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  • 51.
    Kohlbacher, Anton
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Acres, Kevin
    Monash Swarm Robotics Laboratory, Monash University.
    Chung, Hoam
    Monash Swarm Robotics Laboratory, Monash University.
    Barca, Jan Carlo
    Monash Swarm Robotics Laboratory, Monash University.
    A Low Cost Omnidirectional Relative Localization Sensor for Swarm Applications2018In: IEEE 4th World Forum on Internet of Things, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018, p. 694-699Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By enabling coordinated task execution and movement, robotic swarms can achieve efficient exploration of unknown environments. In this paper, we propose a relative localization sensor system using Ultra-wideband (UWB) radio technology for ranging. This system is light-weight and relatively indifferent to the types of surrounding environments. Infrastructure dependency such as the requirement of beacons at known locations is eliminated by making an array of sensors on a swarm agent. In this paper, a novel algorithm is implemented on hardware with limited resources and compared to a more traditional trilateration approach. Both utilize Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) to be more robust against noise and to achieve similar accuracy. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm runs up to ten times faster than the existing trilateration approach. The sensor array which forms the localization system weighs only 56g, and achieves around 0.5m RMSE with a 10Hz update rate. Experiments show that the accuracy can be further improved if the rotational bias observed in the UWB devices are compensated for.

  • 52.
    Kolluru, Katyayani Kiranmayee
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Paniagua, Cristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    van Deventer, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    DeLong, Rance J.
    The Open Group, Apex Plaza, Forbury Road, Reading, Berkshir.
    An AAA Solution for Securing Industrial IoT Devices using Next Generation Access Control2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry 4.0 is advancing the use of Internet of Things (IoT) devices in industrial applications, which enablesefficient device-to-device (D2D) communication. However, these devices are often heterogeneous in nature, i.e. from different manufacturers, use different protocols, etc. and adds requirements such as security, interoperability, etc.To address these requirements, the Service-Oriented Architecture-Based (SOA) Arrowhead Framework was previously proposed using the concept of local clouds. These local clouds provide a set of mandatory and support core systems to enable industrial automation applications. One of these mandatory core systems is an Authentication, Authorisationand Accounting (AAA) system, which is used to authenticate and provide access control to the devices in a local cloud. In an industrial context, with multiple stakeholders, the AAA mustsupport fine-grain access control. For example, in a distributed control loop, a controller should only have read access to its sensor such as a flow meter and write access to its actuator, such as a valve. The controller should not have access to anyother information besides what is needed to implement the desired functionality. In this work, an NGAC-based AAA solution to achieve fine-grain service level access control between IoT devices has been proposed and implemented. The solution is presented using a district heating use case.

  • 53.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Cragie, Robert
    Gridmerge Ltd..
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    van Deventer, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Emerging energy management standards and technologies: challenges and application prospects2012In: 2012 IEEE 17th Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation : (ETFA 2012): September 17-21, 2012 Krakow Poland, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The continuously rising costs and the environmental impact of energy generation, transmission and consumption are a major concern for governments, industry and society alike. Among research in renewable energy sources as well as in energy efficiency of buildings, electrical appliances, vehicles etc., a considerable amount of attention has been devoted to effective energy management. In this paper, we present a survey on emerging energy management standards with focus on enabling application layer Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) that are a central part of these standards. The presented work includes an analysis on the challenges, future trends, security and application prospects of energy management standards. As part of the survey, the emerging Open Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) version 2.0 and Smart Energy Profile (SEP) version 2.0 were identified as the most promising and complete solutions. The presented survey provides an important insight on the future developments in the area of energy management protocols and highlights a number of key ICT solutions and challenges.

  • 54.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Efficient structured data processing for web service enabled shop floor devices2011In: 2011 IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE 2011): Gdansk, Poland, 27 - 30 June 2011, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2011, p. 1716-1721Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    State of the art factory automation systems are nowusing Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) in order to increaseflexibility and lower complexity of process monitoring andcontrol. However, the service technology has not yet penetratedinto the lower levels of plant-wide automation processes i.e.throughout shop floor devices such as programmable controllers,embedded sensors and actuators. Different techniques to adaptthe web service technology to the specific requirements of embedded systems domain are intensively investigated by researchersand yet real-time properties, limited resources and wirelesslinks are still posing immense challenges. The most promisingsolutions proposed are based on a newly emerging structureddata format - Efficient XML Interchange (EXI). It is designedto compensate for the inefficiency of widely used throughoutservice implementations XML format. This paper investigates thedesign of EXI processor targeted at highly resource constrainedembedded devices found at the shop floor level. The EXIprocessor is proposed as an alternative to the XML parsersand serializers currently used in web service implementations.Among the results presented are a novel low level processorinterface and measurements quantifying the gained efficiencycompared to traditional XML-like interfaces. Reference opensource implementation equipped with the new interface is alsoprovided.

  • 55.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    van Deventer, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Gustafsson, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Integration of wireless sensor and actuator nodes with IT infrastructure using service-oriented architecture2013In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 43-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of potential applications for Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (WSAN) have yet to be embraced by industry despite high interest amongst academic researchers. This is due to various factors such as unpredictable costs related to development, deployment and maintenance of WSAN, especially when integration with existing IT infrastructure and legacy systems is needed. Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is seen as a promising technique to bridge the gap between sensor nodes and enterprise applications such as factory monitoring, control and tracking systems where sensor data is used. To date, research efforts have focused on middleware software systems located in gateway devices that implement standard service technology, such as Devices Profile for Web Services (DPWS), for interacting with the sensor network. This paper takes a different approach - deploying interoperable Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP)-based web services directly on the nodes and not using gateways. This strategy provides for easy integration with legacy IT systems and supports heterogeneity at the lowest level. Two-fold analysis of the related overhead, which is the main challenge of this solution, is performed; Quantification of resource consumption as well as techniques to mitigate it are presented, along with latency measurements showing the impact of different parts of the system on system performance. A proof-of-concept application using Mulle - a resource-constrained sensor platform - is also presented.

  • 56.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Mäkitaavola, Henrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Efficient XML interchange in factory automation systems2012In: IECON 2011: 37th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Melbourne, Vic. 7 Nov. - 10 Nov. 2011, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2012, p. 4478-4483Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The advent of Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) in the automation domain has made possible the cross-layer vertical integration of devices, manufacturing systems and business processes. However, the use of standard web service technologies is not always possible in an industrial environment with high real-time requirements and limited hardware resources due to the overhead connected to XML processing. The work presented in this paper analyses the opportunities, advantages and challenges when applying the newly emerged Efficient XML Interchange (EXI) standard for XML encoding to the factory automation systems. The two major SOA-based automation middleware architectures, namely OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA) and Devices Profile for Web Services (DPWS), were investigated. Furthermore, we present an EXI-based approach for extending the reach of the service technology covering deployments on resource constrained embedded devices.

  • 57.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Punal, Pablo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    EXIP: A Framework for Embedded Web Development2014In: ACM Transactions on the Web (TWEB), ISSN 1559-1131, E-ISSN 1559-114X, Vol. 8, no 4, article id 23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing and deploying Web applications on networked embedded devicesis often seen as a way to reduce the development cost and time to marketfor new target platforms. However, the sizeof the messages and the processing requirements of today's Web protocols, such as HTTP and XML,are challenging for the most resource-constrained class of devicesthat could also benefit from Web connectivity.New Web protocols using binary representations have been proposedfor addressing this issue. Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP)reduces the bandwidth and processing requirementscompared to HTTP while preserving the core concepts of the Web architecture.Similarly, Efficient XML Interchange (EXI) format has been standardizedfor reducing the size and processing time for XML structured information.Nevertheless, the adoption of these technologies is lagging behind due to lack ofsupport from web browsers and current Web development toolkits.Motivated by these problems, this article presents the design and implementationtechniques for the EXIP framework for embedded Web development. The frameworkconsists of a highly efficient EXI processor, a tool for EXI data binding basedon templates, and a CoAP/EXI/XHTML Web page engine.A prototype implementation of the EXI processor is hereinpresented and evaluated. It can be applied to Web browsersor thin server platforms using XHTML and Web servicesfor supporting human-machine interactions with constrained hosts.This article contains four major results: (1) theoretical and practical evaluation of the use of binary protocolsfor embedded Web programming; (2) a novelmethod for generation of EXI grammars based on XML Schema definitions;(3) an algorithm for grammar concatenationthat produces normalized EXI grammars directly, and hence reducesthe number of iterations during grammar generation;(4) an algorithm for efficient representation of possible deviations from theXML schema.

  • 58.
    Lindgren, Per
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Mäkitaavola, Henrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Pietrzak, Pawel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    A SOA approach to delay and jitter tolerant distributed real-time complex event processing2013In: 2013 IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE 2013): Taipei, Taiwan, 28 - 31 May 2013; [proceedings], Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of Service Oriented Architectures (SOAs) and Complex Event Processing (CEP) is gaining momen- tum for event centric management and processing of informa- tion in complex distributed systems (e.g., business automation). Whereas systems for factory automation have traditionally been deployed using dedicated buses and proprietary (often scan based) protocols, a recent trend in process automation is towards adopting open internet based technologies and event based communication. This trend is driven by the increasing number and capabilities of devices used for monitoring and control, and the increased flexibility, maintainability and price/performance gains expected from IP (potentially SOA/CEP) enabled systems.In this paper we discuss the challenges involved to apply SOA and CEP to the field of factory automation. In particular, real- time aspects are highlighted, both w.r.t. to accurate time-stamping of physical events in a distributed system, as well as end-to-end timing including communication and CEP processing.We approach the challenges by an architecture combining state-of-the-art synchronisation mechanisms for wired and wire- less networks together with real-time communication and dis- tributed query processing based on the notion of time constrained reactions. We discuss the impact of synchronisation inaccuracies and delays introduced by processing and communication, and present a method for implementation of safe potential- and certain matches.

  • 59.
    Lindgren, Per
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Mäkitaavola, Henrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Leveraging tinyos for integration in process automation and control systems2012In: IECON 2012: 38th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2012, p. 5779-5785Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number and complexity of networked sensors and actuators in industrial monitoring and control systems is rapidly increasing. This calls for flexible yet efficient methods (w.r.t. time and money) for designing, deploying and maintaining such systems. To this end, Service Oriented Architectures (SOAs) and wireless technologies are foreseen to play important roles. In the area of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), TinyOS (TOS) has gained wide spread use, mainly because it offers a simple programming model. Moreover TOS comes with a ready made code base (e.g., protocol stacks needed to implement SOA enabled devices) and is available for a large number of light-weight target platforms. However, TOS has yet to make its way into industrial applications where real-time operation is required (which is typical to monitoring and control systems). As being designed primarily with simplicity in mind, the TOS execution model for tasks is non-preemptive, limiting system responsiveness and schedulability. To overcome this problem preemptive TOSThreads has been introduced. However, this introduces the additional complexity of traditional multi-thread programming, thus the main benefit of TOS is lost. In this paper we present an alternative execution model for TOS, that allows preemptive execution while preserving the simplicity of vintage TOS. We exemplify the impact of scheduling to a typical sensor/actuator node scenario. Our results indicate that the proposed preemptive execution model is capable of reducing both delay and drop rate for the given scenario.

  • 60.
    Lundberg, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Allan, Jason
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Johansson, Jonny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Power characterization of a bluetooth-equipped sensor node2005In: REALWSN 2005: proceedings of the First Workshop on Real-World Wireless Sensor Network : Stockholm, Sweden, 20-21 June 2005, Kista: Swedish Institute of Computer Science , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of small, autonomous devices with wireless networking capabilities. In order to further increase the applicability of WSNs in real world ap- plications, minimizing energy consumption and size are im- portant research topics. A WSN node itself is a complex system consisting of numerous components, and the energy consumption of the node depends heavily on the interac- tion between its components and their respective operation modes. To develop a power consumption model, we have investigated the power characteristics of a Bluetooth(BT)- equipped node based on COTS (commercial o®-the-shelf) components running standardized protocols for communica- tion. The characterization captures the transient behavior of the individual components as well as the dynamic behav- ior of the system as a whole. Although the parameters of the model are derived for a speci¯c node, the model and our conclusions can be applied to WSN nodes in general. Based on our model the estimated lifetime of a battery powered BT-equipped node can range from a couple of days to sev- eral months depending on battery and usage. This result indicates that COTS based sensor nodes can be used in a wide range of applications.

  • 61.
    Lundberg, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Svensson, Linus
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Context aware power optimizations of wireless embedded Internet systems2004In: From the electrometer to the networked instruments: giant step toward a deeper knowledge : proceedings of the 21th IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, Como, Italy, May 18 - 20, 2004 / [ed] Serge Demidenko, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2004, p. 91-95Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A key issue in research around embedded Internet systems (EIS) is to reduce power consumption. We envision EIS devices with lifetimes in the range of months or even years. This calls for developing aggressive power management techniques with a high degree of context awareness. As a first step towards this goal we introduce a design methodology for making context aware power optimizations of EIS. The presented design methodology which is verified by experimental results is a promising first step in prolonging operating time of battery powered wireless EIS.

  • 62.
    Nappey, Philippe
    et al.
    Schneider Electric.
    Kaed, Charbel El
    Schneider Electric.
    Colombo, Armando
    Schneider Electric.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Kruglyak, Andrey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Hübner, Christian
    Ifak - Institut für Automation und Kommunikation.
    Bangemann, Thomas
    Ifak - Institut für Automation und Kommunikation.
    Carlsson, Oscar
    Midroc Electro AB, Stockholm.
    Migration of a legacy plant lubrication system to SOA2013In: 39th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2013, IEEE Communications Society, 2013, p. 7440-7445Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 63.
    Nappey, Philippe
    et al.
    Schneider Electric, Grenoble.
    Kaed, Charbel El
    Schneider Electric, Grenoble.
    Colombo, Armando W.
    Schneider Electric, Marktheidenfeld.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Kruglyak, Andrey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Hübner, Christian
    Ifak - Institut für Automation und Kommunikation.
    Bangemann, Thomas
    Ifak - Institut für Automation und Kommunikation.
    Carlsson, Oscar
    Midroc Electro AB, Stockholm.
    Migration of a Legacy Plant Lubrication System to SOA2014In: Industrial Cloud-Based Cyber-Physical Systems: The IMC-AESOP Approach, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2014, p. 167-182Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IMC-AESOP investigations have been articulated around key use cases in order to better capture user needs and corresponding requirements. This particular use case explores how Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) can ease the installation and maintenance of one of the lubrication system of the world’s largest underground iron mine run by LKAB in north Sweden, with a focus on migration aspects. We demonstrate that the loose coupling provided by the SOA approach combined with the eventing capabilities of Event Driven Architecture (EDA) can benefit to both engineering, installation and maintenance of an industrial process control system, with the exception of hard real-time based control loops.

  • 64.
    Pietrzak, Pawel
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Roadmap for SOA event processing and service execution in real-time using Timber2011In: 2011 IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE 2011): Gdansk, Poland, 27 - 30 June 2011, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2011, p. 1727-1732Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of Service Oriented Architectures for monitoring and control involves the deployment of SOA onto lightweight devices (e.g., embedded controllers for sensors and actuators). For the use of SOA in applications where timing and dependability are important, it becomes crucial that SOA event processing and service implementations are robust and time bound for a given platform. To this end, formalisms and tools aiding the design is instrumental. In this paper, we present a roadmap for a SOA based on components using the modeling and programming paradigm of Timber. Our vision is to present Timber based software components as services. By using current standards for service descriptions and eventing we will facilitate interoperability with legacy systems. We will develop a compiler tool suit allowing Timber based services to be deployable onto lightweight resource constrained platforms (e.g., sensors and actuators for industrial use). Our goal is to provide design time guarantees on e.g., robustness (safety and liveness), timing properties, and resource utilization for the complete embedded system comprising SOA event communication, event processing together with the service implementations.

  • 65.
    Punal, Pablo
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    An Authentication and Access Control Framework for CoAP-based Internet of Things2015In: IECON 2014: 40th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Dallas, TX, USA , Oct. 29 2014 - Nov. 1 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, p. 5293-5299Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) and Cyber-physical Systems (CPS) are two very hot research topics today, and more and more products are starting to appear on the market. Research has shown that the use of Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) can enable distributed application and devices to device com- munication, even on very resource constrained devices, and thus play an important role for IoT and CPS.In order to realize the vision of Internet of Things, communica- tion between devices must be secured. Security mechanisms for resource constrained devices has attracted much interest from the academic community, where research groups have shown solutions like IPsec, VPN-tunnels, (D)TLS, etc. are feasible to use on this type of networks. However, even though the use of well- known security mechanisms are vital for SOA-based IoT/CPS networks and systems to be protected, they do not provide any fine-grain access control.In this paper, a CoAP-based framework for service-level access control on low-power devices is presented. The framework allows fine grain access control on a per service and method basis. For example, by using this approach a device can allow read/write access to its services to one group of users while only allowing read access to another group. Users without the right credentials are not even allowed to discover available services. To demonstrate the validity of the proposed approach, several implementations are presented together with test results.The aim is to provide a holistic framework for secure SOA- based low power networks comprise by resource constrain devices.

  • 66.
    Punal, Pablo
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Raayatinezhad, Asma
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Johansson, Mia
    Säktek Tillväxt Skellefteå.
    Enabling cloud-connectivity for mobile internet of things applications2013In: Proceedings: 2013 IEEE 7th International Symposium on Service-Oriented System Engineering, SOSE 2013, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013, p. 518-526Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of small embedded devices connected to the Internet is increasing. This growth is mostly due to the large number of Internet of Things (IoT) deployments, withapplications such as: industrial monitoring, home automation, and others. One common aspect with the majority of application areas is the lack of mobility. Most IoT devices arestationary and often use IEEE 802.15.4/6LoWPAN solutions. When a high level of mobility is required, the use of IEEE 802.15.4 is not possible without adding additional hardware for the user to carry.In this article, a holistic network architecture consisting of heterogeneous devices is presented. The architecture is composed of Embedded Internet Systems (EIS) and uses standard communication protocols. One important feature is the use of the Service-oriented architecture (SOA) paradigm. The use of SOA, by utilization of the CoAP protocol and standard services, enables the proposed architecture to exchange sensor-and actuator data with an Internet-based cloud as well as a user’s local cloud consisting of sensor IoT devices, smart phones and laptops. Another component of the architecture is a web-based human-machine interface for configuration, monitoring and visualization of sensor and actuator data using emerging web technologies for structured data processing.Results from experiments and real-world tests show that the proposed architecture can support sample rates of up to several kHz while enabling sensor data to be transmitted to SOA services in real time. This proves that the use of SOA, and RESTful web services in particular, is feasible on resource-constrained platforms while supporting true mobility.

  • 67.
    Ramirez, B.
    et al.
    Faculty of Information Technology, Monash University.
    Chung, Hoam
    Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University.
    Derhamy, Hasan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Barca, Jan Carlo
    Faculty of Information Technology, Monash University.
    Relative localization with computer vision and UWB range for flying robot formation control2017In: 2016 14th International Conference on Control, Automation, Robotics and Vision, ICARCV 2016, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, article id 7838839Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relative localization is a core problem for swarm robotics since each swarm node must determine where neighboring robots are located to accomplish cooperative tasks such as formation control. In this paper we present a system that performs relative localization between a stationary marker and a flying robot in real-time. Relative distances are obtained using ultra-wide band radio, while a low-cost webcam provide angle measurements. To achieve the latter, we employed the Camshift algorithm and a Kalman filter. We tested our system outdoors during daylight using centimeter-accuracy GPS measurements as ground truth. Three data sets have been collected from a series of experiments and it shows that errors in estimated relative positions are between +/-0.190 m on the x-East axis and +/-0.291 m on the z-North axis at 95% confidence level

  • 68.
    Riliskis, Laurynas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Hostettler, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Mäkitaavola, Henrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Enabling remote controlled road surface networks for enhanced ITS2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) will, in the future, play a key role to improve transportation efficiency and safety. However, cost-benefit of deploying traditional ITS is retarded by expensive equipment, infrastructure, installation and maintenance. The demo presents a replica of a real world experimental ITS application using recently proposed Road Surface Network architecture. The demonstrated "intelligent roundabout'' application is intended to warn and inform drivers about an upcoming roundabout and to prevent driving straight into collision. We show a lab prototype system consisting of: an authentic sensor node platform enabled for car detection, secure multihop communications and the running light application, a base station with system control center.

  • 69.
    Sadrollah, Ghazaleh Pour
    et al.
    Monash Swarm Robotics Laboratory, Faculty of Information Technology, Monash University.
    Barca, Jan Carlo
    Monash Swarm Robotics Laboratory, Faculty of Information Technology, Monash University.
    Khan, Asad
    Monash Swarm Robotics Laboratory, Faculty of Information Technology, Monash University.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Senthooran, Ilankaikone
    Monash Swarm Robotics Laboratory, Faculty of Information Technology, Monash University.
    A Distributed Framework for Supporting 3D Swarming Applications2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In-flight wireless sensor networks (WSN) are ofincreased interest owing to efficiency gains in weight and operationallifetime of IP-enabled computers. High impact 3Dswarming applications for such systems include autonomousmapping, surveying, servicing, environmental monitoring anddisaster site management. For distributed robotic applications,such as quad copter swarms, it is critical that the robots are ableto localise themselves autonomously with respect to other robotsand to share information. The importance of fast and reliabledissemination of localised information in these elastic threedimensionalnetworks provides us sufficient reason to presenta distributed framework and hardware settings for passing thisinformation pervasively through the swarm. The research field ofInternet of Things (IoT) have for several years been addressingissues around low-power, low-bandwidth wireless communication.By applying IoT technologies to the challenges around swarming,new opportunities are created. However, since IoT have beenprimarily used with stationary devices, the introduction of flyingsensors will add more challenges to address.

  • 70.
    van Deventer, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Gustafsson, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Eliasson, Jens
    Wireless infrastructure in a district heating substation2009In: 3rd Annual IEEE Systems Conference, 2009: 23 - 26 March 2009, Marriott Vancouver Pinnacle Hotel, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, IEEE Communications Society, 2009, p. 139-143Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new wireless sensor and actuator network architecture for a district heating substation is presented. The implementation allows for new control algorithms to save substancial amounts of energy and therefore reduce waste and indirectly CO2 emissions. The wireless network uses TCP/IP all the way to the sensor level, which can enable a standardized Service Oriented Architecture and the possibility to upgrade software of each node remotely over the Internet. New diagnostic services are also available to improve service and maintenance.

  • 71.
    van Deventer, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Gustafsson, Jonas
    Eliasson, Jens
    Delsing, Jerker
    Mäkitaavola, Henrik
    Independence and interdependence of systems in district heating2010In: 2010 IEEE International Systems Conference proceedings: April 5-8th, 2010, Hyatt Regency Mission Bay Spa and Marina, San Diego, California., Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2010, p. 267-271Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a fully operational wireless sensor and actuator network is presented. The network has the ability to control a district heating substation to ensure indoors comfort while minimizing energy waste by maximizing heat extraction from the distribution network. Introduced here is the foundation for a systems of systems approach within a district heating application, where several substations cooperate with the heat production plant. Presented are also the first steps to a service oriented architecture (SOA) where sensor nodes in the district heating network can cooperate with other nodes and systems, for example a ventilation control network.

  • 72.
    Varga, Pal
    et al.
    Budapest University of Technology and Economics.
    Blomstedt, Fredrik
    BNearIT Inc., Lulea.
    Ferreira, Luis Lino
    ISEP, Polytechnic of Porto – School of Engineering.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Johansson, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Martínez de Soria, Iker
    Tecnalia Research and Innovation, Bilbao.
    Making system of systems interoperable: The core components of the arrowhead framework2017In: Journal of Network and Computer Applications, ISSN 1084-8045, E-ISSN 1095-8592, Vol. 81, p. 85-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the Arrowhead Framework is to efficiently support the development, deployment and operation of interconnected, cooperative systems. It is based on the Service Oriented Architecture philosophy. The building elements of the framework are systems that provide and consume services, and cooperate as systems of systems. Some commonly used systems, such as orchestration, authorization or service registry are considered as core. These can be used by any system of systems that follow the guidelines of the Arrowhead Framework.

    Within the framework, systems – using different information exchange technologies during collaboration – are helped through various approaches. These include the so-called Interoperability Layer, as well as systems and services for translation. Furthermore, one of the main problems of developing such highly interoperable systems is the lack of understanding between various development groups. Adequate development and service documentation methodologies can help to overcome this issue.

    The design, development and verification methodology for each service, system and system of systems within the Arrowhead Framework supports that these can be implemented, verified, deployed, and run in an interoperable way. This paper presents an overview of the framework together with its core elements – and provides guidelines for the design and deployment of interoperable, Arrowhead-compliant cooperative systems.

  • 73.
    Wiklander, Jimmie
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Kruglyak, Andrey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Nordlander, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Enabling component-based design for embedded real-time software2009In: Journal of Computers, ISSN 1796-203X, E-ISSN 1796-203X, Vol. 4, no 12, p. 1309-1321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing complexity of embedded software calls for a new, more efficient design approach. A natural choice is to use well-established component-based design; however, its adoption to design of embedded software has been slow and riddled with difficulties. It can be argued that these problems are due to the following peculiarities of embedded systems. Firstly, the tight integration between hardware and software, typical for embedded systems, makes it virtually impossible to model and implement software separately from hardware. Secondly, it is difficult to express timing requirements, an intrinsic part of functionality of many embedded systems, in dataflow abstractions traditionally used in component-based design. We propose to overcome these difficulties by introducing a uniform, consistent modeling of both hardware and software and by integrating timing requirements into the model. We present a modeling framework based on the notions of reactive objects and time-constrained reactions, which enables component-based design of embedded real-time systems. Within this framework, functionality of both hardware and software components is defined in terms of reactions to discrete external events, and timing requirements are specified for each reaction relative to the event that triggered it. We also present a detailed software design methodology for embedded real-time systems based on our modeling framework.

  • 74.
    Wolosz, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Bodin, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Cognitive load-control for congested Wireless Sensor Network channels2013In: 2013 IFIP Wireless Days (WD 2013: Valencia, Spain, 13-15 Nov 2013, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern wireless sensors transmit at high rates and changing transmission patterns. They may individually or collectively select how much data shall be sent depending on predefined rules tied to properties of measured data. Sending rates thereby change triggered by events appearing in the sensor environment. With wireless technologies such as 802.15.4 (ZigBee) having limited capacity high transmission needs can easily cause overload resulting in decreased throughput. This paper presents a load control mechanism that uses multiple inputs, demand for transmission capacity and perceived quality of each sensor node, to properly configure sending rates of these nodes. The mechanism is based on Fuzzy Logic and quality assessed with utility functions for packet loss and throughput. NS-3 simulation results show clear improvements in overall throughput at high loads with the mechanism compared to without.

  • 75.
    Zhong, Chen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Evaluation of a heterogeneous sensor network architecture for highly mobile users2011In: Communications and Network, ISSN 1949-2421, E-ISSN 1947-3826, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 57-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents experimental results of a heterogeneous sensor network architecture, which is a combi-nation of a wireless sensor network and a personal area network. The proposed architecture uses the IEEE 802.15.4 standard to transmit sensor data to a sensor node which in turn forwards the data using TCP/IP to a database on the Internet via a Bluetooth-equipped mobile phone and the mobile telephone access network. The performance of the entire communication chain is evaluated. First, a 3G network's performance is evalu-ated by measuring its round trip time for packet transmission. Second, the real-world end-to-end delay be-tween a sensor node and a database server on the Internet is measured using two different experimental set-ups: single-hop transmission and two hops transmission. Finally, the proposed architecture's scalability is estimated in a Matlab simulation using the results of the experiments as a base. The results show that the proposed architecture is applicable for small-scale sensor networks used by highly mobile users.

  • 76. Zhong, Chen
    et al.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Mäkitaavola, Henrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Zhang, Fan
    Department of Logistics Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology.
    A cluster-based localization method using RSSI for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks2010In: 6th International Conference on Wireless Communications Networking and Mobile Computing: WiCOM '10 ; 23 - 23 Sept. 2010, Chengdu, China ; proceedings, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of cluster-based localization using received signal strength indicator (RSSI). The proposed solution is designed to meet the requirements of monitoring of firefighters or similar applications. The empirical relationship between signal strength and distance is determined using experiment data. One of the most popular localization algorithms found today, Min-Max, is used for our testbeds. Our solution is implemented in TinyOS and experimentally evaluated on a Mulle v5.2 IEEE 802.15.4 platform. The aim of our research is to develop a heterogeneous wireless sensor network consisting of inter connected body area networks, or clusters. Using localization, the network's robustness and reliability, as well as the safety of its users, can be improved.

  • 77. Östmark, Åke
    et al.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Meppelink, Lianne
    Halteren, Aart van
    University of Twente.
    An infrastructure for service oriented sensor networks2006In: Journal of Computers, ISSN 1796-203X, E-ISSN 1796-203X, Vol. 1, no 5, p. 20-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emerging wireless technologies enable ubiquitous access to networked services. Integration of wireless technologies into sensor and actuator nodes provides the means for remote access and control. However, ad hoc deployment of nodes complicates the process of finding, selecting and sing these in a meaningful way. The use of a service discovery framework enables nodes to present themselves and the resources they hold. In this paper, we review the applicability of a number of well-known service discovery protocols in the context of networked nodes. Multicast DNS and Service Discovery (mDNS-SD) stands out with its auto-configuration, distributed architecture,sharing of resources, and wide area access. For wireless battery operated and resource constrained nodes, we seek to integrate SD and power management techniques. This leads us to a standards based infrastructure for service oriented sensor networks where; 1) nodes collaborate in an ad hoc fashion by using SD techniques to discover (and announce) resources locally and over the public Internet, 2) nodes preserve power through aggressive utilization of low power (sleep) modes, while yet being reachable for clients according to defined schemas, and 3) clients may access and configure nodes, and (if possible) access sleeping nodes by implicit wake-up procedures. To demonstrate the proposed infrastructure a complete experimental setup has been devised featuring; Bluetooth enabled nodes, lightweight implementations of mDNS-SD and communication stacks, Internet access through cellular/wired gateways, together with a public DNS server. Our experiments verify that mDNS-SD can be effectively deployed on small wireless sensor and actuator nodes and provides the basis of a service oriented infrastructure for low power sensor networks.

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