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  • 51.
    Wissing, Ulla E.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Campus Norrköping, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    Linköping University, Campus Norrköping, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ek, Anna-Christina
    Linköping University, Campus Norrköping, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Unosson, Mitra
    Linköping University, Campus Norrköping, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Meal patterns and meal quality in patients with leg ulcers2000In: Journal of human nutrition and dietetics (Print), ISSN 0952-3871, E-ISSN 1365-277X, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 3-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Wound healing is a complex process, which requires adequate energy sources, proteins, and specific minerals and vitamins. If an individual is unable to get or to eat the nutrients required, the wound healing process might be disrupted. The aim of this study was to investigate food-related factors, meal patterns and meal quality in relation to nutritional status in elderly out-patients with leg ulcers. Methods. Nutritional status was assessed by use of the Mini Nutritional Assessment in 70 patients living in their own homes. Fifty-six of the patients recorded actual meals and snacks over four consecutive days. Meal patterns and meal quality were evaluated with the help of a qualitative classification system, the Food Based Concept for Classification of Eating Episodes. Results. Thirty-six patients were classified as well-nourished, 32 were at risk of malnutrition and two were malnourished. More patients in the risk group for malnutrition did not buy their own food, and usually ate alone. Incomplete Meals and Low Quality Snacks were the most common eating types. The patients at risk of malnutrition had significantly fewer prepared Complete Meals than the well-nourished patients. Conclusion. The results show a diet and meal quality which hardly meets the requirements for nutrients that are important in wound healing, especially for those patients assessed at risk of malnutrition.

  • 52.
    Wissing, Ulla E.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Campus Norrköping, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Medicine and Care, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    National Institute of Public Health.
    Ek, Anna-Christina
    Linköping University, Campus Norrköping, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Medicine and Care, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University.
    Unosson, Mitra
    Linköping University, Campus Norrköping, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Medicine and Care, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University.
    Monitoring of dietary quality in outpatients by qualitative meal classification method1998In: Journal of human nutrition and dietetics (Print), ISSN 0952-3871, E-ISSN 1365-277X, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 125-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether qualitative meal-classification used as a dietary evaluation tool reflects eating frequency and key nutrients in the diet, and whether it could be used to monitor the dietary quality in elderly outpatients. The qualitative meal-classification tool used was based on eight food categories combined into four types of meals: Complete, Incomplete, Less Balanced and Vegetarian Meals, and three types of snacks: High-, Mixed- and Low-Quality Snacks. Methods: Dietary intake was assessed during 7 consecutive days by use of an estimated food record in nine elderly women with leg ulcers. Mean 7-day dietary intakes of energy, macronutrients, beta-carotene, retinol, vitamin E, ascorbic acid, calcium, iron, zinc and dietary fibre were calculated. Each eating event was classified in accordance with the food-based classification method. The frequency of the four types of meals and three types of snacks, their energy content and nutrients, and their contribution to total intake were subsequently analysed. Results: Meals were associated with a higher energy, vitamin and mineral content than were snacks. Complete Meals were the major source for beta-carotene and ascorbic acid. Intakes from Low-Quality Snacks were relatively high in energy fat and sucrose. Conclusion: The qualitative meal-classification tool was found to be simple to use and useful for reflecting meal order and the nutritional roles of different types of meals and snacks in the diet. This method is recommended for dietary monitoring.

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