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  • 51. Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Verwey, Willem B.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Designing the car of the future: concurrent telephoning and presentation of tactile anti-collision messages1992Report (Other academic)
  • 52. Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Verwey, Willem B.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Designing the car of the future: II: concurrent presentation of familiar messages in the auditory and tactile modalities1993Report (Other academic)
  • 53.
    Brehmer, Berndt
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Alm, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Warg, Lars-Erik
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Learning and hypothesis testing in probabilistic inference tasks1985In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 305-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relation between learning of probabilistic inference tasks and the availability of correct hypotheses for the tasks in individual subjects was investigated in two experiments. The results showed that having the correct hypotheses as measured before learning the tasks was neither a sufficient nor a necessary condition for learning the task. It was concluded that the hypothesis measurements are not reliable enough to allow predictions on an individual level. The results also showed that subjects have not only the four basic functions: positive linear, negative linear, U-shaped and inversely U-shaped, in their hypothesis hierarchies but also J-shaped functions. That the subjects can leam such functions is thus no discodinnation of the hypotheses sampling conception of learning as assumed in earlier studies.

  • 54.
    Danielsson, Mats
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Alm, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Usability and decision support systems in emergency management2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no Suppl. 1, p. 3455-3458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The actors in charge of an emergency response are confronted with severe difficulties in coordination and decision making, especially in major accidents. To facilitate coordination, various decision support systems (DSS) integrated in communication systems have been developed. However, many DSS in the rescue service organizations are afflicted with under-use and other usability problems. Drawing on both a literature review and an analysis of recently obtained survey data from rescue personnel concerning usability of common communication system in Swedish emergency organizations, this paper addresses the issue of usability of DSS. It is concluded that the impetus for developing DSS in many cases has been the technological possibilities per se, not taking the decision makers task structure and contextual factors into account. It is argued that priority should be given to functions that provide a visual overview of the event and facilitate storing of the series of decisions made during the response

  • 55. Davidsson, Staffan
    et al.
    Alm, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Applying the "Team Player" approach on car design2009In: Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics: 8th International Conference, EPCE 2009, Held as Part of HCI International 2009, San Diego, CA, USA, July 19-24, 2009. Proceedings / [ed] Don Harris, Berlin: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2009, p. 349-357Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automation can cause problems with ‘the human factor'. One approach is to make automation become a team player. A team player agrees on a common ground, they show intention, they show reasoning, express their limits of performance and so on. This approach has been applied to adaptive driver information in the present study. Ten experts on different in-vehicle systems were interviewed. The experts found the team play approach both challenging and interesting. However, the experts also found a difficulty in combining the increased visual workload required to "be a team player" with car driving, that is already visually, manually and cognitively challenging. The experts believed that the approach described by the researchers rather described agents before they become team players than being team players. What is needed is "teambuilding"; the solution suggested is a compromise and could be described as a separate view for the above mentioned information.

  • 56.
    Davidsson, Staffan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Alm, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Context adaptable driver information: Or, what do whom need and want when?2014In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 994-1002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with a first step towards context adaptive functionality of a Driver Information System.Driving a car is a complex task for which the driver needs appropriate information to fulfil his or her goals. New technologies enable adaptability to driver state, task, personality etcetera and also to the context.The aim of this study was therefore to investigate what information people perceive that they need and want from the car in different contexts and to what extent there is consensus about the function. A new methodology was developed, and 33 private car drivers were interviewed and asked to rate a number of possible abstract functions in a car in different contexts.It was shown that people need and want different types of information in different contexts. It was furthermore indicated that there is sometimes a difference in drivers' opinions about what should be presented by the car and that there is varying consensus over different functions in different contexts. The rating result was illustrated by an easily perceived Context Function Matrix. The results may be used in the design of a context adaptive driver information system.

  • 57.
    Fagerlönn, Johan
    et al.
    Interactive Institute – Sonic Studio, Piteå.
    Alm, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Auditory signs to support traffic awareness2010In: IET Intelligent Transport Systems, ISSN 1751-956X, E-ISSN 1751-9578, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 262-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In-vehicle information systems (IVIS) may contribute to increased levels of cognitive workload, which in turn can lead to a more dangerous driving behaviour. An experiment was conducted to examine the use of auditory signs to support drivers' traffic situation awareness. Eighteen experienced truck drivers identified traffic situations based on information conveyed by brief sounds. Aspects of learning, cognitive demand and pleasantness were monitored and rated by the drivers. Differences in cognitive effort was estimated using a dual-task set-up, in which drivers responded to auditory signs while simultaneously performing a simulated driving task. As expected, arbitrary sounds required significantly longer learning times compared to sounds that have a natural meaning in the driving context. The arbitrary sounds also resulted in a significant degradation in response performance, even after the drivers got a chance to learn the sounds. Finally, the results indicate that the use of arbitrary sounds can negatively impact driver satisfaction. These results have implications for a broad range of developing intelligent transport systems designed to assist drivers in absence of fundamental visual information or in visually demanding traffic situations.

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  • 58.
    Fagerlönn, Johan
    et al.
    Interactive Institute - Sonic Studio, SE-94128, Piteå, Sweden.
    Alm, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Auditory signs to support traffic awareness2009In: 16th World Congress and Exhibition on Intelligent Transport Systems 2009: 16th ITS World Congress ; Stockholm, Sweden, 21 - 25 September 2009, Red Hook: Curran Associates, Inc., 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Informative systems might contribute to sensory and cognitive driver distraction, which in turn can lead to a more dangerous driving behavior. In this study we evaluated auditory signs to support drivers traffic awareness during simulated driving. 18 truck drivers identified traffic situations based on information conveyed by brief sounds. Aspects of learning, interpretation and pleasantness of sounds were monitored and rated by the drivers. Sounds which were arbitrary mapped to traffic situations required longer learning times, resulted in degraded choice reaction performance, and were rated as less pleasant compared to sounds with a high level in context specific meaning.

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  • 59.
    Gotcheva, Nadezhda
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Tekniikankatu 1, P.O. Box 1300, FI-33101 Tampere.
    Oedewald, Pia
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Tekniikankatu 1, P.O. Box 1300, FI-33101 Tampere.
    Wahlström, Mikael
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Espoo.
    Macchi, Luigi
    Dédale S.A.S, 15 Place de la Nation, 75011 Paris.
    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa
    Chalmers University of Technology, Avdelning design & human factors, Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Alm, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Cultural features of design and shared learning for safety: A Nordic nuclear industry perspective2016In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 81, p. 90-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safe and functional nuclear industry design is a topic of growing interest due to new builds and modernization projects in the operating nuclear power plants. Provided that good design of components and systems is critical for safe operation of the plants, understanding what influences the process of learning for safety in design activities is of utmost importance. The existing literature emphasizes tensions of design activity but pays insufficient attention to the culture of design and its relation to safety and learning. This paper aims at identifying cultural features of design organizations, such as shared conceptions, assumptions, norms, beliefs, and exploring their influence on the process of shared learning for safety. Case studies were carried out in Finland and Sweden to generate insights on cultural characteristics of design in the nuclear domain. The paper indicates the importance of requirements as a media for sharing knowledge and learning in nuclear industry design projects. As the networked aspects of the design work are gradually acknowledged, the need to learn how to systematically manage the requirements and understand the big picture of the overall design project are highlighted.

  • 60.
    Grane, Camilla
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Alm, Håkan
    Project: Life on Board2013Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    New generation of gear shifters in cars

  • 61.
    Grane, Camilla
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Alm, Håkan
    Project: MODAS - Methods for Designing Future Autonomous Systems2013Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Research project with Scania. My research will focus driving simulation methods for evaluating driver safety and driver system functionality.

  • 62.
    Grane, Camilla
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Lundkvist, Andre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Alm, Håkan
    Ågren, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Broström, Robert
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sverige.
    Davidsson, Staffan
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Project: EFESOS - Environmental Friendly efficient Enjoyable and Safety Optimized Systems2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    EFESOS is a Swedish Vehicle HMI (Human Machine Interaction) FFI research project. The overall ambition is to make driving of future cars more environmental friendly, enjoyable and safer by means of optimized systems. The project is managed by Volvo Car Corporation (VCC) and it is a collaboration between VCC and seven other research partners including Luleå University of Technology.

  • 63.
    Groeger, John A.
    et al.
    MRC Applied Psychology Unit, Cambridge.
    Alm, Håkan
    Haller, Rudi
    BMW-AG, Munich.
    Michon, John A.
    University of Groningen, Traffic Research Centre.
    Impact and acceptance1993In: Generic intelligent driver support, London: Taylor and Francis Group , 1993, p. 217-228Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 64.
    Hedman, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Alm, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Fitts’ law to the rescue: A comparison of graph tables2011In: Open Computer Science, E-ISSN 2299-1093, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 280-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate image browsing as an interactive method for visualizing line graphs. We have compared two interfaces that both presented exactly identically looking tables, but while one version was an overview+detail interface, the other one was a distortion-oriented interface of bifocal type. We expected there to be no difference in task completion times, and found none in our first statistical evaluation. Users preferred the static overview+detail interface to the distortion-oriented, which was motivated by complaints about the changed appearance of the distortion-oriented table. The empirical results were compared to theoretical results obtained using Fitts’ law, which showed a difference in task completion time for a certain task type. A second statistical analysis included only data from task type for which a difference could be expected. The new results supported the theoretical model, saying that users were faster with the overview+detail interface. In this paper we discuss problems with image browsing tests, and suggest some ideas for future research topics and designs.

  • 65.
    Hedman, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Alm, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Multiple diagrams for efficient reading of line graphs2011In: ISAST Transactions on Computers and Intelligent Systems, ISSN 1798-2448, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 15-19Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 66.
    Hedman, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Alm, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Testing image browsers: an analysis of layout and presentation factors that affect usability2009In: ISAST Transactions on Computers and Intelligent Systems, ISSN 1798-2448, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 23-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital cameras are replacing analogue ones, and electronic photo albums are everywhere on the Internet. Image browsing is used for searching the contents of such albums, but also for a variety of other tasks. Results from image browser studies are sometimes either unexpected or in conflict with previous results. Based on observations made during such experiments, we have identified and analysed a number of visual factors that seem to be relevant for the outcome of the test. This analysis identifies research gaps that need to be filled in order to support choice of appropriate browsing technique in interface design. Some suggestions for future user tests are also given.

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  • 67.
    Håkansson, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Nergård, Henrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Alm, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Communicating the realization process during technology implementation2015In: International Journal of Intelligent Decision Technologies, ISSN 1872-4981, E-ISSN 1875-8843, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 55-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New technology implies improved efficiency. This potential is not always realized. It has been observed that implementation of new technology within Small and Medium-sized Enterprises, (SMEs), is not as widely spread as it could be. There are several likely grounds for this, e.g. difficulties to keep up to date on the latest technology, financial grounds due to expensive technology and uncertainty regarding what gain one would get from the new technology. Looking at technology implementation, a major part of the failed implementation attempts are caused by non-technological reasons, such as organizational and human reasons. Visualizing the expected result and also the implementation process to the SME prior to the actual implementation, the communication is much more direct and the actions the SME has to perform before, during and after the implementation is made clear. When implementing new technology, the information process is crucial. This paper discusses the value of communicating the entire process and the results thereof when evaluating a technology for eventual implementation. The results is viewed in two ways, first the realization of the products whether they meet the needs of the companies or not, second the actual realization process is developed and analysed to suit each company.

  • 68.
    Hök, Bertil
    et al.
    Vägverket.
    Alm, Håkan
    System för kontroll av fordonsförares uppmärksamhet och vakenhet1999Report (Other academic)
  • 69.
    Janssen, Wiel H.
    et al.
    TNO-institute for perception, Soesterberg.
    Alm, Håkan
    Michon, John A.
    University of Groningen, Traffic Research Centre.
    Smiley, Alison
    Human factors North Inc., Toronto.
    Driver support1993In: Generic intelligent driver support, London: Taylor and Francis Group , 1993, p. 53-66Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 70.
    Lundqvist, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Alinder, Johan
    Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Alm, Håkan
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Linköping Institute of Technology, Linköping, Sweden.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Department of Rehabilitation Medicine and Pain Clinic, University Hospital, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Levander, Sten
    Department of Psychiatry, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Department of Education and Psychology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Neuropsychological Aspects of Driving After Brain Lesion: Simulator Study and On-Road Driving1997In: Applied neuropsychology, ISSN 0908-4282, E-ISSN 1532-4826, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 220-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    29 patients with brain lesion and 29 matched controls completed a neuropsychological test battery to assess perceptual, cognitive, and executive functioning and were tested on driving performance in a simulator and actual road conditions. The patients were socially well recovered with a high rate of employment. Patients performed significantly worse than controls on the test battery, especially on executive and cognitive functions. Patients drove as well as controls in predictable situations in the advanced simulator used In unpredictable situations, patients demonstrated longer reaction time (RT) and safety margins, as well as difficulties in allocating processing resources to a secondary task. Patients showed significantly less attention, worse traffic behavior, and less risk awareness when driving in real traffic. 41% of the patients did not pass the driving test. The neuropsychological test battery was factor analyzed into 4 factors: executive capacity, cognitive capacity, automatic attentional capacity, and simple perceptual-motor capacity. The second factor was the most significant, with a simultaneous capacity test predicting driving performance with 78% confidence.

  • 71.
    McKelvey, Maureen
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Alm, Håkan
    Riccaboni, Massimo
    University of Siena.
    Does co-location matter for formal knowledge collaboration in the Swedish biotechnology-pharmaceutical sector?2003In: Research Policy, ISSN 0048-7333, E-ISSN 1873-7625, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 483-501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the validity of assumptions about the importance of co-locality for innovation, by analyzing whether or not co-location matters for formal knowledge collaboration in the Swedish biotechnology-pharmaceutical sector, or biotech-pharma sector. The population of Swedish biotech-pharma firms has been defined, based on the three criteria of geographical location, their engagement in active knowledge development, and their specialized knowledge/product focus. The firms' patterns of regional, national and international collaboration with other firms and with universities is analyzed, as well as the differing collaborative patterns of small versus large firm. In addressing the theoretical questions about the relative importance of co-location for innovation, the article also provides an empirical overview of the Swedish biotech-pharma sector, especially trends over time. This paper thus contributes to the literature by expanding our empirical knowledge about one European biotech-pharma sectoral system, e.g. Sweden, as well as addressing the theoretical question about the relative importance of co-location for formal knowledge collaboration.

  • 72.
    Nilsson, Lena
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, VTI.
    Alm, Håkan
    Elderly people and mobile telephone use: effects on driver behaviour?1991In: Proceedings of the Conference Strategic Highway Research Program and Traffic Safety on Two Continents: in Gothenburg, Sweden, September 18-20, 1991, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, VTI , 1991, Vol. 3, p. 117-133Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of a mobile telephone conversation on driving were studied in the advanced driving simulator at VTI. Twenty subjects, 10 men and 10 women, between 60 and 71 years and 20 subjects, also 10 men and 10 women, between 23 and 58 years participated in the study. The road the subjects drove could be characterized as 'easy'. It was straight and not expected to cause the subjects any problems with speed choice and steering strategy. The workload imposed on the subjects by the driving task was thus supposed to be very low. The telephone task included handling of the telephone and a conversation, containing a working memory part and a decision part. The handling task consisted of pushing the handsfree button to activate the telephone when it was calling. During the conversation the subjects were asked to listen to pre-recorded sentences and for each sentence to judge if they experienced it as 'sensible' or 'nonsense'. After a number of sentences they were required to recall the last word in each sentence, in the order they were presented. Effects are discussed based on hypotheses like: When drivers' are solving the telephone task: their ability to control the vehicle, for example keep a consistent lateral position, will deteriorate; their workload will increase, due to the addition of the telephone task, and lead to a reduction in speed; the hypothetical effects are predicted to be stronger for elderly people. Implications for traffic safety and for future in-car information systems are also discussed.

  • 73.
    Norman, Kerstin
    et al.
    Department for Work and Health, National Institute for Working Life, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Alm, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Wigaeus Tornqvist, Ewa
    Department for Work and Health, National Institute for Working Life, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Toomingas, Allan
    Department for Work and Health, National Institute for Working Life, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Reliability of a questionnaire and an ergonomic checklist for assessing working conditions and health at call centres2006In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 53-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. The purpose was to study the test-retest reliability and internal consistency of questions in a questionnaire concerning working conditions and health and the inter-rater reliability of observations and measurements according to an ergonomic checklist.

    Method. Fifty-seven operators participated in a retest questionnaire and 58 operators participated in an inter-observer test.

    Results. The questions had fair to good or higher reliability in 142 of the total of 312. Twenty-seven of the total of 44 variables in the ergonomic checklist were classified as having fair to good or higher reliability.

    Conclusions. About half of the questions had fair to good or higher reliability and can be recommended for further analyses. The majority of variables in the ergonomic checklist were classified as having fair to good or higher reliability. Low reliability does not necessarily indicate that the reliability of the test, per se, is low but may signify that the conditions measured vary over time or that the answers are aggregated in one part of the scale.

  • 74.
    Ovander, Anna-Lisa
    et al.
    Avdelning design & human factors, Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Andersson, Jonas
    Avdelning design & human factors, Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Bligård, Lars-Ola
    Avdelning design & human factors, Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Alm, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Förbättrad arbetsmiljö i kontrollrum genom fokus på ökad människa-maskininteraktion2011Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 75.
    Rothengatter, Talib
    et al.
    University of Groningen, Traffic Research Centre.
    Alm, Håkan
    Kuiken, Marja J.
    University of Groningen, Traffic Research Centre.
    Michon, John A.
    University of Groningen, Traffic Research Centre.
    Verwey, Willem B.
    TNO-institute for perception, Soesterberg.
    The Driver1993In: Generic intelligent driver support, London: Taylor and Francis Group , 1993, p. 33-52Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 76.
    Rouchitsas, Alexandros
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Alm, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Communicating Vehicle Non-Yielding Intention via Emotional Facial Expressions: Angry vs. Surprised2022In: Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 77.
    Rouchitsas, Alexandros
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology.
    Alm, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology.
    External Human-Machine Interfaces for Autonomous Vehicle-to-Pedestrian Communication: A Review of Empirical Work2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 2757Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interaction between drivers and pedestrians is often facilitated by informal communicative cues, like hand gestures, facial expressions, and eye contact. In the near future, however, when semi- and fully autonomous vehicles are introduced into the traffic system, drivers will gradually assume the role of mere passengers, who are casually engaged in non-driving-related activities and, therefore, unavailable to participate in traffic interaction. In this novel traffic environment, advanced communication interfaces will need to be developed that inform pedestrians of the current state and future behavior of an autonomous vehicle, in order to maximize safety and efficiency for all road users. The aim of the present review is to provide a comprehensive account of empirical work in the field of external human–machine interfaces for autonomous vehicle-to-pedestrian communication. In the great majority of covered studies, participants clearly benefited from the presence of a communication interface when interacting with an autonomous vehicle. Nevertheless, standardized interface evaluation procedures and optimal interface specifications are still lacking.

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    Corrigendum
  • 78.
    Rouchitsas, Alexandros
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Alm, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Ghost on the Windshield: Employing a Virtual Human Character to Communicate Pedestrian Acknowledgement and Vehicle Intention2022In: Information, E-ISSN 2078-2489, Vol. 13, no 9, article id 420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pedestrians base their street-crossing decisions on vehicle-centric as well as driver-centric cues. In the future, however, drivers of autonomous vehicles will be preoccupied with non-driving related activities and will thus be unable to provide pedestrians with relevant communicative cues. External human–machine interfaces (eHMIs) hold promise for filling the expected communication gap by providing information about a vehicle’s situational awareness and intention. In this paper, we present an eHMI concept that employs a virtual human character (VHC) to communicate pedestrian acknowledgement and vehicle intention (non-yielding; cruising; yielding). Pedestrian acknowledgement is communicated via gaze direction while vehicle intention is communicated via facial expression. The effectiveness of the proposed anthropomorphic eHMI concept was evaluated in the context of a monitor-based laboratory experiment where the participants performed a crossing intention task (self-paced, two-alternative forced choice) and their accuracy in making appropriate street-crossing decisions was measured. In each trial, they were first presented with a 3D animated sequence of a VHC (male; female) that either looked directly at them or clearly to their right while producing either an emotional (smile; angry expression; surprised expression), a conversational (nod; head shake), or a neutral (neutral expression; cheek puff) facial expression. Then, the participants were asked to imagine they were pedestrians intending to cross a one-way street at a random uncontrolled location when they saw an autonomous vehicle equipped with the eHMI approaching from the right and indicate via mouse click whether they would cross the street in front of the oncoming vehicle or not. An implementation of the proposed concept where non-yielding intention is communicated via the VHC producing either an angry expression, a surprised expression, or a head shake; cruising intention is communicated via the VHC puffing its cheeks; and yielding intention is communicated via the VHC nodding, was shown to be highly effective in ensuring the safety of a single pedestrian or even two co-located pedestrians without compromising traffic flow in either case. The implications for the development of intuitive, culture-transcending eHMIs that can support multiple pedestrians in parallel are discussed.

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  • 79.
    Rouchitsas, Alexandros
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Alm, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Smiles and Angry Faces vs. Nods and Head Shakes: Facial Expressions at the Service of Autonomous Vehicles2023In: Multimodal Technologies and Interaction, E-ISSN 2414-4088, Vol. 7, no 2, article id 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When deciding whether to cross the street or not, pedestrians take into consideration information provided by both vehicle kinematics and the driver of an approaching vehicle. It will not be long, however, before drivers of autonomous vehicles (AVs) will be unable to communicate their intention to pedestrians, as they will be engaged in activities unrelated to driving. External human–machine interfaces (eHMIs) have been developed to fill the communication gap that will result by offering information to pedestrians about the situational awareness and intention of an AV. Several anthropomorphic eHMI concepts have employed facial expressions to communicate vehicle intention. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of emotional (smile; angry expression) and conversational (nod; head shake) facial expressions in communicating vehicle intention (yielding; non-yielding). Participants completed a crossing intention task where they were tasked with deciding appropriately whether to cross the street or not. Emotional expressions communicated vehicle intention more efficiently than conversational expressions, as evidenced by the lower latency in the emotional expression condition compared to the conversational expression condition. The implications of our findings for the development of anthropomorphic eHMIs that employ facial expressions to communicate vehicle intention are discussed.

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    fulltext
  • 80.
    Törnros, Jan
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, VTI.
    Harms, Lisbeth
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, VTI.
    Alm, Håkan
    The VTI driving simulator: Validation studies1997In: DSC '97: driving simulation conference, conference simulation de conduite : [September 8-9, 1997, Ecole normale supérieure, Lyons-France], ETNA , 1997, p. 105-14Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 81.
    Verwey, Willem B.
    et al.
    TNO-institute for perception, Soesterberg.
    Alm, Håkan
    Groeger, John A.
    MRC Applied Psychology Unit, Cambridge.
    Janssen, Wiel H.
    TNO-institute for perception, Soesterberg.
    Kuiken, Marja J.
    University of Groningen, Traffic Research Centre.
    Schraagen, Jan Maarten
    TNO-institute for perception, Soesterberg.
    Schumann, Josef
    University of the Armed Forces, Munich.
    van Winsum, Wim
    University of Groningen, Traffic Research Centre.
    Wontorra, Heinz
    University of the Armed Forces, Munich.
    GIDS functions1993In: Generic intelligent driver support, London: Taylor and Francis Group , 1993, p. 113-146Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 82.
    Vogel, Katja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden;Department of Mechanical Engineering, Division of Industrial Ergonomics, Linköping Institute of Technology, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kircher, Albert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Alm, Håkan
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Division of Industrial Ergonomics, Linköping Institute of Technology, Linköping, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Traffic sense: which factors influence the skill to predict the development of traffic scenes?2003In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 749-762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study was conducted to evaluate the skill to predict the development of traffic situations. A stop-controlled intersection was filmed over several days, and 12 scenes with varying traffic complexity were selected. In half of the scenes, the traffic rules were violated, in half of the scenes, the rules were observed. A total of 36 participants were asked to watch the scenes and predict how the scene would most likely develop in the 2 s after the film was paused. Additionally, the participants rated how certain they were about their prediction, and how complex and dangerous they assessed the scenes to be. With the method used here, experienced drivers were not found to make more correct predictions of situational development, and no difference in skill to predict could be found between genders. Nevertheless, more experienced drivers were more certain in their judgements and evaluated the situations on average as less complex and dangerous than did less experienced drivers. Scenes in which the traffic rules were violated were more difficult to predict correctly. The scenes in which the participants predicted violations were rated as more complex and dangerous. It is concluded that the low-cost method used here is more useful for examining which scenes are generally easy or difficult to predict and how they are experienced subjectively than to investigate differences in performance for different driver categories.

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