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  • 51.
    Carlsson, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Berkes, Fikret
    University of Manitoba, Winnipeg.
    Co-management: concepts and methodological implications2005In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 75, no 1, p. 65-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Co-management, or the joint management of the commons, is often formulated in terms of some arrangement of power sharing between the State and a community of resource users. In reality, there often are multiple local interests and multiple government agencies at play, and co-management can hardly be understood as the interaction of a unitary State and a homogeneous community. An approach focusing on the legal aspects of co-management, and emphasizing the formal structure of arrangements (how governance is configured) runs the risk of neglecting the functional side of co-management. An alternative approach is to start from the assumption that co-management is a continuous problem-solving process, rather than a fixed state, involving extensive deliberation, negotiation and joint learning within problem-solving networks. This presumption implies that co-management research should preferably focus on how different management tasks are organized and distributed concentrating on the function, rather than the structure, of the system. Such an approach has the effect of highlighting that power sharing is the result, and not the starting point, of the process. This kind of research approach might employ the steps of (1) defining the social-ecological system under focus; (2) mapping the essential management tasks and problems to be solved; (3) clarifying the participants in the problem-solving processes; (4) analyzing linkages in the system, in particular across levels of organization and across geographical space; (5) evaluating capacity-building needs for enhancing the skills and capabilities of people and institutions at various levels; and (6) prescribing ways to improve policy making and problem-solving.

  • 52.
    Carlsson, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lazdinis, Marius
    Faculty of Public Management, Law University of Lithuania.
    Institutional frameworks for sustainability?: a comparative analysis of the forest sectors of Russia and the Baltic States2004In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 366-370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After the break-up of the Soviet system, the divergence in forest management among Soviet republics became obvious. While the forest sectors of the Baltic States have been fundamentally changed, Russia has not been able to develop an institutional framework that would fit the prerequisites for social-ecological resilience. It is argued that sustainable development requires institutional frameworks that have the capacity to adapt and learn, and thus to treat policies as experiments that are constantly assessed and readjusted. This, however, requires a participatory approach and in this respect the Baltic States are believed to be on a more promising track. Finally, it is concluded that only to the extent that suitable institutional frameworks will be developed will social-ecological resilience be a significant feature of the natural resources management in the former communist countries.

  • 53.
    Carlsson, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundgren, Nils-Gustav
    Den ryska skogssektorn: på väg mot marknadsekonomi?2002In: Människor, hälsa, miljö: föredrag hållna på filosofiska fakultetens dag 6 oktober 2001, Luleå tekniska universitet, 2002, p. 5-17Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 54.
    Carlsson, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundgren, Nils-Gustav
    Olsson, Mats-Olov
    Forest enterprises in transition: business behavior in the Tomsk forest sector1999Report (Other academic)
  • 55.
    Carlsson, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundgren, Nils-Gustav
    Olsson, Mats-Olov
    The Russian detour: real transition in a virtual economy?2001In: Europe-Asia Studies, ISSN 0966-8136, E-ISSN 1465-3427, Vol. 53, no 6, p. 841-867Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Illustrates the creation of a market economy by showing that no easy procedures automatically lead to that goal; the Russian forest sector is used as a model for all Russian industries. The major obstacle for the forest sector is the existing institutional framework consisting of both formal & informal rules. In Russia, the institutional system adversely affects the new & more market-oriented institutions. Indeed, multiple problems undermine the Russian forest industry. Laws are often ignored, property rights are ill defined, the market does not always determine value, & authorities often fail to prosecute violations of laws. Through a comparative study of the Russian & Swedish forest industries the authors reveal that Russian firms lack funding & bank support, they are more burdened by taxes, & trading is marred by contract violations. Further complicating the issue is Russia's overlapping jurisdictions; the forest sector is regulated by three levels of rules. Consequently, the problems must be solved at three different levels

  • 56.
    Carlsson, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundgren, Nils-Gustav
    Olsson, Mats-Olov
    Why is the Russian bear still asleep after ten years in transition?2000Report (Other academic)
  • 57.
    Carlsson, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundgren, Nils-Gustav
    Olsson, Mats-Olov
    Varakin, Mikhail Yu.
    Institutions and the emergence of markets: transitions in the Arkhangelsk forest sector1999Report (Other academic)
  • 58.
    Carlsson, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundgren, Nils-Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sandström, Annica
    Universitetens roll i Forskarstation Östra Norrbotten: delrapport2003Report (Other academic)
  • 59.
    Carlsson, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Myrlund, HåkanLuleå tekniska universitet.
    Circumpolar change: building a future on experiences from the past : proceeding, the Fifth Circumpolar Universities Cooperation Conference, June 10-12 1997, Luleå, Sweden1999Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Carlsson, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Myrlund, Håkan
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Sjukhuset "mitt emellan": den politiska processen bakom lokaliseringen av Sunderby sjukhus1999Report (Other academic)
  • 61.
    Carlsson, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Olsson, Mats-Olov
    Institutions and the emergence of markets: transition in the Tomsk forest sector1998Report (Other academic)
  • 62.
    Carlsson, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Olsson, Mats-Olov
    Policyövningar med ryska skogsintressenter2001In: IIASA-nytt, no 34, p. 8-10Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 63.
    Carlsson, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Olsson, Mats-Olov
    Lundgren, Nils-Gustav
    If money only grew on trees: the Russian forest sector in transition2000In: Forestry Chronicle, ISSN 0015-7546, Vol. 76, no 4, p. 605-610Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 64.
    Carlsson, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Network governance of the commons2008In: International Journal of the Commons, ISSN 1875-0281, E-ISSN 1875-0281, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 33-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The survival of the commons is closely associated with the potential to find ways to strengthen contemporary management systems, making them more responsive to a number of complexities, like the dynamics of ecosystems and related, but often fragmented, institutions. A discussion on the desirability of finding ways to establish so-called cross-scale linkages has recently been vitalised in the literature. In the same vein, concepts like adaptive management, co-management and adaptive co-management have been discussed. In essence, these ways of organizing management incorporate an implicit assumption about the establishment of social networks and is more closely related to network governance and social network theory, than to political administrative hierarchy. However, so far, attempts to incorporate social network analysis (SNA) in this literature have been rather few, and not particularly elaborate. In this paper, a framework for such an approach will be presented. The framework provides an analytical skeleton for the understanding of joint management and the establishment of cross-scale linkages. The relationships between structural network properties - like density, centrality and heterogeneity - and innovation in adaptive co-management systems are highlighted as important to consider when crafting institutions for natural resource management. The paper makes a theoretical and methodological contribution to the understanding of co-management, and thereby to the survival of the commons.

  • 65.
    Carlsson, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sandström, Annica
    Network governance of the commons2006In: IASCP 2006 Conference Papers, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The survival of the commons is closely associated with the potential to find ways to strengthen contemporary management systems, making them more responsive to a number of complexities, like the dynamics of ecosystems and related, but often fragmented, institutions. A discussion on the desirability of finding ways to establish socalled cross-scale linkages, i.e. connections among different actors from different levels, i.e. connections among different actors from different levels of organisation and geographical settings, recently has been vitalised in the literature. The establishment of such linkages is believed to have many advantages for the sustainable management of the commons. In the same vein, concepts like adaptive management, comanagement and adaptive co-management have been discussed. In essence, these ways of organizing management to generate alternative governance systems are more closely related to network governance and social network theory, than to political administrative hierarchy. However, so far, attempts to incorporate social network analysis (SNA) in this literature have been rather few, and not particularly elaborate. In this paper, a framework for such an approach will be presented. The framework provides an analytical skeleton for the understanding of joint management and the establishment of cross-scale linkages. The relationships between structural network properties - like density, centrality and heterogeneity, and innovation in adaptive co-management systems - are highlighted as major features of high functioning management systems. The paper makes a theoretical and methodological contribution to the understanding of co-management, and thereby to the survival of the commons.

  • 66. Christensen, Anne-Sofie
    et al.
    Hovgaard, Gestur
    Karlsson, Geir Runar
    Rova, Carl
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Nordisk kystfiskeri i det nye århundrede?2005Report (Other academic)
  • 67. Dolsak, Nives
    et al.
    Brondizio, Eduardo S.
    Carlsson, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Cash, David W.
    Gibson, Clark C.
    Hoffman, Mattew J.
    Knox, Anna
    Mienzen-Dick, Ruth
    Ostrom, Elinor
    Adaptation to challenges2003In: The commons in the new millennium: challenges and adaptation, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003, p. 527-557Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 68.
    Duus-Otterström, Göran
    et al.
    Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Identifying burdens of coping with climate change: a typology of the duties of climate justice2012In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 746-753Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the central questions in climate change debates concerns fair burden-sharing, i.e. justice in the distribution of costs of undertaking climate-managing policies. In this paper it is argued that in order to distribute such costs justly, it is necessary to have a nuanced understanding of what types of burdens they represent. Climate managing policies are usually divided into responses that seek to reduce the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (mitigation) and responses that seek to prevent harm arising from a changing climate (adaptation). Some have argued that there are normatively significant differences between mitigation and adaptation: that the two responses adhere to different logics and evoke different patterns of burden-sharing. This paper argues that the relevant distinction is instead between negative and positive climate duties, i.e. whether an agent has a duty to undertake climate-managing policies on account of the harm its excessive emissions are causing or simply on account of its ability to assist those in need. The paper offers a typology of the different mitigation and adaptation responses that can be sorted under the negative/positive distinctions. This way of conceptualizing the issue not only enables us to better address the burden-sharing question, offering a more nuanced understanding of the types of climate burdens that are ascribable to agents and pointing out the appropriate roles of contributory responsibility and ability. It also clarifies aspects of the climate negotiations, and explains why it matters whether adaptation finance transferred to vulnerable countries is portrayed as compensation for harmful emissions or simply as donor countries discharging their humanitarian duties.

  • 69.
    Duus-Otterström, Göran
    et al.
    Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Why (most) climate insurance schemes are a bad idea2011In: Environmental Politics, ISSN 0964-4016, E-ISSN 1743-8934, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 322-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various insurance schemes are increasingly considered as part of a comprehensive set of responses aimed at adapting the world to future climate change. Insurance is believed to provide resources needed to rebuild societies following adverse effects of extreme weather events, and do so in a way that encourages preventive, risk-reducing action. After investigating the idea of climate insurance from a normative standpoint, it is argued that when understood conventionally - i.e. commercially - climate insurance is a highly unattractive idea. There are more defensible models of reactive adaptation that retain aspects of insurance, including, in particular, a model that is more reminiscent of a (global) social insurance model

  • 70.
    Dvorsak, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Förbättrar utbildning kvinnors förhandlingsposition?: En experimentstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kön har sedan tidigare använts som en förklaringsfaktor till olika fenomen och till nackdel och skäl för underordning av kvinnor. En sådan förklaring finns inom förhandlingar, där det påstås att män är bättre på att förhandla. I denna uppsats kartläggs ledande teoretiska förklaringar till varför skillnaderna mellan män och kvinnor inom förhandlingar existerar. För dessa skillnader erbjöds förklaringar som man tematiskt samlat under paraplytermerna: erfarenhet, strukturella positioner samt makt och status.

    Tidigare studier med fokus på makt och status visar bland annat att kvinnor med hög status som kräver en viss summa får lika bra resultat som män med hög status som kräver samma summa, vilket inte är fallet hos män och kvinnor med låg status. Där har kvinnor en mindre chans att få det de kräver jämfört med män. Denna uppsats fokuserar främst på skillnaderna från makt/status-perspektiv, hur det påverkar kvinnors förhandlingsutfall och om kvinnor kan motverka de sämre resultaten de får inom förhandlingar när de beter sig icke-kvinnligt och bryter mot normer/roller som bestäms av kön (rollkongruensteorin-mer om detta i del 2.1). I uppsatsen söks indicier som påvisar att en högre status i form av utbildning (högskoleutbildning) ger kvinnor lika bra resultat för samma prestation som män eller åtminstone förbättrar kvinnors utgångspunkt. En experimentell frågeundersökning utförs, där varje deltagare får 1 av 4 möjliga varianter av texten. Dessa varianter skiljer sig åt vad gäller kön och utbildningsnivå hos de personer som beskrivs i texten. Sedan analyseras vilka resultat som följer av dessa skillnader. Det handlar således om ett efterdesignexperiment med en hypotetisk deduktiv ansats.

    Studien visar att högskoleutbildning inte tycks vara en tillräckligt stark källa till status för att ge kvinnor lika bra förhandlingsresultat som män. Däremot indikerar studien att manliga deltagare ger mindre resurser till kvinnor än till män, medan kvinnliga deltagare ytterst sällan bemöter manliga kandidater sämre. I studien visas också att det främst är män som anser att kvinnor måste bete sig kvinnligt och att motreaktionen (s.k. backlash) drabbar de kvinnor som inte uppfyller detta förväntade beteende. Mitt experiment bekräftar således rollkongruensteorin, samtidigt som den vidareutvecklas, genom att peka på att det inte är bägge kön utan bara män som förväntar sig att kvinnor beter sig kvinnligt, -åtminstone i Sverige.

  • 71.
    Edzen, Svante
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Holst, Marita
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Answers to questions about ”The Creative University”2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of the evaluation of ”The Creative University” a questionnaire was sent out to all employees of Luleå University of Technology, during May 2002. The three PhD students who are connected to the evaluation prepared the questionnaire. The purpose of the questionnaire was to gain answers to questions posed about three main areas: The employees participation in the work process, the attitudes of the employees about the contents of the new vision and what shape the communication and meetings between employees has taken. In addition to the introductory background questions, the questionnaire was divided into three parts. The three main areas of the investigation were more or less covered in the three parts of the questionnaire. The first part was in reference to the development work done in the first phase, in which the objectives and the vision of the “Creative University” were formulated. The second part of the questionnaire was about the implementation of the new strategy, a process that is still in progress at the university. The questionnaire was divided into different parts in order to see if there was any difference in the pattern of participation for the different phases. In the second part there were also questions pertaining to the availability of information and to what degree the employees cooperate across boarders. Moreover, the respondents were asked to give an account of their views on how they regard the concept of “Integrated Knowledge Building”. The questionnaire ended with a third part in which the respondents were asked to respond to a number of statements about the contents of the vision and it’s implementation. The collective impressions can be said to be that employees of the University have been informed about the contents of the new vision. The goals of the vision receive support, such as recruiting more students, cooperating interdisciplinary, and an increased contact with the surrounding society. However, there appears to be no collective view of the concept of ”Integrated Knowledge Building”. As a last comment the compilation of the results show that many employees do not feel part of the implementation. The process of change has not affected the daily work for the majority of employees

  • 72. Efremov, Dmitry F.
    et al.
    Carlsson, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Olsson, Mats-Olov
    Sheingauz, Alexander S.
    Institutional change and transition in the forest sector of Khabarovsk Krai1999Report (Other academic)
  • 73.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Goytia, Susana
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Carina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Nysten-Haarala, Soili
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderasp, Johanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Challenges in Swedish hydropower: politics, economics and rights2017In: Research Ideas and Outcomes, E-ISSN 2367-7163, Vol. 3, article id e21305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two systems working in parallel have contributed to implementation difficulties in Swedish water governance. While the old system is designed to be predictable and stable over time, the new system is intended to be transparent and holistic, guided by the principles of Integrated Water Resource Management. The paper disentangles the challenges in Swedish water governance and proposes a blueprint for future research. The proposed research project is unique in the sense that it explores the imbalances between the new and the old water governance systems from a multi-disciplinary perspective, elaborating upon the clashes between the traditional, nationally based regulatory system and the new holistic water governance system from legal, political and economic perspectives.

  • 74.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Deliberation and valuation in environmental decision-making2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 75.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Valuing the local impacts of a large scale wind power establishment in northern Sweden: public and private preferences toward economic, environmental and sociocultural values2015In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 58, no 8, p. 1327-1345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper estimates public and private preferences towards economic, environmental and sociocultural values associated with a planned large-scale onshore wind-power development in northern Sweden, and analyses the most important determinants of the individual's Willingness to Pay (WTP) for reducing the negative impact associated with the establishment. Sociocultural effects were deemed the most important in the private sample, whereas new job opportunities are valued most highly in the public sample. We further find that ascription to moral and social norms together with individuals’ perceptions related to general and institutional trust constitutes significant determinants of WTP.

  • 76.
    Ekström, Linda
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundholm, Cecilia
    Stockholm University.
    “What´s positive about positive rights?": Students’ Everyday Understandings and the Challenges of Teaching Political Science2018In: Journal of Political Science Education, ISSN 1551-2169, E-ISSN 1551-2177, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A review of research into teaching and learning in political science education concludes that this literature emphasizes student outcomes and "show and tell" descriptions of pedagogical interventions (Craig 2014). The present study instead aims to open the "black box" of conceptual learning in political science, illustrating the ambiguous role that everyday understandings of core concepts may play in the learning process. Starting from the conceptual change literature, we present findings on how everyday understandings influence learning regarding the concepts of "positive rights" and "anarchy," resulting in various learning difficulties. The results suggest that teaching needs to explore and explain differences in meaning between scientific and everyday understandings.

  • 77.
    Eriksson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Jacobsson, Jan-Erik
    Mekanismer för spontan spridning av lönsam energieffektiv teknik1998Report (Other academic)
  • 78.
    Fell, Astrid
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    En analys av uthålling kommun i halvtid2006In: Uthållig kommun i halvtid, Stockholm: Statens energimyndighet , 2006, p. 11-21Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 79.
    Fell, Astrid
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Nätverksstyrning för en hållbar utveckling: en fallstudie av Energimyndighetens program Uthållig kommun 2003-20072008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The view of networks has changed within the field of policy studies. Once they were considered as hampering the policy process, but today they are accepted as a legitimate policy instrument. The Swedish Government, for instance, makes use of networks to steer society. One attempt to do so is the Sustainable Municipality Programme launched by the Swedish Energy Agency in 2003. Five municipalities where selected to participate in this collaborative process to further sustainable energy policies. This thesis explores the potential of network governance theory as a model for describing policy making. A case study addressing three questions was conducted. Firstly, can the Sustainable Munici-pality Programme be described within the framework of network governance theory? Secondly, is this governance network successful in its struggle to achieve its goals? Thirdly, can this example of network governance further a discussion exploring a scenario where inter-municipality network governance might pose a challenge to the principle of local government? The first and second question is answered by focusing on four functions that the governance network should fulfil; to give priority to projects; to mobilize resources, to complete projects and, to evaluate the process. In order to answer the first question the case study focuses on the interaction within the governance network. Is the process organised in a fashion recognisable as network govern-ance, as an ideal type of coordination? The analysis shows that network governance theory provides an analytic framework well suited to shed light on the process. The analysis also shows that the three first functions were achieved. Through negotiations the network gave priority to different projects. The thesis focuses on three of these. The first project includes the education of maintenance person-nel. The second is a research project, investigating different actors' possibilities to plan for a more sustainable use of energy. The third project is a research project carried out within the field of physi-cal planning. The fourth function, evaluation, still poses a problem since the actors themselves are not content with the evaluation model they produced. In order to answer the third question the case study explores the notion of local government and how it can be safeguarded within a governance network. Two indicators are used to analyse this aspect of the process; the democratic anchorage of the governance network and the transparency of the process. The analysis shows that the process has been transparent and that local politicians have had an opportunity to meta govern the process. It is, however, undoubtedly so that the actors, or municipalities, gain influence over each other's policy processes. This causes discontent since local priorities get affected, sometimes negatively. In the end of 2007, four of the five municipalities decided to remain within the programme, or the governance network, for another three years. They are now joined by an additional 60 municipalities.

  • 80. Fell, Astrid
    On the establishment of trust in the Russian forest sector1999Report (Other academic)
  • 81. Fell, Astrid
    Radioactive waste and democracy: the rights of future generations2000In: Nuclear risks, environmental, and development co-operation in the North of Europe: proceedings from the conference in Apatity, June 19-23, 1999 / [ed] Peder Axensten; Gösta Weissglas, Umeå: Centrum för regionalvetenskaplig forskning , 2000Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 82. Fell, Astrid
    et al.
    Lundgren, Nils-Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Avsiktliga utsläpp av skadliga ämnen: spridning och samhällskonsekvenser2000Report (Other academic)
  • 83.
    Fell, Terence
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Conflict and legitimacy: explaining tensions in Swedish hunting policy at the local level2008In: Environmental Politics, ISSN 0964-4016, E-ISSN 1743-8934, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 105-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reveals the existence of a so-called "ghost policy" (informal tradition and/or obsolete policy rules) that resists new official policy concerning the management of natural resources in Sweden. These ghost policies are often ignored by decision makers in the Swedish policy making process inhibiting, therefore, viable and legitimate solutions to the profound negative consequences that costly local conflicts of interest have on democracy. These conflicts of interest expose and represent a classic and current problem intrinsic to the communitarian policy process in Sweden. That is, since the Swedish policy process has a blind spot, that is it focuses on the views of experts and interest organisations, it, subsequently, overlooks the perceptions of those stakeholders (in this case game hunters) affected by policy. This situation undermines the policy's goals since they are alien to local tradition. Furthermore, not just the existence and ubiquity of ghost policies, but even social facts such as the physical size and membership of an organisation were found to influence conflicts of interest. This implies that a more legitimate policy process is necessary. Therefore, the Swedish policy process ought to include collaborations with locals and social engineering. This will lead to a more legitimate natural resource management in rural Swedish settings.

  • 84. Fell, Terence
    Do Norrbotten's GKAAs exercise their power legally?2005In: Viltvård, älgar och jaktturism: tvärvetenskapliga perspektiv på jakt och vilt i Sverige 1830-2000, Umeå: Hållbarhetsrådet , 2005, p. 139-157Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 85. Fell, Terence
    Evaluating the legitimacy of hunting policy in Norrbotten: (1981-2001)2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 86.
    Fell, Terence
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Legitimacy and conflict: explaining tension in local Swedish hunting policy2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates how conflicts of interest among local hunting interests affect the legitimacy of the Swedish government's goals on hunting. These goals aim to give non-landowning and small landowning hunters an opportunity to hunt more and bigger game, as well as improving game management. A case-study was carried out in the county of Norrbotten among its Game Management Associations (GMAs) in 2004 to determine which kinds of conflicts of interest existed there. This association is part of hunting policy, since it was empowered and proliferated in the beginning of the 1980s to implement the formal rules in the Game Management Association Act (1980). It is assumed to be representative of local hunting in general. Lingering informal rules have been found to govern hunting locally in Norr-botten and show no sign of weakening. Thus, conflicts of interest, especially majority-minority conflicts between landowners and renthunters become permanent. Small game hunting and the issuing of hunting permits are, in particular, governed by informal rules, while the suspension of hunters is often the result of the arbitrary use of formal rules. These two issues involve mostly renthunters. Even the content of formal rules in policy can also cause conflict in GMAs. For instance, the 33§ in the Game Management Association Act has become legally and ideologically controversial, since it makes it difficult for landowners to remove their properties from GMAs, and, thus, from a European legal perspective, encroaches on both their property rights and exercise of individual rights. The thesis also reveals that administrative contexts and structural attributes influence conflicts of interest in GMAs. For instance, small game hunters in moose management areas are in conflict with their boards to a greater extent than their counterparts in hunting licence areas. The size of a GMA and the presence of non-local hunters are also factors that influence conflicts of interest in GMAs. Hunting policy has met resistance from local informal rules and the remnants of old policy rules, so-called ‘ghost policies'. For example, less than half of appealed GMAs between 1981 and 2003 used formal rules when making decisions. Thus, the goals concerning increasing the number of hunting opportunities in Sweden have not yet been fulfilled. Neither has game management improved. Ironically, this is caused by the presence of non- landowning non-local hunters, the very group of hunters the government's goals on hunting focus on. Nevertheless, small landowning hunters are satisfied with the amount of game they can hunt in the GMA.

  • 87. Fell, Terence
    Minoritetsrättsfrågan: nationalstatens akillehäl1999In: Tidskrift för politisk filosofi, ISSN 1402-2710, no 2, p. 47-63Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 88.
    Gasper, Sofia Wennberg-di
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Already adaptive?: a quantitative study of the presence of adaptive management aspects in local moose management systems2006In: IASCP 2006 Conference Papers, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish authorities have, in several official reports, proposed an adaptive management approach, in order to ensure sustainable resource use in terms of oceans, terrestrial waters and wildlife. Adaptive management emphasizes that ecosystems are complex non-linear systems, in which the only certainty is uncertainty, and that management strategies must accept this as an integral part of the ecological system. Conversely, conventional resource management is characterized by the concept of command and control over resources, with the goal to maximize sustainable yield. Conventional resource management is associated with a top-down management structure, and it is reasonable to assume that fundamental institutional changes are required in order to replace conventional resource management with adaptive management. Changes in Swedish official policy have entailed increased management rights of property owners regarding moose management. In other words, due to the conversion of the top-down management system to a bottom-up system, the formal institutional prerequisites for local adaptive management systems presumably are in place regarding moose management. This is a quantitative study that assesses the extent of adaptive management currently in place within local moose management systems in an industrialized country. It can be assumed that one would be less likely to find adaptive management systems here, due to the fact that resource users are not dependent upon the resource for their livelihood, as opposed to the situation often existing in third world countries. A Moose Management Units (MMU) database has been established that contains variables, such as monitoring methods, goals regarding the size of the moose population, and so on, which can be operationalized as aspects of adaptive management. Since most research within the adaptive management literature consists of case studies, this study provides a complement to the research field. Results show that there are few aspects of adaptive management currently present in Swedish MMUs. Even though private landowners have extensive management rights, to date, they have not implemented central aspects of adaptive management, such as ecosystem management. The conversion of a top-down system characterized by single species management will not automatically turn into an adaptive management system, even though resource users have gained management rights. The public administration has a paramount role in implementing adaptive management, because it can provide knowledge, share information and advice, and promote learning. The traditional role of the public administration regarding moose management is that of enforcing and monitoring rules. However, since the potential of establishing MMUs has existed, this role has been undermined. It seems that the public administration is inflexible, and that the current organizational structure inhibits the establishment of adaptive management. Therefore, it is critical, prior to decentralization and deregulation, to ensure that the organizational structure of the public administration will promote and not inhibit the implementation of new management systems.

  • 89.
    Gasper, Sofia Wennberg-di
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Already adaptive?: an investigation of the performance of Swedish moose management organizations2006Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary aim of this thesis has been to explore the significance of institutions, specifically property rights, on the establishment of adaptive management systems for natural resources. Another goal has been to contribute to how institutional theory and, in particular, theories of institutional change can be utilized to explain the presence or absence of adaptive management systems. In addition, the importance of conflicting interests regarding management of natural resources, and the effects of these conflicts on establishing adaptive management systems is examined. In Sweden, conflicting interests exist between hunting and the forestry industry. This is because moose cause grazing damage which results in economic losses to the forestry industry, whereas hunters prefer large moose populations to optimize hunting opportunities. Changes in the Swedish official policy have stipulated that formal institutional prerequisites for local adaptive management systems are in place regarding moose management, because landowners have gained increased management rights, including the right to decide moose population size. A quantitative study of Swedish Moose Management Units has revealed that these units are not particularly adaptive. A few hypotheses were stipulated relating to issues such as conflicting interests. The first hypothesis was that the devolution of management rights of moose took place without accompanying restructuring of the public administrative moose management system, and that this has led to isolated MMUs, a hypothesis data support. The second hypothesis was that conflicting interests between hunters and the forestry industry would result in the extent of adaptive management aspects being less when the ownership structure predominantly consists of forestry companies. Empirical analysis showed that there were small statistically- significant differences that could be explained by ownership structure. However, the hypothesis that private ownership would entail more aspects of adaptive management was rejected. The final hypothesis was that neither the forestry industry nor the hunter would achieve the size of moose population desired, and data findings supported this. If the Swedish state is going to implement adaptive management of natural resources, the role of the public administration has to be examined. This study indicates that the "traditional role" of the CABs does not seem conducive to implementing adaptive management. In addition, the study also indicates the importance of changed legislation to promote adaptive management and achieve a balance between flexibility and predictability. Further research concerning the effects of conflicting interests on establishing adaptive management is warranted.

  • 90. Gasper, Sofia Wennberg-di
    Already adaptive?: lessons from a pilot study of management of fish and wildlife2004In: The Commons in an Age of Global Transition: Challenges, Risks and Opportunities, International Association for the Study of the Commons, IASCP , 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 91.
    Gasper, Sofia Wennberg-di
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Natural resource management in an institutional disorder: the development of adaptive co-management systems of moose in Sweden2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis is to contribute to the understanding of the development of adaptive co-management systems and of the role the State plays in promoting or hampering such a development. Natural resource issues are often characterised by conflicting interests and in general implemented by conventional, top-down management systems. Therefore this thesis also investigates the effect conflicting interests and institutional path dependencies have on the development of adaptive co-management systems. The Swedish moose management system was established in the beginning of the 20th century as the State was trying to rectify a "tragedy of the commons" situation since moose at the time was almost extinct. The administrative system erected can be characterised as a conventional, top-down, single- species management system, and had features of both corporate arrangements and legal-rational bureaucratic administrative models. Due to high administrative costs and the explosion of the moose population in the late 1970's which resulted in significant grazing damages on commercial tree species, the State changed its policies. One change in formal rules allowed for hunting rights owners to establish so called Moose Management Units (MMU) which entailed that they gained management rights, and thereby could decide on their own the number of moose to be shot in a hunting season. This is a critical right since approximately 1/3 of the moose populations are decimated during a hunting season and this right is therefore an efficient tool for controlling the size of the moose populations. The State also made alterations in the corporate arrangement, from primarily only including the hunting interest organisation SAHWM to increase landowner interests' influence in the public administration. A quantitative study of the MMUs revealed that these can not be characterised as adaptive co-management systems to a high degree due to inadequate monitoring, inability to meet management goals, and failure to apply ecosystem management. Part of the reason for this is that there is an ecological and social misfit since MMUs are too small to contain its own moose populations. Another reason is inadequate knowledge regarding population dynamics on behalf of the local resource users. However, there were variations not only among MMUs but also on the regional level as to the extent of adaptive co-management characteristics. Two counties were selected for further study due to the fact that the MMUs in one county had more characteristics of adaptive co-management systems than in the other one. The case studies revealed that high levels of conflicts in a corporate arrangement hampered the development of adaptive co- management systems. In the county with low conflict levels regarding the moose question, a key steward holding a key position in the moose administrative system was a critical actor in promoting the development of adaptive co-management systems. It is concluded that devolution of management rights does not automatically foster adaptive co-management. Nor is a centralized system easily converted to a bottom-up system. The study shows that institutional change is path dependent but also that the State has an important role to play in developing adaptive co-management systems. This is particularly decisive if an ecological and social misfit is likely to arise since the State then can provide linkages both on an organisational level but also on a geographical level and thereby mitigate potential negative effects of local resource systems. However, this role differs significantly from that in conventional resource management and therefore it is also important that the organisation and tasks of the State is ensured legitimacy among both the public and affected resource users.

  • 92. Gasper, Sofia Wennberg-di
    Wildlife management in Norrbotten county and its effect on the question of Laponia2004Report (Other academic)
  • 93. Harring, N.
    et al.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Should we trust in values?: Explaining support for pro-environmental policy instruments2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 94.
    Harring, N.
    et al.
    Centre for Collective Action Research (CeCAR), Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Centre for Collective Action Research (CeCAR), Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Centre for Collective Action Research (CeCAR), Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    The significance of political culture, economic context and instrument type for climate policy support: a cross-national study2019In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 636-650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While many countries have pledged to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the choice of national climate policy measures demonstrates widespread variation. Although system of government, path-dependency and economic entanglements can explain a certain amount of variation in policy choice, research also points specifically towards the highly politicized nature of climate policy instruments and their sensitivity to public support as explanatory factors for cross-national differences. Previous studies hypothesize that various country-specific contextual factors determine both general preferences for environmental protection and the public’s preferences for different types of policy instruments. One suggestion is that countries’ prevailing political cultures have significant consequences for such public support. Another supposition is that, since countries differ in their economic dependency on climate detrimental industry such as fossil fuel production, this should be a significant factor determining both public attitudes and subsequent political decisions. This paper applies unique, original data from four countries with significant variation in (i) political-cultural contexts (Sweden and Norway vs New Zealand and Australia and (ii) economic dependency (Norway and Australia vs Sweden and New Zealand) to analyze how, and to what extent, these two contextual variables interact with, and moderate, the effect of individual-level factors on support for climate policy measures in the four countries. Furthermore, the paper explores variations in support for different types of CO2 taxes (directed towards individual consumers, industry, and fossil-fuel producers) in the four countries. Key policy insights Across contexts, public policy support is lower for taxes directed towards private consumption than for taxes directed towards industry, and the strongest for CO2 taxes on fossil fuel producing industry. Political culture and economic context influence the effect of individual-level factors on policy support. In a context of high economic dependency on the fossil-fuel industry, people are less likely to support the introduction of CO2 taxes. The effect of left-right ideology on policy support is sensitive to political-cultural context.

  • 95.
    Harring, Niklas
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Should we trust in values?: Explaining public support for pro-environmental taxes2013In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 210-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we are concerned with what explains public acceptance and support of environmental taxes. We examine findings in environmental psychology emphasizing that people’s (environmental) value-orientation is the dominant driver determining individuals’ support for pro-environmental policy instruments. We introduce a complementary model, mainly drawing upon findings in political science, suggesting that people’s support for policy instruments is dependent on their level of political trust and their trust in other citizens. More specifically, we analyze whether political trust and inter-personal trust affect individuals’ support for an increased carbon dioxide tax in Sweden, while checking their value orientation, self-interest, and various socio-economic values. We make use of survey data obtained from a mail questionnaire sent out to a random sample of 3,000 individuals in 2009. We find that apart from people’s values, beliefs, and norms, both political trust and interpersonal trust have significant effects on people's attitudes toward an increased tax on carbon dioxide.

  • 96.
    Harring, Niklas
    et al.
    Centre for Collective Action Research, Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Why do people accept environmental policies?: The prospects of higher education and changes in norms, beliefs and policy preferences2018In: Environmental Education Research, ISSN 1350-4622, E-ISSN 1469-5871, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 791-806Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pressing problems of environmental degradation are typically argued to require coordination, primarily through state intervention. Social scientists are struggling to understand how attitudes toward such state interventions are formed, and several drivers have been suggested, including education. People with university degrees are assumed to have certain values as well as the analytical skills to understand complex issues such as climate change. By using a unique panel data-set with students in different university programs (economics, law and political science), this study provides a better understanding of whether and how education affects environmental policy acceptance. One important finding is that university studies generate variation in support and scepticism toward different types of policy measures. For example, economics students tend to develop more positive attitudes toward market-based policy measures. This indicates a potential for education to increase the societal support often hindering the implementation of such policy tools.

  • 97.
    Harring, Niklas
    et al.
    Centre for Collective Action Research (CeCAR), Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jagers, Sverker C.
    Centre for Collective Action Research (CeCAR), Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Higher education, norm development, and environmental protection2020In: Higher Education, ISSN 0018-1560, E-ISSN 1573-174X, Vol. 79, no 2, p. 291-305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a debate on whether higher education in the social sciences generates stronger democratic and environmental norms among students. In our study, we focus on students’ perceptions about legitimate rule in the case of environmental protection. We contribute to this debate by using a unique longitudinal data set from seven universities and university colleges in Sweden. Our results show that higher education in the social sciences does not generate stronger democratic or environmental norms, at least not in the case of environmental protection. We discuss why this is the case and refine our results further by looking at individual-level factors, such as gender and ideology.

  • 98.
    Harring, Niklas
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Martinsson, Johan
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Explaining ups and downs in the public’s environmental concern in Sweden: the effects of ecological modernization, the economy, and the media2011In: Organization & environment, ISSN 1086-0266, E-ISSN 1552-7417, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 388-403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the authors search for explanations to ups and downs in the Swedish public’s environmental concern since the 1980s. In line with previous research, this study examines the effects of economic cycles and media coverage. In addition, the authors hypothesize that the economy will affect environmental concern less over time because of the entry of ecological modernization into elite discourse. Using time series regression analysis and a unique data set, we study Swedish public opinion during more than 20 years. Economic cycles affect the public’s environmental concern but to a diminishing degree. Public environmental concern is also affected by the amount of media coverage. In accordance with earlier observations, it is concluded that both the economy and media content have an independent effect on public environmental concern. However, the previously observed conflict between economic cycles and public environmental concern is weakened, potentially because of the elite group embracement of an ecological modernization discourse.

  • 99.
    Havenhand, Jonathan N.
    et al.
    Department of Marine Sciences, Tjärnö Marine Laboratory, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Filipsson, Helena L.
    Department of Geology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Niiranen, Susa
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden;Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Crépin, Anne-Sophie
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Department of Political Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Langlet, David
    Department of Law, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Turner, David
    Department of Marine Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Winder, Monika
    Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    de Wit, Pierre
    Department of Marine Sciences, Tjärnö Marine Laboratory, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Anderson, Leif G.
    Department of Marine Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ecological and functional consequences of coastal ocean acidification: Perspectives from the Baltic-Skagerrak System2019In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 48, no 8, p. 831-854Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ocean temperatures are rising; species are shifting poleward, and pH is falling (ocean acidification, OA). We summarise current understanding of OA in the brackish Baltic-Skagerrak System, focussing on the direct, indirect and interactive effects of OA with other anthropogenic drivers on marine biogeochemistry, organisms and ecosystems. Substantial recent advances reveal a pattern of stronger responses (positive or negative) of species than ecosystems, more positive responses at lower trophic levels and strong indirect interactions in food-webs. Common emergent themes were as follows: OA drives planktonic systems toward the microbial loop, reducing energy transfer to zooplankton and fish; and nutrient/food availability ameliorates negative impacts of OA. We identify several key areas for further research, notably the need for OA-relevant biogeochemical and ecosystem models, and understanding the ecological and evolutionary capacity of Baltic-Skagerrak ecosystems to respond to OA and other anthropogenic drivers.

  • 100.
    Hentati-Sundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Lysekil, Sweden. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hellquist, Katharina Fryers
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Duit, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Iron triangles and subsidies: understanding the long-term role of the government on Swedish commercial fisheries2019In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 24, no 4, article id 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many natural resources have degraded and collapsed despite being managed under rigorous institutional frameworks set up to ensure rational exploitation. Path dependency of dysfunction institutions has been suggested as an explanation for such undesired outcomes. We explore the role of path dependency in natural resource management by studying a 100-year evolution of Swedish fisheries. We rely on three main types of original longitudinal data collected for the period 1914–2016: (A) policy documents, (B) government spending on management and subsidies, and (C) catch and fleet data. Our analysis contrasts the periods before and after the Swedish entrance into the European Union (1995) because this marks the year when fisheries policy became beyond the direct influence of the Swedish government. We uncover four pieces of evidence suggesting the existence of a path dependent dynamic in the pre-EU period: (1) despite increasing insights on the vulnerability of fish stocks to overexploitation, national policy goals in relation to fisheries continuously promoted incompatible goals of social and economic growth but without any reference to the sustainability of the biological resources; (2) the same policy instruments were used over long periods; (3) actor constellations within the fisheries policy subsystem were stable over time; (4) neither political regime nor macroeconomic variables and fisheries performance (industry production, oil price, landing values) could explain observed temporal variation in subsidies. We conclude that key policy actors in the pre-EU period formed an “iron triangle” and thereby prevented necessary policy changes. These national reinforcing feedbacks have been weakened since EU entrance, and the indicators for path dependency show broader involvement of stakeholders, a shift in spending, and policy goals that now explicitly address ecological sustainability.

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