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  • 51.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Consultant Engineer, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sammara and its Canals2020Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, nr 3, s. 223-251Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As the history of this land continues to unfold, we come to the time when the capitol of the State was moved to a new city to the north of Baghdad, which was called Samarra, and this was the opportunity taken by the Khalifahs to build new palaces and excavate new canals and open more land for cultivation. In this paper details on the building of Sammara by Khalifah al- Mu’tasim, son of Khalifah Harun al- Rashid and moving the capitol to it from Baghdad in the year 836 and remaining as such until 892 are given. One of the main reasons which led al-Muʿtaṣim to build Samarra and moving to it was the problems raised by the presence of his Turkish slave-soldiers in Baghdad and the friction they had created with the population. Al-Muʿtaṣim construction works in Samarra, the various public buildings, and numerous palaces he constructed here are described. As the city was located on the eastern bank of the Tigris, water supply could not be drawn to it by gravity since its location was higher than the river and even higher than the Katul Kisrawi canal adjoining to it from the east. Therefore, the irrigation works of al- Muʿtaṣim were concentrated on the western bank of the Tigris, which he had already connected it to the right bank by building a bridge. The main irrigation work he embarked upon was the construction of Nahr Ishaqi Canal. This old canal dated to the Partho- Sassanid era but it had to be re-excavated and remodeled since it was already filled up by sediments and abandoned. More over the canal had to be extended for a very long distance downstream to irrigate all the qati’as he had given to his top generals and courtiers to develop into cultivations and farms. These farms then produced all sorts of crops and fruits while the large date palm orchards planted here gave the best types of dates. Moreover, the canal in its downward route supplied water to the large tract of land that al- Mu’tasim had reserved for the encampment of his Maghariba troops which was called “Istablat”. Details of the barracks, housing quarters, stables and training arena of the encampment are presented in addition to the three branch canals off taking from Nahr Ishaqi, which were to irrigate also the extensive pastureland that was reserved for the 140,000 cavalry horses to graze in. The canal was then followed to its end in the other old canal called al- Dujail canal. The works of al- Mu’tasim, however, were no match to what his grandson al- Mutawakkil had done which are described. This Khalifah was determined to irrigate Samarra by gravity from the Tigris and to have plentiful water supply to the city and to his palaces and to his many artificial ponds. He embarked on a daring project by constructing a dual kariz and open channel conduit system taking water from the Tigris at a location forty kilometers north of Samarra and running for great part of its length along the Katul Kisrawi canal adapting to the hilly topography of the land. The scheme was then described following its course after crossing the Katul by an aqueduct to an earth reservoir. This reservoir was built to retain the incoming water before distributing it to the main city dual Kariz, and to the canal supplying the Dakka palace. In addition to the flood escape channel that was known as the Nahr Murayr which took off from the west side of the reservoir and passed down to the Tigris where it poured. The main city Kariz system is followed i and the details of its branching network are fully described. Such details covered the water supply to the racing courses, the Dar Khilafa palace and its unique pools intended for the Khalifah’s pleasure and the water supply to Abu Dulaf Mosque congregational mosque with its famous fountain. Having finished in the Tigris at al- Matira this stream could not irrigate the 5000 hectares of land of al- Hayr, or the wild animal reserve created by al- Mutawakkil to practice his hobby of hunting, as this land was above its course. The al- Hayr was so important to al- Mutawakkil that he excavated a new canal directly from the Katul, which commanded the whole area, called it Nahr al Nyzak and gave from its final reach a branch to another palace he built there and supplied one more of his favorite ponds adjoined to it. The construction works of al- Mutawakkil were not confined to Samarra but he extended this to build a new city 18 kilometers to the north of Samarra and called it al- Mutawakkiliyya, and here he again built new government compound, a mosque and gave qati’as to his sons, generals and may more people to build houses and palaces. He built for himself another palace and called it al Ja’fari. To supply the new city with water, he ordered the excavation of a new canal, which he called Nahr al Ja’fari. The intake of this canal was on the Tigris River some forty kilometer north of Tikrit and it followed a course parallel to the river for a considerable distance before it crossed the Katul Kisrawi by an aqueduct and then entered the city. This project proved an engineering failure as the ground, which had to be dug, was extremely hard and the work had to be stopped after spending twenty five million dirham. While some of these works may be considered as grand works, they were very costly and deprived public works such as irrigation networks from their share necessary for their maintenance and proper functioning. This extravagance coupled with political intrigues led to the assassination of al- Mutawakkil in a plot that was planned by his own son. This point marked the beginning of the decline of al- Khilafa which took some more time till it finally collapsed in 1258 fall of Baghdad on the hands of the Mongols. In addition to Samarra and its irrigation work described also the Nahr Dujail canal flowing on the western bank of the Tigris not far downstream from Samarra. Much older than Samarra itself, it was irrigating a large tract of land extending to Baghdad. In description of the course of the canal followed its western branch, which had gone out of use at the Abbasid times and also concentrated attention on the eastern branch that was known as Nahr Batatiya. It irrigated the Tusuj of Maskin before it reached the northern parts of Baghdad and branched into a dense network of watercourses that supplied al- Harbbiyyah quarter. Further details are presented of the various places and parts of this quarter that benefited from these watercourses before the full supply was exhausted. The details as given augment therefore the description of the canal networks serving Baghdad (the round city and the Karkh districts) that had originated from Nahr Isa. The Abbasid Khilafa after it had experienced its golden era began after the assassination of al- Mutawakkil, a long process of slow but steady decline due to multiplicity of reasons.

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  • 52.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Consultant Engineer, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The Abbasids and Tigris Irrigation Canals: The Nahrawan2020Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, nr 3, s. 183-222Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The irrigation of the Sawad lands which depended on the Tigris River are presented as the subject of this paper. In this paper one of the largest irrigation systems, not only of the old world but even today is described; this is the Nahrawn Canal System which irrigated the whole alluvial lands east of the Tigris extending as far east as the foothills of Persia and from Al- Dur above Samarra towards the south for almost 300 kilometers. From the archeological findings and historical writings, we know that this system had existed for thousands of years. The construction of the old Nimrud dam on the River Tigris was associated with the excavation and construction of this canal, and they were both attributed to the days of Hammurabi the famous king of the Chaldeans which had been mentioned previously although the canal may have been excavated in many stages and by successive kings. The canal and its whole systems were kept in good operational conditions by the successive empires who ruled the country as agriculture in this vast area of land had depended entirely on its water supply. The revenue drawn from this agriculture was a major part of the income of these empires which had fueled their progress, prosperity and their wars. Full description is given of the canal itself and the two feeder canals which had supplied it with water from the Tigris south of Sammara. The third feeder excavated by Khusraw Anushirwan which took off from al- Dur north of Tikrit which was called Katul Kisrawi is also described. More canals which were associated with the Nahrawn Canal such as al- Qawrach and Nahr abu el- Jund are detailed with the circumstances that led to their construction. The trunk canal course and the two massive gravity dams, which served as diversion structures on the Adhaim and Diyala Rivers are described, which were obstructing the passage of the course of the canal. Maps and sketches also supported these descriptions. The towns and settlements along the course of al-Nahrawn Canal are detailed with descriptions based on the writings of the Muslim geographers of the Abbasid period who had reported in length about the canal and the state of the country it had served. The canal was also the main source of water supply to the eastern quarters of Baghdad, which had stretched over considerable area during the days of Khalifah al- Mansour and the following Khalifahs. The distributaries of the Nahrawn, which served the eastern quarters of city on the right side of the Tigris, are, therefore, described in details and the dense network of the secondary canals and watercourses branching from them to serve the various quarters of the city are given full attention. In addition to this, the notes and sketches that were made by two British travelers who travelled along the whole course of the canal in three separate occasions at the end of the nineteenth century are documented with their remarks and notes. In addition, the comments of Sir William Willcocks, the famous irrigation British engineer of the same period, are also added. In summary, the story of one of the greatest engineering achievements of the old people of Iraq in addition to narrating the events that led to its decline and final collapse during the last period of the Abbasid Khalifah.

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  • 53.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Consultant Engineer, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The Decline2020Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, nr 3, s. 253-281Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Declining stage of the Abbasid Khilafa is followed meticulously until its collapse in the fall of Baghdad to the Mongols in 1258. The full sequence of events, which had resulted in this most important event to Mesopotamia is followed and the decline in agriculture in the whole of al- Sawad during this is period, is carefully described. Agriculture had formed the main contributor to the economy and strength of the Khilafa State, but it had continuously suffered neglect and destruction during this period due to negligence of the central governments of the irrigation systems and the destruction of these systems during conflicts and revolts that became dominant during the last phase of al- Khilafa State. The large spending of the late Khalifahs and the depletion of the treasury, and their dependence on foreign military troops, who were mainly Turks, to support their rule, mark the beginning. By loss of sizable revenues, this had interacted again with the Khalifahs weakness causing more revolts and anarchy by various unsatisfied groups and by the troops themselves over their unpaid salaries. The war between al-Muntasir and his brother al- Mu’tazz over the thrown following the assassination of their father al-Mutawakkil is detailed by giving full attention to the large damages it caused to irrigation canals and flooding of large areas between Baghdad and Samarra. Following this the revolt of Zanj in Southern al- Sawad and the long conflict with the Qarmatians are then outlined by reporting the reasons and describing the consequences of those important wars in details, accounting at the same time the high costs of these wars and the extent of severe damages to population centres, cultivation lands and their irrigation works. During the Buwayhids period, the Abbasid Khlilafa experienced its worst moments as the Buwayhids did not contribute much to the welfare of the people, nor could they do much to reverse the trend of decline that was progressing. As a matter of fact they had committed their biggest mistake in tearing apart the land ownership system prevailing till that time by introducing a new form of Iqta’ known as the Military Iqta’s. New methods of land and crops tax collection system were introduced and thus disrupting long established procedures that were followed since the Sassanid era and had proved their success. Conflicts and wars during the Buwayhid rule and the large-scale corruption, which are fully reported here, had undermined the central power needed for the proper management of agriculture and for the well keep of the irrigation canal systems. Finally, when the Buwayhid strength was drained they were expelled under a new rising power in the Seljuks. The Seljuks proved during this period to be not much different from the Buwayhids and their Sultans kept the real power in their hands making the Khalifah a titular head of state only. The conditions of the economy was as bad as it was before, and the people complained much over the recurrent crises of extremely high food prices during these times. Worst of all the Seljuk Sultans surpassed the Buwayhids in practicing the Iqta’ of the cultivated land by distributing qati’as not only to the military leaders as the Buwayhids did but they extend this to an unprecedented levels for the Seljuk Sultans had granted all the land to their Seljuk soldiers, their relatives and friends who were only Seljuks. To comprehend the magnitude of this; the number of the soldiers only in the time of Malik Shah who benefited from this system was forty six thousand horsemen; many more high ranking Seljuk persons were also entitled to qati’as under the same rules. With the passage of time the basic principle of this system were violated, and most of the beneficiaries succeeded in keeping the land as their own , used all sorts of abuses towards their farmers and even passed it in inheritance to their children. Some others encroached on neighboring qati’as, which belonged to others, and injustice and corruption became widespread. Negligence to repair these canals in so many cases leading to the permanent abandonment of land is also cited illustrated with many examples. In addition, many striking cases of failures of canals and their head works after large floods are fully described based on the reports given by contemporary writers. The details presented give an insight to the scale of the large fertile areas and the cities and towns that were badly affected and give evidence to the very low level that the State had reached during its last days after losing so much fertile lands and their agriculture.

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  • 54.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Consultant Engineer, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The first Century of Islam and the Question of Land and its Cultivation (636-750 AD)2020Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, nr 3, s. 137-158Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The new era after the fall of the Sasanian Empire, which is marked by the Muslims dominion over Iraq, as part of the Islamic Empire. It was only two years after the death of the Prophet Mohammad that the real efforts to spread Islam outside the Arabian Peninsula were made during the reign of the second Khalifah ‘Umar ibn al- Khattab. The Arabs at that time pushed their way forcefully into Iraq, and almost simultaneously into Syria (Bilad al- Sham) and caused the total collapse of the Sassanians Empire and the occupation of large part of the Roman Empire. The Islamic troops that invaded Iraq settled with their families in new towns, which they had built as encampments. Basrah and Kufa were the first of these towns and followed later on by Wasit. The locations of these cities and the further steps taken in their development are described here. Basrah being at some distance from Shatt- al Arab and the Euphrates had no water supply and therefore two large canals, the Ubulla canal and al- Ma’qal canals, which were excavated on the orders of ‘Umar himself, brought water to it. The policy adopted in the following years was to grant the lands around Basrah freely to wealthy Muslim investors who should reclaim these lands and excavate irrigation canals for their cultivation. This was known as the qati’as system of land ownership, which resulted in a boom in agriculture in the area. The treasury had benefitted from the tax imposed on these lands and their yield, which was called (Karaj). The same qati’a system was practiced in Kufa but to lesser extent than around Basrah as most of the land was already cultivated and owned by people who did not resist the Muslims conquest and therefore they were entitled to keep their lands against payment of another type of tax. The only lands that were granted as qati’as were those, which had belonged to the Persian Crown or owned by Persians who had left after the conquest. The lands in this area mostly belonged to the He’rians who had their capitol al- Hira, close to Kufa and their kingdom was a vassal kingdom under the Sassanians. In the other case, of the city of Wasit the third Islamic city to be built in Iraq, established by al Hajjaj. He was the governor of Iraq during the Islamic Umayyad dynasty rule (661- 750). The town he had built was on the right bank of Tigris in the rich district of Kaskar south of Misan .It was renowned for its fertility and good agriculture. Nevertheless its lower part had been flooded by the famous flood of the 629 AD late in the Persian empire timeline in which the Tigris River had abandoned its eastern course (present day course) and ran in a new western course on which Wasit later on was built. The Hajjaj who ruled for 20 years during the Umayyad period therefore had the opportunity of reclaiming large tracts of the land around Wasit and large areas adjacent to the Great Swamp (Batayih) in which he also gave many of the qati’as grants to investors in the same way as was done before in Basrah. Generally, Hajjaj who was very much occupied in quelling revolts and mutinies had also the time to oversee maintenance works of existing canals and dig many more of them.Iraq, during this period and for a long time, which followed, became as wealthy as it used to be during the high time of the Sassanids, and its canal networks functioned well while its fertile and fluvial land supported flourishing agriculture and generated large revenue to the treasury (Bait al- Mall). All the time during the Islamic era until the fall of Baghdad in 1258 AD Iraq was called al- Sawad land, which came from the dark color of the extensive cultivations, farms and lush green orchards of palm trees and fruits as they appeared on the horizon. Al Sawad as defined by the contemporary Muslim scholars extended from Hulwan (Qasir e- Shirin) to Haditha in the north to the tip of the Gulf and Qadisiyya on the edge of the desert in the South.

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  • 55.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Consultant Engineer, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The Greeks and the Sassanids: A new Glorious Era for Agriculture (330-625 AD)2020Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, nr 3, s. 113-135Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Achaemenid Empire collapsed after the failure of King Darius III to stop the sweeping advance of Alexander in Anatolia towards Persia. Therefore, Alexander entered Babylon in 331 BC before advancing into the heartland of Persia itself and occupying its other major cities and advancing from there into India. At this point, begins to describe the period of the Greek domination at the return of Alexander to Babylon, which was followed, later on by yet another period of Persian domination of Mesopotamia. During his stay in Babylon Alexander looked into the conditions of the irrigation and water works. Although the canal networks were in good conditions when they were left from the Archimedean’s time, he nevertheless ordered the cleaning of all the canal intakes on the Euphrates River. His major undertaking, however, was to solve the problem of the canal called the Popallacopas. This canal was used to pass the floodwater of the Euphrates down to the marshes and from there to the Persian Gulf while the Euphrates continued its course through Babylon in the reach, which was known, as the Babil River. Every flood season the Popallacopas closing dike was breached to pass the flood but the task of constructing it back afterwards was very difficult. The closure was necessary to ensure suitably high water levels to serve Babylon itself during the low water season, the closing operation of the intake, which was located in a ground of sandy soils, needed large working force of not less than 10000 men. Following the advice of his engineers, Alexander solved this problem by excavating a new head reach channel from another location above the first one but located in good and firm ground. Alexander ‘s next move was aimed at the reclamation of the marshy lands located near the present day of Najaf and to this end he constructed a massive earthen dyke between Babil River and the marsh north of the present day town of al-Shanafiyah as a preliminary step to dry the marsh and then prepare it for canalization and cultivation. Alexander premature death in June of the year 331BC however put an end to this work. In the aftermath of Alexander’s death his empire was divided between his generals; Persia, Mesopotamia and Anatolia passed to Alexander’s general Seleucus I Nicator who founded the Seleucid Empire (648-312BC) and succeeded in extending it also to cover the whole region of the Fertile Crescent. Various Persian satrapies (vassal kingdoms) such as Aria, Parthia, Fars, Media, Atropatene, paid taxes to the Seleucids but ruled with a great deal of independence. Seleucus inaugurated his reign by building a new capital for the empire, which was the Seleucia-on-Tigris on the western bank of the Tigris 60 kilometers northeast of Babylon, not far from the confluence of Tigris and Diyala.The lands of Mesopotamia at this point in time, had been already irrigated successfully by a system of canals maintained under the supervision of the State and agriculture was as usual the prime and most important basis of all the prosperity the empire had enjoyed. However, being a corridor between east and west Mesopotamia remained at the middle of conflicts with other outside powers and new rising tribal forces seeking to have their own kingdoms and empires. This was the case with the Parthians coming from the Persian heartland that had rebelled against the Seleucids after being vassals to them, and then vanquished their empire and took over its domains including Mesopotamia. In establishing themselves in Mesopotamia the Parthians moved their capital to Ctesiphon on the eastern bank of the Tigris opposite to Seleucia-on-Tigris about 58 BC, and remained the capital of the this empire until it was passed to the hands of the next Persian dynasty of the Sassanid. During the Parthian empire rule the economic prosperity was directly related to the upkeep of the irrigation systems and agricultural practices. Mesopotamia and the Persian lowlands of Khuzestan were the traditional centers of growing wheat, barley, and other cereals, while dates and other fruits were regularly produced and often exported. In the highlands of northeastern part of Mesopotamia and the Persian plateau, pastoralism and other forms of animal husbandry outweighed farming, although sowing various grains, most importantly wheat, as well as growing fruits, was also common. An earlier presence of rice in west Asia especially Mesopotamia might have also occurred through initial farming in eastern Persia and Transoxania. In the middle and south of Mesopotamia the Parthians looked well over the irrigation systems. In northeastern part of Mesopotamia and in Transoxiana the Kariz underground systems were used and maintained for the water supply of agriculture. The maintenance of all these systems was an important task of the Parthian Empire, often hinting on the strength or weakness of the government in certain periods of its history. It was also the case that in times of chaos and destabilization, that the maintenance of both the Kariz and the irrigation canals were neglected, causing further problems by weakening the agrarian, economy and causing further destabilization. Land tenure during the Parthian era did not differ much from the Babylonian or the Achaemenids eras. There were always two groups of people, either landlords or landless population, owners with large land holdings, usually members of the nobility and the court, controlled most of the productive land in the empire and, therefore families having such vast land areas would provide the basis of the later decentralized system under the Parthians. Another class of land-owning gentry, called the Azatan, also existed who were entitled to royal property in exchange for military service. The Azatan cavalry formed the hard core of the Parthian army and was mainly responsible for the Parthian success in external wars and in the quick initial expansion of the empire.

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  • 56.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Consultant Engineer, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The Neo-Assyrians: Warriors and Canal Buildersunder Sennacherib (911-609BC)2020Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, nr 3, s. 59-86Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Assyrians established their empire in upper Mesopotamia after crushing Babylonia. In this narration, we describe among other things the achievements of their great kings in building new cities and constructing waterworks for water supply of these cities and for irrigating the lands in their surroundings. The introduction of Sargon II for the Kariz irrigation system, which he had used to supply his new capital Dur-Sharrukin, is detailed. This was followed by describing the great works of his son Sinnecharib, who after building his new capitol Nineveh brought water to it from the upstream reach of the Khosr river by excavating a large canal called Kisiri Canal and creating a reservoir. He even arranged to release the floodwater into a nearby depression, which he turned to a reserve for wild animals. Finding out that the canal discharge was not enough for all his cultivations and parks he tapped springs in the surrounding hills and mountains and collected their water in eighteen canals to supplement the reservoir. In this scheme he constructed also all the required engineering structure such as weirs and dams. However, his biggest achievement in this work was in drawing water from the Khazir- Gomel River from a point northeast of Nineveh and bringing it to the same reservoir by excavating a very large 50 kilometers canal. The canal is named as the Bavian canal in reference to the name of the location of its intake. Full description of the site, the diversion weir needed, and the intake structure are presented and illustrated by photographs and maps. One of the major structures of this canal, the Jarwan aqueduct, which was employed to pass the stream over a very wide wadi, is described in details as it gives insight of the ingenuity of the people of that time and shows how they had dealt with such cases.Sinnecharib was also responsible for constructing more large hydraulic works; of these the Kariz system of Bastoura- Erbil is fully described and his improvement on the water supply scheme of the city of Kalhu (Nimrud) and its irrigation project originally built by king Ashurnasirpal II (883- 859BC) are also presented. Moreover, a general idea is given in this paper on agriculture and the types of crops and vegetable and fruits grown to indicate the prosperity of this empire. However, as always in similar cases, this empire was distained to fall after internal conflicts over the throne and external attacks from outside envious enemies. Some authors even add another reason, which is the drought which had hit the heartland of Assyria in later stage. So the story of the Assyrian Empire ended in the year 612 BC when Nineveh fell to the combined forces of the Babylonians and Medes and the defeat of its last king Ashur-Uballit who was defeated in his last stronghold in Haran which took place taken in 610 BC.

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  • 57.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Consultant Engineer, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The Sumerians and the Akkadians: The Forerunners of the First Civilization (2900-2003BC)2020Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, nr 3, s. 17-39Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sumerians were the first People in history to invent the cuneiform script, which made the reporting of their achievements possible. Therefore, this had marked the beginning of written history. Moreover, their experience as pioneers in practicing large-scale irrigation is detailed in this paper, which also describes the intricate canal networks systems they had constructed together with the engineering works related to them. The land was flat and the two rivers had built themselves to higher levels than the surrounding lands by the continuous silting process, so gravity irrigation became possible and the people took the opportunity to construct these networks and establish their communities here. Description of the political and social developments, which led to the establishment of the city-states, is also given together with a list of the most prominent ones, and their locations are shown on a map indicating the heartland of Samaria in southern part of Iraq; close to the Persian Gulf. Wars between some city-states over water rights are detailed with their results in excavation of new canals, which are described here. A vivid description of the irrigation canals and the hydraulic structures that were needed and built are also presented which show that the Sumerians were versed in hydraulic principles, while in illustrating their methods of land preparation, seeding, irrigation and harvesting indicates they were skillful farmers. Moreover, the tools and implements invented for field operations such as those for water control, land preparation, seeding and harvesting, which are fully described, show that they were also inventors.The type of crops produced are given special attention and the abundance of yield they obtained was outlined indicating that surpluses had encouraged trading with other parts outside Samaria and so new commercial relations were developed. The economic aspects of this civilization such as wages and loans for farmers, work specialization and the appearance of new professions to meet cultivation requirements were described. The social hierarchy on which social relations and organization of work was based are presented especially those related to the agricultural and irrigation works which are given their share of explanation and discussion. Flood protection works needed for better safety from the Tigris and Euphrates rivers recurrent floods were routine practices of the Sumerians to protect themselves and their lands from the grave dangers of these floods. Therefore, they excelled in them, while canals maintenance by constant dredging of the silt brought down by the two rivers every year was a constant concern. The Sumerians over long period had accepted within them some other people namely, the Akkadians who intermingled with them, lived in their cities, and even mixed with them in marriages. This explains how a smooth transition of power had resulted in the rise of the Akkadians King Sargon, after he had started as a high-ranking official at the court of (Ur- Zababa) the last Sumerian king and replaced him to mark the start of the Semitic Akkadian domination, which lasted almost 200 years to 2150 BC. Sargon managed afterwards to unite all the city-states and establish the first empire in the world extending well beyond Sumeria, so it was said that his influence was felt from Egypt in the west to India in the east.Finally, this paper presents briefly the various theories behind the decline of the Sumerian- Akkadians power and the reasons for passing this to the new rising city of Babylon, which took over this civilization to establish its own.

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  • 58.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    LTU team.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Issa, Issa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mystery of Mosul Dam the Most Dangerous Dam in the World: Experts Proposals and Ideas on Mosul Dam2015Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 79-93Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During and after the construction of Mosul Dam, in Iraq, all the studies expressed a clear concern on the fact that the region of the dam suffers from extensive presence of soluble rock formations that might undermine the safety of the dam with its large reservoir. Most of the studies dealt with foundation treatment and safety hazards due to the dissolution of gypsum and anhydrite. To overcome the problem, grouting operations were performed. The seepage of water continued and this highlighted the possibility of the dam failure. Different grouting techniques and methods were suggested but the results were the same. Finally, it was decided to limit the maximum operation water level to EL. 319 m (a.s.l.) instead of EL.330 m (a.s.l.). This recommendation has remained in force up to now with the loss of sizable storage of irrigation water and power potential

  • 59.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    LTU team.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Issa, Issa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mystery of Mosul Dam the most Dangerous Dam in the World: Foundation Treatment during Construction2015Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 59-69Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul dam was constructed on the beds of Fatha Formation (Middle Miocene). The beds of the formation are about 250 m thick composed of Marls, chalky limestone; gypsum, anhydrite, and limestone form a layered sequence. They are highly karstified. As a consequence, plenty of grouting operations were carried out to fill all the cavities, fractures, joints and to stop the seepage under the foundation of the dam. The main grouting operations were Blanket grouting and deep grout curtain. It was necessary to perform an extensive maintenance program to control the seepage process within the grouted zone to stop dissolution of gypsum and protect the safety of the dam.

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  • 60.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    LTU team.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Issa, Issa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mystery of Mosul Dam the Most Dangerous Dam in the World: Maintenance Grouting2015Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 71-77Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissolution of gypsum and anhydrite at the foundation of Mosul Dam continued after its construction since 1986 onwards. After impounding, acceptable residual permeability could not be reached and new areas of high grout takes appeared in some other locations. New grout mixes were tested and even methods of delivering and injecting large grout quantities were developed. Sandy mixes were developed by adding certain weight of sand to the cement mix. In addition, pouring gravel after completion of grouting in large takes' zones was performed. As a result of gravel addition, it was concluded that it was not effective and very difficult to pour. Massive grouting was used where bentonite was added to the mix. Piezometric observation was used for checking the conditions of the grout curtain and the detection of problematic areas where additional treatment was required. Massive grouting, however, did not stop the dissolution processes altogether and it seems that it is not likely to do so in the future. The continuation of this program year after year does not preclude some bad implications. More research work is required to improve massive grout durability by adding chemicals which may interact with gypsum beds and hinder dissolution. This can help to improve gypsum resistance and increase its stability. Mathematical models might also be used to understand the mechanism of cavities formation and collapsing.

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  • 61.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    LTU team.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Issa, Issa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mystery of Mosul Dam the most Dangerous Dam in the World: Problems Encountered During and after Impounding the Reservoir2015Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 47-58Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul dam was built on the River Tigris northern part of Iraq during the period 25th January, 1981 and finished on 24th July, 1986. The foundation of the dam lies on the Fatha Formation. This formation is composed of alternating beds of marls, limestone, gypsum and clay. The beds of this formation are highly karstified. After impounding, several sinkholes developed within the vicinity of the dam site. The surface expression of the sinkholes suggests that they are caused by underground collapse.The appearance of the downstream sinkholes is most likely related to fluctuations in the tail water level of the main dam during operation of the dam and the downstream regulating reservoir. In addition, water seepage also was noticed in various areas indicating the dissolution of gypsum and anhydrite from the foundation. During the period February-August, 1986 the dissolution intensity ranged from 42 to 80 t /day.

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  • 62.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    LTU team.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    Erbil, Iraq.
    Mosul Dam: A Catastrophe yet to unfold2017Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 263-278Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul Dam is multipurpose earth fill dam 3.4km long, 113m in height and its storage capacity reaches 11.11 km3 of which 2.95 km3 dead storage. The dam is located on the River Tigris in the northern part of Iraq about 60km north west Mosul city. The dam was built on highly karstified alternating beds of gypsum, marl and limestone. The dam was operating in 1986 and since then, seepage problems started due to the solubility of the gypsum beds, presence of karstification and the effect of the local groundwater aquifer. To stop the seepage insensitive grouting program was put to ensure the stability of the dam. Despite the injection of large quantities of grouting material, it did not stop the seepage. The situation became worse in 2014 when ISIS occupied the dam area and grouting operations were halted. Recent evaluation of the conditions indicates that the dam is in its worst conditions.

    The failure models of the dam indicate that 6 million people will be affected, and 7202km2 of land will be inundated. It is believed that to stop this catastrophe, grouting operations should be continued intensively to elongate the span life of the dam. As a permanent solution, another dam should be built downstream Mosul Dam so that it can take the wave of Mosul Dam in case of its failure.

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  • 63.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    LTU team.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    Department of Geology, University of Kurdistan, Hewler.
    Risk Management Concepts in Dam Safety Evaluation:Mosul Dam as a Case Study2017Inngår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 11, nr 7, s. 635-652Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Gradual shift has been observed lately of dam safety procedures from the conventional technical based towards a widerscope of risk management procedure based on risk analysis. The new approach considers the likelihood level of occurrence of a multitude of hazards and the magnitude of the resulting possible consequences in case of failure using rational cause and effect arguments. Most dam owners are shifting towards the use of the new risk based procedures; and even governments themselves are moving towards formalizing the new trend. Legislations in the United States were promulgated [1] after serious dam failures and the adoption of stringent levels of scrutiny led such federal dam owners to pioneer in this field and in developing the concepts and methods required. The corner stone in risk analysis is the definition of the potential modes that may lead to failure and assessment of the likelihood levels of their occurrence and possible category of the consequences which, after thorough evaluation, will shape thedecision making. This type of analysis was applied to Mosul Dam as a case study and resulted in definite recommendations.

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  • 64.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Consultant Engineer, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan, Hewler, KRG, Iraq.
    How Dams Can Affect Freshwater Issues in the Euphrates-Tigris Basins2020Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 15-48Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The basins of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers Cover an area of 917103km2 distributed between Iraq, Turkey, Iran, Syria and Saudi Araba. The population within the basins reaches about 50 million inhabitants. The flow of the two rivers is decreasing with time. This is due to the construction of dams and irrigation projects in the upper parts of the basins and climate change. This has an impact on the quality of water within the two rivers. Iraq being the lowest riparian country is highly effected. Analysis of water quality of the water indicates that the salinity of Euphrates water is increasing with time and on the Syrian- Iraqi borders, it is of unacceptable level where it is higher than what is recommended for Irrigation. The Tigris water quality becomes alarming once the river enters Iraq and at Baghdad, it becomes unsuitable for irrigation. To overcome these problems, riparian countries must cooperate seriously to take measures to improve the quality of water within the two rivers.

     

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  • 65.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Consultant Engineer, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    University of Kurdistan, Hewler, KRG, Iraq.
    Global Climate Change Impacts on Tigris-Euphrates Rivers Basins2020Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 49-98Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is affecting the hydrological cycle all over the World. The effect on arid and semi-arid regions is relatively more. The Middle East and North Africa region is one of the biggest hyper-arid, semi-arid and arid zones in the world where the long-term average precipitation does not exceed 166mm per year. The Tigris and Euphrates basins are located within the northern part of the Middle East. Future projections  indicate  the  considerable  reduction  in  water  resources  as  a  result  of drought and population growth. North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is responsible for the  change  in  climate  over  the  Tigris  and  Euphrates  basins.  This  is  causing  a decrease in rainfall and a consequence decrease in the flow of the rivers. In addition, the  temperature  is  increasing.  All  these  variables  are  causing  sea  level  rise, increasing dust storms and deletion of groundwater resources. It is believed that quick actions are required to minimize the effect of climate change. This includes prudent water resources planning and good regional cooperation.

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  • 66.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    LTU team.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG, Iraq and Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq .
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Climate Change: Consequences on Iraq’s Environment2018Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 43-58Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq as a country is now suffering from Climate Change Impacts in similar or even worse ways than many other countries of the world. The manifestations of these climate changes are being felt in global warming, changes to weather driving elements and sea level rise. Increasing temperatures, declining precipitation rates and changed distribution patterns together with increasing evaporation are causing water stress in Iraq. However, they trigger other changes in a sort of chain reaction; such as droughts, desertification and sand storms. Iraq is not even safe from the consequences of sea level rise where the southern part of the Tigris- Euphrates delta is threatened by inundation and Iraq’s ports and sea coast line are endangered by such projected rise. So far the agricultural sector in Iraq has been hit very badly by the reduced water availability for arable lands; whether rain fed lands as in the northern part, or irrigated lands using the declining discharges of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers as in the southern and middle parts. These discharges have already been additionally strained by the unfair sharing practiced by Turkey from which most of the two rivers’ water resources originate. The present negative climate change trends seem to be continuing in the future as it is obvious from all projections and studies being performed so far. Loss of cultivable land to desertification, recurrent droughts and sand storms and declining agriculture are the pattern of change in Iraq’s already fragile environment; and this will result inevitably in much more distress for the population in the future and will lead to social unrest. These will add to the great pressures facing all future governments unless the government takes protective planning and solutions.

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  • 67.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    LTU team.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Climate Change: The Uncertain Future of Tigris River Tributaries’ Basins2018Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 75-93Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Global warming is hitting all parts of the world for the last fifty years due to Global Climate Change and it is expected to continue in the future in an increasing trend unless the present mode of CO2 emission is limited or reversed. This is manifested in the rising temperature over land and the changes induced in the general weather circulation patterns over land and oceans. The Tigris River catchment as most of other parts in the world is suffering from increased temperatures and reduced precipitation contributing to reduced water resources elements all over it and reduction of the river stream flow itself. Studies using the soil and water assessment tool SWAT were performed on the five Tigris River tributaries basins in Iraq in order to assess these impacts. This paper summarizes the results of those studies, the characteristics of each of the five basins, and illustrates the application of SWAT as a tool for future predictions. Moreover, it explains in more details the work done on one of the basins as an example, summarizes the results of the five studies and then analyzes these results and discusses the expected future outcomes. The final conclusion which can be drawn is that severe shortage in all water resources elements will occur over the five basins and the Tigris River stream flow will suffer a considerable decline. This situation demands that policy makers in Iraq should take steps immediately to improve water and soil management practices to try and reduce as much as possible the expected damage that will hit all water using sectors.

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  • 68.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    LTU team.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan, Erbil.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Is Mosul Dam the Most Dangerous Dam in the World?: Review of Previous Work and Possible Solutions2017Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 9, nr 10, s. 801-823, artikkel-id 79510Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul Dam is an earth fill dam located on the Tigris River in North Western part of Iraq. It is 113 m in height, 3.4 km in length, 10 m wide in its crest and has a storage capacity of 11.11 billion cubic meters. It is, constructed on be- drocks which consist of gypsum beds alternated with marl and limestone, in cyclic nature. The thickness of the gypsum beds attains 18 m; they are in- tensely karstified even in foundation rocks. This has created number of prob- lems during construction, impounding and operation of the dam. Construc- tion work in Mosul Dam started on January 25th, 1981 and started operating on 24th July, 1986. After impounding in 1986, seepage locations were recog- nized. The cause of seepage is mainly due to: 1) The karsts prevailing in the dam site and in the reservoir area. 2) The existence of gypsum/anhydrite rock formations in the dam foundation alternating with soft marl layers and wea- thered and cavernous limestone beddings. 3) The presence of an extensive ground water aquifer called Wadi Malleh aquifer, which affects considerably the ground water regime in the right bank. The dissolution intensity of the gypsum/anhydrite ranged from 42 to 80 t/day which was followed by a noti- ceable increase in the permeability and leakages through the foundation. In- spection of the dam situation in 2014 and 2015 indicates that the dam is in a state of extreme unprecedentedly high relative risk. In this work, possible so- lutions to the problem are to be discussed. It is believed that grouting opera- tions will elongate the span life of the dam but do not solve the problem. Building another dam downstream Mosul Dam will be the best protective measures due to the possible failure of Mosul Dam, to secure the safety of thedownstream area and its’ population.

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  • 69.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Private Consultant Engineering, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan, H awler, Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Badush Dam: A Unique Case of Flood Wave Retention Dams Uncertain Future and Problematic Geology2019Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 189-205Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Badush Dam is a partially completed dam and a unique case of flood reten- tion dams. Its intended main function is to perform flood protection once in its lifetime; that is if Mosul Dam would collapse. In such a case, the Badush dam would temporarily store the whole flood wave and route it safely to the downstream. For this end, the bulk of the reservoir is left dry, while the re- maining  volume  at  the  lower  part  which  is  intended  for  power  eneration does  not  give  an  economic  justification  for  building  the  full  height  of  the dam. The short duration of the intended use as a protection dam has led to relaxing many design assumptions which have raised concerns over the dam integrity.  The  current  controversy  rages  now  over  whether  to  continue  the construction of the dam as it was first designed or to change all that in view of the similar site geology of Mosul Dam. Mosul dam foundations suffer at the moment from the severe continuous dissolution of the soluble materials in its foundation  leading  to  continued  maintenance  grouting  of  that  foundation. This paper gives an overview of the history of Badush dam, its current design and what new equirements which are needed if it is to replace Mosul Damitself.

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  • 70.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Private Consultant Engineering, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG, Iraq. Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mosul Dam: Geology and Safety Concerns2019Inngår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 13, nr 3, s. 151-177Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul Dam is an earth fill dam located on the River Tigris northern part of Iraq. The capacity of its reservoir is 11.11 billion cubic meters which makes it the fourth biggest dam in the Middle East. From geological perspective, the dam is located on double plunging anticlines. The rocks of the site are mainly composed of highly jointed and karistified alternating beds of limestones, gysum and marls, since the impoundment of the reservoir seepage of water was recognized under the foundation of the dam. To stop or minimize the seepage, intensive grouting operations were conducted. Recent investigations and evaluation of the conditions of the dam indicate that it is in a critical situation. In this paper, consequences of the dam failure are discussed and possible solutions are given.

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  • 71.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    LTU team.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The Future of the Tigris and Euphrates Water Resources in view of Climate Change2018Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 59-74Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate Change which results from global warming is affecting the Tigris and Euphrates River basins in similar ways to all other parts of the Middle East and the East Mediterranean region. This contains also what is historically known as the “Fertile Crescent”, which is threatened in the same way as the other parts and may disappear altogether. The climate change is manifested in increased temperatures, reduced precipitation in addition to erratic weather patterns and decreased annual stream flow of the two rivers. These phenomena have been markedly noticed during the last decades of the last century. Studies show that these changes are linked also to the variations of North Atlantic Pressure Oscillation (NAO) induced by Global Climate Change. Modeling studies on the future trends, in trying to define the magnitude of the changes to be anticipated, reveal clearly that these negative impacts are continuous in the future. But, the widely ranging projections and interpretations of different sources depict an uncertain future for the basin’s climatic conditions and indicate theneed for further modeling studies to reach more definitive conclusions. These studies show however, a drastic decline of the Euphrates and Tigris water resources at the end of this century by something like (30 to 70) %; as compared to their resources in the last three decades of the previous century. The wide variations in the projections emphasize the need of further future work on this matter. All in all, these studies should bring alarm to all responsible governments in the region to resort to long range planning by adopting rational policies in soils and water resources management to mitigate the adverse impacts that could hit human societies in these events.

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  • 72. Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG. Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Elagely, Malik
    Private consultant, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Comparative Study of Mosul and Haditha Dams in Iraq: Different Construction Materials Contribute to Different designs2018Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 71-89Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul and Haditha Dams are built on relatively weak foundations. Both of these foundations suffer from extensive karsts which had demanded intensive foundation treatment works among other design precautions. The karst forms; however, are of different origins, activities, nature and shapes. The foundation treatment in both dams was done mainly by constructing deep grout curtains along with other secondary grouting works. Reducing uplift pressure under the dam and cutting down on seepage losses were the major considerations in these works. An additional important requirement in Mosul Dam was to reduce the permeability of the rock formation in the foundations to such a low limit that it can stop the dissolution of gypsum beds present there. This objective; unfortunately, failed due to the lithological composition of this foundation and the presence of many brecciated gypsum beds, which could not be treated successfully. This had resulted in a comprehensive grouting maintenance program which continuous up to date with the everlasting danger of dam failure. On the other hand, in Haditha dam no such complication occurs as the dam had its foundations mainly in limestone. Proper investigation and good planning and performance of the grouting works in this dam contributed highly to its success. Selecting the deep grout curtain as anti-seepage measure in Mosul Dam was not a very wise decision and constructing a positive cutoff in the form of diaphragm wall could have been the proper choice. Good and deep understanding of all geological data can contribute to the success of a dam design or, otherwise it may lead to unsafe one.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 73. Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    University of Kurdistan, Hewler, KRG. Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Badush Dam: Controversy and Future Possibilities2018Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 17-33Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Badush Dam is believed to be the first dam in the world which is designed to protect from the flood wave which could result from the collapse of another dam; in this case Mosul Dam.  Badush Dam construction was started in 1988 but it was stopped two years later due to unexpected reasons. From that time on many attempts were made to resume construction without success. Its value was stressed in a multitude of studies and technical reports amid conflict of opinions on how to do this.  The original design of the dam as a protection dam was intended to have a large part of the reservoir empty to accommodate the volume of the expected flood wave for only a few months during which time it’s content are released in a controlled and safe way to the downstream. The lower part of Badush Dam which has a limited height continues before and after this event to act as a low head power generation facility. Among the later studies on the dam, there were suggestions to introduce changes to the design of the unfinished dam which covered the foundation treatment and also asked for constructing a diaphragm in the dam. A long controversy is still going on with many possibilities but with no hope to reach a final solution soon. Any rational solution must consider both Badush Dam and Mosul Dam together as the safety issue involves both of them. This paper may be seen in six paragraphs. The first three describe in brief the history, the outline design and foundation treatment of the dam, therefore, setting the background to follow the conflicting views over its purpose and future which is discussed in the following two paragraphs. The final paragraph is devoted to discussion and our conclusions.

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  • 74. Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    University of Kurdistan, Hewler. Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Elagely, Malik
    Private consultant, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Comparative Study of Mosul and Haditha Dams, Iraq: Foundation Treatments in the Two Dams2018Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 53-70Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul and Haditha Dams are built on relatively weak foundations. Both of these foundations suffer from extensive karsts which had demanded intensive foundation treatment works among other design precautions. The karst forms; however, are of different origins, activities, nature and shapes. The foundation treatment in both dams was done mainly by constructing deep grout curtains along with other secondary grouting works. Reducing uplift pressure under the dam and cutting down on seepage losses were the major considerations in these works. An additional important requirement in Mosul Dam was to reduce the permeability of the rock formation in the foundations to such a low limit that it can stop the dissolution of gypsum beds present there. This objective; unfortunately, failed due to the lithological composition of this foundation and the presence of many brecciated gypsum beds, which could not be treated successfully. This had resulted in a comprehensive grouting maintenance program which continuous up to date with the everlasting danger of dam failure. On the other hand, in Haditha dam no such complication occurs as the dam had its foundations mainly in limestone. Proper investigation and good planning and performance of the grouting works in this dam contributed highly to its success. Selecting the deep grout curtain as anti-seepage measure in Mosul Dam was not a very wise decision and constructing a positive cutoff in the form of diaphragm wall could have been the proper choice. Good and deep understanding of all geological data can contribute to the success of a dam design or, otherwise it may lead to unsafe one.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 75.
    Ahmed, Dooraid N.
    et al.
    Department of Mathematics, College of Education for Pure Sciences, University of Kirkuk, Kirkuk, Iraq.
    Naji, Laith A.
    Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Faisal, Ayad A. H.
    Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Naushad, Mu.
    Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Waste foundry sand/MgFe-layered double hydroxides composite material for efficient removal of Congo red dye from aqueous solution2020Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, s. 1-12, artikkel-id 2042Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We aimed to obtain magnesium/iron (Mg/Fe)-layered double hydroxides (LDHs) nanoparticles-immobilized on waste foundry sand-a byproduct of the metal casting industry. XRD and FT-IR tests were applied to characterize the prepared sorbent. The results revealed that a new peak reflected LDHs nanoparticles. In addition, SEM-EDS mapping confirmed that the coating process was appropriate. Sorption tests for the interaction of this sorbent with an aqueous solution contaminated with Congo red dye revealed the efficacy of this material where the maximum adsorption capacity reached approximately 9127.08 mg/g. The pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models helped to describe the sorption measurements, indicating that the physical and chemical forces governed the removal process.

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  • 76.
    Al Amli, Ali
    et al.
    Civil Engineering Department, AlMu stansiriyah Engineering College, ALMust ansiriyah University, Baghdad .
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Shejiri, Sabah Jasim Dahboosh
    Department of Civil Engin eering, AL-Farabi University College, Baghdad.
    Repairing of RC T-Section Beams with Opening by CFRP for Cracks and Ultimate Torque2018Inngår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 12, s. 83-90Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The repair of reinforced concrete (RC) beams with carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) is experimentally investigated in this study. The four T-section reinforced reactive powder concrete beams with many locations of circular opening were repaired by CFRP and investigated under pure torsion. The repairing beams were tested to obtain the effect of the amount of CFRP laminate on beams cracking and ultimate torque behavior, angle of twist and failure modes. The results obtained from the adopted repairing technique showed a significant effect of external high strength CFRP laminates on effectively restore of section solid of 85% of crack torsional strength effectively restored. In addition, the results show that effectively restoring of section opening by 82%-80% of crack torsional strength, and the adopted repairing technique gives a good strength to the beams.

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  • 77.
    Al Amli, Ali Sabah Ahmed
    et al.
    Civil Engineering Department, Al Mustansiriyah Engineering College, Al Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Abtan, Yaarub G.
    Civil Engineering Department, Al Mustansiriyah Engineering College, Al Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad.
    Behavior of Repairing Composite I-SectionBeams with Opening under Ultimate Torque2018Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 202-214Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the behavior of composite concrete beams damaged and cracked under pure torsion, and then repaired by external strengthening. This was achieved using high strength Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) laminates bonded with epoxy four composite modify reactive powder concrete (MRPC) I-beams. Different types of section (Solid & with opening) were tested to obtain the effect of amount of CFRP laminate on beams ultimate torque behavior, angle of twist and failure modes. The results obtained showed that a significant effect of external high strength CFRP laminates on effectively restore of section solid, the range of 89.8% to 91.2% of ultimate torsional strength effectively restored as well as effectively restoring of section opening by 83.48% - 86.67% of ultimate torsional strength. The repaired beams give high efficiency in ultimate torsional strength, and indicate that the adopted technique gives a good torsional strength.

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  • 78.
    Al Amli, Ali Sabah
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Civil Engineering, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Palestine Street, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Numerical simulation of behaviour of reinforced concrete bars in saturated soil using theoretical models2020Inngår i: Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, ISSN 1823-4690, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 392-405Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a nonlinear analysis for square reinforced concrete (RC) foundation slab with bars used with both unsaturated and saturated soils in order to investigate, which response is affected by loading. Different parametric studies are undertaken in this study to determine the effect of load-displacement relationships for RC member or foundation with different cases such as (the distance of bars, diameters of bars reinforcement, types of reinforcement bars steel bars and geogrid reinforcement, yield stress for reinforcement and modulus of elasticity with compressive strength for concrete). A finite element model by ABAQUS software program is used to predict the load versus vertical displacement response of the tested RC foundations with soil by using other researchers´ experimental results. The present finite element models account for the constituent load-displacement behaviour between the RC foundations with soil and the effective load. The numerical results were compared with the experimental results obtained from other research, and good correlations were obtained. The models developed in this study can accurately capture the behaviour and predict the load-displacement of RC foundation with soil. This study shows that geogrid reinforcement enhanced the capacity of the foundation or member when used with different ratios of steel bars in soil and this provides a sustainable solution by reducing steel reinforcement. This geogrid ratio the reinforcement, while the member in saturated soil

    is less strong than it when in unsaturated soil.

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  • 79.
    Al Amli, Ali Sabah
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Study Numerical Simulation of Stress-Strain Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Bar in Soil using Theoretical Models2019Inngår i: Civil Engineering Journal, ISSN 2476-3055, Vol. 11, nr 5, s. 2349-2358Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonlinear analysis for reinforced concrete members (R.C.) with two types of bars also with unsaturated and saturated soils was used to represent the models. To control the corrosion in the steel bar that used in R.C. member and decrease the cost, the geogrid with steel bar reinforcement are taken in this study to determine the effect of load-deflection and stress-strain relationships. The finite element method is used to model the R.C. member, bars and soil. A three-dimensional finite element model by ABAQUS version 6.9 software program is used to predict the load versus deflection and stress versus strain response with soil. The results for the model in this study are compared with the experimental results from other research, and the results are very good. Therefore, it was concluded that the models developed in this study can accurately capture the behavior and predict the load-carrying capacity of such R.C. members with soil and the maximum stresses with strains. The results show plastic strain values in the R.C. member with saturated soil are larger than their values in unsaturated soil about (54%, 58%, and 55% and 52%) when the geogrid ratios are (without geogrid, 60%, 40% and 20%) respectively, with the same values of stresses.

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  • 80.
    al Amli, Ali Sabah
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq..
    Shakir, Laith
    University of Karbala, Karbala, Iraq.
    Abdulredha, Ali
    University of Warith AL-Anbiya’a,Kerbala, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Beams with effect of Stiffened Plates2019Inngår i: Civil Engineering Journal, ISSN 2676-6957, Vol. 5, nr 12, s. 2569-2578Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents experimental work including an investigation conducted on five simply supported reinforced concrete beams under pure torsion. First beam without strengthening as a control beam. The other four beams were strengthened externally by bolted thin steel plates. For this test the load was applied gradually. The torque was increased gradually up to failure of the beam.  The variables were the thickness and height of the steel plate that was externally connected to both sides  of the  rectangular  reinforced  concrete  beam.  The  test  results  for  the  beams  discussed  are  based  on  torque-twist behavior. The experimental results show that the attachment of thin steel plates by mechanical means to beams provides a considerable improvement in the torsional behavior of the reinforced concrete beams. Comparable to the reference beam, the maximum increase in the cracking and the ultimate torque of the composite beam was recorded for the reinforced concrete  beam  that  strengthen  by  steel  plate  of  150  mm  height,  2  mm  thickness  and  50  mm  spacing  between  shear connectors (B1). The results revealed that the cracking torque, ultimate torque, global stiffness of beam and beam ductility for all composite beams increase with the increase of the plate's thickness, plate's height.

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  • 81.
    Al Dahaan, Saad A.M.
    et al.
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa, Kufa, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Salinity functions for groundwater at Safwan, South Iraq2019Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Vol. 27, nr 7, s. 1-11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Function type between electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids is polynomial and the exponential which are taken according to the water quality classification for irrigation. These functions relate the EC in ds/m to the salinity in term of part per million or to the half salinity in equivalent per million directly or in form of logarithmic transformation. A statistical test for best fit is considered for the selection of the type of a representative function. The irrigation salinity classification is taken as index of grouping extended to moderately sensitive vegetable crop tomato as salinity tolerance rating up to 15 ds/m groundwater salinity used for irrigation at Safwan area of arid climate. All fitted type of functions is programmed within a flow model computer of basic language by which the output from of both methods is an average final value. Thus the coast of analysis is reduced. This type of functions is standard for groundwater and so designed to involve the water type. The involved parameter for Safwan area is 0.5 for more than 5 ds/m in case of ppm half total and it is 1.3 for less than 5ds/m salinity, or using the direct model.

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  • 82.
    Al Dahaan, Saadi
    et al.
    University of Kufa, Kufa, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Influence of Groundwater Hypothetical Salts on Electrical Conductivity Total Dissolved Solids2016Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 8, nr 11, s. 823-830Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A relationship between electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS) was tested for solutions of same salinity levels with respect to different artificial salts with their combinations. Results showed remarkable jumping at the order of the artificial salt sequence specially that of the magnesium type. A computer model is designed with an input of EC and TDS. The output will be the possible prevailing artificial salts. The accuracy of the model was tested by using the groundwater data of Safwan-Zubair area south of Iraq and it proved to be significant at 95% matching. The 5% unmatched results are due to the possibility of having more than one type of prevailing salt.

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  • 83.
    Al Maliki, Ali
    et al.
    Environment Research Centre, Ministry of Since and Technology, Jadriah, Baghdad.
    Al-lami, Ahmed Kadhim
    Department of Physics, College of Science, Al-Nahrain University, Jadriah, Baghdad.
    Hussain, H.M.
    Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Comparison between inductively coupled plasma and X-ray fluorescence performance for Pb analysis in environmental soil samples2017Inngår i: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 76, nr 12, artikkel-id 433Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Comparison of two conventional analytical techniques such as X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for measuring Pb concentrations in soil samples was achieved using field and laboratory work. Seventy-three samples were collected from urban areas surrounding the large lead smelter at South Australia, as an indicator of the environment impact of smelter activity. Soil Pb concentrations were determined using hand-held XRF analyser under laboratory conditions. ICP-MS analysis on digested soils (using a microwave-assisted nitric acid digestion-extraction) was applied to validate p-XRF data. The analysis showed that Pb concentrations determined by XRF correlated with high linearity with Pb concentrations determined by ICP-MS measurements (R2 = 0.89). Statistical test (t test) was applied to the data of both methods applied without any significant difference between the two techniques. These results indicated that ICP-MS corroborated XRF for Pb soil measurements and suggests that XRF was a reliable and quick alternative to traditional analytical methods in studies of environmental health risk assessment, allowing for much larger sampling regimes in relatively shorter times and could be applied in the field.

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  • 84.
    Al Maliki, Ali
    et al.
    Environment Research Centre, Ministry of Since and Technology, Naghdad.
    Owens, Gary
    University of South Australia, Adelaide.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Remote Sensing Centre, University of Kufa, Al-Najf.
    Al-Dahaan, Saadi
    Environment and Geomorphology Department, University of Kufa, Al-Najf.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Chemometric Methods to Predict of Pb in Urban Soil from Port Pirie, South Australia, using Spectrally Active of Soil Carbon2018Inngår i: Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, ISSN 0010-3624, E-ISSN 1532-2416, Vol. 49, nr 11, s. 1370-1383Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A total of 73 soil samples were initially analyzed for lead (Pb) concentration as an indicator of the environment impact of smelter activity in the Port Pirie, South Australia. Chemometric techniques were used to assess the ability of near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy to predict soil Pb using spectrally active soil characteristics such as soil carbon (C). The result indicated a strong linear relationship between log-transformed data of soil Pb and spectral reflectance in the range between 500 and 612 nm with R2 = 0.54 and a low root-mean-square error (RMSEv = 0.38) for the validation mode with an acceptable ratio of performance to deviation and ratio of error range (1.6 and 7.7, respectively). This study suggested that NIR spectroscopy based on auxiliary spectrally active components is a rapid and noninvasive assessment technique and has the ability to determine Pb contamination in urban soil to be useful in environmental health risk assessment.

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  • 85.
    Al Manmi, Diary Ali Mohammed Amin
    et al.
    Department of Geology, College of Science, University of Sulaimani, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq.
    Abdullah, Twana Omer
    Sulaymaniyah Groundwater Directorate, Sulaymaniyah, Iraqi Kurdistan Region.
    Al-Jaf, Peshawa Mahmood
    Sulaymaniyah Groundwater Directorate, Sulaymaniyah, Iraqi Kurdistan Region.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Soil and Groundwater Pollution Assessment and Delineation of Intensity Risk Map in Sulaymaniyah City, NE of Iraq2019Inngår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, nr 10, artikkel-id 2158Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater and soil pollution caused by (PAHs) spills, mostly from the oil industry and petrol stations in urban areas, represent a major environmental concern worldwide. However, infiltration into groundwater is decreasing due to the natural attenuation processes of PAHs in the vadose zone, which protect invaluable groundwater resources against contamination. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of improper management of the petroleum industry on the groundwater and soil surrounding the petrol station and an oil refinery unit and, furthermore, to prepare the polluted risk intensity (PRI) map. Fifty-one soil samples and twenty-five water samples were analyzed for Light Non-aqueous Phase Liquid (LNAPLs), and one soil sample for Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPLs); furthermore, six soil samples analyzed for Tetraethyl Lead (TEL) analysis. The results showed that seventeen wells were polluted with LNAPLs and the soils were highly contaminated with different DNAPLs components and mainly was in the form of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). Seven factors introduced to the GIS platform to produce PRI map, which is the distance to source, depth to water table, slope, lineaments, lithology, soil, and recharge rate. The final map revealed that the eastern and western parts of the study area are at a very high-risk level, whereas the center is at a very low to low-risk level.

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  • 86.
    Alabidi, Abdulkadhim J.
    et al.
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa, Kufa, Iraq.
    Al-Dahaan, Saadi A. M.
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa, Kufa, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Fire and Smoke Phenomenon in West Najaf City: Southwest Iraq2019Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 11, nr 12, s. 791-800Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A strange phenomenon of fire taking place at Arruhban area west Bahr-Al Najaf area in Iraq was noticed in 2010 and smoke continued many months; this phenomenon reappeared many years later. This site is part of Bahr-Al Najaf-Iraq NE Arabian plate, located in flat area near an archeological site of Christian temple called Tel Arruhban. To understand the causes for this fire in a non-residential area, field observations from repeated visits between 2010 and 2018 and on-site excavation operations were conducted. The results of analysis of soil samples, and on-site detection for gases and vapors showed that the phenomenon of burning and smoke generated at this site was due to external influences and that the presence of soil rich with organic materials helped to the existence of this phenomenon.

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  • 87.
    Alabidi, Abdulkadhim J.
    et al.
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq.
    Alkanaby, Tahsean F.
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Using Coarse Grain Geological Study to Predict the Origin of Sediments SW-Iraq2020Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 12, nr 4, s. 234-241Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This research deals with coarse grain sediments obtained from sieving of qu- aternary depression and valley fill sediments from desert and desert boarder’s regions southwest Najaf city-Iraq. Physical, chemical and mineralogical ana- lyses of these sediments were done to reveal the sedimentary origin of these sediments. The results indicated that parent rocks of these sediments were not from the Arabian shield where they were transported for short distances from sedimentary rocks cover that is located at the outskirts of the Arabian shield.

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  • 88.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Dagli, Deniz
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Literature review on potential geochemical and geotechnical effects of adopting paste technology under cold climate conditions2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this literature review is to summarize the recent research regarding geochemical and geotechnical stability of paste tailings, identify knowledge gaps and future research needs. The present study has been conducted by the Division of Geosciences and Environmental Engineering together with the Division of Mining and Geotechnical Engineering at Luleå University of Technology on behalf of Boliden Mineral, LKAB and Outotec.A survey conducted by MEND (Mine Environment Neutral Drainage) in 2006 on the environmental effects related to the use of paste tailings summarizes that only a few studies had been performed about long-term effects on the surface and groundwater quality. Instead, the focus had been on the additives and the strength of the paste. It is still uncertain how the paste technology affects the long-term environmental stability from a geochemical point of view. Concerns regarding the stability of paste with high sulphide content are still relevant. Studies performed indicate that sulphide oxidation occurs within cemented paste as well as on the surface of non-cemented paste and cracks formed on the surfaces could induce oxidation. For cemented paste, metals released by sulphide oxidation might be sequestered due to high pH induced by the alkaline additives, but anion such as Se has been shown to be mobilized. The leachate has been shown to be near-neutral initially, but the neutrality decreases with time and probably metals sequestered in the matrix will also be released. Again, it should be noted that no long term study was performed on leaching of paste, cemented or uncemented. The longest leaching study was performed for one year. Arsenic has been proven to be retained in Ca-arsenates in cemented paste, but the long term stability of these precipitates is relatively unknown. Expanded secondary phases e.g. gypsum and ettringite have been observed to form when there is sulphate in the process or drainage of water. These phases could crack the paste, but, on the other hand, can also fill former cracks when deposited in layers. The effects of the formation of these phases are relatively uncertain in a long-term perspective. Presence of different elements such as ammonium, sulphates and metals in the water has been shown to negatively affect the curing process and therefore water is suggested to be treated before use. The presence of carbon dioxide during the paste formation could also affect the curing process, but could sequester metals in carbonate phases.Geotechnical and rheological properties of paste is well defined and documented. Several case studies have been found in literature providing valuable information about the details of the works being carried out. However, a difficulty has been noted during the investigation of the effects of cold climate conditions when current practice is applied in the colder parts of the world. It is not certain how some specific and vital parameters are going to be affected by cold temperatures. Parameters such as deposition slopes and deposition scheme, strength development of the paste are expected to be responsive to cold climate conditions. There are predictions about which properties are going to be affected in what way, but there is also a need to establish a scientific base for discussion. These have been highlighted as research needs and information gaps at the end of the report.

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  • 89.
    Alanbari, Mohammad A.
    et al.
    Babylon University.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Altaee, S.A.
    Babylon University.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Application of Simapro7 on Karbala Wastewater Treatment Plant, Iraq2014Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 55-68Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of treated wastewater is becoming more popular especially in countries suffering from water shortages despite the fact that wastewater plants have some environmental implications. For this reason there are various software designed to do the assessment. Among these is SimaPro software package designed to make a valuable contribution. It is a powerful tool for analyzing the environmental impact to products during their whole life cycle. A huge amount of knowledge about the environment is built into the program and database, enabling to analyze a product with a minimum of specialized knowledge. In this study, Simapro was used to analyze and evaluate the impacts that result from Karbala Wastewater treatment plant. The results of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) show that Karbala WWTP has an impact and damage on the environment of the order of 171 point for each 1 cubic meter of wastewater. The most environmental impacts potential were global warming, respiratory inorganics and non-renewable energy. The study also showed that most of the effects were as a result of the phase of construction more than of the operational phase.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 90.
    Al-Anbari, Mohammad A.
    et al.
    Collage of Engineering, University of Babylon, Iraq.
    Thameer, Mohanad Y.
    Collage of Engineering, University of Babylon, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Landfill Site Selection by Weighted OverlayTechnique: Case Study of Al-Kufa, Iraq2018Inngår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, nr 4, artikkel-id 999Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill siting is a hard and complex process. For this reason, it is considered as one of the major problems in waste management. This is due to the fact that a number of factors are involved within the process such as such as inhabitants’ growth, rapid economic growth, living standards improvements, etc. In Iraq, landfill siting does not follow environmental regulations. Al-Kufa city located is located south-western part of Iraq (area of 550 km2 and inhabitants 372,760). Existing landfills are not selected according to the environmental standards. Landfill site that is required was achieved using a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and spatial overlay analysis using a geographic information system (GIS). Many factors were considered in the siting process; including geology, water supplies resources, urban centers, sensitive sites, and wells. AHP (analytic hierarchy process) method was used in weighting the criteria used. The result showed that there are six sites most suitable covering an area about (113) km2.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 91. Alanbari, Mohammad
    et al.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Jasim, Hadeel
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Mseiab Qadaa landfill site selection using GIS and multicriteria decision analysis2014Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 6, nr 9, s. 526-549Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid waste management is becoming more serious problem with time especially in developing countries like Iraq. It is not regulated sufficiently in Iraq. At present, there are various techniques used for solid waste management such as landfill, thermal treatment, biological treatment, recycling etc. The landfill is the most common mode for the disposal of solid waste. There are no regulations for landfill site selection which is quite complex process. In this study, landfill site selection was performed by using Multicriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) and Geographic Information System (GIS) for the Al-Mseiab qadaa. Even in the case of existing landfills in this qadaa, it's temporary or non-conforming to the environmental condition. In order to determine landfill site that is good for the inhabitants and the environment several criteria (e.g. as Urban centers, Land use, Airports, Pipes, Power lines, Railways, Roads, Slope, Streams, Surface water, Industrial areas, Oil pipes, Liquid gas pipes, Soil types) were used to select the proper site. The MCDA was used to measure the relative importance weighting for each criterion used. Each map layer was formed with the aid of GIS and final suitability map was created by overlay analyses of each criterion map. According to obtained results, high and low suitable areas were determined in the study area. Field checks were also performed to determine the accuracy and suitability of candidate site.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 92. Alanbari, Mohammad
    et al.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Jasim, Hadeel
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Modeling landfill suitability based on GIS and multicriteria decision analysis: case study in Al-Mahaweel Qadaa2014Inngår i: Natural Science, ISSN 2150-4091, E-ISSN 2150-4105, Vol. 6, nr 11, s. 828-851Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste management system is not regulated in Iraq. At present, there are various techniques used for solid waste management such as landfill, thermal treatment, biological treatment, recycling etc. Landfill is the most common mode for the disposal of solid waste. However, landfill site selection is quite complex process and it depends on several criteria and regulations. In this study landfill site selection is performed for Al-Mahaweel qadaa using Multicriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) And Geographic Information System (GIS). It should be mentioned however, that the existing landfill in this area, is temporary and does not fulfill the environmental conditions. To select suitable landfill site, several criteria were considered such as Urban centers, Land use, Airports, Pipes, Power lines, Railways, Roads, slope, streams, Surface water, Industrial areas, Oil pipes, Liquid gas pipes, Soil types are prepared. (MCDA) was used to evaluate the relative importance of each criterion. Each map layers were formed with the aid of GIS and final suitability map was created by overlay analyses of each criterion map. According to obtained results, high and low suitable areas were determined in the study area. Field and office checks were performed out to determine the accuracy and suitability of the candidate sites.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 93.
    Alanbari, Mohammad
    et al.
    Babylon University.
    Alazzawi, Hind
    Babylon University.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Application of SimaPro7 on Al-Hilla City Sewerage Network, Iraq2015Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 7, nr 5, s. 224-229Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    SimaPro is a software package designed to make a valuable contribution for analyzing the environmental impact on products during their whole life cycle. A huge amount of knowledge about the environment is built into the program and database, enabling to analyze a product with a minimum of specialized knowledge. In this study, SimaPro was used to analyze and evaluate the impacts that resulted from sewerage network in Al-Hilla city, Iraq. The results of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) showed that sewerage network had an impact and damage on the environment by 291 points for every cubic meter of collect wastewater. The most potential environmental impacts were global warming, respiratory inorganics and non-renewable energy, contributing to the sewerage network. The study also showed that most of the effects were as a result of energy consumption in the pumping of wastewater, pipes used and diesel using for network operation.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 94.
    Alanbari, Mohammad
    et al.
    College of Engineering, Babylon University.
    Alazzawi, Hind
    College of Engineering, Babylon University.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Environmental Assessment of Al-Hilla City Wastewater Treatment Plants2015Inngår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 9, nr 6, s. 749-755Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is one of the countries that is suffering from water shortage problems and, for this reason, wastewater treatment plantsbecome a necessity to minimize this problem. In this study, the impact of Al-Hilla WWTP (wastewater treatment plant) on theenvironment has been studied. This was achieved using SimaPro software package. This software is a powerful tool for analyzing theenvironmental impact on products during their whole life cycle. A huge amount of knowledge about the environment is built into theprogram and database, enabling to analyze a product with a minimum of specialized knowledge. The results of LCA (life cycleassessment) showed that the impact and damage on the environment by Al-Hilla WWTP was 41 bad points for each 1 m3 of treatedwastewater. The most environmental impacts potentially were global warming, respiratory inorganics and non-renewable energy. Thestudy also showed that most of the effects were the result of the use of cement, steel and electricity consumption

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 95.
    Alanbari, Mohammad
    et al.
    Babylon University.
    Alazzawi, Hind
    Babylon University.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Selecting sustainability indicators of urban water systems: case study of al-Hilla City, Iraq2015Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Vol. 22, artikkel-id 6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study used environmental criteria to appraise the sustainability of the urban water system(UWS) of Al-Hilla city, Iraq. The study focused on the assessment of the environmental impact anddamage to the urban water system. Environmental criteria of sustainability included a number ofindicators. These indicators were selected using tools of sustainability analysis, where life cycleassessment (LCA) was used to select and analyze the environmental indicators by applyingSimaPro7.1.8. LCA. The results for urban water system in Al-Hilla city showed that water treatmentplants (WTPs) and distribution network were most sustainable compared with sewerage network andwaste water treatment plants (WWTP). WTPs impact and damage on the environment and distributionnetwork was 4 and 11.5 points respectively, while Al-Hilla WWTP and sewerage network was 41 and291 points respectively, for delivery of one cubic meter of potable water at the point of consumption ortreatment of one cubic meter of wastewater. In addition, the study showed that most of the effects weredue to electricity consumption, pumping raw water and clean water, chemical use (such as chlorine),pipes used in water distribution and sewage collection networks, and diesel used for plant operation.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 96.
    Alanbari, Mohammad Ali
    et al.
    Babylon University.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Jasim, Hadeel Kareem
    Babylon University.
    GIS and Multicriteria Decision Analysis for Landfill Site Selection in AL-HashimyahQadaa2014Inngår i: Natural Science, ISSN 2150-4091, E-ISSN 2150-4105, Vol. 6, nr 5, s. 282-304Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste management system is not well regulated in Iraq. Despite the fact that there are various techniques used for solid waste disposal, landfill is the most common mode for the disposal of solid waste in Iraq, landfill site selection criteria is quite complex process and it depends on several regulation and factors. In this study landfill site selection is performed by using Multicriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) and Geographic Information System (GIS) for the Al-Hashimyahqadaa. Existing landfills in qadaa are temporary and/or non-conforming to the environmental conditions. In order to determine landfill site, several criteria were examined such as Urban centers, Land use, Airports, Pipes, Power lines, Railways, Roads, Slope, Streams, Surface water, Industrial areas, Oil pipes, Liquid gas pipes, Soil types are prepared. MCDA was used to measure the relative importance weighting for each criterion. Each map layer was prepared using GIS and the final suitable map was created by overlay analyses of each criterion maps. According to the results, high and low suitable areas were determined in the study area. Field site check was performed to determine the accuracy and suitability of the candidate sites.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 97. Alanbari, Mohammad
    et al.
    Rahman, Israa
    College of Engineering , University of Babylon.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Comparison of Potential Environmental Impacts on the Production of Gasoline and Kerosene, Al-Daura Refinery, Baghdad, Iraq2016Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, Vol. 8, nr 11, s. 767-776Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Oil represents the main energy sources used by mankind. In addition, petroleum products serve as feedstock for several consumer goods, thus playing an important growing role in people’s lives. For this reason there are various software applications designed to do the environmental assessment to see their impact on the environment. Among these is SimaPro software package designed to make a valuable contribution. It is a powerful tool for analyzing the environmental impact of products during their whole life cycle. In this study, it was pplied to analyze and evaluate the impacts for Al-Daura refinery for the gasoline and kerosene fuel production. This refinery located in Baghdad, Iraq was analyzed. The results of the life cycle assessment (LCA) show that gasoline has a (single score) of the order of 11.1 point for each 1 cubic meter produce from gasoline fuel compared with 4.83 point for each 1 cubic meter produce from kerosene. Global warming, respiratory inorganics and nonrenewable energy were the most effective environmental impacts.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 98.
    Al-Anbari, Mohammad
    et al.
    Babylon University, Collage of Engineering.
    Thameer, Mohanad
    Babylon University, Collage of Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Estimation of Domestic Solid Waste Amount and Its Required Landfill Volume in Najaf Governorate-Iraq for the Period 2015-20352016Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 8, nr 6, s. 339-346Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid waste management is one of the most important challenges facing the local administration in the governorate of Najaf. This paper investigates the domestic amount generated in Najaf gover- norate for period 2015-2035 and the required landfill volume for the disposal of the waste. The daily per capita waste generation in Al-Najaf is 0.42 kg, the humidity content about 43% and the ound 473 kg/m3. The total amount was about 5,914,415 ton and the required landfill volume is 11,828,829 m3.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 99.
    Al-Anbari, Mohammad
    et al.
    Babylon University, Collage of Engineering.
    Thameer, Muhannad
    Babylon University, Collage of Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Landfill Site Selection in Al-Najaf Governorate, Iraq2016Inngår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 10, nr 6, s. 651-660Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid waste management aspect is one of the most important challenges facing the local administration in the Governorate of Najaf. Therefore, this study aims to provide for solid waste management problem by choosing the best locations for the establishment of sanitary landfills in the governorate. In this study, GIS (geographic information system) and MCDA (multi-criteria decision analysis) were used based on 17 environmental, economic and geological criteria converted to input digital map layers. These were urban centres, cemetery, airports, electrical power lines, oil pipes, railways, roads, slope, historical sites, main rivers,industrial areas, religion sites, wells, military area, electrical power plants, nature reserves and national borders to select most importance sites in the governorate. AHP (analytic hierarchy process) method was used in weighting the criteria used. All layers’ maps were graded from 0 (not suitable) to 5 (most suitable) using spatial information scale then SAW (simple additive weighting)method was integrated in GIS used to calculate the suitability index for the studied area. The results indicated that 4.4% of the study region is suitable for land¿ll siting with grading values greater than 4.0. This included five sites distributed in three qadhaas of governorate.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 100.
    Al-Anbari, Mohammad
    et al.
    College of Engineering, Babylon University.
    Thameer, Muhannad
    College of Engineering, Babylon University.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ranking Landfill Sites in Najaf Governorate, Iraq Using AHP and Fuzzy TOPSIS Methods2016Inngår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 10, nr 8, s. 815-821Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Najaf Governorate, Iraq, there are five landfill sites. This study aims to rank these sites based on their criteria which are site capacity, land elevation and land price. AHP (analytic hierarchy process) method was used to weight the criteria and the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution. Fuzzy TOPSIS (technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution) method was used to rank these sites from best to worst. Based on AHP method, the site capacity criterion was the most important than land price and land elevation.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
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