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  • 51.
    Yang, Qixing
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Gustavsson, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Erosion of refractory during gas injection: a cavitation based model1990In: Scandinavian journal of metallurgy, ISSN 0371-0459, E-ISSN 1600-0692, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 127-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of tuyere refractory wear has been studied in an air-water model using a 4 mm diameter tuyere. Erosion tests, with boric acid (H(3)BO(3)) disks as refractory simulators, and measurements of back-attack frequency were carried out. The erosion pattern showed two distinct features; isolated elliptical pits and a continuous irregular shear wear pattern. The influence of the surface hardness and gas flow rate on these features was investigated. Pitting was found most frequently on disks formed at the lowest pressure (10 tons), but for pressures greater than 20 tons little difference was seen between disks. When the gas flow was in the bubbling regime, pitting was observed inside the region closest to the tuyere tip, with a maximum at the transition to jetting flow. Occasionally, pits could still be observed when the gas flow rate was rather high (NMa=1.82). The irregular wear pattern appeared independent of disk surface properties, however, sensitive to the gas flow rate. In the bubble flow regime, the wear was seen only outside a certain radius, which corresponds well to the radius of the bubbles. In the jetting regime, the wear was also observed close to the tuyere. The disk weight loss showed a maximum in the bubbling-to-jetting transition region, where the back-attack frequency also reached a maximum. The results support the idea that cavitation erosion, through liquid microjet pitting, is the main mechanical wear agent. A model for the generation and

  • 52.
    Yang, Qixing
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Gustavsson, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Buström, Eric
    Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Erosion of referactory during gas injection: a cavitation based model1989In: Scaninject V: 5th international conference on ladle metallurgy, Luleå, Sweden, June 6-8, 1989, MEFOS , 1989, Vol. I, p. 259-289Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of tuyere refractory wear has been studied in an air--water model using a 4 mm diamter tuyere. Erosion tests, with boric acid (H sub 3 BO sub 3 ) disks as refactory simulators, and measurements of back-attack frequency were carried out. The erosion pattern shows two distinct features: isolated elliptical pits and a continuous irregular shear wear pattern. The influence on these features of the surface hardness and gas flow rate was investigated. 24 ref.--

  • 53.
    Yang, Qixing
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Haase, Björn
    Engström, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Stabilization studies of EAF slag for its use as materials in construction2012In: Proceedings, Asiasteel 2012, The Chinese Society for Metals , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At Halmstadsverken, the steel plant of Höganäs AB in Sweden, steel grades with low carbon contents were produced using an Electric Arc Furnaces (EAF). Very often, the tapped EAF slag disintegrated during cooling. Slag fines from the disintegration are difficult to handle and to use as materials for construction purposes. MiMeR, Minerals and Metals Recycling Research Centre at Luleå University of Technology (LTU), has, in a close cooperation with Höganäs AB, performed test work to treat the EAF slag. The study has been performed within the research program “Towards a Closed Steel Ecocycle”, carried out by Jernkontoret, with financial support from the Foundation for Environment Strategic Research in Sweden. Some of the projects in the program are aimed at enhancing utilizations of steelmaking slags as building materials. In the first study stage, the EAF slag samples, mixed together with stabilizers, were melted at 1610ºC and then cooled in a crucible system. The liquid EAF slag was also cooled rapidly by air using a laboratory granulation system. In the second study stage, by referring to the early results, two test campaigns were carried out at Halmstadsverken to stabilize EAF slag using a stabilizing additive, high in P2O5. The slag after the stabilization was cooled in air and by water, providing slag samples of large quantities for later long-term aging and stability tests. Test operations were performed without disturbing the normal EAF steel production. In this paper, some of the details of test operations are described and results obtained from the two study stages are presented and discussed.

  • 54.
    Yang, Qixing
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Haase, Björn
    Höganäs Sweden AB, SE-263 83 Höganäs.
    Han, Fenglan
    School of Material Science & Engineering, Beifang University of Nationality, Yinchuan, Ningxia.
    Engström, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Li, Jianli
    Department of Ferrous Metallurgy, School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing.
    Xu, Anjun
    Department of Ferrous Metallurgy, School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Laboratory treatments of EAF slag for its use in construction2013In: Advanced Materials Research, ISSN 1022-6680, E-ISSN 1662-8985, Vol. 726-731, p. 2921-2930Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory treatments of a plant EAF slag sample 71686 were conducted using stabilizers containing P2O5 and air granulation. The results show that it is necessary to add the stabilizers to increase contents of P2O5 from 0.39% to 0.7% for the slag stabilization. By a fast air cooling, most of the granules from the granulation are spherical, with a low internal porosity and dense structure. Content of Fe2O3 in the granules increased from 7.92% to 18.4% and FeO decreased from 14.3% to 7.8%, due to an oxidation during the slag granulation. Contents of metal elements, As, Cd, Cr, Mo, Pb, Ni and Zn, in the leachates from the treated slag samples were lower than the limit values for leaching from inert wastes pursuant to Directive 1999/31/EC. The slag samples after the treatments may then be regarded as environmentally friendly to use in construction

  • 55.
    Yang, Qixing
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Haase, Björn
    Höganäs Sweden AB, SE-263 83 Höganäs.
    Han, Fenglan
    School of Material Science & Engineering, Beifang University of Nationality, Yinchuan, Ningxia.
    Xu, Anjun
    Department of Ferrous Metallurgy, School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing.
    Engström, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Li, Jianli
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Plant treatments of EAF slag for its use as construction materials2013In: Advanced Materials Research, ISSN 1022-6680, E-ISSN 1662-8985, Vol. 750-752, p. 1244-1253Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 56. Yang, Qixing
    et al.
    Holmberg, N
    Menad, Nourreddine
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    A fundamental study on recycling of wastes from stainless steel plants via the electric arc furnace2000In: 58th Electric Furnace Conference and 17th Process Technology Conference, Iron and Steel Society , 2000, p. 195-207Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste briquettes of high carbon contents have been smelted using an induction furnace in tests to gain fundamental information for EAF operations of the briquette smelting. The briquettes amounted to 5-15% of the weights of the metal charges, stainless steel scrap and alloys.

  • 57. Yang, Qixing
    et al.
    Holmberg, Nils
    Outokumpu.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    EAF smelting trials of briquettes at Avesta works of Outokumpu Stainless Steel AB for recycling oily mill scale sludge from stainless steel production2008In: SCANMET III: 3rd International Conference on Process Development in Iron and Steelmaking, 8-11 June 2008, Luleå, Sweden, Luleå: MEFOS , 2008, Vol. 1, p. 561-570Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The production EAF of Avesta Works, Outokumpu Stainless AB, has been used to perform smelting reduction trials of briquettes consisting of oily mill scale sludge, carbon and other wastes. The trials were among several important activities in studies on waste recycling by EAF smelting carried out jointly by Avesta Works and MiMeR, the Minerals and Metals Recycling Research Centre, at Luleå University of Technology. A total of 7 briquette smelting trials were performed. The heats were processed smoothly smelting 3 tonnes of briquettes or 3,4% of the weight for metal charges. Quantities of FeSi powder and O2 gas injected and electric energy supplied were increased while the briquette weight was increased to 6 tonnes. No impacts were found on analyses of the crude stainless steel tapped from the EAF during the trials. Results of the briquette smelting have been evaluated by referring to the data from the reference heats and results from early laboratory tests. The recovery of Cr, Ni and Fe elements from the briquettes was nearly complete and was found to occur mainly through carbon reduction. Positive effects of briquette smelting on protecting metallic charges against gaseous oxidation have also been identified. This protection was through CO gas, generated from solid state C-O reaction in the briquettes, reacting with oxygen in the intruding air. The protection reduced losses of Cr, Ni and Fe elements from metallic charges to the slag. The slag weights were not increased in three trials as compared with the reference heats. There were moderate increases in the slag weights in four trial heats. The increases were, nevertheless, lower by 52-69% than the slag weights generated by a Si-reduction of the briquette oxides. By smelting 6-tonnes of briquettes in the trials, reliable information and results on C-O reactions in the briquettes for recovery of metal elements in the production EAF were obtained. After the trials, carbon-waste briquettes amounting to 1-3 tonnes were smelted very smoothly in many of the EAF heats at Avesta Works to recycle the oily mill scale sludge and other wastes from stainless steel production. The metal recoveries from the briquettes were then estimated based on the information and results of the C-O reaction and metal recovery obtained from the present trial heats.

  • 58. Yang, Qixing
    et al.
    Holmberg, Nils
    Outokumpu Stainless AB, Avesta Works.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    EAF smelting trials of waste-carbon briquettes at Avesta works of Outokumpu Stainless AB for recycling oily mill scale sludge from stainless steel production2009In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 80, no 6, p. 422-428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EAF steel plant of Avesta Works, Outokumpu Stainless AB, has been used to perform smelting reduction trials of briquettes consisting of oily mill scale sludge, carbon and other wastes. A total of 7 briquette smelting trials were performed. The heats were processed smoothly smelting 3 t of briquettes or 3.4 mass-% of metal charges. The quantities of FeSi powder and 02 gas injected and electric energy supplied were increased to smelt briquettes of 6 t. No impacts were found on the analyses of the crude stainless steel tapped from the EAF during the trials. The results of the briquette smelting have been evaluated by referring to the data from the reference heats and results from earlier laboratory tests. The recovery of Cr, Ni and Fe elements from the briquettes was nearly complete and was found to occur mainly through carbon reduction. The slag masses were not increased in three trials as compared with the reference heats. There were moderate increases in the slag masses in four trial heats. The increases were, nevertheless, lower by 52-69% than the slag masses generated by Si-reduction of the briquette oxides. Afterwards, by referring results from the present trials, waste-carbon briquettes amounting to 1-3 t were smelted very smoothly in many of the EAF heats at Avesta Works to recycle the oily mill scale sludge and other wastes from stainless steel production.

  • 59. Yang, Qixing
    et al.
    Holmberg, Nils
    Menad, Nourreddine
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    A laboratory study on smelt-reduction of briquettes made of wastes from stainless steel production1999In: REWAS '99: Global Symposium on Recycling, Waste Treatment and Clean Technology : proceedings of the "REWAS'99: Global Symposium on Recycling, Waste Treatment and Clean Technology", held in San Sebastián, Spain, September 5 - 9, 1999 : TMS Fall 1999 Extraction and Process Metallurgy Meeting / [ed] I. Gaballah, 1999, p. 1061-1072Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wastes from stainless steel production were briquetted together with carbon for smelt-reduction in the electric arc furnace, EAF, to achieve an internal recycling. A laboratory induction furnace was used to simulate the EAF to study the disintegration of the briquettes under heating and recovery of metals from briquettes melted together with stainless steel and slag-former. The influences of test conditions on carbon reduction of oxides in the briquettes were also examined. The briquettes endured heating at 1186°C under load and could be charged to the melt in small quantity without causing serious splashing. For a high metal recovery, it was necessary to charge the briquettes together with slag-former. Small local zones of smelt-reduction with high carbon concentration could thus be formed during heating. Silicon content in the metal near to the briquettes should be minimised to achieve a high degree of carbon reduction. Based on results obtained from this study, suggestions were made on smooth operations of smelt-reduction of the briquettes by using electric arc furnaces of large scale

  • 60.
    Yang, Qixing
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Menad, Nourreddine
    Smelting of EAF and BF dust in combination with scrap melting to recycle the by-products from steel industry2005In: Proceedings of the REWAS '04: Global Symposium on Recycling, Waste Treatment and Clean Technology held in Madrid, Spain, September 26 - 29, 2004, Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, 2005, p. 2729-2738Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The baghouse dust generated from the electric arc furnace (EAF) process must be treated using environmentally and economically sound methods. One treatment step is to smelt the dust in the EAF so the dust can be upgraded for further processing. Parameters related to optimum dust smelting in the EAF were studied in the present laboratory tests. An induction furnace was used to smelt test charges, steel parts weighing 5 kg, slag formers and the EAF dust pellets (EAFDP) with a steel weight of 2%. Eight tests were performed. Reducing agents for Zn oxides in the EAFDP were coke, blast furnace dust, solid iron and liquid iron with temperature of 1650°C. Influences of contacts between the EAFDP and reducing agents on Zn dissolution in liquid steel were examined in some detail. It was demonstrated by the tests that material mixing and heating were important for minimizing the impact of the EAFDP smelting on steel and slag properties when using either coke or blast furnace dust as reducing agents. Based on results from the present laboratory tests, some suggestions were made for production-scale recycling of EAFDP in the EAF

  • 61. Yang, Qixing
    et al.
    Nedar, Lotta
    Outokumpu, Avesta.
    Engström, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    He, Mingzhao
    Treatments of AOD slag to produce aggregates for road construction2006In: AISTech 2006: Proceedings of the Iron & Steel Technology Conference and Exposition, Warrendale, Pa.: Iron and Steel Society , 2006, Vol. 1, p. 573-583Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 62.
    Yang, Qixing
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Xu, Anjun
    State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing.
    Engström, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Han, Fenglan
    School of Material Science and Engineering, Beifang University of Nationalities, Yinchuan.
    Xue, Peng
    School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Beijing.
    He, Dongfeng
    School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Beijing.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Dissolution behavior of fluorine from AOD slag after treatments for volume stabilization2014In: Applied Mechanics and Materials, ISSN 1660-9336, E-ISSN 1662-7482, Vol. 587-589, p. 849-855Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AOD slag samples from steel works of Outokumpu Stainless Company were used to study F-dissolution relating to treatments for volume stabilization. Results from the slag tests and sample characterizations indicate that the slag re-melting with or without reduction and granulation with either water or gas have rather small effects on F leaching, as well as formation of different C2S polymorphs. The chemical composition and cooling condition are the two important parameters to control F leaching from slag samples. These two parameters should be combined together in an optimum way by the steel industry to treat slags for F-immobilization.

  • 63.
    Yang, Qixing
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Xu, An-Jun
    State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Beijing.
    Xue, Peng
    School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Beijing , Department of Ferrous Metallurgy, School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing.
    He, Dog-feng
    Department of Ferrous Metallurgy, School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing.
    Li, Jian-Li
    State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan , Department of Ferrous Metallurgy, School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Briquette Smelting in Electric Arc Furnace to Recycle Wastes from Stainless Steel Production2015In: Journal of Iron and Steel Research International, ISSN 1006-706X, E-ISSN 2210-3988, Vol. 22, no Suppl. 1, p. 10-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wastes from stainless steel production were briquetted together with carbon for smelt-reduction in the electric arc furnace, EAF, to achieve an internal recycling. A laboratory induction furnace was used to simulate the EAF. With a close simulation of the smelting, disintegration of the briquettes heated under load and recovery of metals from briquettes melted together with stainless steel and slag former were investigated. The influences of test conditions on carbon reduction of oxides in the briquettes were also examined. The briquettes endured heating at 1 186 °C under load of 3.5 kg and could be charged to the melt in small quantity without causing serious splashing. For a high metal recovery, it was necessary to charge the briquettes together with slag former. Small local zones of smelt-reduction with high carbon concentration could thus be formed during the charger heating. Silicon content in the metal near to the briquettes should be minimised to achieve a high degree of carbon reduction. Based on results obtained from this study, suggestions were made on smooth operations of smelt-reduction of the briquettes by using EAF or induction furnace with large scales.

  • 64.
    Yang, Qixing
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Xue, Peng
    School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Beijing.
    He, Dogfeng
    Department of Ferrous Metallurgy, School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing.
    Xu, An-Jun
    State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Beijing , Department of Ferrous Metallurgy, School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing.
    Engström, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Han, Fenglan
    School of Material Science & Engineering, Beifang University of Nationality, Yinchuan, Ningxia.
    Chen, Yuhong
    School of Material Science & Engineering, Beifang University of Nationality, Yinchuan, Ningxia.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Studies of using slags from ore based steelmaking to produce sulphoaluminate belite cement with reduced CO2 emission2015In: Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on the Science and Technology of Steelmaking: ICS 2015, Beijing, China; 12 - 14 May 2015 / [ed] X. Wang, The Chinese Society for Metals , 2015, p. 962-965Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present studies is to examine the potential for using basic oxygen furnace, ladle and blast furnace slags from Swedish works of ore based steelmaking in production of clinkers for sulphoaluminate belite cement. The slags and chemicals were mixed to form briquettes for burning at 1300 . Samples of the clinker briquettes obtained were characterized by different methods. The sulphoaluminate and other phases in the clinker samples were detected by XRD. These and other results showed that the slags can be used in the cement, stabilizing belite phase in the clinkers and enhancing heat fluxes or the degrees of hydration measured in the early, 24-hour period for the clinkers, thus to allow for more sustainable steel and cement production.

  • 65.
    Zhang, Hui-ning
    et al.
    School of Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou.
    Li, Jian-li
    Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan.
    Xu, An-jun
    Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering School, University of Science and Technology, Beijing.
    Yang, Qixing
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    He, Dong-feng
    Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering School, University of Science and Technology, Beijing.
    Tian, Nai-yuan
    Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering School, University of Science and Technology, Beijing.
    Carbothermic Reduction of Zinc and Iron Oxides in Electric Arc Furnace Dust2014In: Journal of Iron and Steel Research International, ISSN 1006-706X, E-ISSN 2210-3988, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 427-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The reduction of zinc and iron oxides from electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) by carbon was investigated at temperatures between 800 and 1300 °C. The analytic technique employed includes chemical analysis, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), and thermodynamic database FactSage 6. 2. It was found that the reduction of zinc and iron oxides depends largely on Boudouad reaction. At 900 °C, zinc exists in tested samples as ZnO, which is reduced in the temperature range of 1000 — 1100 °C. At 1100 °C, 99. 11% of the zinc is evaporated. The metallization ratio of Fe is 79. 19% at 1300 °C, as the content of Fe2+ is still 9. 40%. A higher temperature is thus required for a higher reduction degree of Fe oxides by solid or gaseous carbon

12 51 - 65 of 65
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