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  • 51.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Forming future IT: the living lab way of user involvement2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis addresses the process of user involvement in the development of information technology (IT) systems. The motive for this research is that there is still a need of more knowledge about how users can be involved in IT-development when the aim is to develop solutions that represent user needs. This is especially true when the IT-system is developed to attract users as private persons. One attempt to facilitate inclusion of private persons in IT development processes is a phenomenon called Living Lab. Living Labs is a human-centric research and development approach in which IT-systems are co-created, tested, and evaluated in the users' own private context. The Living Lab phenomena can be viewed in two ways, as an environment, and, as an approach and in this thesis, the perspective taken is Living Lab as an approach. Since the Living Lab phenomena is a rather new area there is a noticeable lack of theories and methods supporting its actions. Hence, the purpose of my research is to contribute to a successful use of Living Labs as a means for user involvement by answering the question: How can a Living Lab approach for user involvement that focus on user needs, be designed? To gain insights into the topic I have been involved in three development projects in which the aim was to develop IT solutions based on users' needs. The research method applied in this research is action research based on an interpretive stance; I have used different methods for data- collection, such as focus-group interviews, surveys, and work-shops. In short, the main lessons learned from this research relates to three overarching themes; User involvement, Grappling with user needs, and Living Labs. The first theme concern issues such as user characteristics, user roles, when and how users should be involved. The second theme is divided into two clusters, collecting user data, and generating and understanding user needs. Lessons related to collecting users data concern topics such as encouraging users, storytelling, understanding the social context and the users' situation. The lessons regarding generating and understanding user needs relates to users motivation, the importance of understanding different perspectives and different levels of user needs. The third theme relates to the key-principles of Living Lab approaches, and how these principles are handled, supported, and related to each other in user involvement processes that embrace a Living Lab approach. Based on the lessons learned about the three themes, a methodology called FormIT is formed. The aim of FormIT is to assist Living Lab activities in Living Lab environments, and the methodology is built on ten guidelines. These guidelines are Identify, Inform, Interact, Iterate, Involve, Influence, Inspire, Illuminate, Integrate, and Implement, and they support the design of a Living Lab way of user involvement processes and contribute to fulfil the key-principles of Living Labs. To conclude, this thesis contributes to the understanding of how data about user needs can be collected, generated, and understood through a Living Lab way of user involvement processes. This in turn, contributes to the development of future IT-systems based on user needs, which increases the probability for system acceptance among private persons.

  • 52.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Human-centric evaluation of innovation2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this Licentiate Thesis, human-centric evaluation of innovations are investigated with focus on examining and gaining understanding of important issues that needs to be considered in the evaluation process. The intention of my research is to contribute to IT-design processes so that future products and services, that are in various stages of development, become more responsive to users' actual needs and wants. IT has traditionally been used within the boundaries for either work- practices or private use. Nowadays, however, these boundaries have become increasingly blurred. Today's technology should not only support work, but also leisure. This means that the use of IT additionally includes areas such as entertainment, education, news, and marketing. Furthermore, IT- products and services should also be supportive for people in their different, although concurrent, everyday roles, such as parent, colleague, friend, consumer, and partner. These changed use contexts and use patterns have made it even more significant to understand the importance of designing technology to support different use situations. To get knowledge about how technology can support use patterns and use contexts a means is user involvement and through continuous evaluations. The evaluations reported in this thesis are evaluations of innovations. Evaluation of use of technology has often focused on usability aspects. Now, the area has developed to include additional use aspects, such as interaction and use experiences. Hence, the area of user evaluation has altered to include a broader question, how technology fits within a broad range of human needs. In this thesis, the reported evaluations mainly have been carried out in a Living Lab context. Living Labs aim to support innovation processes among businesses and local and central authorities by offering human-centric evaluation of innovations in a real-world use environment. The Living Lab concept is rather new. Thus, the evaluation processes, performed within this context, need to be examined. The investigation in this thesis has been carried out following an action research approach within a Living Lab. In this course, four human-centric evaluations were performed: a piece of furniture displaying video-art, a mobile marketing service, a civic-service office, and a mobile-phone bus timetable. The investigation has illuminated that the context in which the evaluations occur is critical. Hence, it needs to be considered and intentionally studied. My study has also shown that the development context for innovations is complex; there are many stakeholders involved with different knowledge interests and therefore, to reach a common purpose of the evaluation is complicated. In addition, it is difficult for stakeholders to express their evaluation needs clearly. Hence, a focus on needs facilitates planning and designing the evaluation process. In this research, an aspect that have been identified as important to consider in evaluations of innovations is that users are reluctant to change their behaviour; hence, it is not possible to evaluate the actual impact of an innovation on people's lives. Instead, the focus of the evaluation should be on valuing users' attitudes and thoughts related to the innovation. In addition, evaluations of innovations are often formative in character, aiming to form the innovations in some way. In these evaluations, it is important to include users who are innovative and open to new technologies. It is also important to include active non-users in evaluations, since their attitudes could reveal necessary changes that would make them want to use the innovation. Finally, when evaluating how an evaluand fits into a range of user needs, it has been found that user needs can be met at different levels. This means that a product, or a service, can meet the need of a user concerning one aspect, but still, the user might not be aware of the need of the product or service, as such. So, a need of an innovation might exist, but the users do not use it anyway; the users fulfil their needs by a different means. Therefore, if an innovation does what the users need it to do, a change in user behaviour needs to be encouraged to help the users change their actions.

  • 53.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    PredicTool: evaluation of a mobile marketing service from a user perspective2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this test was a mobile marketing service that presented personalized offers to the customer. The service had three different channels for communication with the customer, a webpage, a kiosk in the store and SMS through their mobile phones. The campaigns in the kiosk and at the webpage were pull-campaigns meaning that the customers could look and download pre-definied coupons to their mobile phones. During the test period 10-15 offers has been available every week in the kiosk and at the webpage. The campaigns over SMS were push-campaigns where the customer got offers related to their personal profile without having to do anything. The offers over SMS have been sent, at the most, once a week to each customer. 298 persons chose to be members in the mobile loyalty club during the test- period. After the test period, the test-pilots opinions have been collected through web-surveys and focus-group interviews. The evaluation showed that the overall opinion about the service and the communication channels it contains were that it was easy to use. The users were also positive to the opportunity to get offers via their mobile-phone, the kiosk and the Internet. The results also revealed important things to consider when using mobile marketing as well as ideas for future development of the service.

  • 54.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    ShowUnit: utvärdering av ett utställningsrum för videokonst ur ett användarperspektiv2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under tiden 13 november 2004 till 12 december 2004 genomfördes utvärdering av ett utställningsrum, ShowUnit, på Konstens Hus i Luleå. Utställningsrummet visade videokonst och det fanns tre program med ett varierande antal videokonstfilmer på. Syftet med utvärderingen var att undersöka hur ShowUnit fungerade i verkligheten; hur använde användare sig av ShowUnit, nåddes nya målgrupper och vilken var användarens upplevelse av att se konst på detta sätt. Målet var att få förslag till vidareutveckling av ShowUnit. I utvärderingen samlades data in med olika metoder som: intervjuer, observationer, två olika slags enkäter samt experttest. Utvärderingen visar att användares upplevelse av videokonstmöbeln i sig var positiv. Utvärderingen visar även hur de har använt den, vilka attityder de har om användningen och design samt vilka förändringar som är önksvärda.

  • 55.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Understanding Modes of Crowdsourcing and Related Crowd Motivators2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today there is a very strong and rapidly growing interest and actions focusing on involving the crowd in different initiatives. This trend can be labelled crowdsourcing where companies want to tap into the wisdom of the crowd, or to engage crowds to carry our micro-tasks to achieve a higher goal. Hence, crowds can be engaged in many different types of activities spanning from idea generation to crisis management. These crowds are also motivated to participate and contribute differently, for some crowds monetary compensation is a strong motivator while in other initiatives, contributing to a larger cause is more prominent. This paper aims to cluster different crowdsourcing initiatives into different modes to deepen the understanding of what motivates the crowds. We also illustrate how crowd motivators are influenced by gender where our study, being carried out in the IoT Lab project, show that men and women are motivated differently to participate.

  • 56.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Utvärdering av ett medborgarkontor2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna utvärdering har genomförts av Testplats Botnia. Det införts ett medborgarkontor i Överkalix kommun. I detta medborgarkontor finns Skatte- myndigheten, Kronofogdemyndigheten, Arbetsförmedlingen och, inom en snar framtid, även Försäkringskassan samlade under ett och samma tak. Meningen med medborgarkontoret är att det ska öka myndigheters tillgänglighet för medborgarna. Vid införandet av medborgarkontoret anordnades ett öppet hus där medborgarna fick komma och få information om vad det innebär samt möjlighet att ställa frågor till de tillgängliga myndigheterna. Det har även funnits en webbenkät tillgänglig på servicekontoret som medborgarna har kunnat besvara. Syftet med utvärderingen var att att undersöka användarens upplevelse av servicegrad. Frågeställningar har fokuserats kring attityder, reaktioner och upplevd nytta av medborgarkontoret samt uppfattningar om huruvida ärendehantering underlättats. Utvärderingen visar att medborgarna till stor del är positiva till ett medborgarkontor, även om de inte besöker myndigheter frekvent. Utvärderingen har även kunnat fånga medborgarnas förväntningar och farhågor.

  • 57.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    Constructing representations of users needs: a living lab approach2008In: Proceedings of 31th Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia: Public systems in the future: possibilities, challenges and pitfalls / [ed] Viveca Asproth, Mittuniversitetet , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The difficulties of understanding system requirements early on in the systems development process is an issue being discussed in the information systems discipline for several years. The requirement elicitation phase is seen as the most important phase, but it is still the least understood activity during the systems development process. Little research has been published which clarify, discuss and theorize user needs and its characteristics and how these could be used as implications for design of new IT-systems. In this paper, we aim to generate general insights about users and their situations by elaborating with situational user expressions and by this start developing theory about users' needs and requirements. During our studies, we have found that users express their needs and desires that are both dependent on the current situation they act in, but users also express their desires in general ways. Following a constructivist perspective, we have found that the users' experiences and the use of stimuli material influence what users express.

  • 58.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Exploring users motivation in innovation communities2011In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, ISSN 1368-275X, E-ISSN 1741-5098, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 298-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A rapid growth of technologies supporting user interaction on the Internet, such as social networking sites and other virtual communities, can be seen today. These virtual communities have been shown to be of great value to companies that want to involve users in their innovation processes. However, in order to guide organisations on how to utilise their innovation intermediary communities, more knowledge is needed regarding who they are and their motivational drivers for participating in a community. The aim of this paper therefore is to explore who the users are and what motivates them to contribute to innovation processes in an innovation intermediary community. The main findings of our study indicate that users' motivation to participate is influenced by community type as well as technology adoption type. This study show that in innovation intermediary communities, one important motivational factor for users is learning.

  • 59.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    FormIT: an approach to user involvement2008In: European living labs: a new approach for human centric regional innovation, Berlin: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Harri Deutsch GmbH, 2008, p. 63-75Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Living Labs – real-world experiments to support open service innovation2011In: eChallenges e-2011 Conference / [ed] Paul Cunningham; Miriam Cunningham, IIMC International Information Management Corporation , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s competitive and dynamic market it is of vital importance for organizations to innovate their processes, products and services to survive. One emerging concept that assists these demands is the open service innovation approach that strives to open up organisational borders to support a continuous outflow and inflow of innovations. In this paper the aim is two-folded, firstly we aim to explore how a Living Lab approach with real-world tests can contribute in open innovation processes and secondly we aim to identify important aspects an organisation aiming to implement the concept needs to grapple with. In our study users tested and experimented with energy meters and energy visualisation tools in their home for 6 months with the aim to further develop the innovation. We have found that by applying real-world experimentation users contributed to the innovation in four different dimensions. We also found that an open innovation approach requires an organisation that is communicative which entails strategies and structures to support that role.

  • 61.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    Unveiling the mysterious needs of users2007In: Proceedings of the 30th Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, IRIS 30 / [ed] Tarja Tiainen; Hannakaisa Isomäki; Mikko Korpela; Anja Mursu; Minna-Kristiina Paakki; Samuli Pekkola, Department of Computer Sciences, University of Tampere , 2007, p. 570-586Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on identified trends and weaknesses within IS literature in relation to unveiling the needs of users this paper aims to contribute to the field by presenting a method for eliciting, structuring and understanding user needs. The method, FormIT, is illustrated through a case study focused on increasing citizens' involvement in municipality matters. To FormIT we added a framework based on psychological motivators to structure and understand the needs. The findings from the study can be divided into three clusters. The first focuses on the technical solution, and product and service criteria that motivate the citizens to interact with local and central authorities. The second cluster relates to the needs expressed by the citizens and/or interpreted by the authors. They give an indication of needs that citizens consider important and that need to be considered when developing e-services geared at e-participation and involvement between citizens and public authorities. Finally, the third cluster of findings relate to the method and framework used to elicit, cluster and understand user needs. The most important finding and conclusion here is that the main strength of the framework is the discussion and reflection it generates.

  • 62.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Voluntary contributors in open innovation processes2013In: Managing Open Innovation Technologies, Berlin: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2013, p. 133-149Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a trend among many organisations to open up their innovation processes and invite more stakeholders to contribute to it. One of these stakeholders is the voluntary contributor. Few studies have documented the motivation and value of participating in these processes from their perspective. The purpose of this chapter is thus to explore the motivation behind these contributors participation in open innovation activities and the benefits it has. This study shows that the strongest motivation for their participation is to stimulate their curiosity. The involvement also leads to increased knowledge and a pronounced eagerness to start using innovations.

  • 63.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Holst, Marita
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology.
    Understanding innovation community users2009In: Proceedings of the XX ISPIM Conference, Vienna, Austria, 21-24 June 2009 / [ed] K.R.E. Huizingh; S. Conn; M. Torkkeli; I. Bitran, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, we are facing new and challenging situations with the growing financial crisis and the difficult times for companies with a decreasing number of customers and declining revenues. It is therefore important for companies to challenge their way of thinking and developing innovations. An up-coming approach to innovation is to open up the innovation process and to include users in this process. Due to immaturity of this approach, there is little knowledge on how these communities should be designed and used to really support companies’ innovation processes. In this paper, we illustrate how and why users engage in innovation communities, as well as the nature of these users. We do this with the objective to render results that can guide companies on how to utilize their on-line user communities in order to accelerate user’s participation in open innovation processes.

  • 64.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Ihlström-Eriksson, Carina
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Stakeholders in Smart City Living Lab Processes2015In: 21st Americas Conference on Information Systems: AMCIS 2015, Puerto Rico, 13 - 15 August 2015, Americas Conference on Information Systems , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the increasing urbanization around the world, cities are growing at fast pace and following that, many cities face problems that includes both hard and soft issues. This can for instance be transportation, energy suppliance, social inclusion and quality of life for its citizens. As a way to contribute to solving these problems the smart city concept has emerged. This concept is focusing on capitalizing on ICT landscape in a strategic way. To achieve a smart city it is important to start with understanding the people and their needs, which can be supported by a Living Lab. These Living Lab involve a multitude of stakeholders in their innovation processes and thus, it becomes important to understand the power dependencies, claims and roles these stakeholders have. Thus, the aim of this paper is to explores the stakeholders that are involved in smart city innovation processes supported by Living Lab

  • 65.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Følstad, Asbjørn
    SINTEF.
    Ebbesson, Esbjörn
    Halmstad University.
    Lund, Jesper
    Halmstad University.
    Social media for user innovation in Living Labs: a framework to support user recruitment and commitment2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social media are becoming an increasingly relevant channel for user involvement. However, their uptake in Living Labs environments, as a means to engage users in innovation processes, is still limited. The aim of this paper is to explore challenges and opportunities related to the usage of social media for user involvement in co-creative processes, The findings presented emerge both from the available literature and case studies, and emphasise four different dimensions influencing user engagement: facilitator, community, platform and innovation process. Based on these dimensions, the authors propose a basic framework, intended as the point of departure for taking the next step toward the construction and verification of theoretical constructs that can help inform and guide future innovation projects.

  • 66.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Holst, Marita
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology.
    Living Lab: Stimulating Adoption of Smart City Innovations2016In: Open Living Lab Days 2016: Research Day Conference Proceedings, Montreal: European Network of Living Lab , 2016, p. 145-162Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities are facing complex and widespread problems such as changing demographics, reduction of resources and climate changes, unequal social participation, overfilled transport networks, and difficult trade-offs in land use decisions can only be turned into opportunities if suitable strategies are applied. To facilitate the efforts related to creating and sustaining smart city development, supportive infrastructures and innovative eco-systems need to be implemented and used, and one such infrastructure can be the concept of Living Labs. These Living Labs deploy contemporary open and user driven innovation processes into real world contexts in which all relevant stakeholders are involved and engaged with the endeavour to create and experiment with innovations. In this paper, we will illustrate and discuss a Living Lab approach focusing on a way to stimulate adoption of smart cities innovations among citizens in their domestic context and thus lowering their energy consumption. Our findings show that applying a Living Lab approach for adoption of innovation was successful in several ways. By stimulating participants to use the socio-technical solution in their context by assigning them well-defined tasks, participants both increased their understanding of the socio-technical solution, they changed their behaviour and they fulfilled the purpose of the technology. Hence, applying an interactive Living Lab approach in innovation processes can strengthen the adoption of smart city solutions.

  • 67.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Holst, Marita
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology.
    Reflecting on Actions in Living Lab Research2017In: Technology Innovation Management Review, ISSN 1927-0321, E-ISSN 1927-0321, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 27-34, article id 1055Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Living labs deploy contemporary open and user-centred engagement processes in real-world contexts where all relevant stakeholders are involved and engaged with the endeavour to create and experiment with different innovations. The approach is evidently successful and builds on the perspective that people have a democratic right to have influence over changes that might affect them, such as those brought about by an innovation. In this article, we will reflect on and discuss a case in which end users took part in the development of a method that stimulates learning and adoption of digital innovations in their own homes while testing and interacting with it. The results show that, when end users were stimulated to use the implemented innovation through different explicit assignments, they both increased their understanding of the situation as well as changed their behaviour. Living lab processes are complex and dynamic, and we find that it is essential that a living lab have the capability to adjust its roles and actions. We argue that being reflective is beneficial for innovation process managers in living labs because it allows them to adjust processes in response to dynamic circumstances.

  • 68.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Holst, Marita
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Sällström, Annika
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology.
    Striving for realism in a user involvement process2009In: Proceedings of the 2nd ISPIM Innovation Symposium: Stimulating Recovery - The Role of Innovation Management, New York City, USA 6-9 december 2009 / [ed] K.R.E. Huizingh; S. Conn; M. Torkkeli; I. Bitran, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, it is commonly acknowledged that it is important to learn from users when the aim is to develop user-centred services and products. This is shown in the fact that a lot of the commercially important innovations that are developed today are developed by end-users. When it comes to innovation, it is burdened with uncertainty and the only way to get input on users reactions, is to start developing it and to let users use it. One way to involve users in the process of innovation development is the Living Lab approach in which one guiding principle is realism. In this paper, the aim is to define and illustrate how the Living Lab principle realism takes form and is facilitated in a mobile service development project described in this paper. We found that realism takes different forms dependent on in which phase the innovation process is.

  • 69.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Holst, Marita
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology.
    Krogstie, John
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim.
    Gudmundsdottir, Asta
    Innovation Centre Iceland.
    Olesen, Annie
    A9 Consulting.
    Braskus, Laruynas
    Sunrise Valley.
    Jelle, Thomas
    Wireless Trondheim.
    Users and Energy Savings - Their Perspectives and Needs2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is becoming increasingly important to create a sustainable environment for the future. This is a problem that is recognised but it still not evident what kind of solutions that would be beneficial and useful. However, one important step is to reduce the energy consumption. In Europe, 25% of the total amount of energy being consumed is consumed by private households. Hence, if private households decrease their energy consumption this would contribute to the environment in positive ways. The aim of this paper is to describe what kind of needs users have related to energy consumption and solutions for that. Our study have been carried out in a project called Smarties in which the objective is to develop solutions that stimulates users to decrease their energy consumption. This paper reports on the users needs related to their current energy consumption situation, the actions they want or can take, and the possible future solutions they want to se.

  • 70.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Lassinantti, Josefin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Leveraging Living Lab Innovation Processes through Crowdsourcing2015In: Technology Innovation Management Review, ISSN 1927-0321, E-ISSN 1927-0321, Vol. 5, no 12, p. 28-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Around the globe, crowdsourcing initiatives are emerging and contributing in a diversity of areas, such as in crisis management and product development and to carry out micro-tasks such as translations and transcriptions. The essence of crowdsourcing is to acknowledge that not all the talented people work for you; hence, crowdsourcing brings more perspectives, insights, and visions to, for instance, an innovation process. In this article, we analyze how crowdsourcing can contribute to the different stages of innovation processes carried out in living labs and thus contribute to living labs by strengthening their core role as innovation process facilitators. We have also identified benefits and challenges that need to be grappled with for managers of living labs to make it possible for the crowd to fully support their cause.

  • 71.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Lassinantti, Josefin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Project: IoT Lab - Researching crowdsourcing to extend IoT testbed infrastructure for multidisciplinary experiments, with more end-user interactions, flexibility, scalability, cost efficiency and societal added value2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    From DOW: "IoT Lab is a research project exploring the potential of crowdsourcing to extend IoT testbed infrastructure for multidisciplinary experiments with more end-user interactions. It will research and develop:1. Crowdsourcing mechanisms and tools enabling testbeds to use third parties resources (such as mobile phones), and to interact with distributed users (the crowd). The crowdsourcing enablers will address issues suchas privacy by design, identity management, security, reputation mechanisms, and data ownership.2. Virtualization of crowdsourcing and testbed components by using a meta-layer with an open interface, facilitating the integration and interaction with heterogeneous components. It should ease data integration and reduce the cost of deployment in real environment.3. Ubiquitous Interconnection and Cloudification of the testbeds resources. It will research the potential of IPv6 and network virtualization to interconnect heterogeneous and distributed resources through a Virtual IoT Networkand will integrate them into the Cloud to provide an on-line platform of crowdsourcing Testbed as a Service (TBaaS) available to the research community.4. End-user and societal value creation by analyzing the potential end-users and crowdsourcing participants to propose an optimized model for end-user adoption and societal value creation.5. “Crowdsourcing-driven research” as a new model in which the research can be initiated, guided and assessed by the crowd. It will compare it to other models.6. Economic dimension of crowdsourcing testbed, by analyzing the potential markets and business models able to monetize the provided resources with adequate incentives, in order to optimize the exploitation, costs, profitability and economic sustainability of such testbeds. It will also develop tools for future experiments.7. Performing multidisciplinary experiments, including end-user driven experiments through crowdsourcing, to assess the added value of such approach."

  • 72.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Lassinantti, Josefin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Yliniemi, Kimmo
    Gylling, Arne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology.
    Waara, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Parnes, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Energy savings by user interaction and visualisation2012In: The 35th Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia – IRIS 2012: Designing the Interactive Society, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental issues are a reoccurring discussion topic among politicians, researchers and citizens all around the world. Climate changes and pollution are both important issues that need to be dealt with to slow down their impact. Within the IS area, the acknowledgement of these issues has been slow, and it is now time to start contributing. In this paper an illustration of an approach to user interaction for energy saving is given. We present a research project in which a visual energy information system has been co-created and installed in an elementary school. The effects of the system on the pupils and staff energy consumption behaviour are evident. The school have save approximately 20% on lightning in their classrooms. Based on the pupil’s feedback during the project, we present five factors that are important to consider when designing energy visualisations.

  • 73.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Mirijamdotter, Anita
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    Needs and accommodation in evaluation design2005In: Proceedings of 12th European Conference on Information Technology Evaluation (ECITE 2005), 2005, p. 457-464Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A clear understanding of the purpose of evaluation is essential in every evaluation situation to ably decide on approach and methodology. In this paper we present a case study focusing on evaluation of a mobile service for marketing purpose called M-Club. The project involved companies from different lines of business and with different nationalities. This diversity shed light on the complex process of defining a common evaluation focus. To understand the perspectives of the different stakeholders, interviews were conducted. The interviews explored the stakeholders' purposes, evaluation needs and expectations. In the analysis of the interviews Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) was used. One underpinning idea in SSM is the identification and awareness of different perspectives. The result of the analysis made it clear that different purposes, needs, expectations and objectives were represented among the stakeholders in the project and these could explicitly be illustrated using SSM techniques. However, differing perspectives, motives and needs led to another problem, namely, how to reach accommodation on the evaluation focus. We found that this problem is not described nor elaborated further in the evaluation literature. In SSM literature the problem is addressed by discourse but not explored in depth. This paper illustrates how a focus on needs contributed to the process of reaching accommodation and a common evaluation purpose among stakeholders. The findings showed that a need finding approach contributed to the process of designing the evaluation. By getting a common understanding of different purposes, needs, expectations and objectives relevant to the situation, the accommodation discussion became more focused. A focus on needs broadened the scope of the evaluation since needs are what lies behind problems and solutions.

  • 74.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Padyab, Ali
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Sällström, Annika
    Agio Software.
    Hollosi, Danilo
    Fraunhofer Institute for Digital Media Technology.
    Design of Smart City Systems from a Privacy Perspective2015In: IADIS International Journal on WWW/Internet, ISSN 1645-7641, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All around the globe the concept of smart cities is growing at fast pace meaning that an increasingly amount of people are moving to cities, which causes problems for cities with energy supply, waste management, transportation, environmental issues and security to mention a few. To answer to these challenges, the concept of smart cities emerges referring to cities that invest in human and social capital, and traditional (transport) and modern (ICT) communication infrastructure that will fuel sustainable economic growth and a high quality of life, with a wise management of natural resources, through participatory governance. Hence, for cities to be smart they cannot only install technologies, but they also need to invest in human capital and sustain a high quality of life. It is therefore important that solutions being implemented in smart cities answer to the needs and expectations citizens have as well as protect them from being exposed or forced into unwanted situations. In earlier studies it has become clear that people often are worried about their privacy due to our life being so easy to track and technologies becoming increasingly ubiquitous and pervasive. In this paper we will report on a study carried out with focus on understanding citizens view on information privacy concerns related to an intelligent acoustic smart city solution for audio monitoring. By means of this technology it was possible to detect events such as sirens, recognise speech commands and detects presence in public buildings. Audio monitoring is a relatively new and under research phenomena. Hence, in this paper an analysis of a survey on information privacy concerns, carried out with 1000 respondents around Europe, is presented and discussed. The basic findings from this study indicate that people have information privacy concerns related to this type of solution on a general level. However, when being more thoroughly introduced to the solution and its usage area, the citizens also became more positive towards the solution. The study also identified design principles that aims to support the design and implementation of smart city solutions that take not only users, but also affectees perspectives into consideration.

  • 75.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Sällström, Annika
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology.
    Hollosi, Danilo
    Fraunhofer Institute for Digital Media Technology.
    Audio monitoring in Smart Cities: an information privacy perspective2014In: 12th International Conference on e-society: 28 February – 2 March, Madrid, Spain, IADIS International Association for Development of the Information Society , 2014, p. 35-44Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A contemporary trend is that more and more people are moving into cities, which causes the cities to grow at fast pace. This leads to a situation for the city where many challenges needs to be handled in order to develop a sustainable andattractive city for its citizens. For instance, housing, economy, culture, social and environmental conditions are challenges that needs to be grappled with for the cities. To meet these challenges, a concept of smart cities has started to developaround the world. A city that is smart needs to invest in, for instance, human capital, modern communication infrastructures and environmental solutions. One trend in smart cities is the endeavour to enhance citizens’ quality of life by investing in IT solutions. However, using different types of IT solutions can also make citizens’ more vulnerable towards privacy invasion. Previous studies have shown that people in general are increasingly anxious about theirprivacy. In this paper we will report on a study carried out regarding information privacy concerns related to an intelligent acoustic smart city solution for audio monitoring. This solution can, for instance, detect events such as sirens, recognise speech commands and detects presence in public buildings. Audio monitoring is a relatively new and under research phenomena. Hence, in this paper an analysis of a survey on information privacy concerns, carried out with 1000respondents around Europe, is presented and discussed. The basic findings from this study indicate that people have information privacy concerns related to this type of solution on a general level. However, when being more thoroughlyintroduced to the solution and its usage area, the citizens also became more positive towards the solution. The study also identified principles that can support future designs of this type of systems.

  • 76.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Sällström, Annika
    Holst, Marita
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology.
    User evaluations in the wild: experiences from mobile living labs2009In: Mobile Living Labs 09: Methods and Tools for Evaluation in the Wild, 2009, p. 7-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Involving users has become a prerequisite these days in ITproduct and service development processes; hence, the question is not so much about why we should involve users, but rather how they should be involved. Embracing a Living Lab approach means to strive to involve users throughout the innovation process and to make users engaged co-creators of the innovation. In this paper, we present different degrees of user involvement in design and evaluation processes and relate these to our experiences of involving users in Mobile Living Lab situations. We identify aspects we have grappled with in these process and issues that needs to be elaborated on further since the area of Mobile Living Lab is growing and concepts such as ubiquitous computing and context awareness is emerging. This in turn, sets new demands on methods for user involvement in the wild.

  • 77.
    Thapa, Devinder
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Harnesk, Dan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Padyab, Ali Mohammad
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Make way for the new wave: Living Labs as a DSR Approach2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Living Lab (LL) has been used as a milieu as well as methodology for open innovation. However, the impression of living lab as a research methodology among academia is still blurring. The living lab carries many elements of design science re-search paradigm such as innovation, artifact, evaluation, design principles, etc. how-ever it still needs conceptual underpinning to proclaim it as a valid DSR methodology. The peculiarity of the living lab approach compare to existing DSR methodologies is its openness, co-creation, and evaluation of IT artifacts beyond organizational context. With the continual growth of open innovation platforms, the living lab as a DSR methodologies can play a supplementary role along with its other companion such as DS, AR, and ADR. In this regard, this paper will provide a conceptual clarity in estab-lishing the living lab as a DSR methodology in the context of open innovation and co-creation of IT artifact that goes beyond organizational setup.

  • 78.
    Wallström, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Perceived customer value of a location-based mobile shopping service: a study from the retailer's perspective2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 79.
    Wendin, Karin
    et al.
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Åström, Annika
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Exploring differences between central located test and home use test in a living lab context2015In: International Journal of Consumer Studies, ISSN 1470-6423, E-ISSN 1470-6431, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 230-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of Living Labs (LLs) has evolved to support the creation of experience-based development of innovations in real-life, user-driven and open environments. Two types of consumer product tests used generally are central location tests (CLT) and home use tests (HUT) where the acceptability or liking of a product or group of products is determined together with the view of whether one product is preferred over other products. This article explores the similarities and differences between CLT and HUT test results in a LL context. In both settings, the acceptance of five flavoured chocolate bars was evaluated for appearance, odour, taste/flavour, texture and overall liking. Apart from the mean values of liking in the two tests, data were analysed to identify consumer segments. Qualitative data were also collected by asking for consumer comments on the tested samples. The results show that independent of test method the bars were evaluated equally and all accepted by the consumers. A clear difference between CLT and HUT testing was that CLT consumers significantly differed from the HUT consumers, giving the test samples lower scores. For example, the mean values of the overall acceptance scores given by HUT consumers varied between 6.0 and 6.6, while for CLT consumers the corresponding values varied from 5.4 to 5.9. Another difference was the number of comments from consumers. CLT consumers richly commented on the products in a verbose way, while HUT consumers used the opportunity to comment very sparingly. Considering the cluster analysis as yet another difference between the testing methods, clusters from the CLT were more distinct and the number was higher with five clusters in CLT and four in HUT. Clusters where consumers liked all the products in both test settings were twice as many for HUT than in CLT. Applying the LL approach, there is a need for methods and approaches that capture a rich picture of consumers during test performance without being intrusive or obstructive of activities and context. The approach offers the opportunity for companies to have consumers not only test products but also offer input that can stimulate new innovations and give consumers more power and influence.

  • 80.
    Ziouvelou, Xenia
    et al.
    University of Southampton.
    Alexandrou, Panagiotis
    Computer Technology Institute & Press Diophantus, Patras.
    Angelopoulos, Marios
    University of Geneva.
    Evangelatos, Orestis
    University of Geneva.
    Fernandes, Joao
    Aleksandra Institute Aarhus.
    Loumis, Nicolaus
    University of Surrey.
    McGroarty, Frank
    University of Southampton.
    Nikoletseas, Sotiris
    Computer Technology Institute & Press Diophantus, Patras.
    Rankov, Aleksandra
    DunavNET, Novi Sad.
    Raptis, Theophanis
    Computer Technology Institute & Press Diophantus, Patras.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Ziegler, Sebastien
    Mandat International, Geneva.
    Crowd-driven IoT/IoE ecosystems: a multidimensional approach2017In: Beyond the Internet of Things: Everything Interconnected / [ed] Jordi Mongay Batalla, George Mastorakis, Constandinos X. Mavromoustakis, Evangelos Pallis, Springer International Publishing , 2017, p. 341-375Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past few years an astonishing paradigm shift has occurred; user-driven, open and collaborative innovation practices have emerged and an increasing number of users mutually collaborate by openly communicating their ideas, sharing best practices, and creating new knowledge across various sectors. These online, distributed crowd-driven networks leverage the network effects so as to harness the collective power and intelligence. Recently, there is an increasing interest in mobile crowd sensing (MCS) in the context of IoT/IoE which leverages both the power and the wisdom of the crowd in order to observe, measure and make sense of particular phenomena, such as environmental ones, using user-owned mobile and wearable devices. However, in order to ensure the success of such ecosystems, a number of diverse criteria need to be considered. As such this paper provides a framework, which supports the use of multiple perspectives (holistic approach) for the design of crowd-driven ecosystems. The proposed framework utilises three key perspectives: technical, business and end-user (people), in order to describe, analyse and finally design crowd-driven IoT/IoE ecosystems. In addition, this chapter examines the proposed model, in the context of IoT Lab, as a best practice crowd-driven IoT ecosystem, in order to explain how these perspectives can be used to promote ecosystem success.

  • 81.
    Chronéer, Diana (Editor)
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Johansson, Jeaneth (Editor)
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Malmström, Malin (Editor)
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna (Editor)
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Techno-socio-economic analysis report2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this report is to explore the socio-techno-economic key factors and activities of relevance for the development of a sustainable testbed federation in Europe. In this process there is a need of incorporating a business model framework for enabling decision making in value creation and value capturing. This study shows that the federation has great opportunities to reach a broad market via the key partners networks. In this federation a span of testbeds are involved which provides a large knowledge and resource base. By being involved in the federation, partners and customers get access to a great variety of technical competences as well as testing resources for remote tests. Through the use of the resources offered in the federation, customers can build their own virtual testbed which makes it easier and cheaper for them to perform tests before their technology enters the market.

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