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  • 51.
    Lohilahti Bladfält, Sanna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Grane, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Bengtsson, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Gear Shifter Design: Lack of Dedicated Positions and the Contribution to Cognitive Load and Inattention2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 52.
    Lundmark, Felix
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Arbete och organisation i framtidens digitaliserade industri2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report was as an initial input to the two research projects Attractive Workplaces Through Industry 4.0 and Produktion 4.0. The purpose of the report has been to increase the understanding of Industry 4.0 on a general level. The goal was to describe what Industry 4.0 is, how it may affect organizations in the future as well as position the concept in a bigger context of national strategies and organizational models.

    Industry 4.0 was presented as the German national strategy in 2013. Industry 4.0 has been found to be a technological concept that can be characterized by Internet of Things (IoT), Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) and smart factories. On a general level, Industry 4.0 can be described as a digitalization where products, machines and entire factories become interconnected. This is possible through vertical integration, horizontal integration and end-to-end integration. It has been stated that Industry 4.0 is not an organizational model, even though elements of previously known organizational models may be indirectly implemented through Industry 4.0.

    Industry 4.0 is expected to shift routine work towards a freer role for future operators. With an increase in complexity, future work is expected to be characterized as mental work to a greater extent. A risk identified is the possibility of a polarization of the workforce, where some jobs are enriched with variation in work content and others depleted. A vision for a future Operator 4.0 has been established within the literature. In this vision, the operator is an integrated component in the complex system of an Industry 4.0 environment. This integration face challenges in terms of integrity and privacy, since the collection of data about individuals will be a necessity.

    The complex and abstract systems of Industry 4.0 implies that dealing with technology that, after all, does not work will be increasingly difficult for workers. Technological solutions such as smart cognitive support tools and smart personal protective equipment can be seen as possible solutions to future problems in the working environment. There is a risk, however, that an excessively large technical focus can lead to technical solutions being given priority over changes in the working environment that constitute the cause of the problems. Given the decentralization that is often referred to in Industry 4.0, both negative and positive changes can be expected. Decentralization can contribute to increased freedom in how and where work is carried out, but can at the same time increase requirements for accessibility and cause uncertainty in who is responsible for the working environment. Industry 4.0 is likely to result in new working environments as well as old problems occurring in a new context. Given the digitalization of the industrial sector, the digital working environment is expected to become a more central matter.

    Descriptions of Industry 4.0 tends to be visionary and may at first glance appear as unproblematic. Before Industry 4.0 can become reality the scientific, technological, economic, social and political challenges must be addressed. The report concludes that a broad focus, where technology is implemented on human terms, will be necessary for Industry 4.0 to be successful.

  • 53.
    Lööw, Joel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    An investigation into lean production practice in mining2018In: International Journal of Lean Six Sigma, ISSN 2040-4166, E-ISSN 2040-4174, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 123-142Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Using a theory of translation of ideas, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how the mining industry has implemented and practices lean production as well as the form of this practice.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The study reviewed the scientific literature on lean production in the mining industry, as well as in the reported practice of the concept in a mining company. The results were then analyzed using content analysis.

    Findings

    Lean production has not seen a full implementation in the mining industry. Rather, select practices are focused, though the literature covers several more. The findings suggest that the form and extension of lean production in mining differ from other industries owing to characteristics of the industry itself.

    Research limitations/implications

    The scientific literature on the subject is limited. Additional material was used to attempt to offset this. However, there are still blind spots relating to practice that is not reported in the type of material investigated.

    Originality/value

    This paper contributes to understanding the evolution of lean production in a unique industry. It suggests why lean implementation may be unsuccessful in this type of industry while also identifying the focal point of its lean production practice.

  • 54.
    Lööw, Joel
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Johansson, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Mining 4.0—the Impact of New Technology from a Work Place Perspective2019In: Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration, ISSN 2524-3462, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 701-707Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry 4.0 offers new possibilities to combine increased productivity with stimulating workplaces in a good work environment. Used correctly, digitalization can create attractive jobs in safe control room environments, which provide space for the employee’s full expertise and creativity. This is true also for the mining industry. But, to succeed, it is important to analyze the development from a worker’s perspective. What will happen to their work? What skills will be needed in the mine of tomorrow? We must also consider the risks, such as privacy issues, increased stress, and work-life boundaries. These questions must be understood if we are to create workplaces that can attract a young and diverse workforce to tomorrow’s mining industry. In this article, we try to illustrate what the new technology can mean for the individual miners. We formulate the notion of Mining 4.0 (Industry 4.0 in the mining industry), where we try to create an image of how the future might look from a miner’s perspective and how mining companies may navigate their way to a future that works for all miners. To illustrate the range of possible outcomes, we formulate two scenarios: one utopian and one dystopic. At the end of our article, we bring forward six recommendations that can be considered a beginning of a road map for the human side of Mining 4.0.

  • 55.
    Lööw, Joel
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Johansson, Bo
    Andersson, Eira
    Johansson, Jan
    Designing Ergonomic, Safe, and Attractive Mining Workplaces2018 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The mining industry has experienced important improvements with regard to its safety record and work environment. But there is still room for further improvement and the mining industry now faces the challenge of securing a future workforce: The current workforce is aging, and mining work increasingly requires a more qualified workforce. Designing Ergonomic, Safe, and Attractive Mining Workplaces seeks to give an understanding of what must be considered in the design of mining workplaces. By reviewing and discussing the historic and current development of the mining industry as well as problems related to the safety, ergonomics, and attractiveness of mining workplaces, it demonstrates that the challenges facing the mining industry often need to be solved on a case-to-case basis.

    The processes through which these issues are managed are of significant importance. To facilitate a proactive approach, the book covers the principles of systematic work environment management, together with examples of methods for risk management and work environment monitoring. It introduces a systematic and iterative design and planning method for the mining industry. This method acknowledges that all relevant stakeholders must be able to influence the design of ergonomic, safe, and attractive mining workplaces.

  • 56.
    Lööw, Joel
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology.
    Nygren, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology.
    Initiatives for increased safety in the Swedish mining industry: Studying 30 years of improved accident rates2019In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 117, p. 437-446Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates safety-related developments in the Swedish mining industry over a 30-year period, from the 1980s to the 2010s. It studies what may have contributed to lowering the accident frequency rates and improvement of safety more broadly in the industry. On this basis, interviews were conducted with informants from mining companies. This material was supplemented with a workshop with mining health and safety representatives and documents relating to the subject. The results are divided into four main themes, showing that from the 1980s and onwards, lowered rates and general safety improvements followed in the wake of technology development. This was complemented by a more direct focus on organisational aspects of safety beginning in the early 2000s. Still the effectiveness of the individual measures is not clear; while they theoretically have an effect, causality is hard to show. In other words, the improvements may not necessarily depend on the specifics of these initiatives. Given this, the article discusses the different initiatives in-depth, and gives suggestions for future research and industry action. This includes recommendations for approaching safety holistically and the development of new proactive indicators.

  • 57.
    Marsh, John E.
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Psychology, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Executive Processes Underpin the Bilingual Advantage on Phonemic Fluency: Evidence From Analyses of Switching and Clustering2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 1355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bilinguals often show a disadvantage in lexical access on verbal fluency tasks wherein the criteria require the production of words from semantic categories. However, the pattern is more heterogeneous for letter (phonemic) fluency wherein the task is to produce words beginning with a given letter. Here, bilinguals often outperform monolinguals. One explanation for this is that phonemic fluency, as compared with semantic fluency, is more greatly underpinned by executive processes and that bilinguals exhibit better performance on phonemic fluency due to better executive functions. In this study, we re-analyzed phonemic fluency data from the Betula study, scoring outputs according to two measures that purportedly reflect executive processes: clustering and switching. Consistent with the notion that bilinguals have superior executive processes and that these can be used to offset a bilingual disadvantage in verbal fluency, bilinguals (35-65 years at baseline) demonstrated greater switching and clustering throughout the 15-year study period.

  • 58.
    Martinec, Tomislav
    et al.
    Department of Design, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Škec, Stanko
    Department of Design, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia;Technical University of Denmark, DTU Management Engineering, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Horvat, Nikola
    Department of Design, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Štorga, Mario
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology. Department of Design, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    A state-transition model of team conceptual design activity2019In: Research in Engineering Design, ISSN 0934-9839, E-ISSN 1435-6066, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 103-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to model the micro-scale process patterns which can be identified during team conceptual design activities. A state-transition model has been developed and used to empirically investigate the patterns of design operations during two types of team conceptual design activities: ideation and concept review. The presented work builds on the perception of design problems as ill-defined and implies that conceptual design activities involve the simultaneous development of problems and solutions using three distinctive design operations—analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. The three design operations have been defined as fine-grain design steps performed by design teams when exploring the content of both the problem and the solution dimensions of the design space. Moreover, design operations have been conceptualised as transitions between states of the explored design space, thus providing a basis for the state-transition model. The model’s ability to map and visualise proportions of design operation sequences emerging during ideation and concept review has facilitated the identification of both the activity-specific patterns and patterns that were likely to appear during both types of empirically investigated activities. The two activities exhibited similar patterns, such as alternation of solution synthesis and analysis, sequences of synthesis, analysis and evaluation within solution space, and the potential co-evolution episodes. Nevertheless, divergent traits have been identified for ideation, and convergent traits for concept review, based on the significant differences in proportions of design operations and their sequences.

  • 59.
    McGrath-Champ, Susan
    et al.
    University of Sydney Business School, the University of Sydney, Australia.
    Meghan, Stacey
    Meghan Stacey, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Wilson, Rachel
    University of Sydney, Australia.
    Fitzgerald, Scott
    Curtin Graduate School of Business, Perth, Australia.
    Rainnie, Al
    Australia Institute, Canberra, Australia.
    Parding, Karolina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology.
    Principals’ support for teachers’ working conditions in devolved school setting: Insights from two Australian States2019In: Educational Management Administration & Leadership, ISSN 1741-1432, E-ISSN 1741-1440, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 590-605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shifts in schooling policy have had substantial impact upon the role of principals as well as the relationship that principals have with their teaching staff. In this paper we report on the initiatives 30 principals in a diverse range of devolved Australian government schools adopt to shape and support the local, school-level working conditions of teachers. Surprisingly, principals were commonly unable to articulate – or even respond to – this matter. More commonly principals reported being oriented to lifting capability through a focus on student outcomes, a focus that is consistent with much of the devolution and autonomy rhetoric. Of those who could respond regarding working conditions, dispositions of paternalistic ‘care’, basic distributive actions or even a lack of influence or control were reported, and clear spatial and social dimensions accompanied these patterns. Given that devolution has recently created new responsibilities for principals in Australian government schools, including in relation to staff, this finding is understandable but none the less holds substantial implications and raises questions about the managerial capacity needed for schools to be sustainable, positive workplaces.

  • 60.
    Norberg, Cathrine
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Fältholm, Ylva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    "Learn to blend in!": A corpus-based analysis of the representation of women in mining2018In: Equality, Diversity and Inclusion, ISSN 2040-7149, E-ISSN 2040-7157, Vol. 37, no 7, p. 698-712Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The aim of this study is to contribute with increased knowledge about gender in mining by exploring how women are discursively represented in texts produced by actors in the international mining arena.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The study combines corpus linguistic methods and discourse analysis. It implies a combination of quantitative and qualitative analyses, where the former is used as the point of departure for the latter, and where the material analysed is chosen on the basis of certain selected search phrases. The source for the study is the web, and the search engine used for the retrieval of data is WebCorp Live, a tool tailored for linguistic analysis of web material.

    Findings

    The analysis reveals that although the overarching theme in the women-in mining discourse is that women are needed in the industry, the underlying message is that women in mining are perceived as problematic.

    Practical implications

    The study shows that if mining is to change into a modern industry, the inherent hyper-masculine culture and its effects on the whole industry needs to be problematised and made evident. To increase the mere number of women, with women still heavily underrepresented, is not enough to break gender-biased discrimination.

    Originality/value

    The research contributes with new knowledge about gender in mining by using a method, which so far has had limited usage in (critical) discourse analysis.

  • 61.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Designing with action layers: A bottom-up approach to explore product interaction for intuitive use2018In: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education, The Design Society, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a design teaching approach that aims to support students to shift their approach when exploring, prototyping and testing user interactions with physical products. This is conducted in a bottom-up, iterative manner to change the perspective from focusing on the opportunities of user-involvement during the form-giving process, rather than prematurely stressing the design outcome. Instead of emphasising on aesthetics and appearance, the design approach emphasises how users perceive, interact with and experience products. Through a series of workshops, apedagogical approach was developed for exploring and designing user actions with physical products, based on the notion of ‘action layers’. Action layers offer a mindset of designing, which facilitates understanding of, and design for, intuitive and tangible interaction. The approach builds on product semantics and emphasises cognitive and action-based paradigms to create intuitive and embodied information-for-use. Action layers present product interaction as a sequence of four steps; invite, engage, enable, and confirm. In the workshops, students iteratively explored form, prototyped and tested interaction with users through sketching with physical models, starting with minimal surface and edge treatments, eventually ending up with functional cues and meaningful form for a certain product type and environment. Through testing and evaluation, students learn to understand user behaviour, relate to their own expectations and intent to the design situation, and iteratively improve the design. The outcomes suggest that students advance their insights on how users interpret, respond to and interact with products, which consequently extends their ability to design products better suited for use.

  • 62.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Guidelines for a mobile tool to address human factors issues in aircraft maintenance2019In: International Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics, ISSN 2045-7804, E-ISSN 2045-7812Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly specialised personnel are dependent on others and diverse systems to perform error-free aircraft maintenance. Research has shown that the maintenance process can be improved to reduce errors and increase usability by using a mobile tool. The goal of this project was to draw on theories of user-centred design to explore what human factors issues for maintenance personnel can be addressed by a mobile tool to make the most out of maintenance planning, execution, and follow-up. Military aircraft maintenance personnel at an air force unit were interviewed and observed. The following six problem areas that could be improved by the use of a mobile tool were identified: several information sources must constantly be consulted; information is constantly transferred between different locations and media types; technical documentation can be inconsistent and hard to access; there are strict hierarchies and certifications of personnel; the means of recording and transferring communicative information are insufficient; and there can be a long lag time for updates, error reporting and feedback of actions. A correctly designed mobile tool could solve these problems by combining all the information sources and recording relevant maintenance information.

  • 63.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Öhrling, Therese
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Håkansson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Results from cross-fertilization of courses for improved student learning2017In: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education: Building Community: Design Education for a Sustainable Future, E and PDE 2017 / [ed] Gulden T.,Pavel N.,Kovacevic A.,Buck L.,Bohemia E.,Berg A., Glasgow: Institution of Engineering Designers, The Design Society , 2017, p. 734-739Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes results from the development of two new industrial design courses in order to improve student learning in both practical and theoretical skills. Practical skills, such as model making and sketching, cannot be studied only as theory. These skills need training, implementation, and time to allow the knowledge to mature. The new course design build upon the CDIO framework where especially two standards are incorporated in the new course design: Standard 3 - Integrated curriculum, where personal and interpersonal skills, and product, process, and system building skills are interwoven with disciplinary knowledge, and Standard 5 - Design-Implement Experiences, where emphasis is on learning by doing, that the students will learn from actually designing something. This paper contains results from studies made during the first implementation of the two new courses, both from a teacher- and a student perspective. Redesigning several courses at the same time facilitates constructive alignment on course level where course activities are aligned with examination, and on program level where course content build upon previous courses and the proper learning outcomes are addressed at the proper time in the education program. On a course level, the results indicate that students are positive towards the interwoven practical and theoretical parts. Also, the student understanding of how different knowledge interact, both practical hands-on and theoretical knowledge, seem to have increased compared to previous years. On a program level, there are indications that much effort should go into organizing the sometimes new roles for the teachers and if overlooked could affect the course negatively, but we now have the knowledge how to implement the CDIO framework to develop courses for improved student learning.  

  • 64.
    Normark, Jörgen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Öhrling, Therese
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Grane, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    AIM4s 2: Attitudes, Insights and Motivation for Safety : DEL 2 - Ett interaktivt läromedel för att minska arbetsplatsolyckor2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport redogör för andra delen av förstudien AIM4S (Attitudes, Insights andMotivation for Safety). Studiens syfte och mål har varit att undersöka hur eninteraktiv träningsmiljö, som med hjälp av s.k. gamification, skulle kunna fungerasom verktyg för att förmedla säkerhetsrutiner. Inom ramen för studien har 43personer testat en prototyp av en interaktiv spelliknande miljö för träning avsäkerhet och efter det besvarat en enkät. Några av testpersonerna har ävenintervjuats. Resultatet av denna studie visar att den interaktiva träningsmiljönupplevs positiv och att den har förutsättning att kunna utgöra ett bra verktyg förlärande av säkerhetsrutiner.Den interaktiva träningsmiljön anses förmedla information och regler på ettlättillgängligt, roligt och tydligt sätt. En interaktiv träningsmiljö tycks kunna fungerabåde för inlärning, påminnelse och ökad riskmedvetenhet. Det är dock oklarthuruvida inlärningsformen kan bidra till minskat risktagande och till att sänkaantalet arbetsplatsolyckor i realiteten. För att detta ska ske tycks det vara viktigt attden interaktiva träningsmiljön inte upplevs som för lätt utan att den kan utmana ochmotivera till fortsatt ”spelande”. Många respondenter önskar även att träningsmiljönska uppmuntra till ”upptäckarglädje” och inte bestraffa en användare som önskarutforska träningsmiljön genom att ibland välja fel svarsalternativ. Vidare efterfrågasäven tydliga visualiserade konsekvenser av felaktiga val i den interaktivaträningsmiljön som kan verka som avskräckande exempel vid bristandesäkerhetsrutiner. Detta resultat har likheter med den första delen av förstudienAIM4S och det kan rekommenderas att utbildningsmaterial bör utvecklas så att de påemotionell påverka kan påverka brukaren till minskat risktagande för att därmedkunna bidra till färre arbetsplatsolyckor i industrin.

  • 65.
    Nygren, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Safety management on multi-employer worksites: Responsibilities and power relations in the mining industry2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this thesis is on the division of legal responsibilities for occupational safety management on multi-employer worksites in the mining industry. The empirical basis is a study conducted between 2013 and 2016 consisting of interviews and observations focusing on primarily managers, supervisors, coordinators and safety specialists from a Swedish mining company and a number of its contractors. Besides this, interviews were also conducted with an inspector from the Swedish Work Environment Authority (SWEA) and workshops were arranged involving industry representatives. Additionally, a document analysis was performed focusing on work organization, safety and regulatory matters. The theoretical framework focuses mainly and broadly on the consequences of inter-organizational complexity and power relations between organizations and between social actors.

    The results show that three key aspects characterize the division of legal responsibilities for safety management: 1) the main responsibility for managing safety is employer-specific and cannot be shared (e.g. between two separate companies) and entails specific formal tasks that must be performed, 2) everyone involved on multi-employer worksites has an extended duty to communicate and cooperate across companies in safety-related matters, and 3) the responsibility for coordinating work and broader safety measures is connected to one specific employer, usually the main client company itself by virtue of the work being conducted within its facilities. Although seemingly straight-forward in the legal demands being placed on specific actors, the matter of the division of responsibilities and what they should entail in practice had been a specific focus area for the mining company, as well as for the mining industry trade association and SWEA from an even broader perspective. The mining company had also taken a number of initiatives with the ambition to clarify these issues on their own multi-employer worksites in accordance with the legal requirements. As for the relations between the mining company and the contractors, these were characterized by an asymmetry of power with a difference between being affiliated to the company or a contractor in terms of the status and rights each affiliation entailed. This ultimately had an impact on contractor managers’ and supervisors’ ability or willingness to communicate with the client on safety-related issues.

    The conclusions of the thesis are divided into two main themes. The first theme, undermined conditions for employer responsibility, highlights that the main employer responsibility for managing safety may become eroded on multi-employer worksites, something that can be viewed from three distinct but interrelated perspectives: 1) the core-periphery structure characterizing multi-employer worksites, 2) how the different legal responsibilities relate to each other and the power asymmetry between organizations, and 3) the relations between the social actors involved in formal safety management in practice. The second theme, client company initiatives and blurring boundaries, underlines that the ambition of the mining company to clarify responsibilities meant that other issues related to power relations became downplayed or unaddressed. The dominant position that the company and, by extension, its managers, coordinators, etc., typically had also led to them occasionally intervening in the internal processes of the contractors, highlighting the importance of considering the consequences of blurred organizational boundaries due to longstanding outsourcing arrangements.

    An overall conclusion can be drawn that the dynamic, unfolding relations between the client and its contractors complicate the division of and adherence to legal responsibilities for safety management. This is a particular challenge facing policy and regulatory development going forward, not only in relation to the mining industry but on multi-employer worksites in general where workplace safety is especially important to consider.

  • 66.
    Näslund, Rebecka
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Gardelli, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    ‘We Can and We Want To’: People with Disabilities Intra-acting with Researchers and Technology in Research2019In: Work Based Learning e-Journal International, ISSN 2044-7868, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 67-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to offer insights into how people living with intellectual disabilities by intraacting with researchers and technology, can inform and improve participation in research and the dissemination of it. It draws upon the experiences from adults with intellectual disabilities and researchers participating in the production of audio-visual material. The audio-visual material was initiated and produced by a team in UK with participants living with intellectual disabilities and was based on an earlier article written by the two researchers. This current article highlights the importance of enabling people with disabilities to participate in the research (in various phases, settings, and ways) and as such also make accountable knowledge claims which can bear effects on the life of people with disabilities in their everyday practices and in relation to technology (such as information and communication technology, ICT). The approach, based on a material-semiotic and intra-actional understanding sheds light on the following questions: How can research be guided so that people with intellectual disabilities, the target groups of the research, become involved as actors and participants in the various phases of research concerning them? Can technology, such as Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), empower people with intellectual disabilities to become involved in research concerning them? And if so, in what ways.

  • 67.
    Parding, Karolina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Berg-Jansson, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Conditions for workplace learning in professional work: Discrepancies between occupational and organisational values2018In: Journal of Workplace Learning, ISSN 1366-5626, E-ISSN 1758-7859, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 108-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This paper aims to examine and discuss learning conditions for teachers, in the context of choice and decentralisation reforms.

    Design/methodology/approach

    This article is based on analyses of 30 interviews with Swedish upper secondary teachers focusing on their experiences of their conditions for learning.

    Findings

    This paper shows how teachers at upper secondary level identify their subjects as the most important to learn more within. Secondly, we also show that spatial and temporal aspects of organisation of work seem to influence the conditions for subject learning, where the interviewees in many ways contrast their own view to how they describe their work being organised.

    Research limitations/implications

    Our findings may have currency for other professional groups with similar governance-contexts, and teachers in other similar governance-contexts.

    Practical implications

    These findings indicate the need to further develop workplace learning strategies founded upon the understanding of schools as workplaces, taking occupational values into account. Furthermore, these strategies should be seen as a core Human Resource Management issue, as they can potentially enhance the work environment, thus increasing the profession’s attractiveness.

    Originality/value

    We show that spatial and temporal aspects of organisation of work seem to influence the conditions for the sought after subject learning, and that the teachers and the school management seem to identify with different and clashing ideals in terms of what, when, how and with whom to learn.

  • 68.
    Parraguez, Pedro
    et al.
    DTU Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Piccolo, Sebastiano A.
    DTU Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Perišić, Marija Majda
    Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Štorga, Mario
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Maier, Anja M.
    DTU Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Process Modularity Over Time: Modeling Process Execution as an Evolving Activity Network2019In: IEEE transactions on engineering management, ISSN 0018-9391, E-ISSN 1558-0040Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Process modularity describes the extent to which processes can be decomposed into modules to be executed in parallel. So far, research has approached process modularity from a static perspective, not accounting for its temporal evolution. As a result, the understanding of process modularity has been limited to inferences drawn from aggregated analyses that disregard process execution. This article introduces and develops the notion of dynamic process modularity considering the evolving activity network structure as executed by people. Drawing on network science, the article quantifies process modularity over time using archival data from an engineering design process of a biomass power plant. This article shows how studying the temporal evolution of process modularity enables a more complete understanding of activity networks, facilitates the comparison of actual process modularity patterns against formal engineering design stages, and provides data-driven decision-support for process planning and interventions. Finally, managerial recommendations for interface management, resource allocation, and process decomposition are proposed, to help practitioners better to understand and manage dynamic processes.

  • 69.
    Perišić, Marija Majda
    et al.
    University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architectur.
    Štorga, Mario
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology. University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architectur.
    Podobnik, Vedran
    University of Zagreb, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing.
    Agent-Based Modelling and Simulation of Product Development Teams2018In: Technical Gazette, ISSN 1330-3651, E-ISSN 1848-6339, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 524-532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The success of product development highly depends on the quality of cooperation among members of a team involved in the process. Thus, a tool capable of simulating product development team may be beneficial for researchers interested in teamwork, as well as useful for managers struggling with team formation during process planning phase. This work aims at providing a detailed overview of agent-based simulators of product development teams. Specifically, the scientific databases Web of Science, Scopus, ACM DL, and IEEE were searched to extract relevant agent-based models of teamwork in mechanical engineering and aerospace context and obtained models were reviewed to identify their key advantages and limitations. 

  • 70.
    Ringblom, Lisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology.
    Utmanad ordning? En studie av kön och jämställdhetsarbete i den svenska gruvindustrins arbetsorganisationer2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    The full text will be freely available from 2019-09-27 10:00
  • 71. Rönnbäck, Anna Öhrwall
    et al.
    Tynnhammar, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    An integrated product service engineering methodology for small businesses in the manufacturing industry2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 72.
    Sanda, Mohammed-Aminu
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology. Department of Organization and Human Resource Management, University of Ghana Business School, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana.
    Dynamics of goal characterization in students’ exams-preparation systemic activity transition processes2019In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the influence of students ‘goal characterization on their goal-formation processes, as characterized by their goal-classification, the systemic consideration of their activity-strategies and decision-outcomes when preparing for an examination. Using the Structural Equation Modeling approach, a functional analysis underlined by systemic principles was conducted. Firstly, the issue of whether the influence of students’ considerations of activity strategies on their decision outcomes is truly moderated by their activity goal formations, if they set highest-goals, is determined. Secondly, the issue of whether the influence of students’ considerations of activity strategies on their decision outcomes is truly mediated by their activity goal formations, if they set best-goals, is also determined. Based on the findings, the conscious goal-directed processes associated to the emergence of an individual’s thoughtfully mastered learning activity and its consequence on future design of systemic structural activity of individuals will be established.

  • 73.
    Segerstedt, Eugenia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Diversity of livelihoods and social sustainability in established mining communities2019In: The Extractive Industries and Society, ISSN 2214-790X, E-ISSN 2214-7918, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 610-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The challenges for any community that seeks to maintain a healthy and thriving social life around an operating mine have been considered at some length in research, but the picture is still far from complete. In order to pinpoint some of the gaps in research, the literature on social sustainability as applied to established mining communities in developed countries is here reviewed, and the general understanding of the social sustainability of such communities is touched on. Diversity of livelihoods is explored as an analytical lens which can be used to approach social sustainability challenges without essentializing the preferences of social groups. Extensive literature searches with keywords such as mining, work, gender, organization, social, sustainability, community, town, area, cohesion and inclusion were conducted. The results of our review show a research gap between studies of mining companies and studies of wider mining communities. We conclude that considering diversity of livelihoods can be a productive analytical tool when approaching aspects of social sustainability such as social cohesion and inclusion, gender equality, managed migration, demographics, and housing infrastructure. Continued research is recommended to further bridge the gap between studies of mining companies and studies of mining communities from the perspective of social sustainability.

  • 74.
    Sjögren, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Att uppfinna hjulet: En studie av behovet av metodsamordning inom svensk räddningstjänst2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande rapport är författad på uppdrag av Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap och syftar till att studera dels hur stort problemet med bristen på evidensbaserade metoder vid räddningsinsatser är inom räddningstjänsten, dels hur det är möjligt att på ett strukturerat sätt skapa ett samordnat metodunderlag för räddningsinsatser. Utifrån dessa syften har fem frågeställningar formulerats: Hur ser utvärdering och val av metoder ut inom de studerade räddningstjänsterna? Hur ser den metodsamordning som möjligtvis finns mellan räddningstjänster ut i dagsläget? Finns områden vilka är mer problematiska än andra? Hur arbetar andra myndigheter med metodsamordning? Hur skulle MSB kunna arbeta med metodsamordning för svenska räddningstjänster?

    För att uppfylla syfte och svara på frågeställningarna har sexton företrädare för svenska räddningstjänster intervjuats samt ett antal rapporter, utredningar, hemsidor och andra dokument analyserats. I rapporten ges en översikt över hur evidensbaserad praktik har vuxit fram och spridit sig i allmänhet samt mer specifikt hur Socialstyrelsen och Polismyndigheten arbetar med evidensbaserad praktik och metodsamordning. På detta följer en intervjustudie med företrädare för svenska räddningstjänster där bland annat deras metodutvecklingsarbete, behovet av metodsamordning och synen på MSB:s roll beskrivs. Avslutningsvis ges svar på de inledande frågeställningarna i en resultat- och diskussionsdel.

    Resultaten visar bland annat att en stor variation mellan räddningstjänsternas metodarbete råder. Detta, i samband med en omfattande frånvaro av samordningsarbete och i detta hänseende en frånvarande myndighet, tycks leda till både stor variation i kvaliteten på insatser samt att metodutvecklingen vad gäller vardagshändelser stannar av. För att råda bot på detta föreslås både ett metodsamordningsarbete inspirerat av Socialtjänstens (snarare än Polismyndighetens) arbete samt ett fokus på utbildning, lärande och kompetens.

  • 75.
    Sjögren, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Men, Nerds and Others: A study of competence and ideals in four ICT-research organizations2018In: Neue Technologien und aktuelle feministische Theoriebildung / [ed] B. Mauß & P. Lucht, Berlin: LIT Verlag, 2018Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 76.
    Smojver, Vladimir
    et al.
    University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Štorga, Mario
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology. University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Potočki, Eva
    University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Determining the Life Cycle Phase of a Technology Based on Patent Data2019In: Technical Gazette, ISSN 1330-3651, E-ISSN 1848-6339, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 222-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing new technologies is one of the most important goals of today’s scientific and industrial research. Understanding how technology evolves, as well as its current state, is invaluable in an ecosystem where technology is evolving at an increasingly rapid pace. In this paper, patent data is used to determine a technology’s life cycle. Two patent maps are created, one based on patent citations and one based on keywords. The citation patent map visualizes how patents cite each other, while the keyword patent maps visualize keywords used to describe patents and their relations. Both of these patent maps are dynamic, meaning they change over time thus giving insight into an examined technology’s evolution. A growth analysis of both networks is conducted as well as a degree distribution analysis. Both of these analyses are used to help determine the technology’s lifecycle phase as well as its patterns of growth. This insight is invaluable to stakeholders tasked to make strategic decisions related to technology development.

  • 77.
    Sörman, Daniel Eriksson
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Pritschke, Ilona
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ljungberg, Jessica Körning
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Complexity of Primary Lifetime Occupation and Cognitive Processing2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 1861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, there are a lack of studies focusing on the relationship between occupational complexity and executive functioning. This is noteworthy since executive functions are core aspects of cognitive processing. The present study was aimed to investigate if three occupational complexity factors (with data, people, and things) of main lifetime occupation were related to performance in executive tasks (inhibition, switching, updating). We analyzed cross-sectional data that were available for 225 participants aged 50–75 years. Results from structural equation models showed that higher complexity levels of working with data were related to lower error rates in the updating component of cognitive control. In addition, higher rates of complexity working with people was associated with lower error rates in task-switching, which also persisted after adjustment of fluid intelligence. Complexity with things, however, was not related to performance in the executive tasks. Future studies would benefit from a longitudinal design to investigate if the results from this study also hold in the long term and to further investigate the directionality between factors.

  • 78.
    Tynnhammar, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Core competence within Automation Solution Providers2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study focuses on what core competence SME working with automation solutions for manufacturing purposes have. The study was done both as an interview and a walk around the workshop floor of each company. All the companies in the study belong to the same business network, but had separate ecosystems. The core competence of automation solutions providers is being skilful prototypers. These companies have vast experience working with many types of manufacturing equipment, but much less formal education in the area, so they have almost a sixth sense of which solutions will work. This means they can rapidly start to build prototypes in their workshops, but their customers to help out in a live environment as production engineers and solve everyday kind of problems also usually trust them

  • 79.
    Tynnhammar, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Open innovation: an explorative study of an SME network in the automation industry2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The research proposaladdressed in this paper is to investigate Open Innovation within mi-cro-businesses and small businesses within the automation industry, that are part of their customer’sproduction development. Previous research on Open Innovation has mainly its standpoint in larger companies, and evidence from SMEs, especially micro and small businesses, is yet limited. Empirically this study is based on an evolving network in the manufacturing automation industry, which has poten-tial of becoming a cluster, ie a geographically concentrated network in the same line of business. Inter-views werecarried out in the twenty-onecompanies in the network, and are planned also with their cus-tomers outside the network. The contribution of this research is to describe how Open Innovation is conducted within and around an automation-network. Another important difference is the production innovation focus, where earlier research have been focusing on product innovation and not the produc-tion innovation

  • 80.
    Tynnhammar, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Open Innovation and Structured Collaboration2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presented research idea in this paper is based upon the basic research being done during a licentiate investigating a network of companies within the automation industry. The findings thereshowedthat they do collaborate in all phases of product development and with many different external organizations.The idea is to investigate this collaboration further with a multiple case study in seven of the projects the companies have been working in. The main aim ofthis study would be to describe the collaboration and if possible divide them into categories to be able to compare different collaborations and see if one type stands out compared to others.The suggested grouping is formal collaboration, social collaboration, and structured collaboration. Where the main hypothesis is that structured collaboration is the most successful one

  • 81.
    Tynnhammar, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Open Innovation in SMEs: Interaction within and around an automation-network2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The research idea addressed in this paper is to investigate Open Innovation within micro-businesses and small businesses within the automation industry. Previous research on Open Innovation has mainly its standpoint in larger companies, and evidence from SMEs, especially micro and small businesses, is yet limited. Empirically this study is based on an evolving network in the manufacturing automation industry, which has potential of becoming a cluster, ie a geographically concentrated network in the same line of business. Interviews was carried out in the twenty one companies in the network, and are planned also with their customers outside the network. The contribution of this research is to describe how Open Innovation is conducted within and around an automation-networ

  • 82.
    Tynnhammar, Marcus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Kokshagina, Olga
    MINES ParisTech.
    Schneider, Sabrina
    University of Kassel.
    Composing the innovation management symphony: A note on the 2017 ISPIM Innovation Conference in Vienna2018In: Technovation, ISSN 0166-4972, E-ISSN 1879-2383, Vol. 74-75, p. 66-66Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 83.
    Törlind, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology.
    Improving Written Communication: Implementation at Industrial Design Engineering2019In: Proceedings of the 15th International CDIO Conference, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark, June 25 – 27, 2019., 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the paper is to present how we have improved the quality of technical writing for students in Industrial Design Engineering at Luleå University of Technology. To achieve this, we have identified a number of courses focusing on verbal and written communication, one course – Product and production design focus on documenting and reporting a technical development work to a client. During the last seven years, the course has continuously been improved, and this paper contains an in-depth review of the course performed during spring 2018. The review was done by discussions in the teaching team, interviews, workshops, analysis of course documentation (course-reviews, course-pm, assessment-scheme etc.). The evolution of the course and how different support systems have been implemented such as peer-reviews, templates, formative feedback and self-assessment has been developed is described in detail. The current course is designed as a stage gate process with four design reviews, in which the student present and receive critique. At each design review, each team produces a short process memo (PM) that is peer-reviewed. Each student conducted three individual peer reviews, as well as group review. With 56 students in the class (spring 2018) over 180 completed peer reviews are performed by the students themselves before they receive formative feedback from the teachers. Self-assessment is also used, first by the team on their own final documentation. Finally, all student performs a personal self-assessment with feedback from their team members. The final assessment of the student is performed by the teachers and the result is similar to the students’ self-assessment.

  • 84.
    Udén, Maria K.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    The novel feminist diffraction concept: Its application in fifty-one peer-reviewed papers2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Diffraction,as conventionally defined, is a term for one among a number of wave phenomena.Since the 1990's, when it was introduced by Donna Haraway, it is also a concept within feminist methodology. While particularly the cyborg figure – the cybernetic organism – already in its mainstream scientific-technological scope involves both fantasy and innovation, the term diffraction is in its conventional meaning descriptive. This paper investigates the broad strokes of how the novel diffraction concept is taken in use. Fifty-one papers published in peer-reviewed journals from 2001 to June 2016. The results indicate that the opposition to traditional contemplation- i.e. reflection that Haraway sets as target when introducing the novel concept is the point around which the dynamics evolve.That far, the novel concept could be just any metaphor, like describing thinking things through as ‘reflecting’. Several authors however claim an interdisciplinary connotation, especially to physics. In the material investigated, every implementation and elaboration does not abide to the letter to each attribute in Haraway’s concept. The discovery of how dominant it nevertheless has become to do just that is an important result of this study. Haraway’s sketch of a mirror and a diffraction laboratory experiment is dealt with as was it a full description of wave theory, a complete representation that perfectly meshes with nature.  In a fair share of the material, Haraway’s invention of putting diffraction and reflection as metaphors for thinking in hierarchical opposition is literarily interpreted into physics.

  • 85.
    Wass, Malin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Ching, Teresa Y. C.
    National Acoustic Laboratories, Sydney, NSW, Australia; The HEARing Cooperative Research Centre, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Cupples, Linda
    Department of Linguistics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Wang, Hua-Chen
    Department of Cognitive Science, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia; ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Martin, Louise
    National Acoustic Laboratories, Sydney, NSW, Australia; The HEARing Cooperative Research Centre, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Button, Laura
    National Acoustic Laboratories, Sydney, NSW, Australia; The HEARing Cooperative Research Centre, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Gunnourie, Miriam
    National Acoustic Laboratories, Sydney, NSW, Australia; The HEARing Cooperative Research Centre, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Boisvert, Isabelle
    The HEARing Cooperative Research Centre, Sydney, NSW, Australia; Centre for Implementation of Hearing Research, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    McMahon, Catherine
    Department of Linguistics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia; ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Castles, Anne
    Department of Cognitive Science, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia; ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Orthographic Learning in Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing2018In: Language, speech & hearing services in schools, ISSN 0161-1461, E-ISSN 1558-9129, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 99-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between orthographic learning and language, reading, and cognitive skills in 9-year-old children who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) and to compare their performance to age-matched typically hearing (TH) controls.

    Method Eighteen children diagnosed with moderate-to-profound hearing loss who use hearing aids and/or cochlear implants participated. Their performance was compared with 35 age-matched controls with typical hearing. Orthographic learning was evaluated using a spelling task and a recognition task. The children were assessed on measures of reading ability, language, working memory, and paired-associate learning.

    Results On average, the DHH group performed more poorly than the TH controls on the spelling measure of orthographic learning, but not on the recognition measure. For both groups of children, there were significant correlations between orthographic learning and phonological decoding and between visual–verbal paired-associate learning and orthographic learning.

    Conclusions Although the children who are DHH had lower scores in the spelling test of orthographic learning than their TH peers, measures of their reading ability revealed that they acquired orthographic representations successfully. The results are consistent with the self-teaching hypothesis in suggesting that phonological decoding is important for orthographic learning.

  • 86.
    Wass, Malin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Löfkvist, Ulrika
    Anmyr, Lena
    Karltorp, Eva
    Lyxell, Björn
    Learning to read when speech sounds different: Orthographic learning in children with cochlear implants2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeThe aim of this study was to investigate orthographic learning and reading skill in Swedish children with cochlear implants (CI) in comparison with normal hearing peers (NH), and to explore relationships between orthographic learning and cognitive skills in the CI group.

    MethodEighteen children with CI and 43 NH children, matched for age and nonverbal IQ, participated. They were 7;10 - 10;4 years of age. All children were tested on reading fluency (words and nonwords), orthographic learning, existing orthographic representations, working memory (WM), and expressive vocabulary. The children with CI were also assessed on verbal fluency, paired associate learning (visual-visual, verbal-verbal and visual-verbal) and phoneme deletion. Group differences were analyzed with Mann-Whitney U tests. Relationships between skills were analyzed in partial correlations with age controlled.

    ResultsThe children with CI performed below the level of hearing peers on the measures of WM, and expressive vocabulary. They also performed below age-norms on the phoneme deletion task.

    On the other hand, the groups did not differ significantly on reading fluency, existing orthographic representations or orthographic learning. The group difference on orthographic learning approached significance (p=.07). In the CI group, orthographic learning was strongly correlated with reading fluency (words and nonwords respectively), visual-verbal and verbal-verbal paired associate learning, and verbal fluency.

    ConclusionsDespite having poorer language skills and lower WM capacity, children with CI may successfully learn new orthographic representations and develop fluent reading. In line with the self-teaching hypothesis (Share, 1999), orthographic learning was strongly related to phonological decoding (nonword reading fluency) also in children with CI. In addition, paired associate learning, verbal fluency, and WM capacity were related to their orthographic learning skill.

  • 87.
    Wass, Malin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Löfkvist, Ulrika
    Department of Special Needs Education, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Anmyr, Lena
    Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden. Department of Social Work in Health, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karltorp, Eva
    Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden. Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Östlund, Eva
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Department of Special Needs Education, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Correlates of Orthographic Learning in Swedish Children With Cochlear Implants2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study set out to explore the cognitive and linguistic correlates of orthographic learning in a group of 32 deaf and hard of hearing children with cochlear implants, to better understand the factors that affect the development of fluent reading in these children. To date, the research about the mechanisms of reading fluency and orthographic learning in this population is scarce. The children were between 6:0 and 10:11 years of age and used oral language as their primary mode of communication. They were assessed on orthographic learning, reading fluency and a range of cognitive and linguistic skills including working memory measures, word retrieval and paired associate learning. The results were analyzed in a set of correlation analyses. In line with previous findings from children with typical hearing, orthographic learning was strongly correlated with phonological decoding, receptive vocabulary, phonological skills, verbal-verbal paired-associate learning and word retrieval. The results of this study suggest that orthographic learning in children with CI is strongly dependent on similar cognitive and linguistic skills as in typically hearing peers. Efforts should thus be made to support phonological decoding skill, vocabulary, and phonological skills in this population.

  • 88.
    Wikberg Nilsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Normark, Jörgen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Törlind, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Öhrling, Therese
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Experiences of educational reform: Implementation of cdio at industrial design engineering2017In: Proceedings of the 13th International CDIO Conference, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada, June 18-­22, 2017, University of Calgary Press, 2017, Calgary: University of Calgary Press, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Luleå University of Technology (LTU) joined the CDIO initiative in 2015. The development of the MSc program Industrial Design Engineering (IDE) was one of LTU’s four test pilots of educational reform with support of the CDIO framework. The current educational reform comprises all CDIO standards, however some have been easier to implement than others. The results from the current CDIO-implementation are so far positive experiences from both faculty and students. While the program curriculum has been developed at a macro level, changes also impact the program objectives, teachers’ skills development, and students’ learning outcomes at a micro level where, for example, courses have been redesigned regarding teaching and learning activities, and assessments have been developed to include both formative and summative feedback to promote a deep learning approach. Great efforts have also been put into development of new learning environments, finalized in 2016. However, implementation of CDIO also deals with changing the educational culture, a work that takes more efforts and time than just one year. A success factor in the current implementation is the involvement of experienced CDIO-implementers that have inspired, motivated and coached the IDE faculty in re-designing the program. 

  • 89.
    Wikberg-Nilsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Blomqvist, Kajsa
    RISE.
    Jahnke, Marcus
    RISE.
    Molnar, Stefan
    RISE.
    Nilsson, Kristina L.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    de Fine Licht, Karl
    RISE.
    Öhrling, Therese
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Tillgänglighetsdesign för stadens utveckling2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Det offentliga rummet: stadens gator, parker, byggnader och torg likväl som den kultur och sociala kontext som en viss stad har, skulle kunna utformas för att vara tillgängligt, användbart, inkluderande, attraktivt och välgörande för människan i betydligt större utsträckning än vad som görs idag. 

    Troligtvis är det inte medveten diskriminering som ligger bakom mindre god design av det offentliga rummet, utan snarare okunskap om vad som kan och behöver göras. Fram tills dess människor befinner sig i en situation där de på något sätt själva är hindrade från att delta på lika villkor är det svårt att inse hur mycket det offentliga rummet påverkar oss. Det kan vara mindre hinder i form av ojämnt underlag som gör det svårt att ta sig fram för vissa, medan det omöjliggör framfart för andra. Det kan vara miljöer som vissa upplever som “vanliga” medan andra upplever sig djupt otrygga eller utestängda från desamma. Med andra ord är det offentliga rummets utrymmen där vi lever, jobbar och leker knutna till vart vi går och vad vi gör eller vart vi inte går eller gör. 

    Av den anledningen anser vi att det finns behov av att utveckla konkreta metoder och handgripliga råd för att arbeta med mer medveten utformning av fysisk miljö: tillgänglighetsdesign. Tillgänglighetsdesign används här genomgående som ett brett begrepp för design av lösningar som upplevs trygga, användbara, inkluderande, attraktiva och välgörande. Vi utgår från en designpraktik som stödjer tanken att miljön måste vara tillgänglig för alla grupper i samhället. I det förstudieprojekt som beskrivs i kommande kapitel har av den anledningen en kartläggning skett med utgångspunkt i ett helhetsgrepp på tillgänglighetsdesign, det vill säga att motverka diskriminering och främja lika rättighter och möjligheter oavsett kön, könsöverskridande identitet eller uttryck, etnisk tillhörighet, religion eller annan trosuppfattning, funktionsnedsättning, sexuell läggning eller ålder. 

    Förstudien har omfattat kartläggning av normkritiska perspektiv, lagar och riktlinjer kring fysisk tillgänglighet, social hållbarhet och tillgänglighet, universell och inkluderande design, samt inhämtning av inspiration från arkitektur, form och designområdet. Det har även omfattat identifiering av goda exempel från runt om i landet på vad tillgänglighetsdesign i bred bemärkelse kan omfatta och intervjuer med personer som arbetat med detta. Vi vill rikta ett stort tack till er som bidragit till arbetet. 

    Vår avsikt är att de principer som utformats i förstudien för tillgänglighetsdesign ska diskuteras, användas och uppdateras vid all stadsutveckling. På så sätt kan vi åstadkomma ett helhetsgrepp på tillgänglighetsdesign och åstadkomma socialt hållbara, attraktiva och tillgängliga platser och miljöer runt om i landet. 

  • 90.
    Wikberg-Nilsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology. Luleå University of Technology.
    Jahnke, Marcus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Tactics for Norm-Creative Innovation2018In: She Ji: The Journal of Design, Economics, and Innovation, ISSN 2405-8726, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 375-391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a set of norm-creative innovation tactics developed in collaborative design research projects with the objective of creating more inclusive solutions. Unawareness of social norms are exemplified through some of the flaws design has contributed to. The norm-creative approach explored in this paper involves a first step of being norm-critical, i.e. challenging social norms that contributes to inequalities and social exclusion, and a second step of being norm-creative, i.e. developing design solutions that counteract such norms through design thinking of what might be. The tactics were developed by extracting and articulating knowledge and experiences from various strands of design methodologies, successively tweaked with norm-creative perspectives and then probed in a series of collaborative design projects. The resulting tactics serve three key roles: Firstly, they contribute in iterative explorations of several stances and action possibilities. Secondly, they promote change of awareness through increasing understanding of diverse user experiences and social exclusion, and thirdly, they contribute both in thinking new about what is and what might be, thereby affording innovative prospects. Tactics for norm-creative innovation can for these reasons be one way of raising awareness and contributing to social sustainability through design.

  • 91.
    Wikberg-Nilsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Björklund, Cecilia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehabilitation.
    Axelsson, Sarianne Wiklund
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehabilitation.
    HealthCloud: promoting healthy living through co-design of user experiences in a digital service2018In: Proceedings of NordDesign: Design in the Era of Digitalization, 2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the interdisciplinary HealthCloud pre-study project was twofold: to further

    knowledge of user experiences of inclusive interface design specifically for an ageing

    population, and to develop a digital service for senior persons with sensory decline to promote

    healthy living and active ageing. A co-design approach was chosen to investigate the project

    aim and knowledge and user experiences was jointly developed and evaluated in three

    sequential steps in a participant-group of senior persons. In the design of the conceptual user

    interface, the identified core aspect involved a strive for utility: quality of appropriateness in

    use, and significance: how designs assume meaning in the ways they are used, as well as

    simplicity: to reduce, organize, and making it enjoyable to use. The digital service outcome

    consists of validation of previous research themes: keeping the family together; enjoying life

    at home; being close to nature; self-development; and promoting conditions for healthy

    ageing. The pre-study project outcomes are prototypes of digital health service content and

    interfaces, aimed for a future digital HealthCloud service. Participants in the reference-group

    found the developed interface easy to use regardless of previous computer skills and they

    were also motivated and stimulated by the developed prototypes for promoting active ageing

    on a daily basis. Participants also expressed a desire to display and recommend such digital

  • 92.
    Winkel, Jörgen
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Sociology and Work Science.
    Schiller, Bernt
    1University of Gothenburg, Department of Sociology and Work Science.
    Dellve, Lotta
    1University of Gothenburg, Department of Sociology and Work Science.
    Edwards, Kasper
    Technical University of Denmark, Department of Management Engineering.
    Neumann, W. Patrick
    Ryerson University, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Toronto.
    Öhrling, Therese
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Westgaard, Rolf H.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim.
    Scientific evidence suggests a changed approach in ergonomic intervention research2017In: The Nordic Ergonomic Society (NES) Conference Lund, August 20-23, 2017., 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ergonomic interventions have generally been unsuccessful in improving workers’ health, with concurrent rationalization efforts negating potentially successful intervention initiatives. We propose the two aims are considered simultaneously, aiming at the joint consideration of competitive performance and work environment in a long-term perspective (“organizational sustainability”). A prerequisite is a high level of dialogue between the different groups of stakeholders, and we argue that the Nordic countries, through high levels of trust and justice (social capital), have unique opportunity to carry out such research. The present authors bring forth the vision of “a Nordic Model for development of more sustainable production systems”.

  • 93.
    Öhrling, Therese
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Grane, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Normark, Jörgen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Visual communication for improved safety learning and safety culture in mining industry2017In: Proceedings of the Nordic Ergonomic Society (NES) conference 20-23 August 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Work related accidents do occur in heavy industry even though written safetyinstructions and routines exist. In order to improve work safety, the impact ofdifferent artefacts for visually communicating safety aspects is explored. Posters,short animated movies, a longer documentary movie, and a game-like interactivetraining environment prototype were explored with interviews and questionnaires.The documentary movie showed the best effect for increasing risk awareness andmotivation for applying safety routines. Results also revealed a discrepancybetween knowing the safety routines and actually applying them. A conclusion isthat visual communication improves learning and increases motivation to followsafety routines

  • 94.
    Öhrling, Therese
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Grane, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Normark, Jörgen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    AIM4S: Attitudes, Insights and Motivation for Safety : Visuella representationer och gamification som verktyg för att minska arbetsplatsolyckor i gruvindustrin2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport redogör för förstudien AIM4S (Attitudes, Insights and Motivation for Safety). Studiens syfte och mål har varit att undersöka hur LKAB-anställda och entreprenörer uppfattar olika typer av nya visuella representationer av säkerhetsrutiner, som tagits fram av företagshälsan vid LKAB, samt att undersöka hur interaktiv träningsmiljö, som med hjälp av s.k. gamification, skulle kunna fungera som verktyg för att förmedla säkerhetsrutiner. Enkätsvar och intervjuer bland LKABs anställda och LKABs entreprenörer visar att det finns ett behov av visuella representationer i verksamheten som kan påminna och uppmana till ett säkert handlande. Det upplevs positivt att det påminns om säkerhet på flera sätt, hellre en gång för mycket än en gång för lite. Studien visar att många avställda ofta tummar på säkerhetsföreskrifterna av bekvämlighetsskäl, men många tror att de visuella representationerna till viss del kan bidra till att de påminns om rutinerna och om riskerna de utsätter sig för om de bryter mot reglerna – vilket också ökar motivationen att följa dem. Den faktor som flest av de tillfrågade anser vara den mest kritiska orsaken till varför det ibland slarvas med säkerhet är en brist på lättillgänglig säkerhetsutrustning. Om säkerhetsutrustningen inte finns nära till hands utför man det man upplever som mindre riskfyllda arbeten utan säkerhetsutrustning. Skälet uppges vara bekvämlighet snarare än tidspress. En osäkerhet för gällande rutiner finns hos de anställda. De efterfrågar material i form av checklistor eller träningsprogram att gå tillbaka till vid säkerhetsronder och upplärning av nyanställda. Bland de entreprenörer som deltagit i studien finns en önskan om mer kunskap om given arbetsplats och dess eventuella risker då de inte har samma kunskap om detta som LKABs anställda.Denna studie visar att bilder och filmer i verksamheten uppfattas positivt av anställda eller entreprenörer. Visuellt material anses förmedla information och regler på ett lättillgängligt sätt. Materialet fungerar både för inlärning, påminnelse, ökad riskmedvetenhet och ändrat handlande. Det är dock oklart huruvida bilderna och filmerna fyller sitt syfte med att sänka antalet arbetsplatsolyckor. Den visuella representationen som samtliga tillfrågade ansåg bidra mest till ett minskat risktagande var dokumentärfilmen, som genom att anspela på känslor, emotion, påverkade de anställda och entreprenörer. Dokumentärfilmen skapade en förståelse för hur lätt olyckor kan hända och gav en riskmedvetenhet som flera bar med sig under det egna arbetet. Tysta tavlor och tysta filmer ansågs bra för att ständigt påminna om rutiner. Samtliga personer som deltog i studien förhöll sig neutrala eller försiktigt positiva till en interaktiv träningsmiljö, dvs. gamification av säkerhetsföreskrifterna. De ansåg att det skulle kunna vara bra för inlärning av rutiner genom att bidra till ett mer aktivt tänkande. Aktiviteten fick dock inte bli för enkel och barnspelslik och de ingående exemplen kändes svåra att bedöma utan att ha testat dem. En prototyp av spelet skulle behövas för en bättre utvärdering av åsikter kring detta. Affischer med LKAB anställda ansågs trevliga. En del associerade affischerna med säkerhet på fritiden eller bibehållen hälsa medan de flesta hade svårt att se syftet. Konst på fasader upplevdes fint och önskvärt men ansågs inte bidra till att sätta säkerheten först.

  • 95.
    Öhrling, Therese
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Normark, Jörgen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Wikberg-Nilsson, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Norm creativity in student design projects: One approach to creating sustainable societies2018In: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education, E and PDE 2018 / [ed] E. Bohemia; A. Kovacevic; L. Buck; P. Childs; S. Green; A. Hall; A. Dasan, 2018, p. 344-349Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design Engineers are capable of changing inequality through a design approach and design solutions. Therefore we as design teachers should consider it our responsibility to educate students to recognise inequality as a dimension of emphasising with potential future use and users. We believe that there is a current societal need for educating our design engineer students about such matters, in order to create more sustainable societies. Norm Creative Design is described as design approaches that include critical thinking of current use and users, with special emphasis on challenging current norms. Thereby, Norm Creative Design challenges current inequality to explore broader what-if scenarios for innovative solutions ranging from radical and critical designs to inclusive design solutions. This paper exemplifies how Norm Creative Design approaches are implemented in a course at Industrial Design Engineering [IDE] at Luleå University of Technology [LTU]. In design projects the students discuss how norms and examples of unawareness can exclude and discriminate people. The students are also provided with a number of design strategies for challenging norms which range from radical designs with a dual intent of thinking new and diverse, and stimulating discussions of ethics and discrimination, to inclusive design-for-all, including a diversity of people in the design solutions. The course outcomes includes students becoming broad need finders, and inclusive design thinkers, with skills in conceiving, designing, implementing and operating design based on a broad ethical and norm critical perspective. In our view, such skills should be part of teaching and learning activities in all design/engineering educations. 

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