries is uncontrolled dumping of waste at unstructured and uncovered open dumpsites. Open dumpsites are related to pollution and safety aspects and creates environmental stress and health problems.

    The purpose of this thesis project was to minimise environmental and public health risks from an informal dumpsite in Debre Berhan, Ethiopia, by identifying solutions for a sustainable way of closing the site. The project was a complement to the SymbioCity in Ethiopia project and consisted of a literature study, a field excursion to the dumpsite, and interviews with involved parties and evaluations. The focus has been to find economical and accessible solutions to close the dumpsites in an environmentally friendly way.

    During the project, it was found that the closure of the informal dumpsite is not possible right away. Before closing the informal dumpsite, a waste disposal plan is required to ensure that the site can be closed without continued dumping. Therefore, the recommendation is to divide the closure into post- and pre-closure actions.

    The most economical and sustainable solution to close the informal dumpsite is to use local material when covering the waste. It is also important to choose available techniques for control of emissions that can be managed easily in the future. It is necessary to collect the generated landfill gas to minimise the pressure on the cover. It is recommended to redirect the inflow of surface water from the area above the dumpsite to reduce the leachate and control the erosion of the cover. It is suitable to use embankment and swales for redirection of the surface water.

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  • 65.
    Barlaz, Morton
    et al.
    North Carolina State University.
    Lagerkvist, AndersLuleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.Matsuto, ToshihikoHokkaido University.
    Proceedings from the 3rd Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium: Toya Lake, Japan, November 29 - December 2, 2004. ICLRS proceedings2004Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 66.
    Bauer, Torben
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Can new treatment combinations make sewage sludge management more sustainable?2021Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Treated sewage sludge is often reused as a fertilizer but several European countries are phasing out this option due to concerns about harmful substances in the sludge. Valuables in the sludge should still be recycled so the removal of the pollutants is necessary. The technology in sewage sludge treatment remained nearly unchanged in the past century. Adapting traditional treatments and combining them with upcoming ones can be a way to separate substances in sewage sludge. This work discusses examples of how treatment methods can be combined and which potential these treatment combinations may have. New tools for system analyses need to be developed to allow the integration and adaption of treatments into existing infrastructure.

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  • 67.
    Bauer, Torben
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Sustainable Sewage Sludge Management: Addressing Multidisciplinary Challenges2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This PhD thesis focuses on multidisciplinary challenges in sewage sludge management and how they can be addressed to increase sustainability. 

    Sewage sludge is the residual from wastewater treatment. It contains both resources and contaminants making its management challenging. In the past sewage sludge was often used as a fertilizer in agriculture, a practice that is still used in several countries. Today, this practice gets questioned in Europe and especially in Sweden due to the presence of contaminants in the sludge. At the same time, the resources in the sludge get into a stronger focus as society moves towards a circular economy and food production should get more resilient in a world with geopolitical challenges. In sustainable sewage sludge management, the two goals of immobilising/destroying the contaminants and utilizing the resources in the sludge are combined. 

    This thesis identifies challenges in various disciplines and provides potential solutions to make sewage sludge management more sustainable. The discussed challenges cover the following areas: legislation (EU and Sweden), perception of sewage sludge (Sweden), research on sewage sludge management (international), and combinations of treatment methods. Results show that outdated legislation in Sweden creates insecurities, while the negative perception of sewage sludge in Swedish society further aggravates these insecurities. Although technical solutions are available or under development, e.g., treatment combinations that can separate resources and contaminants, actors in Sweden remain hesitant due to the aforementioned insecurities. This thesis emphasizes that interdisciplinary approaches, and dialogues between different actor groups and society are essential. The multitude of challenges requires solutions that combine technical and non-technical approaches. Therefore, this thesis provides recommendations for more sustainable sewage sludge management practices, including updating legislation.

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  • 68.
    Bauer, Torben
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ekman Burgman, Linus
    Technology and Social Change, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Effects of the Different Implementation of Legislation Relating to Sewage Sludge Disposal in the EU2020In: Detritus, ISSN 2611-4135, Vol. 10, p. 92-99Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Directive 86/278/EEC implemented in 1986 was a means adopted by the European Union to improve use of the valuables in sewage sludge by applying treated sludge on agricultural soils. To prevent an accumulation of pollutants, the Directive provided suggestions limiting concentrations of toxic elements in sewage sludge and agricultural soil. The Directive was implemented diversely throughout EU member states, with current national legislations only partly reflecting the initial intentions of the EU Directive from 30 years ago. This study demonstrates how the European Directive was implemented in three countries currently at different stages of replacing the agricultural application of sewage sludge with incineration (Netherlands, Germany and Sweden). Additionally, recent changes in the legislation with regards to the re-use and final disposal of sewage sludge in the three chosen member states are analysed. The aim was to investigate how each member state has solved the conflict between improvement of nutrient recovery from sludge and limitation of pollutants in agricultural soil. Based on this review, limit values are not necessarily reflected in application rates of sewage sludge in agriculture. Following changes in current legislation, phosphorus recovery will become a priority task. The recovery of other valuables from sewage sludge is currently not regulated in the legislation of the three member states investigated.

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  • 69.
    Bauer, Torben
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Damgaard, Anders
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Integration of hydrothermal carbonisation into Swedish sewage sludge treatment systemsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Usage pathways for sewage sludge are changing in Sweden but in contrast to other European countries Swedish legislation has no clear aim for phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge. Therefore, options like co-incineration and agricultural usage will become more important. Previous research identified hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) as a potential treatment prior to incineration as it can help to dewater the sludge. Literature also discussed HTC as a pre-treatment for agricultural usage. This study investigates how HTC can be integrated into existing sewage sludge treatment systems using lifecycle assessments (LCA) of six archetype scenarios involving co incineration and agricultural usage of the solid product (hydrochar) of HTC. The results show that HTC can be advantageous as a pre-treatment to co incineration, especially when used before transporting the material to the incinerator. Utilizing the liquid product of HTC for biogas production reduces the climate change impacts but on the other hand increases ecotoxicity impacts. Utilizing hydrochar in agriculture as a soil amendment instead of incinerating it, does not show clear benefits over land application of sewage sludge, as hydrochar, in contrast to biochar from pyrolysis, decays in the soil within few years and is therefore not suitable for carbon sequestration.

  • 70.
    Bauer, Torben
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Finding new sewage sludge treatment solutions for the arctic city of Kiruna2020In: VENICE2020 – 8th International Symposium on Energy from Biomass and Waste: Proceedings + On-demand Access, CISA Publisher , 2020Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As Sweden’s northernmost city, Kiruna has very particular demands for its sewage sludge treatment. This study tests hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) as a treatment option for Kiruna to stabilize the sewage sludge, facilitate its transport by volume reduction and prepare the sludge for recovery of resources. The study consists out of an experimental part and a lifecycle assessment (LCA) development, which also gives options to use the results in other LCA scenarios incorporating HTC. Preliminary results show that HTC is a treatment that can fulfil Kiruna’s demands and that an optimization of the treatment’s settings can greatly increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the HTC treatment.

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  • 71.
    Bauer, Torben
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Pelkonen, Markku
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Co-digestion of sewage sludge and wood fly ash2022In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 43, no 12, p. 1853-1859Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses a new approach for the recycling of plant nutrients by co-digesting sewage sludgewith fly ash from a wood combustion. Sewage sludge and fly ash both are enriched with nutrientsof the wastewater resp. wood, which makes these products an enhanced source for recycledfertilizers. The effects of the ash addition to the anaerobic digestion are studied in several labscale experiments including effects on the gas production and microbial activity. Following that,the fertilizing qualities of the digestate are evaluated by plant growth experiments. The resultsshow that the fertilizing qualities of the digested sludge were improved by the ash addition.Next to this, gas production results show that the methane production was not affected by theash addition, while the total gas release was reduced. The sulphur addition by the ashstimulated sulphate reducing bacteria. The sulphate reducing bacteria did not markedly inhibitthe methanogens.

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  • 72.
    Belkow, Teresa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Reim, Wiebke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Circularity in healthcare - A promising entrepreneurial future for changemakers2022In: Medicinteknikdagarna 2022: Abstracts, Sveriges Medicintekniska Förening , 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 73.
    Belo Fernandes, Ivan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Geometallurgical approach to understand how the variability in mineralogy at Zinkgruvan orebodies affects the need for copper activation in the bulk rougher-scavenger flotation2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Zinkgruvan is a Pb-Zn-Ag deposit located in south-central Sweden, owned and operated by Lundin Mining. The ore is beneficiated by a collective-selective flotation circuit, recovering both galena and sphalerite in a bulk rougher-scavenger flotation stage and later on separating them into two final products. Opportunities for increase in zinc recovery in the bulk rougher scavenger flotation stage have been identified as the plant is relying on natural Pb-activation to process the ore.

    Process mineralogical tools were used to characterize four different orebodies from Zinkgruvan (Burkland, Borta Bakom, Nygruvan and Sävsjön) and evaluate the metallurgical performance for flotation and magnetic separation, following a geometallurgical approach to better understand and predict the behavior of such ore types in processing plant.

    The first hypothesis in this thesis is that by addition of copper sulfate and increased collector dosage, Zn recovery will be improved without being detrimental to galena flotation. Results demonstrated that there is a significant increase in Zn recovery by further increasing collector dosage and copper-activating the flotation pulp in the scavenger stage. For instance, an increase in zinc recovery up to 16% has been achieved after addition of copper sulfate. Galena is readily floatable while sphalerite takes longer to be recovered. In addition, iron sulfides take longer to be recovered and, after addition of copper sulfate, there was an increase in iron sulfide recovery.

    The amount of iron sulfides reporting to the concentrate should still not be a problem to the plant. Most of the Fe in the concentrate is still coming from the sphalerite lattice. However, it might be that some orebodies coming into production in the near future have higher amounts of pyrrhotite, which might be a problem. Therefore, magnetic separation methods have been tested to remove pyrrhotite from the bulk ore. The second hypothesis is that the high Fe content in the concentrate might be due to the presence of iron sulfides, in which case they could be selectively removed by magnetic separation.

    XRD analyses demonstrated that Sävsjön is a highly variable orebody, and that its high Fe content varies with the location inside the orebody, being caused by either iron sulfide or iron oxide minerals. Both monoclinic and hexagonal pyrrhotite have been observed. Davis Tube could remove monoclinic pyrrhotite but it was very inefficient when dealing with hexagonal pyrrhotite. WHIMS, on the other hand, performed well for both types of pyrrhotite. When applying Davis Tube on Sävsjön OLD feed, a concentrate with up to 52.3% pyrrhotite is achieved, at a recovery of 35.32%. However, sphalerite is also reporting to the magnetic concentrate, which would generate Zn losses for the overall process. Zinc losses were up to 15.3% when the highest field strength was applied. Therefore, the applicability of magnetic separation for Zinkgruvan ore must be further evaluated.

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  • 74.
    Bengtsson, Margaretha
    et al.
    Svenskt stål AB, SSAB, Oxelösund, Sweden.
    McPhail, Alex
    G. W. Wilkinson & Sons Ltd, Leeds, England.
    Karlsson, Gunder
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olsson, Marianne
    SUPRA AB, Landskrona, Sweden.
    Forssberg, Eric
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Carlson, Roy
    Vattenfallsverket, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Importance Of Coal In Swedish Iron Production1980In: Jernkontorets annaler med Bergsmannen : JkA : tidskrift för nordisk bergshantering, ISSN 0348-6559, Vol. 164, no 3, p. 61-61Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 75.
    Bergamo, Pedro A. de S.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Izart, Caroline
    Metso Outotec Oy, Rauhalanpuisto 9, 02230 Espoo, Finland.
    Streng, Emilia S.
    Aalto University, 02150 Espoo, Finland.
    Rosenkranz, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Ghorbani, Yousef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Use of Kirkpatrick evaluation model in simulation-based trainings for the mining industry - A case study for froth flotation2022In: Minerals Engineering, ISSN 0892-6875, E-ISSN 1872-9444, Vol. 188, article id 107825Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trainings play a vital role in the transference of knowledge between skilled and novice operators in the mineral industry. Evaluation is an important part of those trainings, but many trainings rely solely on the trainees’ feedback. This paper presents how technology enhancement can help produce more effective training evaluations to the mineral industry. It describes a case study involving a froth flotation simulator-based training, including details of the simulation, user interface, and the training program. The training was delivered to sixteen mining operators and evaluated by both the traditional method (trainee's feedback) and with the simulation's learning evaluation. The feedback evaluation showed a high level of satisfaction with the learning results, while the learning evaluation showed a very different training outcome, putting established evaluation methods such as Kirckpatrick's “Four levels” into question. Correlations between the learning results and the operators’ personal information such as process work, and academic experience are also presented.

  • 76.
    Bergkvist, Adam
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Mobil bergkrossning: Energibehov och emissioner2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta examensarbete undersöks energibehov och emissioner hos mobila krossanläggningar tillhörande NCC Industry AB. Bergtäkterna Eker och Dylta i Örebro län samt Mörtsjön i Södermanlands län har studerats och analyserats. Dessa bergtäkter producerar ballastprodukter som till större del används i anläggningsindustrin och vid asfaltstillverkning. Tester har genomförts på den elektriska konsumtionen i de olika anläggningarna för att beräkna relevanta parametrar som varit eftersökta. Produktionsrapporter och elmätningar har sammanställts, löpande under ett flertal veckor, i ett räknedokument för att kunna erhålla efterfrågade datavärden.

    De sökta faktorerna har varit energibehov i form av kWh/Ton samt emissioner i form av kg CO2/Ton. Mätningarna avser krossar, siktar och transportband vid maskinuppställningar för mobil krossning. Resultaten visar att värden på elförbrukningen uppgår till 2,1 kWh/ton med en variation från 1,1 till 3,1 kWh/ton beroende på ingående maskiner och driftförhållanden. För CO2-emissionerna var motsvarande genomsnitt 0,9 kg CO2/ton vid dieseldrift med variation 0,4 till 1,6 kg CO2/ton. Vid omräkning till en tänkt nätdrift med el låg genomsnittet på 0,17 kg CO2/ton. Beräkningarna skall bidra till en grönare tillverkningsprocess av ballastprodukter och kom att visa att skillnaderna i utsläpp (kg CO2/Ton) är uppemot 90 % större vid dieseldrift gentemot eldrift på en av de olika anläggningarna. Dessa resultat har sedan analyserats och rekommendationer görs för framtida drift och investeringar i samtliga anläggningar. Dessa rekommendationer utvärderas sedan av NCC för att avgöra huruvida de är relevanta eller icke. Att genomföra ombyggnationer och modifiera utrustningen kan dock vara mycket kostsamt. Elektricitetsproduktionen är inte analyserad i rapporten. Beräkningar är utförda med förutsättningen att elen är av nordisk mix. Dessa uppgifter är inhämtade från Naturvårdsverket. En ekonomisk analys av denna investering ingår inte i denna rapport. 

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  • 77.
    Bergman, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Characterisation of industrial wastes1996Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 78.
    Bergman, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Carbonate precipitation in alkaline wastes1996In: 12th International conference on solid waste technology and management, 1996Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbonate precipitation is known to occur in landfilled ashes and is often reported as a problem because of the precipitates tendency to clog drains and other leachate transport facilities. The Up-take of carbon dioxide by alkaline wastes and leachates will influence their properties e.g.; The hydraulic and gas conductivity of solid wastes will decrease as carbonates precipitate in the pores of the waste. The pH will change towards neutral values as carbonates form changing the mobility of metals and other elements A neutral pH will also allow biological reactions to act on the waste, especially if the waste contain organic material as e.g. ashes often do. Adding carbon dioxide to wastes can thus be a cheap and powerful treatment, yielding a less hazardous waste.

  • 79.
    Bergman, Hans
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Metanoxidation i täckskikt på avfallsupplag1995Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 80.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Garvare, Rickard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Hallencreutz, Jacob
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Langstrand, Jostein
    Linköpings universitet.
    Vanhatalo, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Zobel, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Alive and kicking – but will Quality Management be around tomorrow?: A Swedish academia perspective2012In: Quality Innovation Prosperity, ISSN 1335-1745, E-ISSN 1338-984X, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to describe how Quality Management (QM) is perceived today by scholars at three Swedish universities, and into what QM is expected to develop into in twenty years. Data were collected through structured workshops using affinity diagrams with scholars teaching and performing research in the QM field. The results show that QM currently is perceived as consisting of a set of core of principles, methods and tools. The future outlook includes three possible development directions for QM are seen: [1] searching for a “discipline X” where QM can contribute while keeping its toolbox, [2] focus on a core based on the traditional quality technology toolbox with methods and tools, and [3] a risk that QM, as it is today, may seize to exist and be diffused into other disciplines.

  • 81.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Garvare, Rickard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Teknikens ekonomi och organisation.
    Hallencreutz, Jacob
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Langstrand, Jostein
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Avdelningen för Kvalitetsteknik.
    Vanhatalo, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Zobel, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Alive and kicking–but will Quality Management be around tomorrow?: A Swedish academia perspective2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: There is a lack of a recognized conception of quality management (QM) comprises of, as well as a clear roadmap of where QM is heading. The purpose of this article is to investigate how QM is perceived today by scholars at three Swedish universities, but also how and into what QM is expected to develop into in twenty years.Methodology: Data have been collected through three structured workshops using affinity diagrams with scholars teaching and performing research in the QM field affiliated with three different Swedish universities.Findings: The results indicate that current QM is perceived similarly among the universities today, although the taxonomy differs slightly. QM is described as a fairly wide discipline consisting of a set of core of principles that in turn guide which methods and tools that currently by many are perceived as the core of the discipline. The outlook for the future differs more where three possible development directions for QM are seen: [1] searching for a “discipline X” where QM can contribute while keeping its toolbox, [2] focus on a core based on the traditional quality technology toolbox with methods and tools, and [3] a risk that QM, as it is today, may seize to exist and be diffused into other disciplines. Originality/value: This article contributes with a viewpoint on QM today and its future development from the academicians’ perspective.

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  • 82.
    Bert, Valérie
    et al.
    INERIS, Clean and Sustainable Technologies and Processes Unit, DRC/RISK, Parc Technologique Alata.
    Neu, S.
    Technische Universität Dresden, Institute of Wood and Plant Chemistry.
    Zdanevitch, Isabelle
    NERIS, Clean and Sustainable Technologies and Processes Unit, DRC/RISK, Parc Technologique Alata.
    Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Energy Department.
    Collet, Serge
    INERIS, Sources and Emissions Unit, DRC/CARA, Parc Technologique Alata.
    Gaucher, Rodolphe
    INERIS, Clean and Sustainable Technologies and Processes Unit, DRC/RISK, Parc Technologique Alata.
    Puschenreiter, Markus
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna – BOKU, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences.
    Müller, Ingo
    Saxon State Agency for Environment, Agriculture and Geology.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    How to manage plant biomass originated from phytotechnologies?: Gathering perceptions from end-users2017In: International journal of phytoremediation, ISSN 1522-6514, E-ISSN 1549-7879, Vol. 19, no 10, p. 947-954Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A questionnaire survey was carried out in 4 European countries to gather end-user's perceptions of using plants from phytotechnologies in combustion and anaerobic digestion (AD). 9 actors of the wood energy sector from France, Germany and Sweden, and 11 AD platform operators from France, Germany and Austria were interviewed. Questions related to installation, input materials, performed analyses, phytostabilization and phytoextraction. Although the majority of respondents did not know phytotechnologies, results suggested that plant biomass from phytomanaged areas could be used in AD and combustion, under certain conditions. As a potential advantage, these plants would not compete with plants grown on agricultural lands, contaminated lands being not suitable for agriculture production. Main limitations would be related to additional controls in process' inputs and end-products and installations that might generate additional costs. In most cases, price of phytotechnologies biomass was mentioned as a driver to potentially use plants from metal-contaminated soils. Plants used in phytostabilisation or phytoexclusion were thought to be less risky and, consequently, benefited from a better theoretical acceptance than those issued from phytoextraction. Results were discussed according to national regulations. One issue related to the regulatory gap concerning the status of the plant biomass produced on contaminated land.

  • 83.
    Bertholdsson, Morgan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Utredning om dimension av kamjärnsbultar i Garpenbergsgruvan2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 84.
    Bertilsson, Olle
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Study of leaching behavior of tin in Zinc-clinker and Mixed Oxide2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the increasing usage of Sn in different electronics, such as solders and in touchscreens, together with Boliden Rönnskärs increased intake of electronic waste as a secondaryraw material, a Zn-containing product called Zn-clinker has increasing amounts of Sn. TheZn-clinker is shipped to Boliden Zn-smelter in Odda, where the Zn-clinker is mixed in withcalcine (roasted concentrate) and leached in several steps. Since Zn-clinker is a product froma halogen removal in a clinker-furnace, the feed material (Mixed Oxide), for this furnace, wasalso investigated since there are plans to replace clinkering with soda-washing in the future.Most of the Sn ends up in the leaching residue which then is deposited in the mountaincaverns close by the Boliden Odda smelter. Boliden is studying the possibility to recoverPb/Ag and Sn content from the leaching residue and create a valuable by-product. Bystudying how the leaching of Sn behaves, together with a characterization of the materials, thefollowing question should be answered: “During which sulphuric acid leaching conditions, ofZn-clinker and Mixed Oxide, is the leaching of Sn minimized?”

    The leaching results for Zn-clinker showed that 8-10% Sn will leach out, despite changingtemperature, redox potential, time and pH. A characterization of the material with SEM-EDSand XRD-analysis was also conducted to see if Sn could be identified in any phases in thematerials. The studies provided enough evidence that Zn2SnO4 could be concluded to be themain phase in the leaching residue for Zn-clinker, a form that would not leach underconditions presented in this project. However, 8-10% of the Sn will come together with Feand when Fe leach out, so does Sn.

    The leaching results for Mixed Oxide pointed towards that different phases from them foundin Zn-clinker was present. Sn losses varied between 10-20% but raised to 47% whentemperature was changed to 80 °C during leaching. The SEM-EDS analysis showed that theidentified Sn-phases contained more Sn than in Zn-clinker and together with the leachingresults, a conclusion that Sn would mainly be found as SnO2 or SnO in the Mixed Oxide, butthere is still uncertainty about the distributions of these forms.

    Unfortunately half of the As leached out during the soda-washing for Mixed Oxide, creating aleachate with Cl, F and As that need to be taken care of. This could be challenging andpresenting a costly side-project for the route different from the Zn-clinker route used today.Another observation was that PbCO3 formed during the soda-washing, a phase that willconsume more sulphuric acid during leaching.

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  • 85.
    Beryani, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Managing environmental risk of organic micropollutants (OMPs) in highway stormwater: Role of gross pollutant trap-biofilter treatment train: [Gestion du risque environnemental des micropolluants organiques (OMP) dans les eaux pluviales des autoroutes: Rôle de la chaîne de traitement piège à polluant brut-biofilter]2023Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 86.
    Beryani, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Performance of a gross pollutant trap-biofilter and sand filter treatment train for the removal of organic micropollutants from highway stormwater (Field study)2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 900, article id 165734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This field study assessed the occurrence, event mean concentrations (EMCs), and removal of selected organic micro-pollutants (OMPs), namely, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs), nonylphenol (NP), 4-t-octylphenol (OP), and bisphenol A (BPA), in a gross pollutant trap (GPT)-biofilter/sand filter stormwater treatment train in Sundsvall, Sweden. The effects of design features of each treatment unit, including pre-sedimentation (GPT), sand filter medium, vegetation, and chalk amendment, were investigated by comparing the units' removal performances. Overall, the treatment train removed most OMPs from highway runoff effectively. The results showed that although the sand filter provided moderate (<50 % for phenolic substances) to high (50–80 % for PAHs and PHCs) removal of OMPs, adding a vegetated soil layer on top of the sand filter considerably improved the removal performance (by at least 30 %), especially for BPA, OP, and suspended solids. Moreover, GTP did not contribute to the treatment significantly. Uncertainties in the removal efficiencies of PAHs and PHCs by the filter cells increased substantially when the ratio of the influent concentration to the limit of quantification decreased. Thus, accounting for such uncertainties due to the low OMP concentrations should be considered when evaluating the removal performance of biofilters.

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  • 87.
    Beryani, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Goldstein, Alisha
    Dept. of Biological and Agriculture Engineering, North Carolina State Univ., Campus Box 7625, Raleigh, NC, 27695, USA.
    Al-Rubaei, Ahmed
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water. Dept. of Building and Construction Engineering, Univ. of Technology, 19006, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Hunt III, William F.
    Dept. of Biological and Agriculture Engineering, North Carolina State Univ., Campus Box 7625, Raleigh, NC, 27695, USA.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Survey of the Operational Status of Twenty-six Urban Stormwater Biofilter Facilities in Sweden2021In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 297, article id 113375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluates the operational status of twenty-six biofilter facilities across nine cities in Sweden, with respect to their functional design criteria, engineered design features (filter media composition, hydraulic conductivity, and drawdown time), and includes a visual inspection of the biofilter components (pre-treatment, in/outlet structures, filter media, and vegetation). These indicators were used to examine the performance level of each biofilter in achieving their design objectives set by the operators. Furthermore, it was investigated whether the biofilter facilities had been properly maintained to meet the objectives. Results indicate that the soil media used was consistent with respect to percentage sand, fines, and organic matter and comparable to design recommendations used by municipalities in other countries. The field-tested hydraulic conductivity for the biofilters ranged from 30 to 962 mm/h. This range of values, along with noticeable sediment accumulation within the biofilter indicate that not all the sites were operating optimally. Pre-treatment stages in poor condition with high volumes of sediment and litter accumulation were the primary causes for, and indicators of, low hydraulic conductivity rates. The ponding volume calculations revealed that at least 40 % of facilities did not have enough capacity to retain every-day and/or design rainfall due to design and/or construction flaws. These analyses raise concerns that, for a considerable number of the biofilters surveyed, water retention and flood protection identified by operators as prioritised objectives are not being met. This raises significant concerns about the functionality of biofilter in practice. Finally, some suggestions are given for tackling the design and maintenance problems discovered.

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  • 88.
    Beylich, Achim A.
    et al.
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Molau, Ulf
    Botanical Institute, Plant Ecology, Gothenburg University.
    Luthbom, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Gintz, Dorothea
    Institute for Geological Sciences, Hydrogeology, Free University of Berlin.
    Rates of chemical and mechanical fluvial denudation in an arctic oceanic periglacial environment, Latnjavagge drainage basin, northernmost Swedish Lapland2005In: Arctic, Antarctic and Alpine research, ISSN 1523-0430, E-ISSN 1938-4246, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 75-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A process geomorphological investigation was started in 1999 to study present denudation rates and the mutual relationship of chemical and mechanical fluvial denudation in periglacial environments. Latnjavagge (9 km2; 950-1440 m a.s.l.; 68°20'N, 18°30'E) was chosen as a representative drainage basin of the arctic-oceanic mountain area in northernmost Swedish Lapland. Atmospheric solute inputs, chemical denudation, and mechanical fluvial denudation were analyzed. During the arctic summer field seasons of 2000, 2001, and 2002 measurements of daily precipitation, solute concentrations in precipitation, and in melted snow cores, taken before snowmelt, were recorded. In addition, solute and suspended sediment concentrations in creeks were analyzed, and bedload tracer movements were registered during the entire summer seasons (end of May until beginning of September). Results show a mean annual chemical denudation net rate of 5.4 t km-2 yr-1 in the entire catchment. Chemical denudation in Latnjavagge is less than one third of chemical denudation rates reported for Kärkevagge (Swedish Lapland) but seems to be at a similar level as in a number of other subarctic, arctic, and alpine environments. Mechanical fluvial denudation is lower than chemical denudation. Most sediment transport in channels occurs in the early summer season during a few days with snowmelt generated runoff peaks. The main sediment sources in the drainage basin are mobilized channel bed pavements exposing fines, ice patches/fields, and material mobilized by slush flows. The calculated mean mechanical fluvial denudation rate is 2.3 t km-2 yr-1 at the inlet of lake Latnjajaure, situated in Latnjavagge close to the outlet of the valley. A very stable vegetation cover and rhyzosphere in this environment mainly explain the low value. The mean mechanical fluvial denudation rate at the outlet of the entire Latnjavagge drainage basin, below lake Latnjajaure, is only 0.8 t km-2 yr-1. Both chemical and mechanical fluvial denudation show low intensity. The results from Latnjavagge support the contention that chemical denudation is a somewhat important denudational process in periglacial environments.

  • 89.
    Bhatt, Puja
    et al.
    Central Department of Biotechnology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur 44618, Nepal.
    Poudyal, Pranita
    Central Department of Biotechnology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur 44618, Nepal.
    Dhungana, Pradip
    Central Department of Biotechnology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur 44618, Nepal.
    Prajapati, Bikram
    Central Department of Biotechnology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur 44618, Nepal.
    Bajracharya, Suman
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Yadav, Amar Prasad
    Central Department of Chemistry, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur 44618, Nepal.
    Bhattarai, Tribikram
    Central Department of Biotechnology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur 44618, Nepal.
    Sreerama, Lakshmaiah
    Central Department of Biotechnology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur 44618, Nepal; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, St. Cloud State University, St. Cloud, MN 56301, USA.
    Joshi, Jarina
    Central Department of Biotechnology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur 44618, Nepal.
    Enhancement of Biogas (Methane) Production from Cow Dung Using a Microbial Electrochemical Cell and Molecular Characterization of Isolated Methanogenic Bacteria2024In: Biomass, E-ISSN 2673-8783, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 455-471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas has long been used as a household cooking fuel in many tropical counties, and it has the potential to be a significant energy source beyond household cooking fuel. In this study, we describe the use of low electrical energy input in an anaerobic digestion process using a microbial electrochemical cell (MEC) to promote methane content in biogas at 18, 28, and 37 °C. Although the maximum amount of biogas production was at 37 °C (25 cm3), biogas could be effectively produced at lower temperatures, i.e., 18 (13 cm3) and 28 °C (19 cm3), with an external 2 V power input. The biogas production of 13 cm3 obtained at 18 °C was ~65-fold higher than the biogas produced without an external power supply (0.2 cm3). This was further enhanced by 23% using carbon-nanotubes-treated (CNT) graphite electrodes. This suggests that the MEC can be operated at as low as 18 °C and still produce significant amounts of biogas. The share of CH4 in biogas produced in the controls was 30%, whereas the biogas produced in an MEC had 80% CH4. The MEC effectively reduced COD to 42%, whereas it consumed 98% of reducing sugars. Accordingly, it is a suitable method for waste/manure treatment. Molecular characterization using 16s rRNA sequencing confirmed the presence of methanogenic bacteria, viz., Serratia liquefaciens and Zoballella taiwanensis, in the inoculum used for the fermentation. Consistent with recent studies, we believe that electromethanogenesis will play a significant role in the production of value-added products and improve the management of waste by converting it to energy.

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  • 90.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Vahter, Marie E.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Jaresjö, Jerker
    Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm University.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ahmad, Arslan
    KWR Watercycle Research Institute, Nieuwegein.
    Sparrenbom, Charlotta Jönsson
    Department Geology, Quaternary Sciences, Lund University.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Donselaar, Marinus Eric
    Department of Geoscience and Engineering, Delft Univ. of Technology.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Naidu, Ravi
    Global Centre for Environmental Remediation (GCER), Faculty of Science & Information Technology, The University of Newcastle.
    Editors’ foreword2016In: Arsenic Research and Global Sustainability: Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment, AS 2016 / [ed] Bhattacharya, Prosun; Vahter, Marie; Jarsjo, Jerker; Kumpiene, Jurate; Charlotte, Sparrenbom, London: CRC Press, 2016, p. xlv-xlviConference paper (Refereed)
  • 91.
    Bjartell, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Karlsson, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Salvdimensionering för vibrationsalstrande undermarksprojekt: Framtagning av beräkningsark och standardrapport2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Blasting is often performed during tunnel projects and as a result, ground vibrations will occur. These vibrations depend upon several factors and can be experienced as disturbing for the surrounding area and may cause damage to buildings nearby. The guidelines published by the Swedish Institute for Standards determine the permitted magnitude of such ground vibrations, by imposing a maximum oscillation speed for any blasting works that take place in proximity of buildings. To predict vibrations during blast work, scaled factor relations can be applied. There are different kinds of scaled factor relations, but what they have in common is that they estimate the maximum oscillation speed as a function of distance between the round and measuring point, and charge per delay. As a first step, the measured vibration value has been analysed and drawn up with respect to rock foundation and tunnel nearby. Based on the dimensions of the drillhole and the density of the explosive, the charge per delay can be calculated and compiled whit the oscillation speed at a specific measuring point. Based on these values, empirical constants have been produced through regression analysis, and therefore predictions for ground vibrations at buildings on different types of rock foundations and nearby tunnel can be determined. Given these predictions, a calculation sheet and a standard report have been produced which together form a basis for future underground projects.

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    Beräkningsark
  • 92.
    Bjurström, Henrik
    et al.
    ÅF-Industry AB.
    Lind, B.B.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Unburned carbon in combustion residues from solid biofuels2014In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 117, no Part A, p. 890-899Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unburned carbon (UC) in 21 combustion residues from solid biofuels has been examined using several methods of analysis (including LOI and TOC) as well as micro-Raman spectroscopy. The concentration of unburned carbon in the residues varied over an order of magnitude and in several samples accounted for about 10% of the ash mass. It was observed that TOC had a poor correlation to organic carbon, especially for fly ashes. LOI at all tested temperatures showed a better correlation than TOC to the organic carbon content, whereas the TOC is better correlated to elemental carbon. LOI550 gave a larger variation and a less complete mobilisation of unburned carbon than LOI at 750 or 975 °C did, but at the highest temperature metal oxidation was notably affecting the mass balance to the extent that some samples gained mass. For this reason, and of the temperatures tested, LOI750 seem to be the most stable indicator for organic remains in the incineration residuals. Most of the unburned carbon is elemental, and only slowly degradable, so the potential emissions of organic compounds from ashes should not be assessed by using a TOC test. The structure of the detected elemental carbon in UC is similar to that of activated carbon, which indicates a potentially large specific surface. This should be borne in mind when assessing the environmental impact of using ash for different purposes, including use as a construction material. Field studies are needed to verify the actual impact as it may depend on environmental conditions.

  • 93.
    Björk, Annie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Investigating the potential of systematic optical petrography in a geometallurgical context: A case study on boulder characterization from Rajapalot property, Finland2023Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Geometallurgy describes a holistic approach to mining (integrating geological, metallurgical, geotechnical, environmental, and more parameters) with the goal to improve the efficiency and sustainability of a mining operation. The potential of systematic optical petrography in a geometallurgical context was investigated in this study, as well as how petrography may be useful across disciplines in several blocks of the mining value chain. In a case study, twelve boulder samples (non-mineralized and mineralized) from the Rajapalot exploration property in Finland were characterized by detailed optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with the aim to delineate the origin of the respective boulders. This allowed to demonstrate some benefits and challenges of systematic optical petrography in the mining value chain and geometallurgical programs. The study was performed through the geology department at Mitta AB in Luleå, Sweden, using rock samples supplied by Mawson Gold Ltd, Finland.

    The Rajapalot Au-Co property lies a few km east of the Rompas Au-U property, both owned by Mawson Gold Ltd and located in the Paleoproterozoic Peräpohja belt in northwest Finland. When determining the boulders’ origin, geochemical gradients of the Peräpohja belt lithostratigraphy; oxidized sodic rocks in the Kivalo group and reduced potassic rocks in the Paakkola group were crucial factors. The mineralization style of the Rompas Au-U association and the Rajapalot Au-Co association (including the “Palokas” Fe-Mg type and the “Rumajärvi” K-Fe type) were further crucial to classify the mineralized boulders. Results show that the rock types (and suggested origin) vary between boulder samples. Most samples are presumed to originate from the Paakkola group, one sample from the Kivalo group, and a few samples are inconclusive. Furthermore, the samples impact on the mining value chain was discussed based on the results of the petrographic analysis. A method description for a more systematic way of examining rock material is presented, including for example quantitative parameters such asmodal mineralogy and grain size distribution. However, the applicability of this method description needs further study.

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  • 94.
    Björnström, Albert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Flödeskalibrering: Analys av kalibreringsprocesser2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In December 2015 the Paris Agreement was signed in order to create a better global climate. According to the agreement, all countries 'emissions shall be reported to the UN. To be able to do this current emission levels must be known, which means measurement and calculation of emissions are necessary.

     

    The state-owned mining company Luossavaara Kiirunavaara AB (LKAB) operates iron ore mines in Northen Sweden. The iron ore products produced at the KK4 coal mill in Kiruna, consists of some additives that form carbon dioxide when burned. The amount of additives burned is measured using two flowmeters. To ensure that these meters have approved accuracy, annual calibrations are performed where measured volume is compared to a reference volume. In order to ensure that LKAB's calibration method works, another type of calibration was performed by an external company. The results between the two calibration methods differ significantly, which led to this report.

     

    The purpose of this work is to develop improvement proposals for LKAB's calibration method and to present suggestions on how LKAB can create better conditions for the other so called transit time calibration method. By analyzing each method and performing measurements, tests and calculations, weaknesses are noted. Tests show that a weakness of LKAB's calibration is that the level measurement method used is person-dependent. Level measurement with laser range gauge is tested with good results, why this type of measurement is recommended in the future. The main weakness with transit time method is primarily that it is sensitive to variation of the inner diameter of the pipe. In order for this method to provide reliable results, rebuilding of pipes and carefully measured internal diameter are required. Accurate flow measurement means that current carbon dioxide emissions can be calculated, which enables continued work towards set environmental goals. Flowmeters also have a significant role in product quality in KK4, which means that this report can contribute to higher quality and economic profitability.

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  • 95.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Rening av dagvatteni biofilter: Effekt av biokol som tillsats i filtermaterialet2022Report (Other academic)
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  • 96.
    Bogner, Jean E.
    et al.
    Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Early diagenesis of garbage: landfills as engineered anoxic basins1996In: Geological Society of America, 28th annual meeting, Denver, CO, United States, Oct. 28-31, 1996, Geological Society of America, 1996, p. 257-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Early diagenesis of buried organic carbon in anoxic basins is dominated by microbial decomposition processes at temperatures and pressure slightly above ambient. Such conditions also describe decomposition of refuse in sanitary landfills and provide a reasonable model for systematic studies of their long-term geochemistry. For shorter time frame (decades), controlled high-solids anaerobic digestion systems provide a second model for investigation of optimized landfill systems. In this paper, we introduce both models through a series of preliminary mass-balances to develop a realistic overview of landfill processes, especially emphasizing carbon cycling in field settings over various time-frames. The terminal product of short-term anaerobic decomposition is methane--produced by methanogenic bacteria from some fraction of organic carbon landfilled. Laboratory studies of optimized landfill systems (ours and from the literature) indicate that, at best, 25-45% of organic carbon is converted to biogas carbon (methane and carbon dioxide); such percentages are rarely attained in field settings. Most of the methane is produced from cellulosic substrates while lignin substrates are recalcitrant, with lignin carbon entering sedimentary storage for time frames longer than the four decades of widespread landfilling experience in the U.S. and western Europe. Over time frames in excess of centuries, further transformations via kerogen pathways are possible but highly speculative. Certainly, exhumation of old refuse at archeologic sites indicates that organic carbon preservation can be documented for at least one or two millenia. From controlled incubation of unamended field samples and from field studies of net methane emissions, it is clear that rates of methane production and consumption both vary of several orders of magnitude in field settings; their dynamic are rapid and complex spatially and temporally. Unraveling these dynamics is necessary to suggest the overall relevance of these engineered anoxic basins to issues of atmospheric methane increases and terrestrial carbon storage.

  • 97.
    Bolan, Nanthi
    et al.
    Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, Australia; Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, Adelaide, Australia.
    Kunhikrishnanc, Anitha
    Chemical Safety Division, Department of Agro-Food Safety, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea.
    Thangarajan, Ramya
    Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, Australia; Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, Adelaide, Australia.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Park, Jinhee
    Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia.
    Makino, Tomoyuki
    Soil Environmental Division, National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Kirkham, Mary Beth
    Department of Agronomy, 2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA.
    Scheckel, Kirk
    National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 5995 Center Hill Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45224, USA.
    Remediation of heavy metal(loid)s contaminated soils – To mobilize or to immobilize?2014In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 266, p. 141-166Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unlike organic contaminants, metal(loid)s do not undergo microbial or chemical degradation and persist for a long time after their introduction. Bioavailability of metal(loid)s plays a vital role in the remediation of contaminated soils. In this review, the remediation of heavy metal(loid) contaminated soils through manipulating their bioavailability using a range of soil amendments will be presented. Mobilizing amendments such as chelating and desorbing agents increase the bioavailability and mobility of metal(loid)s. Immobilizing amendments such of precipitating agents and sorbent materials decrease the bioavailabilty and mobility of metal(loid)s. Mobilizing agents can be used to enhance the removal of heavy metal(loid)s though plant uptake and soil washing. Immobilizing agents can be used to reduce the transfer to metal(loid)s to food chain via plant uptake and leaching to groundwater. One of the major limitations of mobilizing technique is susceptibility to leaching of the mobilized heavy metal(loid)s in the absence of active plant uptake. Similarly, in the case of the immobilization technique the long-term stability of the immobilized heavy metal(loid)s needs to be monitored.

  • 98.
    Bolan, Nanthi
    et al.
    The Global Centre for Environmental Remediation, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia.
    Sarkar, Binoy
    Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom.
    Yan, Yubo
    School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huaiyin Normal University, Huaian, People’s Republic of China.
    Li, Qiao
    Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China.
    Wijesekara, Hasintha
    Department of Natural Resources, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka, Belihuloya, Sri Lanka.
    Kannan, Kurunthachalam
    Department of Pediatrics, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA.
    Tsang, Daniel C.W.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Schauerte, Marina
    Soil- and Groundwater-Management, Institute of Soil Engineering, Waste- and Water-Management, Faculty of Architecture und Civil Engineering, University of Wuppertal, Germany.
    Bosch, Julian
    INTRAPORE GmbH, Advanced In Situ Groundwater Remediation, Essen, Leipzig, Mailand, Essen, Germany.
    Noll, Hendrik
    INTRAPORE GmbH, Advanced In Situ Groundwater Remediation, Essen, Leipzig, Mailand, Essen, Germany.
    Ok, Yong Sik
    Korea Biochar Research Center, APRU Sustainable Waste Management, Division of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Scheckel, Kirk
    United States Environmental Protection Agency, Center for Environmental Solutions & Emergency Response, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Gobindlal, Kapish
    Centre for Green Chemical Science, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Kah, Melanie
    The University of Auckland, School of Environment, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Sperry, Jonathan
    Centre for Green Chemical Science, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Kirkham, M. B.
    Department of Agronomy, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, USA.
    Wang, Hailong
    School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Foshan University, Foshan, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China.
    Tsang, Yiu Fai
    Department of Science and Environmental Studies, The Education University of Hong Kong, Tai Po, New Territories, Hong Kong.
    Hou, Deyi
    School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.
    Rinklebe, Jörg
    Soil- and Groundwater-Management, Institute of Soil Engineering, Waste- and Water-Management, Faculty of Architecture und Civil Engineering, University of Wuppertal, Germany. Department of Environment, Energy and Geoinformatics, Sejong University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Remediation of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) contaminated soils: To mobilize or to immobilize or to degrade?2021In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 401, article id 123892Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic chemicals, which are introduced to the environment through anthropogenic activities. Aqueous film forming foam used in firefighting, wastewater effluent, landfill leachate, and biosolids are major sources of PFAS input to soil and groundwater. Remediation of PFAS contaminated solid and aqueous media is challenging, which is attributed to the chemical and thermal stability of PFAS and the complexity of PFAS mixtures. In this review, remediation of PFAS contaminated soils through manipulation of their bioavailability and destruction is presented. While the mobilizing amendments (e.g., surfactants) enhance the mobility and bioavailability of PFAS, the immobilizing amendments (e.g., activated carbon) decrease their bioavailability and mobility. Mobilizing amendments can be applied to facilitate the removal of PFAS though soil washing, phytoremediation, and complete destruction through thermal and chemical redox reactions. Immobilizing amendments are likely to reduce the transfer of PFAS to food chain through plant and biota (e.g., earthworm) uptake, and leaching to potable water sources. Future studies should focus on quantifying the potential leaching of the mobilized PFAS in the absence of removal by plant and biota uptake or soil washing, and regular monitoring of the long-term stability of the immobilized PFAS.

  • 99.
    Bollen, Math H.J.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Moreno-Munoz, Antonio
    Universidad de Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain.
    The power grid as part of a 100% renewable energy system2017In: Large Scale Grid Integration of Renewable Energy Sources / [ed] Antonio Moreno-Munoz, Institution of Engineering and Technology , 2017, p. 1-27Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 100.
    Botelho, Anneliese H.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Zhang, Ping
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Dineva, Savka
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nordlund, Erling
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Velocity amplification of obliquely incident s-wave through fractures near free-surface2019In: Rock Mechanics for Natural Resources and Infrastructure Development - Full Papers: Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering (ISRM 2019), September 13-18, 2019, Foz do Iguassu, Brazil / [ed] Sergio A.B. da Fontoura; Ricardo Jose Rocca; José Pavón Mendoza, Taylor & Francis, 2019, p. 1487-1494Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rockfall risk due to mining-induced seismicity reduces by installing appropriate rock support to absorb the kinetic energy from a seismic event, which is calculated by assuming the mass of ejected rock and its ejection velocity. Estimation of ejection velocity is normally based on scaling laws that do not consider the effect of the excavation free-surface and existing fractures near the excavation free-surface. Field monitoring studies have shown that the peak particle velocity on the free-surface can be much larger than the velocity in deep solid rock. The interaction between the fractures and the free-surface under incident S-wave is investigated by using a two-dimensional UDEC model with fractured zone characterized as one, two, three and four sets of parallel fractures with varied intersecting angles. The results show that wave amplification factor varies according to the incident wave angle, the number of fracture sets and fracture spacing.

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