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  • 51.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Bentonite clay: environmental properties and applications2015Book (Refereed)
  • 52.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Borehole sealing for underground waste storage1983In: Journal of Geotechnical & Geoenvironmental Engineering, ISSN 0733-9410, E-ISSN 1944-8368, Vol. 109, no 1, p. 113-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new technique is described for borehole sealing which makes use of highly precompacted bentonite powder, and which seems to be applicable to most types of rock.^A schematic picture of components and technique of the proposed plugging method is presented.^Terminal nuclear waste storage at great depths in crystalline rock requires plug systems to prevent migration through boreholes and shafts of harmful amounts of radionuclides to the biosphere.^Experience from lab and field tests as well as from recent full-scale plugging operations from drill rigs at sea, shows that the described technique should now be applicable in practice even to very long boreholes

  • 53.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Borehole sealing with highly compacted Na bentonite1981Report (Other academic)
  • 54.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Chairman's Report1982In: Developments in Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 0165-1250, Vol. 28, p. 1-4Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 55.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Chairman's report: Second International symposium on ground freezing, Trondheim, Norway, June 24-26, 19801981In: Engineering Geology, ISSN 0013-7952, E-ISSN 1872-6917, Vol. 18, no 1-4, p. 1-4Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 56.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Cheep mechanisms in clay1979In: Mechanisms of deformation and fracture: proceedings of the interdisciplinary conference held at the University of Luleå, Luleå, Sweden, September 20-22, 1978 / [ed] Kenneth E. Easterling, Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1979, p. 351-359Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 57.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Cohesion in fine-grained soils1978Report (Other academic)
  • 58.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Cohesion in fine-grained sopls1979In: Mechanisms of deformation and fracture: proceedings of the interdisciplinary conference held at the University of Luleå, Luleå, Sweden, September 20-22, 1978 / [ed] Kenneth E. Easterling, Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1979, p. 137-144Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 59.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Creep mechanicsms in clay1978Report (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Engineering aspects of clay-weathered Blekinge gneiss1979Report (Other academic)
  • 61.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Finite element analysis as a tool for rock mechanical and hydraulic calculations for underground storages: an introduction1981In: First Arab seminar on underground storage of oil and gas, Baghdad October 20-26, 1979 / [ed] Ulf Lindblom; Wissiam S. Al-Hashimi, Sveriges exportråd , 1981, p. 184-196Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 62. Pusch, Roland
    Geological storage of highly radioactive waste: current concepts and plans for radioactive waste disposal2008Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The book describes and assesses current concepts for long-term disposal of highly radioactive waste. Different types of rock are discussed and assessed with respect to practical difficulties in the construction of a repository, and the efficiency of isolating radioactive waste. Safety matters are most important and are treated in the respective chapters and in a final, conclusive chapter. Cost issues and related quality matters are discussed for the case of constructing a virgin repository and repositories in the form of converted abandoned mines.

  • 63.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Geoteknologi vid Högskolan i Luleå1974In: Väg- och Vattenbyggaren, ISSN 0042-2177, no 8/9, p. 45-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 64.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Glimtar från geoteknikavdelningen vid Högskolan i Luleå1977In: Väg- och Vattenbyggaren, ISSN 0042-2177, no 3, p. 88-89Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 65.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    High-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal: a global challenge2011Book (Refereed)
  • 66.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Highly compacted bentonite: a self-healing substance for nuclear waste isolation1981In: Scientific basis for nuclear waste management: proceedings of the International symposium on the scientific basis for nuclear waste management / [ed] John G. Moore, New York: Plenum Publishing Co., N.Y. , 1981, Vol. 3, p. 553-560Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 67.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Highly compacted sodium bentonite for isolating rock-deposited radioactive waste products1979In: Nuclear Technology, ISSN 0029-5450, E-ISSN 1943-7471, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 153-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sodium saturated bentonite clay compacted to a high density is a very efficient isolation for preventing radiotoxic nuclides from deeply buried canisters with radioactive wastes from reaching the biosphere.^The main function of the bentonite, which is applied in the form of blocks between the rock and the canisters in large boreholes, is to provide a practically impervious barrier.^The bentonite blocks take up water and swell so that they completely fill the space between rock and canisters.^The swelling potential, which is permanent, makes the bentonite self-sealing.^This means that rock joints, which may be opened, are sealed by extruding bentonite

  • 68.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Highly compacted sodium bentonite for isolating rock-deposited radioactive waste products1980Report (Other academic)
  • 69.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Ice formation in clays: with special reference to their microstructural constitution1977Report (Other academic)
  • 70.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Ice formations in clays with special refrence to their microstructural constitution1977In: Proceedings of the international symposium on frost in soils: held at the university of Luleå, Luleå, Sweden, February 16-18, 1977, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 1977, Vol. 1, p. 137-142Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 71.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Ion diffusion through highly compacted bentonite1981Report (Other academic)
  • 72.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Measuring and reducing very small water-flows in rock1981In: First Arab seminar on underground storage of oil and gas, Baghdad October 20-26, 1979 / [ed] Ulf Lindblom; Wissiam S. Al-Hashimi, Sveriges exportråd , 1981, p. 197-205Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 73.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Microstructure controls physical properties of smectite clay2019In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 63-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental protection by isolation of radionuclides escaped from High-Level Radioactive Waste stored underground in crystalline rock can be achieved by surrounding the metal canisters by smectite clay, which provides hindrance of radionuclides to migrate into the surroundings, and ductile embedment of them for absorbing seismic and tectonic displacements in the host rock. The waste-isolating capacity of the expansive clay is explained by its high hydrophilic capacity and large specific surface area giving low porosity and limited interconnectivity of the voids, which both makes such clay low-permeable and gives it a very low through-diffusion rate of anionic species like iodine, and of some cationic radionuclides. The expandability of such clay means that it can swell and undergo self-healing in case of microstructural contraction caused by heating. The mechanisms involved in permeation and ion exchange are described based on conceptual microstructural models and their theoretical analogies. Stress/strain phenomena involved in saturation with fluids, desiccation, shearing under deviatoric conditions, and creep strain under stable conditions or at failure are described as well. Longevity matters, which have been richly treated in the literature, is given limited space. 

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  • 74.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Mineral-water interactions and their influence on the physical behavior of highly compacted NA bentonite1982In: Canadian geotechnical journal (Print), ISSN 0008-3674, E-ISSN 1208-6010, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 381-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Na-bentonite is being considered as an engineering barrier for surrounding radioactive waste disposal sites, due to its low permeability and ion diffusivity, and its self-healing ability through swelling. These properties are due to mineral-water interactions that yield a microstructural pattern with very narrow passages and a low average mobility of interparticle water molecules at high bulk densities. The physical and mechanical behaviour of dense Na-bentonite are discussed.

  • 75.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Physical creep model and its mathematical analogy1979Report (Other academic)
  • 76.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Principles of locating, designing and constructing landfills of hazardous waste2013In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 215-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Location, design and construction of a landfill of hazardous waste are in focus. The selected site must be physically stable, and an elevated area with good run-off conditions of precipitated water and tight underground is preferable. The detailed design must adaptate to what legislation requires and be decided on the basis of the required operational lifetime. Several concepts have been proposed and two major principles are compared: 1) location above ground on a drained base with a tight top liner and a less tight bottom liner, and 2) placement below ground with clay liners surrounding the entire waste mass. In either case collection of percolated water can be arranged but maintenance over several hundred years cannot be guaranteed. A design that totally eliminates percolation of the waste is ideal but a number of functions of such concepts need to be considered.

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  • 77.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Rock-mechanical design of large underground openings1981In: First Arab seminar on underground storage of oil and gas, Baghdad October 20-26, 1979 / [ed] Ulf Lindblom; Wissiam S. Al-Hashimi, Sveriges exportråd , 1981, p. 172-183Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 78.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Scandinavian engineering geology: a glimpse1982In: Soil mechanics and foundation engineering: proceedings of the Tenth international conference on soil mechanics and foundation engineering, Stockholm 15-19 June 1981 / [ed] Nils Flodin, Rotterdam: Balkema Publishers, A.A. / Taylor & Francis The Netherlands , 1982, Vol. 4, p. 195-202Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 79.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Shear deformation of clay microstructure: rate process theory and clay microstructure1977Report (Other academic)
  • 80.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Soil constituents and structure: [performance and interpretation of laboratory investigations, part 3]1990Report (Other academic)
  • 81.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Stripa buffer mass test instrumentation for temperature, moisture, and pressure measurements1985In: Design and instrumentation of in situ experiments in underground laboratories for radioactive waste disposal: proceedings of a workshop jointly organized by the Commission of the European Communities & OECD Nuclear Energy Agency / [ed] B. Come; P. Johnston; A. Mueller, Rotterdam: Balkema Publishers, A.A. / Taylor & Francis The Netherlands , 1985, p. 303-316Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Stripa Buffer Mass Test involves recording of temperature, water uptake, swelling pressure, and water pressure. The temperature recording is made by use of more than 1200 copper-constantan thermocouples. Swelling, or rather total pressures, are measured by means of about 130 Gloetzl pressure cells, and this system is also applied for recording water pressures in heater holes, back-fill and rock. BAT-piezometers are used as a back-up of the Gloetzl system. The water uptake of the highly compacted bentonite in heater holes and the sand/bentonite backfill that covers the holes is made by 560 electric capacitance gauges. Displacements in the rock that associates the swelling of highly compacted bentonite is measured by applying Kovari's technique.

  • 82.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Swelling pressure of highly compacted bentonite1980Report (Other academic)
  • 83.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Säkerhet vid schaktning utan stödkonstruktion1980Report (Other academic)
  • 84.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    The geological basis for developing concepts for disposal of highly radioactive waste (HLW) in crystalline rock: a state of art compilation2012In: Comunicacoes Geologicas, ISSN 1647-581X, Vol. 99, no 1, p. 61-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concepts for deep geological disposal of highly radioactive waste from nuclear reactors consider the host rock to be a major barrier to transport of radionuclides that may possibly be released from the repository to the biosphere. This has required development of hydraulic (”geohydrological”) models for predicting possible groundwater contamination and dose rates. They are based on very limited information on the constitution and properties of the large rock mass, making the sophisticated models hypothetic and uncertain in calculation of groundwater flow and transport of dissolved species. Considerable effort has been put in hydraulic modeling of groundwater movement during and after the next glaciation cycle, largely disregarding from possible long-term impact of tectonic movements and seismic events on the transport paths. The rheological performance of the “near-field” rock has been assessed without considering that the rock stresses will cause spalling and fracturing of the rock immediately surrounding the waste containers, which produce heat and generate thermally induced stresses. Modelers of the hydro/mechanical performance of the near-field rock mass tend to neglect the existence of excavation disturbance of the rock around tunnels and drifts, which means that the evolution of groundwater flow in the “near-field” and “far-field” in a time perspective that includes at least one glaciation event has not yet been adequately predicted. In conclusion, one must rely on the engineered barriers, waste containers and embedding clay, for safe disposal of highly radioactive waste and take the rock to serve merely as a mechanical protection of the “chemical apparatus”.

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  • 85.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Thixotropic stiffening of clay consolidated in the laboratory1982In: Canadian geotechnical journal (Print), ISSN 0008-3674, E-ISSN 1208-6010, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 517-521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reserve strength and brittle behavior are characteristic of many soft clays that are normally consolidated from a geological point of view. If such strengthening is associated with creep, it should also take place in structurally disturbed clay that is left to rest under undrained as well as drained conditions, and this was investigated in the study reported in this paper. Samples of natural, undisturbed and artificially produced clays were consolidated under a pressure corresponding to twice the preconsolidation pressure, and were left to rest under reduced pressure and drained conditions. The samples were sheared under undrained conditions and it was observed that the strain at failure decreased and that the shear modulus increased with the time elapsed, thus proving that thixotropic stiffening exceeded the softening due to volume increase.

  • 86.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Track instability in tunnels: A deadly threat2016In: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Railway Technology: Research, Development and Maintenance / [ed] J. Pombo, Stirlingshire: Civil-Comp Press , 2016, article id 30Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Railway tracks of common types for high-speed trains consist of a well compacted sub-ballast bed of crushed granitic rock and dense overlying ballast of somewhat finer gravel or stone material. Both are self-draining and let infiltrated rain and meltwater through for lateral discharge. For tracks in tunnels it is required that the ballasts are effectively drained since the dynamic impact of heavy fast trains on water saturated ballast can create porewater overpressure leading to liquefaction and loss of bearing capacity. In practice this is avoided by minimizing inflow of groundwater into the tunnels by effective grouting of the rock in combination with lining the tunnels with concrete cast on site or by shotcreting. Tunnel excavation and stabilization in weak and strongly water-bearing rock at great depth can be very difficult and new techniques for fast construction are being tried. For bored tunnels construction of liners by installation of tightly fitting concrete block elements and backfilling of the space between rock and block liner with cast concrete have been applied. Modelling of the performance of such block liners indicates that intense train traffic and a series of emergency brakes can cause mutual shearing and separation of adjacent blocks causing high water inflow and water saturation of the track ballast after a few years if the tunnel inclination is very low. The dynamic impact of the train traffic can then, for long trains and intense traffic, build up a porewater overpressure in the ballast that can generate liquefaction and loss of stability. The rear wagons will leave the rails and the progressive winding motion of a long set of wagons will quickly reach the locomotive and bring it off the rails causing great havoc

  • 87.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Unfrozen water as a function of clay microstructure1979Report (Other academic)
  • 88.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Unfrozen water as a function of clay microstructure1979In: Engineering Geology, ISSN 0013-7952, E-ISSN 1872-6917, Vol. 13, no 1-4, p. 157-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A previous study of microstructural changes in freezing clay suggested that a ' dispersed ' freshwater clay should have a higher percentage of unfrozen water than a (leached) marine clay with similar mineralogical and granulometrical compositions. This report described an investigation where two such clays were actually compared concerning their contents of unfrozen water. The results confirmed the hypothesis. Thus, the influence of clay microstructure on the amount of unfrozen water was clearly shown. The degree of particle aggregation and the density of the particle aggregates are the main microstructural parameters

  • 89.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Unsaturated and saturated flow in swelling clay1981In: Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Rotterdam: Balkema Publishers, A.A. / Taylor & Francis The Netherlands , 1981, p. 369-373Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 90.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Water uptake and swelling of montmorillonitic clay seams in rock1980Report (Other academic)
  • 91.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Water uptake, migration and swelling characteristics of unsaturated and saturated, highly compacted bentonite1980Report (Other academic)
  • 92.
    Pusch, Roland
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Börgesson, Lennart
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Preliminary results from the buffer mass test of Phase I, Stripa Project1983In: Proceedings of the Workshop on geological disposal of radioactive waste: in situ experiments in granite: Stockholm, Suède, 25th-27th October 1982, Nuclear energy agency , 1983, p. 173-183Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 93.
    Pusch, Roland
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Börgesson, Lennart
    Clay Technology, AB.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Origin of silty fracture fillings in crystalline bedrock1990In: Geologiska föreningens i Stockholm förhandlingar, ISSN 0016-786X, Vol. 112, no 3, p. 209-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silty fillings in subhorizontal fractures of large area are occasionally found at shallow depth in Swedish bedrock. The soil was deposited after widening of the fractures due to the rock stress conditions at the edge of retreating ice sheets, a probable further implication being artesian conditions leading to hydraulic lifting. It is concluded that if the rate of ice retreat was sufficiently high, the basal part of the ice would be adfrozen to still frozen rock, and highly pressurized meltwater discharged through interconnected, steep and flat-lying fractures, which became filled with soil material transported with the water.

  • 94.
    Pusch, Roland
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Eriksen, Trygve
    Jacobsson, Arvid
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ion/water migration phenomena in dense bentonites1982In: Scientific basis for nuclear waste management V: proceedings of the Materials Research Society Fifth International Symposium on the Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management, held June 7-10, 1982, in Berlin, Germany / [ed] Werner Lutze, New York: Elsevier, 1982, p. 649-658Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of a suitable technique for isolating unreprocessed nuclear reactor wastes from the biosphere has led to the Swedish multibarrier concept KBS 2 with two engineered components, a thick-walled copper canister and a clay body which confines the canister. The clay consists of well fitting blocks of highly compacted Na bentonite made by "isostatic" compression of bentonite powder. They are not water saturated when placed in the deposition holes but take up water from the surrounding rock, swell and ultimately form a tight contact with the rock and the canisters. When the bentonite is in physical equilibrium with the surroundings it forms a medium with a number of valuable properties, such as self-healing and ion exchange capacities. The healing means that initial joints between blocks and voids, or local passages in the clay cased by slight rock or canister displacements, will be sealed by the swelling potential of the clay

  • 95.
    Pusch, Roland
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Feltham, P.
    Stochastic model of the creep of soils1980In: Geotechnique, ISSN 0016-8505, E-ISSN 1751-7656, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 497-506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A statistical model embodying changes in the spectrum of activation energies is outlined. With usual conditions of testing, it yields a linear relation between the creep strain and the logarithm of time. The model is shown to account well for creep behavior of undrained clay, and to provide an appropriate framework for the representation and study of the creep of structurally sensitive clay and clayey silt, as well as for less sensitive soils. The determination of the most probable activation energy in the spectrum is discussed

  • 96.
    Pusch, Roland
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Feltham, Paul
    Department of Physics, Brunel University.
    Computer simulation of creep of clay1981In: Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, ISSN 0093-6405, Vol. 107, no 1, p. 95-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The variable character of the particle contacts in natural illitic clay implies a spectrum of bond strengths. When a sufficiently high external shear stress is applied some weaker interlinking particle groups are transformed to left double quote domains right double quote which act as slip units. In creep induced by a constant deviatoric stress, the number and heights of thermally activable barriers to slip will vary in space and time. This is encompassed by a stochastic model, a simple version of which was used in a computer simulation. The dependence of the strain on time was found to be logarithmic, in good agreement with experiments

  • 97.
    Pusch, Roland
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hatem, Mohammed
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Kasbohm, Jörn
    Greifswald University.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Roles of clay and concrete in isolating high-level radioactive waste in very long holes2013In: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences, ISSN 2076-734X, E-ISSN 2076-7366, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 263-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater flow transports possibly released radionuclides from underground repositories to the biosphere. It can also make construction difficult as is obvious from examining technical solutions for disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in long subhorizontally bored holes (KBS-3H) and in very deep boreholes (VDH). The presence of intersected, water-bearing fracture zones requires concrete for sealing these parts of the holes while the rest contains canisters surrounded and separated by dense, expandable clay. Casting of the concrete should be preceded by grouting of the fractured rock using cementitious materials composed so that mutual physical and chemical interaction do not degrade either of them. For the sake of rock stability the horizontal holes have to be located at very moderate depth, 400-500 m, where the rock has a high average hydraulic conductivity, while the slimmer, steep holes reaching down to 4 km are kept stable by using clay mud in the construction phase and dense clay for long term performance. The rock at this depth is much less permeable than higher up and the groundwater sufficiently salt to be maintained there, causing only local thermally induced circulation of possibly contaminated water. The KBS-3H concept involves practical difficulties and risks in the installation of the clay seals and waste canisters, for which the risk of shearing by slip of frequently intersected steep fractures is a major threat after closure of the repository. The VDH concept relies on effective sealing of the upper part of the deep holes and puts less demand on the seals in the lower, waste-bearing part, for which the buoyancy conditions of the groundwater make it a major barrier to upward migration of possibly released radionuclides.

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  • 98.
    Pusch, Roland
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hatem, Mohammed
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    VDH – a case of ostrich philosophy or a serious alternative for the disposal of highly radioactive waste?2014In: Waste Management and the Environment VII / [ed] C.A. Brebbia; G. Passerini; H. Itoh, Southampton: WIT Press, 2014, p. 377-390Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two basically different concepts for disposal of highly radioactive waste are the often cited KBS-3 method implying isolation of such waste in copper canisters in short holes bored from tunnels at a depth of a few hundred meters, and disposal in the lower part of 4 km deep holes (VDH). The deep hole concept has the advantage that the waste packages will be located in very salt, stagnant groundwater in rock that is much less permeable than shallow rock with repositories of KBS-3V type. Disadvantages are that some of the techniques for installation have not yet been demonstrated and that retrieval of damaged or stuck canisters is deemed more difficult than for KBS-3V. Both concepts require precise adaption of canister and seal positions to the rock structure, which, for KBS-3 repositories, is not known until the tunnels have been constructed. For VDH, pilot borings provide such knowledge at low cost at a very early stage. The deep holes need to be supported by casings and all work deeper than 500 m must be made with clay mud in them. Reconsideration of the design and function of VDH shows that it has significant advantages, primarily respecting cost and construction time, and that new types of concrete for sealing purposes can make such repositories safer than KBS-3V disposal since seismic and tectonic events are less detrimental and future glaciations will cause much less disturbance. The most important value is that the groundwater that can possibly become contaminated by failing engineered barriers will stay at more than 2000 m depth and that there is no mechanism that can bring it up to the biosphere

  • 99.
    Pusch, Roland
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hedin, Gunnar
    Westinghouse Electric.
    Grahn, Per H.
    SKB International AB.
    Principles of designing hazardous landfills: the Lithuanian LLW case2013In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 147-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A candidate concept for a Lithuanian repository for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) implies location above the groundwater level and placement of the waste in concrete vaults surrounded by smectitic clay of appreciable thickness as all-around embedment for retarding wetting and minimizing exposure of the waste packages to oxygen. For rational and cost-saving reasons the clay material is not processed, only stockpiled for desiccation to a suitable water content before placement and compaction. The clay is laterally confined by sandy fill and covered by erosion-resisting soil. The vaults rest on stable, elevated ground for minimizing subsidence and maintaining dry conditions. The time for water saturation of the clay is more than the required 300-500 years of isolation of the waste, which keeps the waste packages dry in this period. The paper describes the principles of design of the repository and its predicted performance of which creep strain of the clay is of particular importance.

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  • 100.
    Pusch, Roland
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Jacobsson, Arvid
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Bergström, A.
    Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, Stockholm.
    Bentonite-based buffer substances for isolating radioactive waste products at great depths in rock2008In: Underground disposal of radioactive wastes: proceedings of a symposium on the underground disposal of radioactive wastes, Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency. IAEA, Publications, Sales and Promotion Unit , 2008, Vol. 1, p. 487-502Conference paper (Refereed)
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