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  • 51. Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Nath, Atanu
    Karlsson, Ted
    Opoku, Robert
    Wang, Jinhui
    Quang, B.T.
    E-readiness of university divisions in online education2006Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    E-readiness can be defined as the degree to which a community is prepared to participate in the networked world. In this paper the concept of e-readiness is used in terms of how internal and external factors affect the delivery of online education offered by universities. The paper applies the macro level five forces model as adopted by Chan and Welebir (2003) in the context of micro (university divisional level). Thus, the purpose is not to have generalizable findings, but rather use the delivery of online education as determinant for the level of universities' e-readiness, and explore the factors affecting e-readiness and ways of utilizing the factors as central to the study. Using a qualitative method case study interviews on divisional level were used to obtain in-depth empirical evidence. The study appears to indicate potential need to further modify the five forces model by Chan and Welebir (2003) due to the non-commercial nature of the Swedish education system. Also, co-operation in providing educational services such as the Net University in Sweden precludes market forces determination by universities internally. No specialized training program for the instructors to fit any special needs of students particular to online education was perceived.

  • 52.
    Bergman, Ronja
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Odén, Veronica
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Styrningens praktiska utformning vid implementering av Lean: En studie hos Lindbäcks Bygg2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens företag möts av en marknad där konkurrensen är hög och det krävs därmed att företag anpassar sig efter kundernas krav. Lean är en strategi med kundorienterad produktion och syftet med strategin är att eliminera onödiga kostnader. Tidigare forskning lyfter fram problematiken med användningen av finansiella prestationsmått vid implementeringen av Lean. Forskning belyser även problematiken kring styrningen. Den måste anpassas vid Lean. Den måste anpassas vid Lean. Därmed finns ett flertal aspekter att beakta som kommunikation, beslutsfattande på lägre nivåer, delaktighet bland anställda samt engagemang från ledningen. Detta kan kopplas till de fyra delar av styrsystem som Simons (1995) utformat; diagnostiserande styrsystem, värdeskapande styrsystem, gränsskapande styrsystem samt interaktiva styrsystem. Studiens forskningsfråga är “Hur ser styrningens praktiska utformning ut vid implementering av Lean?” Syftet med studien är att skapa en förståelse för styrningens utformning vid implementeringen av Lean. En kvalitativ studie genomfördes och insamlad empiri utgick ifrån semistrukturerade intervjuer. Styrningen utformades annorlunda hos företaget efter implementeringen eftersom flera aspekter tagits hänsyn till. Styrningens utformning har haft stor betydelse eftersom anpassning av styrningen har medfört att det varit möjligt att bevara strategin långsiktigt. Arbetsmetoder kan därmed inte enbart kopieras utan måste snarare anpassas utifrån företaget i sig för att kunna bevaras långsiktigt. En slutsats är därmed att det inte enbart är prestationsmåtten som behöver beaktas. Perspektiven har identifierats hos företaget som lyckats implementera och bevara Lean långsiktigt och därmed anses samtliga vara av stor betydelse. Ytterligare en slutsats är vikten av att upprätthålla dynamik mellan perspektiven och studien påvisar att perspektiven tillämpas i olika utsträckning. Dynamiken bidrar till att implementeringen kan genomföras så effektivt som möjligt genom att använda styrsystemen när och där de behövs. Förslag till vidare forskning är dels att studera styrningens utformning hos flera företag som lyckats implementera Lean men även jämföra företag som lyckats och misslyckats.

  • 53. Bergström, Inger
    et al.
    Lumsden, Marie
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Ekonomisystem i mindre företag1993Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The study covers the design and use of accounting information system in small companies. When dicsussing the design of accounting information systems (AIS) we refer to the scope of the system and include management and financial accounting, budgets and ~alculations. We relate the use of AIS as a means to control business activities and include both management of individuals and activities. The study has been carried out of from the perspective of leadership. The aim has been to describe the design and use of AIS systems and to analyse and explain factors of importance to design and use AIS in small companies. The frame of reference comes to define research questions and analysis model. The model includes companies situation, management and leadership, structure of accounting department and the design and use of AIS. Three empirical studies have been done. Sub study 1, which is explorative, resulted in 5 hypotheses on the use of AIS in connection with company size, competitive situation, the manager's level of education, the manager's time spent on participation in day-to-day activities and how economy work is organised. Sub study 2 includes a survey with a response rate of 55% (394 companies). The hypothesis testing shows that there is a covariation between AIS and company size, manager's education and how economy work is organised. In sub study 3, personal interviews were carried out in 11 companies that had either been classified as high or low users of AIS in sub study 2. As a conclusion it is appropriate to modify the used analysis model and to focus more on the manager, even the hypothesis testing in sub study 2 shows that there is a covariation between i.e size and use of AIS. As a reason for this we have found that a special type of individuals become managers "in the large companies". From sub study 3 we have observed that managers classified as high users of AIS are those with a high level of formal education. They collect and use internal as well as external information to a high extent and their decision-making is analytic. The high users of AIS also have a positive attitude to growth and often choose output control. Managers classified as low users of AIS are often those with little formal education. They collect and use small amounts of information and their decision-making is intuitive. In addition they use behavioural control to induce employees to work towards company goals. The low users of AIS also have a negative attitude to growth. Many of the low users of AIS use external help for accounting. To increase the use of AIS in companies that use external aid the dialogue between bookkeeping agencies and their clients should be improved. A better dialogue may result in the use of concepts more in true with company activities, leading to reports produced on a suitable level of aggregation and with proper updating.

  • 54.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Chronéer, Diana
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Styvén, Maria Ek
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Engström, Anne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Malmström, Malin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Nilsson, Michael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, CDT.
    CASE 7: Smart Growth MeMo: A business model tool for mobile services2011Inngår i: Meeting the challenges of Europe 2020: The Transformative Power of Service Innovation : Case studies collected by the expert panel on service innovation in the EU, Europe Innova , 2011, s. 12-12Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 55.
    Bertelsen, Marie
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Westermark, Robin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Inbound Marketing Tillvägagångssätt för företag att marknadsföra sig över internet: En kvalitativ studie inom näthandeln2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Under den senaste tiden har konsumenternas köpbeteende förändrats. Detta beror dels på att de tenderar i större grad att ignorera den reklam de får till sig och dels på grund av utvecklingen av Internet. Inbound marketing är en marknadsföringsstrategi som uppkommit på grund av denna förändring i köpbeteende genom att kombinera utvecklingen av Internet och befintliga marknadsföringsstrategier. Med strategin vill man få konsumenter att vända sig mot företag genom att identifiera sig med den specifika målgrupp de riktar sig mot. Företag skapar innehåll som är anpassat utefter det målgruppen efterfrågar. Innehållet publiceras via olika Internetkanaler för att målgruppen ska hitta informationen och i sin tur hamnar på företagets hemsida. Inbound marketing bygger på fyra olika steg: attrahera besökare, konvertera besökare till leads, konvertera leads till kunder och skapa långsiktiga relationer.

    Syftet med denna studie är att förmedla kunskap om hur små- och medelstora företag inom näthandeln kan använda sig utav inbound marketing. Detta har gjorts genom litteraturstudier samt intervjuer. Studien har en kvalitativ forskningsstrategi med ett deduktivt angreppssätt. Detta för att få en djupare förståelse för hur företag arbetar med sin marknadsföring. Empirin har samlats in genom semi-strukturerade telefonintervjuer med respondenter som arbetar på företag som är verksamma inom näthandeln och har detta som huvudfokus. Resultatet av föreliggande studie visar olika tillvägagångssätt man kan använda sig utav inom inbound marketing samt att de medverkande företagen i studien arbetar i stora drag utefter de fyra stegen i inbound marketing processen. Resultatet visar dock att de fokuserar olika på olika steg i processen.

  • 56. Berthon, Jean-Paul
    Immaterial matters: strategic mode and the management of intangibles2007Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on the strategic management of intangibles. It is composed of five articles and addresses two fundamental questions in strategic marketing: first, how to achieve market success; and second, how to manage intangibles. The former takes the process view of strategy, the latter the resource based view; the thesis then goes onto integrate the two perspectives. The achievement of marketing success focuses on strategic mode, and the first article in the dissertation explores the relationship between strategic mode and business performance. The management of intangibles looks at brands and relationships. Thus, the second article in the thesis focuses on how to achieve market success through branding, whilst the third article looks at the value precursors of business relationships in international ecommerce. Articles four and five explore the intersection of strategic mode and the management of intangibles by developing a conceptual framework for the strategic positioning of services in two disparate industries: medicine and the music industry.

  • 57. Berthon, Jean-Paul
    et al.
    Berthon, Pierre
    Do camels dream of electric fish?: reflections on animal dreams2008Inngår i: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 61, nr 5, s. 422-423Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 58. Berthon, Jean-Paul
    et al.
    Opoku, Robert
    Pitt, Leyland
    Nel, Deon
    Department of Marketing, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.
    Brand management and strategic performance: some evidence from South Africa2007Inngår i: Journal of African Business, ISSN 1522-8916, E-ISSN 1522-9076, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 27-40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports on a study using a previously published checklist to assess the brand management practices of South African firms. Indications are that the perceptions of a sample of senior managers regarding how well their institutions manage their brands are reasonably positive, and that the management of brands has effects on a firm's profitability, market share and growth compared to competitors. While the checklist used seems to possess the characteristic of reliability, further development needs to be done on aspects of its underlying structure. Implications for managers and further avenues for research are identified and discussed.

  • 59. Berthon, Jean-Paul
    et al.
    Prinsloo, Mélani
    Pitt, Leyland
    From service factory to service theatre: solving the positioning dilemma in the medical practice2007Inngår i: Journal of Medical Marketing, ISSN 1745-7904, E-ISSN 1745-7912, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 55-63Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Doctor's surgeries are typically inefficient: They are generally stuck in the middle of the market, neither providing an individually tailored personal experience, nor one that is fast, efficient and cost effective. Introducing ideas from service simultaneity, and dramaturgy (the theory and practice of dramatic composition), this paper provides a simple but powerful model for the conceptualisation and redesign of the doctor's surgery. We argue that doctor's surgeries that are successful will be those that focus either on standardisation of activities in a back office environment (Service Factory), or high customisation of activities in a front office environment (Service Theatre). Those that attempt to do everything will succeed in doing nothing well.

  • 60. Berthon, Pierre
    et al.
    Ewing, Michael
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Pitt, Leyland
    Naudé, Peter
    Department of Management, University of Bath.
    Understanding B2B and the Web: the acceleration of coordination and motivation2003Inngår i: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 32, nr 7, s. 553-561Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores business-to-business (13213) marketing on the Internet, and how the confluence of the two may transform the 13213 landscape. Specifically, it discusses the notion of linkage value to demonstrate why the 13213 phenomenon on the Internet is so significant. It then considers the mechanisms and enablers that have made the Web such an important 13213 marketing channel. It also explores how the Web can reduce transaction costs, thereby facilitating more efficient exchanges and markets. The concepts of links and nodes are then introduced and the processes of disintermediation, reintermediation, disaggregation and reaggregation are explored. Finally, Web B2B configurations are considered by way of a model that describes four archetypal configurations, and the factors that are antecedent to these modes and how the Web may influence them.

  • 61. Berthon, Pierre
    et al.
    Fischer, Katrin
    Department of Marketing, Bentley University.
    DesAutels, Philip
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    From mummers to new media: captivity, liberation, and the church of life after shopping2011Inngår i: Journal of Public Affairs, ISSN 1472-3891, E-ISSN 1479-1854, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 181-187Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With the rise of new media, it is easy to overlook, not only old media but also mummery-the arcane medium of the flesh-street performances, stage shows, plays, and carnivals. In this paper, we look at the case of Reverend Billy and the Church of Life After Shopping. We begin by re-introducing the term 'mummer' as a traditional medium of expression and conceptually locate it relative to both old and new media. We then provide a brief introduction to captivity narrative studies, specifically looking at the role of humor in providing aesthetic freedom in incarceration. Reverend Billy and the Church of Life After Shopping serve as our case study to show how humor can be used to liberate citizens' thinking around the three Cs of American political ideology: church, capitalism, and consumption; and to highlight how Reverend adroitly integrates the medium mummery, old media, and new media into a unified whole to free consumers from the dominant ideology of US political interlocution. We conclude by offering ways to extend and elaborate upon this research. Mummery Captivity studies New media

  • 62.
    Berthon, Pierre
    et al.
    McCallum School of Business, Bentley College, Waltham, MA.
    Pitt, Leyland
    Berthon, Jean-Paul
    Campbell, Colin
    Simon Fraser University, Vancouver.
    Thwaites, Des
    University of Leeds.
    e-Relationships for e-Readiness: culture and corruption in international e-B2B2008Inngår i: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 37, nr 1, s. 83-91Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of electronic networks in B2B relationships has been growing exponentially. From massive internet B2B exchanges to tiny RFID chips, B2B is increasingly becoming e-B2B. Whilst e-B2B has been explored intra-nationally, its international counterpart is less well documented; as has been the role that culture might play in the development of international e-B2B relationships. In this paper we address this important issue of international e-business relationships. Specifically we explore the interconnection between national e-readiness and cultural values, and address the research question: How do cultural values impact a nation's readiness to engage in e-business? Drawing upon international surveys we link cultural values with national e-business infrastructure. Our findings suggest an intriguing link between cultural values and a nation's readiness for e-B2B. From these results we develop managerial recommendations and extrapolate research opportunities.

  • 63.
    Berthon, Pierre
    et al.
    Bentley University Waltham.
    Pitt, Leyland
    Simon Fraser University, Vancouver.
    Campbell, Colin
    Simon Fraser University, Vancouver.
    Steyn, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    (Un)believable blogs: Blogs, Skepticism and Product Reviews2010Inngår i: New Directions, New Insights: Conference Proceedings, GFA 2010, Fourth German-French-Austrian Conference on Quantitative Marketing, Vienna, September 16-18, 2010, s. 85-86Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Blogs (short for "web logs") are websites, owned and written by individuals ("bloggers"). While most blogs serve merely as a way for individuals to record and report their thoughts and activities and have little commercial or organizational impact whatsoever, a smaller number enable those with more expertise to commentate on advanced and specialized phenomena, subjects, industries, products, and services. In doing so they reach very large audiences and become very influential. Blogs have become important marketing communication devices in recent years, because, used effectively, they can be very helpful relationship management tools. Blogger credibility in particular is of crucial importance from a communication perspective -recent research has demonstrated strongly that blogger credibility plays a positive role in relational trust. It begins to answer the issue: to what extent are readers skeptical about the content of blogs? This is an important question, because, if general skepticism is low, then blogs will prove to be effective ways of communicating with broad publics. If it is high, then marketing communicators need to factor this into their use of blogs as tools of communication and persuasion. In this research, a scale to measure advertising skepticism (STA) is adapted to a blogging context. Belief in a communication is a function of the both the source of that communication (source credibility) and the specific content of the communication (content credibility). Because the STA scale focuses primarily on the informational aspect of advertising, we integrate this into a more generalizable causal model of skepticism toward blogging. We argue that an individual's overall skepticism toward blogs impacts on their skepticism toward the information contained in blogs, and the extent to which they believe blogs are credible. This in turn influences the frequency with which they then read blogs. This structure is then tested empirically.

  • 64.
    Berthon, Pierre
    et al.
    McCallum School of Business, Bentley University.
    Pitt, Leyland
    Simon Fraser University.
    Halvorson, Wade
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Ewing, Michael
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Crittenden, Victoria L.
    Carroll School of Management, Boston College.
    Advocating avatars: the salesperson in second life2010Inngår i: Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, ISSN 0885-3134, E-ISSN 1557-7813, Vol. 30, nr 3, s. 195-208Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Interactive digital media are revolutionizing the marketing landscape. The virtual world is a dominant player in this new panorama, with exchanges in the virtual marketplace approaching $2 billion annually. While virtual, like real world, exchanges require buyers and sellers, there is little or no understanding of this disembodied sales process. The current study seeks to address this gap in knowledge by employing an ethnographic methodology in which researchers incarnate in Second Life to explore the personal selling process. Specifically, the various notions of the "self" that constitute the avatar salesperson are explored. Findings from this exploratory study suggest a relationship between the nature of the self and the type of exchange. From this, a conceptual model for the study of the virtual selling self is presented, propositions developed, and managerial implications for the virtual sales force suggested. © 2010 PSE National Educational Foundation

  • 65. Berthon, Pierre
    et al.
    Pitt, Leyland
    Nel, Deon
    Deakin University, Melbourne.
    Salehi-Sangari, Esmail
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Engström, Anne
    The biotechnology and marketing interface: functional integration using mechanistic and holographic responses to environmental turbulence2008Inngår i: Journal of Commercial Biotechnology, ISSN 1462-8732, E-ISSN 1478-565X, Vol. 14, nr 3, s. 213-224Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper serves to specify and ground research into interfunctional integration in a wider theoretical context with particular reference to the interaction between technology and marketing in the biotechnology sphere. The general and specific problem areas are specified as those of interfunctional relations and the dyadic relationship between marketing and biotechnical managerial functions in particular. The contextual/organisational generative mechanisms that are likely to keep interfunctional relations at the centre of scholarly attention for some time are explored from the perspective of cybernetic theory. The law of requisite variety states that in an effective open system environmental variety is matched by internal structural variety. As organisations are faced with ever more turbulent, and complex environments, this must be matched by an increased internal complexity within the organisation. The two modes of response, namely holographic and mechanistic, both highlight the need to further our understanding of interfunctional differences. Having established the problem and its genesis, a specific research agenda is outlined as the exploration of the interfunctional differences from a decision-making perspective.

  • 66.
    Berthon, Pierre
    et al.
    Bentley University, Waltham.
    Pitt, Leyland
    imon Fraser University, Vancouver.
    Parent, Michael
    Segal Graduate School of Business, Simon Fraser University.
    Berthon, Jean-Paul
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Aesthetics and ephemerality: observing and preserving the luxury brand2009Inngår i: California Management Review, ISSN 0008-1256, E-ISSN 2162-8564, Vol. 52, nr 1, s. 45-66Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    While luxury brands are one of the most profitable and fastest growing segments of the brand pantheon, they are the least understood. There is no established definition as to what a luxury brand is; no clear understanding of the value dimensionality of luxury brands; and no rigorous conceptualization of the different types of luxury brands. They are generally treated as homogenous. Little wonder the management of these brands is shrouded in mystery. This article explores the value dimensionality of luxury brands, differentiates among luxury brands, and proposes a typology to help firms understand the managerial implications and challenges of each type. All luxury brands are not the same-they can mean different things to different people or even different things to the same people, which makes target marketing of luxury brands both difficult and important. This also means that they react differently to each other both in times of economic prosperity and in downturns. This article also explores strategies for migrating mass-market brands into luxury brand markets.

  • 67.
    Bevelander, Dianne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi. Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University, Rotterdam.
    Who is engaging with whom?: Internationalizing opportunities for business schools in emerging economies2012Inngår i: International Journal of Educational Management, ISSN 0951-354X, E-ISSN 1758-6518, Vol. 26, nr 7, s. 646-663Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the globalization of Business Schools and presents different strategies, issues and perspectives on how and why business schools are going global. This article explores various models for globalization, contrasts and integrates them, and then presents an approach to globalization that is within the reach of these smaller and less endowed schools. Design/methodology/approach - This paper reviews relevant literature and an analysis of exchange programs amongst the world’s leading business schools. Different aspects of the globalization of management education are discussed including internationalizing the curriculum, globalizing research agendas, and the impact of globalized competition. Findings - A framework has been developed that can be employed by business schools – especially in emerging economies – to internationalize themselves through their education and research programs. Recommendations are made for how business schools with limited resources can meet the challenge of offering the internationally oriented education experience increasingly demanded by employers and students alike.Research limitations/implications - Limitations to this paper results from the use of Financial Times top one-hundred ranked business schools. Aside from weaknesses inherent the rankings methodology, the choice of these business schools excluded hundreds of high quality business schools around the world – many of which are internationally recognized for quality. Furthermore the methodology of the scanning of websites of schools for types of collaboration agreements across borders might not give the full picture of agreements betweens schools. Practical implications - Originality/value - Although a considerable amount has been written about the globalization imperative facing business schools (with many illustrations of what could be considered best practice), there is a significant lack of information when it comes to the articulation of strategies and implementation challenges facing smaller and less well endowed business schools that want to globalize.

  • 68.
    Bevelander, Dianne
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Page, M.J.
    Bentley University.
    Ms Trust: Gender, networks and trust: Implications for management and education2011Inngår i: Academy of Management Learning & Education, ISSN 1537-260X, E-ISSN 1944-9585, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 623-642Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite knowing how important social capital is and despite the fact that so much time, money, and attention is given to raising the status of women in managerial ranks, women have yet to achieve anything like equal status at the top level of organizational hierarchies. One factor that has received limited attention in the literature is that of differences in the way men and women network and that the way women network might not only disadvantage their own professional career progression but put other women at a disadvantage as well. This study explores this phenomenon and specifically looks at how social network size varies with level of trust between parties.

  • 69.
    Bigi, Alessandro
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Plangge, Kirk
    Simon Fraser University, Segal Graduate School of Business, Vancouver.
    Bonera, Michelle
    Universita Degli Studi di Brescia, Dipartimento di Economia Aziendale.
    Campbell, Colin L.
    Monash University, Faculty of Business and Economics, Caulfield East, Victoria.
    When satire is serious: How political cartoons impact a country's brand2011Inngår i: Journal of Public Affairs, ISSN 1472-3891, E-ISSN 1479-1854, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 148-155Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the case of Italy's Mr. Berlusconi's indiscretions and the effect his scandals have played in the decline of the Italian national brand. National brands are the perceived added value that international consumers place on that country and its products and services. An analysis of recent political cartoons will provide insight into international attitudes regarding Mr. Berlusconi's political and social actions. From this investigation, the authors conclude that a country's political leader's negative image and reputation can have a large negative impact on national brand equity abroad.

  • 70.
    Bithén, Moa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Engman, Lisa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Hållbarhetsredovisningens påverkan på prestation: En empirisk studie av svenska energibranschen2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att förklara om arbetet med ekologisk, social och ekonomisk hållbarhet som avspeglas i hållbarhetsredovisning leder till högre prestation. Studien har en generös inkludering av prestationsmått för att ligga nära så många av de relevanta forskningsområden som möjligt. I studiens prestationsmått inkluderas såväl subjektiva faktorer som objektiva nyckeltal. För att uppnå syftet utgår studien från den svenska energibranschen vilket är en bransch med stor miljöpåverkan. En teoretisk modell utvecklas och framställs utifrån tidigare forskning inom ämnesområdet. Den teoretiska modellen och studiens hypoteser prövas genom en enkätundersökning och analys av företagsspecifik finansiell information. Enkäten består till största del av beprövade frågeställningar men även några egenproducerade frågeställningar. Totalt deltog 105 respondenter i undersökningen och energibranschens alla åtta näringsgrenar är representerade i studien. Analysen bygger på stegvisa multipla regressionsanalyser. Diskussionen antyder att forskningsfrågan inte var så enkel att besvara eftersom det förekommer stora variationer på definitioner av studiens centrala begrepp. I resultatet presenteras att hållbarhetsredovisning som talar om hur företaget arbetar och ska arbeta för en hållbar utveckling är tidskrävande och kostsamt på kort sikt. Denna kortsiktiga kostnad övergår på lång sikt till en högre prestation för företagen som implementerat hållbarhet i verksamheten. Arbetet med ekologisk, social och ekonomisk hållbarhet som avspeglas i hållbarhetsredovisning för på lång sikt inte bara med sig etiska och moraliska fördelar. Vi visar även att det finns prestationsmässiga fördelar. 

  • 71.
    Björck, Frida
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Boudin, Lisa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Kan processer som inte går att prissätta styras?: En kvalitativ studie om säkerhetsarbete på industrier i Norrbotten2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Intresset för hållbarhetsfrågor har ökat och sociala hållbarhetsaspekter får allt större betydelse. Organisationer redovisar en nollvision avseende arbetsplatsolyckor och Sveriges arbetsmarknadsminister uppger att detta är prioriterat hos regeringen. Samtidigt som organisationer redogör för vikten av säkerhetsarbete i hållbarhetsrapporter har antalet dödsolyckor ökat istället för att minska. Hållbarhetsprocesser saknar prissättning och går inte att kostnadsföra i dagsläget. Examensarbetet syftar till att skapa en förståelse för om processer som inte går att prissätta kan styras samt en förståelse till varför säkerhetsutfall avviker från organisationers målsättningar. Den teoretiska referensramen belyser vikten av säkerhetsarbete samt objektifieringens betydelse för styrningens möjligheter till beteendeförändring. Vidare lade den teoretiska referensramen grunden till examensarbetets teorimodell samt utformning av intervjuguide. För att besvara examensarbetets syfte har en kvalitativ studie utförts genom intervjuer med organisationer inom gruv-, stål- och byggindustrin i Norrbotten. Vidare har innehållsanalyser med avseende på social hållbarhet, säkerhet och hälsa gjorts på respektive organisations hållbarhetsrapporter. För att få organisationers och arbetstagares perspektiv utfördes intervjuer med både tjänstemän och fackliga representanter. Empiriinsamlingen bidrog med kunskap om bakomliggande orsaksfaktorer samt visade på styrningsproblematik, vilket lade grunden för examensarbetets analys och resultatdiskussion. Analysen antyder att det är svårt att styra processer som inte har ett pris eller går att kostnadsföra, vilket medför att det finns en styrningsproblematik. Styrningsproblematiken grundar sig även i att det finns en diskrepans i uppfattning om säkerhet, medvetenhet och kommunikation mellan tjänstemän och arbetstagare.

  • 72.
    Blair, Amanda J.
    et al.
    Industrial Economics & Management, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm.
    Atasanova, Christina
    Beedie School of Business, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby.
    Pitt, Leyland F.
    Beedie School of Business, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver.
    Chan, Anthony
    Beedie School of Business, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby.
    Wallström, Åsa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Assessing brand equity in the luxury wine market by exploiting tastemaker scores2017Inngår i: Journal of Product & Brand Management, ISSN 1061-0421, Vol. 26, nr 5, s. 447-452Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Calculating brand equity, the price differential that a branded product is able to charge compared to an unbranded equivalent, often suffers from a lack of a means to truly determine equivalence. Luxury wines have the benefit of an established measure of equivalency – the Parker score. Robert Parker’s influence as a tastemaker provides a point of comparison across brands. This study looks at brand equity of Bordeaux classified growth wines considering château brands, growths and vintages to illustrate the intangible value for the consumer.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Using price and wine-specific data from Wine-Searcher.com, an online database and search engine, an initial sample of 393 wines with Parker scores ranging from 72 to 100 is presented. A subset of perfect wines, with 100-point Parker scores, is also reviewed focusing on the great vintage of 2009.

    Findings

    The results indicate that brand equity in the luxury wine market exists. Not only is this true for the brand of a specific château, but there is also equity associated with the vintage and the growth.

    Practical implications

    This offers practical implications for brand managers in positioning their wines.

    Originality/value

    An analysis of luxury wines supports the financial perspective on brand equity, especially when there is a viable means of determining equivalence, such as the Parker score.

  • 73.
    Blomgren, Henrik
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Sattari, Setayesh
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Peighambari, Kaveh
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Levihn, Fabian
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    The strategic agenda of corporate Europe: sustainability or not?2015Inngår i: The Sustainable Global Marketplace: Proceedings of the 2011 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference / [ed] Mary Conway, Cham: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2015, s. 307-309Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Businesses are entering into a period of transformation, where winners and losers may be separated according to their ability to succeed in a carbon-constrained world. CEO’s vision is vital for accelerating the response to this transformation. We examined CEO letters in order to understand the strategic importance of this issue to CEOs.

  • 74.
    Blomgren, Henrik
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Sattari, Setayesh
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Peighambari, Kaveh
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Levihn, Fabian
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    The strategic agenda of corporate Europe: sustainability or not?2011Inngår i: The Sustainable Global Marketplace: Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Academy of Marketing Science, Coral Gables, FL USA May 24-27, 2011 / [ed] Mary Conway, The Academy of Marketing Science, 2011, s. 307-309Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Businesses are entering into a period of transformation, where winners and losers may be separated according to their ability to succeed in a carbon-constrained world. CEO’s vision is vital for accelerating the response to this transformation. We examined CEO letters in order to understand the strategic importance of this issue to CEOs.

  • 75.
    Bodin Kristiansen, Malin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Johnson, Alexander
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Faktorer bakom adoption av styrmodeller: Tio svenska stora företag med olika strukturella attribut2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med examensarbetet är att beskriva och kartlägga hur adoptionen av styrmodeller kan se ut i stora företag och utifrån detta identifiera vilken betydelse olika faktorer karaktäriserade av individuella-, organisationella- och omvärldsaspekter som påverkar adoptionen. Detta för att öka kunskapen om vilka faktorer som kan ligga bakom adoptionen av styrmodeller och hur dessa påverkar. Vidare är syftet att explorativt finna mönster mellan påverkande faktorer och företags strukturella attribut för att se hur möjliga kopplingar till företagens strukturer kan se ut. Studien bidrar därmed iutvecklingen av ett mer holistiskt synsätt. För att uppnå syftet utgår studien från sju faktorer; rationella och effektiva, psykodynamiska, retoriska och mode, politiska, kulturella, tvingande samt härmande och trender som på olika sätt påverkar adoptionen inom företag. Studien genomfördes genom kvalitativa intervjuer med tio stycken stora företag i Norrbotten med olika attribut inom ledartyp, ägarform och koncernförhållande. Företagens deltagare utgjordes av beslutsfattare med höga positioner inom företaget medinsikt i adoptionsprocessen som ingående kunde förklara händelser som påverkade adoptionen. Resultaten indikerar på att samtliga sju faktorer i olika grad påverkar företagens adoption av styrmodeller. Framförallt var de rationella och effektiva faktorerna klart framträdande som den faktor med högst påverkan inom samtliga företag eftersom att adoptionsbeslutet ofta grundade sig i någon form av problem eller kris. Resterande faktorer påverkade i olika utsträckning, där det fanns antydningar om mönster mellan faktorer och företagens strukturella attribut. Studien formulerade sex hypoteser kopplat till funna mönster mellan faktorer och företagens strukturella attribut.

  • 76.
    Boroumand, L.
    et al.
    Isfahan University of Medical Science.
    Aghdasi, M
    Tarbiat Modares University.
    Albadvi, A
    Tarbiat Modares University.
    Jamshidian, M
    Isfahan University, I. R. of Iran.
    Perzon, Håkan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Service failure-recovery in online shops in Iran2008Inngår i: Iranian Journal of Information Science and Technology, ISSN 1726-8125, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 61-77Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Present article focuses on service failure and recovery in the online shops in Iran. The article investigates interaction between service failure and online shops readiness for service recovery and resulting impact on customer reaction. The data was collected by an e-questionnaire from 615 Iranian online shoppers. The findings suggest, although many online shops are severely breaching few fundamental business principles, defection is not happening as vast as in other similar studies. Furthermore, winning the customers back via service recovery seems to be depended rather on the process than the outcome of service recovery, which is very similar to the findings of another study in Chinese environment. Discussion of the findings suggests the researchers and managers to be conscious of the possible impact of the culture and environment on customer's responses to service failure and service recovery states.

  • 77.
    Botha, E.
    et al.
    University of Cape Town.
    Farshid, Mana
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Pitt, Leyland
    Segal Graduate School of Business, Simon Fraser University.
    How sociable?: An exploratory study of university brand visibility in social media2011Inngår i: South African Journal of Business Management, ISSN 0378-9098, Vol. 42, nr 2, s. 43-51Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Social media has changed both the way in which organizations and their brands interact with their customers and the way in which business gets done. Brands are attempting to utilize social media to reach existing customers, gain new ones and build or maintain credibility and reputation. More importantly, brands need to measure their visibility in the most popular social media relative to that of competitors. This study describes a tool for collecting brand visibility information by looking at the visibility of various South African university brands and their relative positioning from a social media perspective. Correspondence analysis is then used to portray the various university brands in a multi-dimensional space so that they can be contrasted with each other in terms of their visibility in social media. The findings indicate that South African university brands are not distinctly positioned in social media and that none of them seems to currently have a concerted strategy for engaging its stakeholders in a particular social media. This means that there are both opportunities for those who manage these brands, and also threats to these institutions for taking a laissez fair attitude to social media in these times when social media are coming to dominate the Internet in particular and media in general.

  • 78.
    Botha, E.
    et al.
    School of Management Studies, University of Cape Town.
    Lillford, Neil
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Pitt, Leyland F.
    Beedie School of Business Simon Fraser University, Vancouver.
    South African management literature over the past fifteen years: Content analysis of the three top South African management journals2011Inngår i: South African Journal of Business Management, ISSN 0378-9098, Vol. 42, nr 4, s. 89-98Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analysed 15 years, from 1996 to 2010, of research published in the three leading South African business management journals. The three journals chosen were the South African Journal of Business Management, the South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences and Management Dynamics. Content analysis was used to compare five broad themes in the journals: firstly the nature of authorship was examined, and then the most published as well as most prolific authors were identified. Thirdly, the most prominent universities and departments were identified whereafter the research themes and disciplines of the articles and authors were analysed. Lastly, various manuscript characteristics were investigated. This article provides a clear picture of the evolution of South African management literature over the past fifteen years

  • 79.
    Bououd, Ikram
    et al.
    Institut Supérieur de Gestion Gabès, Tunisia.
    Rouis, Sana
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Boughzala, Imed
    Telecom Ecole de Management, Institut Mines-Telecom, Evry, France.
    Makhlouf, Mohamed
    Department of Operations Management and Information Systems, KEDGE Business School, Talence, France.
    Impact of object manipulation, customization and social loafing on competencies management in 3D Virtual Worlds2016Inngår i: Information Systems Frontiers, ISSN 1387-3326, E-ISSN 1572-9419, Vol. 18, nr 6, s. 1191-1203Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    3D Virtual Worlds (VW) are rich and promising collaboration tools limitedly introduced to support competence management, yet, extensively used to enhance knowledge sharing (KS) and support knowledge application (KA). Nevertheless, KS and KA represent a challenging medium to leverage individual as well as organization’s competencies. Characterized by a realistic visual dimension in representing work environment and a growing capacity of simulation, 3D platforms facilitate and value competence formation. Present study analyzes role of 3D VW technology unique characteristics (i.e. object manipulation and avatar and 3D environment customization) and specific personal character social loafing, on competencies acquisition. Individual performance and organizational performance were measured to assess individual and organizational competences. Answers from 144 users of 3D VWs were analyzed. Results show that social loafing has significant negative effect on knowledge sharing. Customization and object manipulation have significant, yet small moderating effect on 3D VW technology use and knowledge sharing. KS subsequent effect on KA, individual and organizational competencies are significant. Limitations and new research directions are presented.

  • 80.
    Bourmistrov, Anatoli
    et al.
    Nord University Business School.
    Dybtsyna, Elena
    Nord University Business School.
    Hersinger, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Middleton, Alexandra
    Oulu University Business School.
    Policies for the High North and Research Collaboration: A Comparison of Finland, Norway and Sweden2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 81.
    Brodin, Gisela
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Vesterlund, Sofie
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Best practice or PR strategy?: Integrated reports as impression management in a Swedish mining company2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental and social problems are often connected to the mining industry. Hence, there is a history of conflicts between industry actors and stakeholders such as non-governmental organizations, regional politicians, environmental authorities, academics, community researchers, tourism industry and indigenous people. Despite being criticized for some of its work on sustainability, mining companies have indeed improved their communication regarding sustainability and are even considered to be at the forefront of corporate sustainability communication in general, predominantly in the area of sustainability, or integrated, reporting. Thus, a question is how the mining industry can be seen at the cutting edge regarding sustainability communication while also considered as one of the most unsustainable industries?

    One way of approaching such questions in the field of accounting and control is through the analytical framework of impression management, focusing on how companies through their reporting manage impressions of themselves on their stakeholders. Despite the strategic importance in which the information is presented in integrated reports, the full range of impression management techniques suggested by Brennan et al. (2009) has not, to our knowledge, been used to understand integrated reports in the mining industry. The Swedish mining company, Luossavaara-Kiirunavaara AB (LKAB), wholly owned by the Swedish state and Europe’s largest producer of iron ore, has been selected as a case company due to its ambition to become a world leader in “best practices” on social and environmental aspects. The purpose of this thesis is to make a detailed review of the integrated reports published by LKAB (2008-2017) through the lens of impression management and decode the expressiveness of impressions related to both qualitative and quantitative information.

    Using such a lense this study provides evidence that the company distorts information to appear as better rather than report performance objectively. The composite bias score indicates the degree to which information is angled against positive or negative aspects. When the result shows +1, the company is completely positively biased, while -1 indicates that the company is completely negatively biased. The mean of bias score for the years between 2008-2017, shows that the qualitative (quantitative) information totals to 0.76 (0.51) which indicates that both measurements are positively biased. A high score of impression management increases the potential for erroneous decision-making by stakeholders. Furthermore, a comprehensive test of the differences in impression management confirms that a higher result of qualitative and quantitative information occurs when the company performs well and is located in the upper quartile related to profit for the year. The reason is due to the fact that a positive result is related to increased figures which  is reflected in the measurement of quantitative impression management. Hence, a measure of impression management related to Global Reporting Initiative (GRI), indicates that G4 has lower bias score related to both qualitative and quantitative information. GRI G4 is a more comprehensive standard compared to the earlier version, G3. G4 generally causes the case company to report more information. In view of this, it is possible to note that G4 entails a more transparent accounting and reduces the scope for impression management.

  • 82.
    Brown, Terrence
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    An Evaluation of Crowdsourcing as a Tool  for Marketing Activities2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Advances in technology and social media have facilitated the rapid development of crowdsourcing as an innovative tool within the field of marketing. This has driven researchers to investigate more deeply the phenomenon of crowdsourcing as a marketing innovation. The overall purpose of this thesis is expressed as: To explore and describe the use of crowdsourcing within the field of marketing. More specifically, the primary purpose of the thesis is to understand better - How crowdsourcing can be used as a marketing tool. This thesis aims to illuminate the gap in the extant marketing literature by reviewing current academic knowledge surrounding crowdsourcing and marketing.  The use of the crowd as a marketing tool is growing primarily because of the advent of the Internet; however, as technology continues to advance the possibilities, challenges and side effects of crowdsourcing also change. These also need to be investigated continually. More specifically as digital marketing moves from a Web 2.0 environment to a Web 3.0 environment there will be new opportunities as well as pitfalls. As a result, new and relevant marketing problems exist at the nexus of crowdsourcing and marketing.

    The research problem is sub-divided into the following four research questions:

    • RQ1:  To what extent are crowdfunding platforms accessible to organizations as a marketing channel and, if so, what role can these platforms play?
    • RQ2:  How will the shift from Web 2.0 (and active-user input) to Web 3.0

    (and passive-data/sensor–based input) impact the new opportunities/product development process?

    • RQ3:  How can user-generated content help firms make strategic decisions about new business opportunities?
    • RQ4:  How is the evolution of crowdsourcing impacting information externalities and consumer privacy and how is this impacting marketing?

     This research is further divided into two sections. The first part investigates marketing activities specifically new opportunities/product development, advertising and promotion, and marketing research. The second section focuses on one of the possible repercussions of crowdsourcing in the marketing process. Most research on crowdsourcing focuses on the first section (i.e., the marketing activities) and how crowdsourcing is a positive marketing tool. Much less research aims its attention on the consequences and/or potential negative aspects of crowdsourcing.

    This thesis consists of two published papers and two studies. Each project handles one of research questions. The first two papers and the first study focus on three marketing activities (i.e., advertising, promotion and sales, new product and service development, and market research). The second study focuses on one of the possible consequences of the growth of crowdsourcing as a tool in the marketing process.

    While each paper and study has its own individual contributions, the overall contribution of this study is multi-fold. First, it develops a definition of crowdsourcing as: a tool or process by which the firm can increase or expand the resources to which it has access to by using the collective effort of a group of individuals or organizations. Second, as a result of these four research projects, crowdsourcing can further be seen as a situational, contextual and flexible tool that can be used in many different organizational contexts. The specific context for this thesis is marketing and as a result, crowdsourcing can play a wide variety of marketing roles.

  • 83.
    Brown, Terrence
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    An evolution of crowdsourcing: Implications for marketingManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    By using the collective effort of individual customers or groups of customers (i.e., crowdsourcing), the firm can expand the resources to which it has access. One of the primary reasons for the growth of crowdsourcing is the advances and widespread growth of information and communications technologies (ICT), especially Web technologies, have led to an explosion of possible crowdsourcing and co-creation opportunities.

    This research examines how this age of crowdsourcing has impacted privacy and the market for privacy. To crowdsource services at a high level often requires an exchange of personal data from the customer to the firm. This study builds three conceptual models that help describe the evolution of crowdsourcing personal information across three different timeframes. These three stages are based on the amount and the level of sophistication of the crowdsourcing processing of information externalities that result from market transactions between the consumer and the firm. Ultimately, through the crowdsourcing of personal and private information are advancing to the most advance stage whereby a digital twin of each consumer is created. This twin can be used in a predictive analytic process to forecast the thoughts, behaviors and future actions of each consumer.

    Most research on crowdsourcing focuses on the first section (i.e., the marketing activities) and how crowdsourcing is a positive marketing technique. Much less research aims its attention on the consequences and/or potential negative aspects of crowdsourcing. This second study connects to the overarching research question as it is a conceptual study that explores the consequences of crowdsourcing for market for privacy.

  • 84.
    Brown, Terrence
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Leveraging user-generated content for demand-side strategyManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial context of this study is the hospitality industry, specifically the restaurant business. The hospitality industry has two essential characteristics that make this study valuable. Firstly, with the related travel and tourism industries, the three businesses make up the world's largest industry in the service sector. Secondly, consumers in these industries have been at the forefront of creating and using comment and reviews (i.e., user-generated content (UGC)) to make their purchasing decisions.

    Additionally, the demand-side view of strategy is under-researched, especially in the areas of tourism, travel, and hospitality when viewed against the predominant perspectives in strategic management (e.g., resource-based view, transaction-cost economics, positioning, and dynamic capabilities) are supply-side views.

    Using the tools available today it is possible to scrape and mine the websites, blogs, forums, communities and other places customers gather and use content analysis techniques to extract meaning from the content. Web 2.0 sources of qualitative data like blogs, forums, feedback (i.e., UGC) can offer better research material than offline traditional qualitative diaries. As a result, using crowdsourced, user-generated content may be a productive marketing research approach to investigate how demand-side strategic decision-making can be supported in the travel, tourism, and hospitality industries.

  • 85.
    Brown, Terrence
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Sensor-based entrepreneurship: A framework for developing new products and services2017Inngår i: Business Horizons, ISSN 0007-6813, E-ISSN 1873-6068, Vol. 60, nr 6, s. 819-830Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As the Internet of Things (IoT) begins to dominate the technology landscape, there will be new products and services that will become technically and financially feasible. Internet technologies and advancements in social interaction tools have led to an increase in the use of the crowd as a provider of business solutions. Yet, we have seen a mere fraction of the possibilities of crowdsourcing technologies. This is because most of the development, discussion, and research around crowdsourcing has focused on active-input crowdsourcing. However, the real transformative pressure will come from passive sources of data generated primarily by developing and growing sensor technologies. This next generation of crowdsourcing will be a game changer for entrepreneurial opportunities. As crowdsourcing systems proliferate, more input will be acquired from sensors, artificial intelligence, bots, and other devices. As a result of this explosion, the variety of product and service opportunities will swell as entrepreneurs become more aware of technologies merging—such as the combination of crowdsourcing, sensors, and big data into a new type of entrepreneurship: sensor-based entrepreneurship. The purpose of this research is to contribute by (1) clarifying the next generation of crowdsourcing and (2) developing and presenting a framework to help sensor-based entrepreneurs plan, develop, and map their new products and services.

  • 86.
    Brown, Terrence
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi. School of Industrial Engineering and Management, Royal Institute of Technology.
    Abduljabbar, Meyser
    School of Industrial Engineering and Management, Royal Institute of Technology.
    Englund, Stefan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Treen, Emily
    Beedie School of Businss, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver.
    Twenty-five years and counting: an analysis of the Journal of Strategic Marketing2018Inngår i: Journal of Strategic Marketing, ISSN 0965-254X, E-ISSN 1466-4488, Vol. 26, nr 2, s. 125-139Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a content analysis of the Journal of Strategic Marketing (JSM) over 24 years from the journal’s inception in 1993 to 2017. No similar attempt on an analysis of JSM has been found. Analyses were completed to examine how the journal has developed and to uncover relevant information for editors, reviewers, researchers and future authors of JSM by analysing research themes, author and manuscript characteristics, and citation metrics. The findings reveal an increase in multi-authored articles, an increase in empirical research and in the internationalization of researchers. These and other factors illuminate sources and implications of the journal’s current state. The relevance of these findings is discussed as it pertains to the future success and publishing opportunities in the Journal of Strategic Marketing.

  • 87.
    Brown, Terrence
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Boon, Edward
    School of Business and Technology, Webster University Geneva, Bellevue.
    Pitt, Leyland F.
    Beedie School of Business, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver.
    Seeking funding in order to sell: Crowdfunding as a marketing tool2017Inngår i: Business Horizons, ISSN 0007-6813, E-ISSN 1873-6068, Vol. 60, nr 2, s. 189-195Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Websites such as Indiegogo and Kickstarter have attracted much attention for their ability to enable organizations and individuals to raise funds from ordinary people who contribute for a number of reasons. This phenomenon is called crowdfunding. Crowdfunding permits organizations and individuals to obtain investments they otherwise might not receive from more traditional sources such as banks, angel investors, and stock markets. A number of now well-known startups had their origins in crowdfunding. More recently, established organizations have begun to use crowdfunding websites not only as a source of finance, but also as marketing platforms. In this way, they have been able to ensure a ready market for their new offerings, with full sales pipelines, and to use the platforms as vehicles to boost brand image and gain support for brand-related causes. This adaptation of crowdfunding for marketing purposes is not without its problems, however, and organizations would be well advised to consider not only the opportunities these platforms provide, but also their limitations and risks.

  • 88.
    Brunsson, Nils
    et al.
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    Hallén, Lars
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Hjorth, Daniel
    Copenhagen Business School.
    Hägg, Ingemund
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    Jonnergård, Karin
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Sevón, Guje
    Handelshögskolan i Stockholm.
    Fel att låta lärosäten utvärdera sig själva2015Inngår i: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 89.
    Brunsson, Nils
    et al.
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    Hallén, Lars
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Hjorth, Daniel
    Copenhagen Business School.
    Hägg, Ingemund
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    Jonnergård, Karin
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Sevón, Guje
    Handelshögskolan i Stockholm.
    Utvärderingarnas legitimitet hotas2015Inngår i: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 90.
    Buffington, John
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Comparison of mass customization and generative customization in mass markets2011Inngår i: Industrial management + data systems, ISSN 0263-5577, E-ISSN 1758-5783, Vol. 111, nr 1, s. 41-62Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Mass customization has yet to fulfill its original purpose as established by marketing researchers to become an alternative to mass production, largely due to its inability to achieve mass market levels of efficiency. The purpose of this study is to survey consumer's perceptions, willingness and capabilities of participating in a mass customization system, and understand the implications of its findings related to an alternative production system, generative customization. Design/methodology/approach - After an extensive literature review of mass customization, consumer behavior, complex adaptive systems and generative design, a survey was conducted across US and Swedish consumers relative to their willingness and perceptions regarding mass customization, with hypotheses based upon extant research standards. Findings - The survey results found that consumers are ambivalent toward mass customization in mass markets, and a conceptual alternative (generative customization) appears to achieve, at least conceptually, the necessary objectives relative to product design conceptualization and fulfillment that mass customization cannot achieve. Research limitations/implications - A lack of significant findings from extant research regarding consumer perceptions and tolerances regarding mass customization in mass markets is a limitation to this study. The discussion of a new concept (generative customization) as a viable alternative to mass customization as a result of the survey findings needs to be validated empirically in future research. Originality/value - The paper empirically validates a definition of mass customization as a complementary rather than an alternative to mass production. It also introduces and develops the concept of generative customization as viable alternative to mass production, albeit one that must be empirically validated in future research

  • 91.
    Buffington, John
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Designing 21st century supply chains using complex adaptive system (CAS) strategies2010Inngår i: Distribution Business Management Journal, ISSN 1535-1254, Vol. 9, s. 10-14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 92.
    Buffington, John
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Product design and supply chain fulfillment through a generative customization solution to achieve discontinuous innovation2010Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of discontinuous innovation Is to Disrupt Existing Market Equilibrium and create new combinations of Consumers, Producers, and Markets, But It Is Yet to Be Stood in an Aggregate from product design and supply chain systems. Without an Aggregate System Representation Of The innovation continuum (market equilibrium, incremental and discontinuous innovation) for elements of product design and Supply Chain Fulfillment, IT Will Be more DIFFICULT for companies to Develop an innovation strategy as result. Presently, There Is no structural component for the definition of innovation for an Integrated Product Design and Supply Chain Fulfillment System to Assist in this problem.Through the use of theoretical constructs from Various disciplines and new concepts, a conceptual framework is intro Established That the concept of generative customization As A Solution To The research problems, as noted Above. The author Established an innovative continuum of generative Which customization enable Within a Complex Adaptive System (CAS) environment. In this model, The Role of the consumer and producer are Defined Within a principal-agent relationship, and interact in an emergent, dynamic Manner. Lastly, the product design process occurs through a generative design process Where The Consumer Is Virtually Involved, and a human cognition, generative design, product design process is Established.

  • 93.
    Buffington, John
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Amini, Mehdi
    Department of Marketing and Supply Chain Management, Fogelman College of Business and Economics, University of Memphis.
    Keskinturk, Timur
    Department of Business Administration, Istanbul University.
    Development of a product design and supply-chain fulfillment system for discontinuous innovation2012Inngår i: International Journal of Production Research, ISSN 0020-7543, E-ISSN 1366-588X, Vol. 50, nr 14, s. 3776-3785Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the lengthy product development lifecycle process, high cost, and low success rate, many firms avoid considering discontinuous innovation strategies, in spite of their increase in frequency and importance in many markets. Even with advances in automation and technology, many of the techniques being utilised in product development are relatively unchanged, and the definition of discontinuous innovation itself lacks a structural component. To address this problem, the authors developed a methodology for generative customisation to implement discontinuous innovation. Using the emerging technologies of generative design and agent-based modelling, the authors developed a methodology to create product inventions and measure product innovations using a complex adaptive system (CAS) model. This appears to be the first model that represents a complex adaptive system environment to measure the success of discontinuous innovation in the development of a market equilibrium agent model.

  • 94.
    Buffington, John
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    McCubbrey, Donald
    Department of Information Technology and Electronic Commerce, Daniels College of Business, University of Denver.
    A conceptual framework of generative customization as an approach to product innovation and fulfillment2011Inngår i: European Journal of Innovation Management, ISSN 1460-1060, E-ISSN 1758-7115, Vol. 14, nr 3, s. 388-403Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to address the problem in research of a lack of a holistic conceptual framework related to incremental and discontinuous innovation. Too often, the term "innovation" is used without an understanding of how it can be applied in a product design and supply chain fulfillment system. In this study, the goal is to develop a holistic "innovation continuum" to treat innovation as a complex adaptive system (CAS). Design/methodology/approach: A comprehensive literature review was conducted, and from it, four propositions and a conceptual framework were developed. Findings: The authors determined that an "innovation continuum" can be established through the use of a complex adaptive system. Two, incremental innovation is determined to possess adaptive qualities, and can be enhanced through the use of collaboration and evolutionary algorithms. Three, discontinuous innovation is established as a creative process enabled through expert designers, and improved through the use of generative design. Next, a supply chain system for incremental innovation can be assisted by the use of adaptive systems, but it is not proven that a generative customization system (for discontinuous innovation) can be improved through the use of a CAS. Originality/value: The paper has established an "innovation continuum" linking incremental and discontinuous innovation within one holistic system. It establishes the use of evolutionary algorithms to improve the viability of incremental innovation, and generative design for discontinuous innovation. Finally, the concept of generative customization as an end to end product design and supply chain fulfillment solution for discontinuous innovation is established

  • 95. Bui, Thong
    Antecendents of intention to use mobile music services: a study among Swedish consumers2007Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the antecedents of intentions to use mobile music services among Swedish consumers. Relying on the theory of planned behavior, image congruence theory, and the technology readiness index, the study proposes an integrated research model that explains consumer intentions to use mobile music services. In the model, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, image congruence and technology readiness index are independent variables and behavioral intention is the dependent variable. Seven hypotheses are suggested. Hypotheses 1 to 4 are about the positive relationships among attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, image congruence, and behavioral intention. Hypothesis 5A postulates a positive relationship between technology readiness index and intention. Hypothesis 5B suggests a positive relationship between the technology readiness index and perceived behavioral control. Hypothesis 5C considers the possibility that the effect of the technology readiness index on intention is mediated by perceived behavioral control. A cross-sectional survey is conducted among 334 respondents from a shopping center sample. Bivariate correlations and multiple regressions were used to test the hypotheses. Attitude is found to be the strongest predictor of intention, followed by image congruence, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control. The technology readiness index correlates with perceived behavioral control but not with intention. Thus hypotheses 1 to 4 as well as hypothesis 5B are supported, hypothesis 5A is not supported and hypothesis 5C is not found to be applicable. A second survey with a convenience sample of students at Luleå University of Technology validates the results from the first survey. Since image congruence contributes significantly and independently to the explanation of intentions to use mobile music services, the proposed research model improves the prediction of consumers' intention over the TPB. This implies that, for a service like mobile music, practitioners should consider symbolic and expressive motives in addition to utilitarian benefits.

  • 96. Bui, Thong
    et al.
    Hultman, Magnus
    Factors Influencing the Success of E-Marketplaces2005Inngår i: Proceedings of ISBE: Illuminating Entrepreneurship - the theory and practice of enterprise creation and development, 2005Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper has been to study factors that influence the success of e-marketplaces. Due to the development of internet and information technology, a new business model called electronic marketplace emerged in recent years. Electronic marketplace (e-marketplace) is a website where buyers and sellers can trade and close deals. The popularity of e-marketplaces reached its peak in the year of 2000, when the number of start-up marketplaces was nearly 1,500. However, only seven hundred of them existed in July 2002. This fact made us interested in the question of what factors contribute to the success of e-marketplaces. Design/Methodology/Approach: We used case study method. The selected samplings are PT, an e-marketplace in mobile phone and PO, in print matters. Our data was collected from the companies' documents, websites, and in-depth telephone interviews with the owners and managers.Findings: Two types of industries that may be advantageous for e-marketplace have no connection to the literature; industries that have problems of unethical or unserious players and industries where products become out of date and prices fall very quickly. Some classic business rules of thumb are still applicable in this online context. E.g., PT still emphasized the importance of developing close relationship with members. One e-marketplace involved in sales activities, and it is surprised to learn that this makes up the biggest part of revenue of the company.Implications: First, e-marketplace can promote security and trust to its trading community as a value proposition, especially for those markets with low degree of trust and security. Second, in order to build liquidity, e-marketplaces can focus on customer relationship and implement many measures to develop a tight bond between members. Third, e-marketplaces can also involve selling activities and generate considerable revenues.Originality/Value: There is some previous research about success factors for e-marketplaces, but most of it is applicable for very large e-marketplaces. To our knowledge, there is no research on the issue with small business to business e-marketplaces. Another unique feature of our study is that two investigated e-marketplaces that are selected for our sample are start-ups and based in Sweden, and though very small in terms of employees, but are still able to operate their business on a global scale. The findings have practical contribution to the SME community, especially those involved in e-commerce.

  • 97.
    Buinac, Ena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Lundberg, Jonatan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Instagram as a Marketing Tool: A Case Study about how Companies Communicate their Brands on Social Media2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Social media – over the last decade with the development of technology, this new worldwide phenomenon occurred on the horizon and changed the traditional marketing ways forever. Many companies therefore seek these new platforms in order to come closer to potential customers. One of the most important social media platforms for this is Instagram, where companies can approach their target groups by visual storytelling.

    Start-up companies have often limited marketing budgets, which makes Instagram a perfect marketing channel because it is cost effective. This thesis is a case study of how pictures on Instagram can be used to spread the brand and how different activities affect traffic to the website/webshop.

    This case study is based on a marketing model that has been created and tested on an interior company’s, Tegelbruketdesign, Instagram account. The marketing model is analysed and compared to collected data from semi-structured interviews with two popular private Instagram accounts and a semi-structured interview with a Digital PR & Social Media strategist. The findings suggest that some picture types and styles are better then others regarding the spreading of the brand. The findings also suggest that Instagram activities have a positive affect on the traffic to the company’s website/webshop. 

  • 98.
    Bullvåg, Erlend
    et al.
    Nord University Business School.
    Hersinger, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Johansen, Malin
    Bodö Science Park.
    Middleton, Alexandra
    Oulu University Business School.
    Mineev, Andrei
    Nord University Business School.
    Ovesen, Sissel
    Bodö Science Park.
    Pedersen, Pål
    Nord University.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Simonen, Jaakko
    Oulu University Business School.
    Business Index North: A periodic report with insights to business activity and opportunities in the Arctic2017Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 99.
    Bure, Nils
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Pahne, Axel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Online Behavioral Advertising: A Study of Privacy Concerns and Coping Behavior for Students in Sweden2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    During recent years, the global digital transformation has led to changes in the advertising industry, where advertisers use new strategies to reach customers to advertise their products and services. Online behavioral advertising emerged as a new advertising process, which allowed companies to collect and use online behavior to create tailored personalized advertisements. Online behavioral advertising has led to privacy concerns. The purpose of this study is to examine the viewpoint on online behavioral advertising for students in Sweden. By reviewing previous literature on the subject of online behavioral advertising this study constructed statements that examined the attitude of students in Sweden on privacy concerns, privacy violations, advertising avoidance as well as advertising acceptance. This study examined this by sending out an online questionnaire to a sample of students attending LTU (Luleå University of Technology). By analyzing the empirical findings this study found that students are somewhat indifferent about statements on online behavioral advertising. They are somewhat concerned about their privacy but not as intensely as previous research would suggest. Students at LTU are also indifferent about avoiding these types of advertisements. Concerning advertising acceptance, students at LTU are somewhat indifferent and tilted towards disagreement regardless of how the argument is framed for allowing behavioral tracking.

  • 100.
    Bäckgren, Niclas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Lundbäck, Nils
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Goodwillhantering i praktiken: En statistisk studie om faktorer som påverkar företags goodwillnedskrivning2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    New regulations regarding goodwill accounting for companies that are applying the IAS/IFRS rules were introduced in 2005. Annual linear depreciation was replaced with annual impairment testing. Regulations were introduced to increase comparability and to reduce the unspecified goodwill that has become an essential part of the corporate asset base. The new regulations have been intensively debated. Critics argue that they are too subjective and may instead lead to that companies use the regulations to avoid goodwill impairments. This study aims to identify factors that influence companies' goodwill impairments, which have been identified from stakeholder theory and positive accounting theory. A theoretical model that includes factors assumed to affect companies' goodwill impairment has been developed and empirically tested.

    This study was performed on all companies on the Nasdaq OMX Nordic Stockholm and the Swedish government's portfolio of companies and is expected to provide a general result of companies that apply IFRS. The hypotheses were tested using regression analysis with the statistical program SPSS IBM in order to examine possible connections between independent variables and the amount of goodwill impairment.

    This study confirmed that the debt ratio, ownership structure, share of goodwill, goodwill intensity and firm size have influence on a company´s goodwill impairment. The result further suggested that management is acting opportunistically when factors other than the IAS/ IFRS standards are used for the calculation of corporate goodwill impairment. The overall conclusion of this study is that the stakeholders' requirements and expectations have a strong influence on the management of the valuation of assets. Therefore, our conclusion is that there are reasons to review the regulations and for stakeholder to critically examine corporate goodwill that may be overvalued.

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