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  • 51.
    Nakano, Masashi
    et al.
    Agriculture and Life Science, University of Tokyo, Japan .
    Yong, Raymond N.
    Geoenvironmental Engineering, Canada .
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mathematical Method Re-examined for Assessment of Ground Contaminated by Radioactive-Contaminated Groundwater2019Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 227-235Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we re-examined the transfer equation of radioactive substances in the ground and offer a more realistic transfer equation and other equations available for assessment of the ground contamination from radioactive-contaminated groundwater. The transfer equation takes into account kinematic and hydrodynamic considerations on mass conservation of mobile radioactive substances in a porous medium that typifies the ground. The other equations available for contamination assessment are concerned with deposition in contaminated areas and discharge flow of contaminants to the areas contiguous to contaminated area. The equations are derived on the understanding that disintegration of the radioactive substances adhering onto solids in the ground porous medium occurs as a sink term during the transfer of mobile radioactive substances. Finally, it is noted that the discharge of groundwater due to advective flow will be predominant in comparison to the discharge by diffusion

  • 52.
    Petropoulos, Nikolaos
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Johansson, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Nordlund, Erling
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Crushed aggregate response upon impact in dry and wet conditions2017Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 1-22Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents results from a series of impact tests upon coarse-grained crushed aggregate. The material has been evaluated for two conditions, i.e. dry and wet (pendular state). Three main sets of test configurations were used with respect to compactive effort (low, medium and high) which was defined by the impact velocity of a drop hammer. Three accelerometers were installed in an impact machine to measure deceleration of the drop hammer and accelerations in the tested material at three different locations. The studied parameters were density, compaction, angle of repose, critical angle and particle size distribution. The results showed that the wet material gives larger density as well as critical angle. However, there was no discernible change in particle size distribution.

  • 53.
    Popov, Viktor
    et al.
    Ascend Technologies, ac, UK.
    Adey, Robert
    Computational Mechanics Centre, Southampton, UK.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Kasbohm, Jörn
    Greifswald University, Germany.
    Disposal of Radioactive Waste in Abandoned Mines2019Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 1-38Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Countries using nuclear energy tend to favour disposal of Low-Level and Intermediate-Level radioactive waste in mined repositories consisting of series of tunnels or drifts connected to disposal tunnels at a few hundred meters depth. Abandoned mines can serve as repositories for such waste and the present study indicates that this would be possible also for High-Level Waste in the form of spent reactor fuel. The technique implies encapsulation of such waste in metal canisters surrounded by densely compacted smectite clay in relatively shallow mined repositories as well as in very deep bored holes. Intermediate-Level radioactive waste can be disposed of in caverns in the form of packages of metal containers cast in low-pH concrete and embedded in dense smectitic clay.

  • 54.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Microstructure controls physical properties of smectite clay2019Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 63-98Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental protection by isolation of radionuclides escaped from High-Level Radioactive Waste stored underground in crystalline rock can be achieved by surrounding the metal canisters by smectite clay, which provides hindrance of radionuclides to migrate into the surroundings, and ductile embedment of them for absorbing seismic and tectonic displacements in the host rock. The waste-isolating capacity of the expansive clay is explained by its high hydrophilic capacity and large specific surface area giving low porosity and limited interconnectivity of the voids, which both makes such clay low-permeable and gives it a very low through-diffusion rate of anionic species like iodine, and of some cationic radionuclides. The expandability of such clay means that it can swell and undergo self-healing in case of microstructural contraction caused by heating. The mechanisms involved in permeation and ion exchange are described based on conceptual microstructural models and their theoretical analogies. Stress/strain phenomena involved in saturation with fluids, desiccation, shearing under deviatoric conditions, and creep strain under stable conditions or at failure are described as well. Longevity matters, which have been richly treated in the literature, is given limited space. 

  • 55.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Principles of locating, designing and constructing landfills of hazardous waste2013Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 215-221Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Location, design and construction of a landfill of hazardous waste are in focus. The selected site must be physically stable, and an elevated area with good run-off conditions of precipitated water and tight underground is preferable. The detailed design must adaptate to what legislation requires and be decided on the basis of the required operational lifetime. Several concepts have been proposed and two major principles are compared: 1) location above ground on a drained base with a tight top liner and a less tight bottom liner, and 2) placement below ground with clay liners surrounding the entire waste mass. In either case collection of percolated water can be arranged but maintenance over several hundred years cannot be guaranteed. A design that totally eliminates percolation of the waste is ideal but a number of functions of such concepts need to be considered.

  • 56.
    Pusch, Roland
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hedin, Gunnar
    Westinghouse Electric.
    Grahn, Per H.
    SKB International AB.
    Principles of designing hazardous landfills: the Lithuanian LLW case2013Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 147-162Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A candidate concept for a Lithuanian repository for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) implies location above the groundwater level and placement of the waste in concrete vaults surrounded by smectitic clay of appreciable thickness as all-around embedment for retarding wetting and minimizing exposure of the waste packages to oxygen. For rational and cost-saving reasons the clay material is not processed, only stockpiled for desiccation to a suitable water content before placement and compaction. The clay is laterally confined by sandy fill and covered by erosion-resisting soil. The vaults rest on stable, elevated ground for minimizing subsidence and maintaining dry conditions. The time for water saturation of the clay is more than the required 300-500 years of isolation of the waste, which keeps the waste packages dry in this period. The paper describes the principles of design of the repository and its predicted performance of which creep strain of the clay is of particular importance.

  • 57.
    Pusch, Roland
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Kasbohm, Jörn
    Greifswald University, Greifswald, Germany.
    Hoang-Minh, Thao
    VNU University of Science, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, Vietnam .
    Degradation Mechanisms in Smectitic Clay for Isolating Radioactive Waste2019Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 115-130Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the proposed techniques for chemical shielding of radioactive waste implies use of smectite clay, which degrades according to a well-known scheme. Since such “buffer” clay has to serve for many thousands of years, the mechanisms in the unavoidable long-term degradation process must be understood and accounted for as described in the paper. In addition to conversion of smectite to non-expandable minerals cementation by precipitation of siliceous matter created in the degradation process is of concern since it can reduce the self-sealing capacity of desiccated or mechanically damaged clay.

  • 58.
    Pusch, Roland
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Kasbohm, Jörn
    Greifswald University, Germany.
    Hoang-Minh, Thao
    Greifswald University, Germany.
    Nguyen-Thanh, Lan
    Technical University of Darmstadt, Germany.
    Mechanisms Involved in Maturation of Clay Seals in Boreholes for Storing Spent Reactor Fuel2019Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 197-226Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Smectite clay, especially montmorillonite, is proposed for isolating canisters containing highly radioactive waste (HLW) like spent reactor fuel placed in deep boreholes. It is used for minimizing groundwater flow around and along waste packages (“Buffer Clay”) and for providing them with ductile embedment for eliminating risk of canister damage caused by displacements in the host rock. The clay has the form of heavily compacted blocks of granules that swell in conjunction with water uptake until their full hydration potential has been utilized. The dense clay blocks are fitted in perforated supercontainers that are submerged in smectite mud. The long-term chemical stability of the clay is sufficient for providing the required waste-isolating capacity, which is primarily supplied by the heavyness of stagnant, very salt groundwater at depth.

  • 59.
    Pusch, Roland
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Kasbohm, Jörn
    Greifswald University, Germany .
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hoang-Minh, Thao
    Greifswald University, Germany .
    Nguyen-Thanh, Lan
    Technical University of Darmstadt, Germany.
    Disposal of Low- and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Waste2019Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 237-272Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As for isolation of high-level radioactive waste by use of smectite clay it serves very well also for hindering radionuclides from low- and intermediate-level waste to contaminate groundwater. It can be used for minimizing groundwater flow through and along waste packages and for providing them with ductile embedment for eliminating the risk of damage caused by displacements in host rock or concrete vaults. The clay can have the form of liners placed and compacted on site over vaults constructed on the ground surface, or consist of compacted blocks of clay granules that are tightly placed around waste packages in underground drifts and rooms. In either case the initially incompletely water saturated clay will swell in conjunction with water uptake until tight contact with the confining medium has been established. The clay seals must be sufficiently dense to fulfill criteria set with respect to hydraulic conductivity and swelling capacity, paying due attention to the salt content in the porewater. Their physical and chemical stabilities must be acceptable in short- and long-term perspectives, which is a few hundred years for most low-level wastes up to tens of thousands of years for long-lived waste. 

  • 60.
    Pusch, Roland
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The impact of hydraulic gradients and boundary conditions on the microstructural stability of clayey backfills with special respect to the risk of piping and erosion2012Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 89-112Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Disposal of hazardous waste like high-level radioactive waste (HLW) is made by confining it in canisters surrounded by dense, ductile “buffer” clay for placement in deposition holes at a few hundred meters depth in crystalline rock. The concept favoured by authorities in Sweden, Finland and Canada implies that the holes are bored from blasted or bored tunnels to be tightly backfilled by stacking compacted blocks of clay in the center and filling the remaining space between the blocks and the rock with blown-in clay pellets. The problem with this is that water flowing in from the rock can cause piping and erosion of the pellet filling, which can turn it into mud and disturb the placement of canisters and buffer clay. The controlling parameter is the rate of inflow of water per inflow point, which is determined by the structure and hydraulic conductivity of the rock. The paper describes a simple model of the mechanisms in penetration of water into the pellet fill and provides a basis for estimating the required rate of backfilling for avoiding critical conditions. The study indicates that such conditions will be caused irrespective of the rate of water inflow per point if the backfilling rate is low.

  • 61.
    Pusch, Roland
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hatem, Mohammed
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Isolation of hazardous waste in crystalline rock2012Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 57-75Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Radioactive waste from the nuclear industry and hazardous products from chemical industries need to be effectively isolated from the biosphere for a very long time. Highly radioactive waste gives off heat and requires disposal at depth in special repositories while low-level radioactive waste, pesticides and mercury and arsenic, can be stored in deep mines. The multiple barrier principle implies that the rock and engineered barriers combine to provide isolation but assessment of the constitution and performance of crystalline rock reduces its role to provide “mechanical support” to waste containers rather than true isolation of them. Smectitic clay is required for achieving this but its isolating capacity is limited over time, and long-lasting waste containers are needed as well. The waste isolation effect of clay and containers can allow for constructing repositories in rock of rather poor quality, represented by abandoned mines, and waste containers of 100 % copper further reduce the need for very well planned and constructed repositories.

  • 62.
    Pusch, Roland
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Xiaodong, Liu
    East China Institute of Technology, Fuzhou, Jiangxi.
    Yang, Ting
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Creep can strengthen clay: a matter of long-term slope stability2016Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 1-18Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The matter of long-term stability of long, natural slopes in illitic clay is of great practical importance in Scandinavia and Canada and has been frequently discussed among geotechnical specialists. A remaining question is how such natural slopes can have remained stable, yet undergoing large strain, for hundreds and thousands of years, during which critical conditions have repeatedly occurred with calculated safety factors lower than or equal to unity according to common stability calculations based on plastic theory. The reason for this may be the role of creep shear strain that causes redistribution of stress and earth pressure leading to a state of equilibrium that is very sensitive to disturbance and represents a condition of near-failure. Triggering of occasional slides can be explained by temporary high porewater pressure caused by periods of intense rain, disturbance by pile driving, or loading by road construction etc, taken place in slopes that have been stable for very long periods of time. The mechanisms by which creep can lead to stable conditions of very old clay slopes can have the form of successive relative particle movements into a state where the interparticle bonds become stronger but of brittle character, according to a model based on stochastical mechanics.

  • 63.
    Pusch, Roland
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Malmborg, Bo
    SWECO, Malmö.
    Strandljung, Kenneth
    Rang-Sells AB.
    Construction of very tight clay liners: the Högbytorp case2013Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 69-80Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A large landfill for incinerated organic waste is under construction at Ragn-Sell’s waste handling and deposition plant Högbytorp, northwest of Stockholm. Here, older stabilized ash forms the base of additional waste to be filled over it. The two will be separated by a clay liner for delaying and minimizing inflow and percolation of the older waste fill. The design principle and construction of the liner are described in the paper. The clay liner is made of expanding clay with relatively high water content and a large span of particle size. The construction technique was originally planned for the forthcoming “near-surface” repository for low-level radioactive waste in Lithuania with the aim of providing very good tightness of liners at low cost.

  • 64.
    Pusch, Roland
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mohammed, Mohammed H.
    Department of Civil Engineering University of Mosul.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ramqvist, Gunnar
    Eltekno AB, Oscarshamn, Sweden.
    Liw, Lars
    Lars Liw Company.
    Fracking - Prevention of leakage of oil and gas from abandoned holes in consolidated rock2016Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 19-27Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fracking of deep shales is used in the US for making otherwise unavailable gas and oil in dense rock exploitable but can cause problems by leakage to the ground surface or shallow aquifers of such matter and of water contaminated by chemicals used for release of the precious substances. The issue is primarily boring disturbance causing a high-permeable annulus around boreholes that interacts hydrologically with natural fracture zones, and secondarily, malfunctioning concrete liners. A novel approach for new holes is to eliminate leakage by constructing long-lasting linings, and chemically stable concrete plugs where permeable fracture zones are intersected. The vertical parts of abandoned holes can be sealed by construction of concrete plugs where such zones are intersected and by installing clay seals in between. For holes to be abandoned, long-term sealing is provided by installing very dense smectitic clay plugs that are chemically compatible with the concrete.

  • 65.
    Pusch, Roland
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Nakano, Masashi
    Yong, R.N.
    Yang, Ting
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Long-term function of on-ground repositories for hazardous waste: Mechanisms in cyclicdrying/wetting of top clay liners2017Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 45-62Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfills of hazardous waste like radioactive rest products with low activity, or ashes from incinerated organic waste, need to have top clay liners for minimizing penetration and percolation of precipitated rain and meltwater. Temperature and dry weather vary interchangeably with wet periods making the clay desiccate and fissure, and subsequently wetted etc. Top liners are commonly made of smectite clay, which is the best isolating soil material, undergoing swelling and shrinkage to an extent that depends on the clay content and density. The most important question is whether such liners, in unfrozen condition and covered by erosionresisting coarse soil, maintain their coherence and tightness after centuries of hydration/dehydration cycles. The present study, made on physically confined soft Iraqi clay with about 30% smectite indicates that initially homogeneous dense clay shrinks and desiccates and becomes fissured at 30oC and room RH, but partly recovers by becoming water saturated by infiltrated water. A limited number of drying and wetting sequences seem to give approximately the same change, suggesting that, under common weather conditions and lack of external disturbance, such liners retain a considerable part of their initial water tightness. Thick liners with moderately to high density and exposed to loading by overlying coarse fill are expected to serve particularly well.

  • 66.
    Pusch, Roland
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Popov, Viktor
    Ascend Technologies Ltd, Southampton, UK.
    Micro- and macroscopic ion diffusion controlled by clay micro-structure2019Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 99-114Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Very dense smectite clay surrounding canisters with high-level radioactive waste effectively stops migration of radionuclides due to flowing porewater, however, does not stop their movement by diffusion. The paper explains how the diffusion rate of released waste ions depends on the microstructural constitution referring to the mechanisms in diffusive transport and the sorption by the clay matrix of varying density. In general, diffusion refers to the transport of elements by action of random motions and works to eliminate distinct discontinuities in concentration. For smectite clay this process is complex since interlamellar diffusion is a 2-dimensional process on the microscale and takes place in diffuse electrical double-layers on the basal planes of the clay crystallites. This is in contrast with pore diffusion which is a 3-dimensional process. By making use of microstructural parameters one can distinguish the different contributions to bulk diffusion migration and create a basis for theoretical modelling of diffusive ion migration.  

  • 67.
    Pusch, Roland
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Popov, Viktor
    Ascend Technologies Ltd, Southampton, UK.
    Adey, Robert
    C M BEASY Ltd, UK.
    Kasbohm, Jörn
    University of Greifswald.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Rational and Economic Disposal of Hazardous Waste: Use of Abandoned Mines2014Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 33-54Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep geological disposal of dangerous waste like mercury, solidified organic pesticides and radioactive rest products, requires suitable engineered barriers. Use of deep abandoned mines is a rational and economic alternative to construction of a repository in virgin rock but requires knowledge of the structural constitution of the rock for assessment of groundwater flow and rock mechanical conditions. Such information is much more detailed through the activities of mining companies than from exploration of virgin rock. Organizations responsible for disposal of radioactive waste in crystalline rock count on the host rock as a barrier to migration of released radionuclides to the biosphere but present investigations reduce its role to provide mechanical support of the waste packages while effective hindrance of migration of contaminants can be offered by engineered barriers, i.e. waste containers and clay embedding them. For certain waste in granular form, like Hg batteries, mixing with expandable clay and layerwise placement and compaction is deemed possible as described in the paper. The primary role of the clay is to make the clay-mixed waste very tight and ductile. By constructing liners of highly compacted clay blocks along the periphery of the disposal rooms the rock is given sufficient support and effective isolation of the waste. If the liners have a thickness of 0.5-1 m and placed in dry form the time for complete water saturation of the clay/waste mixture can be several thousands of years. Not until then migration of hazardous waste elements to the rock can start.A major role in the hydrological performance of the host rock is that of the excavation-disturbed zone (EDZ). It short-circuits the natural system of flow paths and causes quick transport of released contaminants to downstream wells

  • 68.
    Pusch, Roland
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ramqvist, Gunnar
    D ElTekno AB.
    Kasbohm, Jörn
    GeoENcon Ltd.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hatem, Mohammed
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The concept of highly radioactive waste (HLW) disposal in very deep boreholes in a new perspective2012Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 1-24Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two basically different concepts for disposal of highly radioactive waste are the often cited KBS-3 method and a concept termed VDH (Very Deep Boreholes). So far, the deep hole concept has been ranked as number two because the canisters are not assumed to be retrievable and because some of the techniques for installation of the waste are not yet at hand. Reconsideration of the design and function of VDH shows that, in addition to the advantage of no transport of released radionuclides by groundwater flow up to the ground level because of the almost stagnant salt groundwater at depth, the rock at depth is considerably less permeable than for mined repositories at shallow depth. A further advantage is that VDH will be less affected by future glaciations. Less good is that precise adaption of canister and seal positions to the rock structure cannot be made until boring of the deep holes is complete. Furthermore, the deep holes need to be supported by casings and all work deeper than 500 m must be made with mud in them. Retrieval of damaged casings and stuck canisters may be more difficult than in mined repositories.

  • 69.
    Pusch, Roland
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Thao, Hoang/Minh
    VNU University of Science , Vietnam.
    Yang, Ting
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pilot study of the performance of organic and clay-based sun creames2016Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 319-329Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sun protection creams based on smectite(S) and mixed-layer (IS) clays in glycerol emulsions were compared to commercial organic creams with respect to UV penetration. For very thin cream films the organic creams were superior while for thicker films the clay creams gave lower UV penetration. The investigated I/S mixed-layer clay gave more effective protection than Fe-poor S-clays because of better particle alignment and thicker particles. The content of iron compounds was found to be of greatest importance as demonstrated by tests with different amounts of Fe2O3.

  • 70.
    Pusch, Roland
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Weston, Richard
    Division of Production and Mechanical Engineering, University of Lund.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Impact of scale on rock strength2016Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The scale dependence of the strength of virtually homogeneous rock is caused by the spectrum of discontinuities of different size and nature. This makes small samples significantly stronger and less deformable than larger ones. The strength reduction for larger volumes is defined and found to apply to rock volumes 500 times larger than standard samples tested in the laboratory. Recording of the creep strain in large-scale load tests show the strain rate to be strongly retarded and negligible for stresses lower than about 1/3 of the failure load. For higher stresses creep took place according to a log time law representing secondary creep that ultimately changed to tertiary creep and failure.

  • 71.
    Pusch, Roland
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Weston, Richard
    University of Lund.
    Yang, Ting
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Creep Processes Involved in the Maturation of Clay-isolated Highly Radioactive Waste in Very Deep Holes2017Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 7, nr 4, s. 17-25Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The basic idea of concepts for disposal of highly radioactive waste deep in rock is that the heavy, saline, stagnant formational waters are unlikely to rise to contaminate shallow groundwater. A recent concept involves placement of the waste in the lower 2 km part of up to 4 km deep holes bored in granitic rock, and relies on the sealing capacity of engineered barriers in the form of concrete and clay in the upper parts of the holes. The parts located in fracture-poor rock are sealed with dense expandable clay, while concrete is cast where pre-grouted fracture zones are intersected. The holes will converge by creep and eventually exert the seals to radial compression. Using a new rheological model based on the Kelvin model in combination with a stochastic mechanical model, the predicted radial hole convergence causes a vanishingly small increase in pressure on the seals in the first 10,000 years. In a long time perspective they will be compressed and become less permeable. Parallel conversion of the clay minerals to become less expandable will, however, reduce this potential.

  • 72.
    Rodriguez, Juan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Bhanbhro, Riaz
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Edeskär, Tommy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Effect of vertical load on tailings particles2016Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 115-129Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Tailing dams could store hundreds, thousands or millions of cubic meters of tailings result of the mining extractive industry. Mechanical behavior of this man-made soil should be known in order to maintain a safe storage. Dykes rise up to form the dams and they are buildup with the same tailing material especially in the upstream method using the coarse part. The study uses oedometer classical test to determine the load effect over tailing coarse particles. Tailings are site specific and so its characteristics. It is necessary to understand the tailings degradations to achieve safe impounds. The study comprises four samples of one range-size tailing particles (e.g. 1-0.5, 0.5-0.25, 0.25-0.125, 0.125-0.063mm) subject to vertical load in traditional oedometers. Vertical load effects are measured using two dimensional image analysis and sieving. Results show that 0.063mm sample is the only one that has change in shape with low breakage (<1%) while the rest of the sizes have no shape change but high breakage is present especially in fraction 0.5mm. Settlements also are more pronounced in coarse fractions 0.5 and 0.25mm.

  • 73.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Erbil, Iraq.
    Abdul Ahad, Ayda
    Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Geomorphology, Geology and Tectonics of Jabal Sanam, Southern Iraq2017Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 97-113Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Jabal Sanam is an outstanding geomorphological feature in south of Iraq located50 Km southwest of Basrah city; along the border with Kuwait. It stands high in a vast flat plain with elevation of 140. 61 m (a.s.l.). The relief difference between  the highest point; on top of Jabal Sanam and the surrounding flat plain ranges  from (108 –127) m. The E – W and N- S diameters of Jabal Sanam are 355.97 m and 489.45 m, respectively, whereas, the E – W and N – S diameters of the surrounding first circular rim are 1524.11 m and1857.90 m, respectively. The exposed rocks in the surroundings belong to the Dibdibba Formation (Pliocene – Pleistocene); show clear Hogback and Cuesta forms. The rocks of the Nfayil Formation (Middle Miocene) are exposed in the near surroundings of the intruded body; they are crushed, deformed and faulted. All the exposed rocks along the  rims show clear dipping towards the outer rim forming dome like structure. Beds of gypsum and black dolomite are also exposed in the central part of the dome, most probably intruded from deep lying beds. Other crushed rocks; some of them are igneous are also present, especially in the  central  part of the intruded body. The estimated age of those crushed rocks is Infra-Cambrian, as indicated from pollen and spores found in coal seams within the exposed sequence.The presence circular rims surrounding Jabal Sanam may indicate multi rising processes of the exposed sequence of the intruded body. All the previous works confirm the origin to be a salt plug; using gravity data. However, the current study hasused evidences of Neotectonic activity to support the salt plug assumption too.

  • 74. Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Abduljabbar, Mawaheb
    Iraq Geological Survey.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The Origin and Evolution of Wadi Al-Ajeej, Al-Jazira Vicinity, NW Iraq2015Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 69-83Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Al-Jazira Plain is located in the northwest part of Iraq. It forms the southern slopes of Sinjar Mountain. Among the dens drainage system in Sijar Mountain, Wadi Al-Ajeej is one of the main valleys; running almost in NE – SW trend, besides Wadi Al-Thar'thar, which runs in NW – SE trend. Both valleys flow from the southern flank of themountain. Although the main trend of Wadi Al-Ajeej is NE – SW, but west of longitude 41ᴼ 40' N, the branches have NNW – SSE trend, some of them flow inside Iraqi territory from Syria. Historical books and geological evidences confirm that Wadi Al-Ajeej, which is the continuation of JaghJagh River in Syria was flowing much far from its nowadays course, starting almost from extreme northeastern parts of Syria; crossing Sinjar Mountain within the nowadays Syrian territory, and then running southeast to merge in the Euphrates River. The old crossing site (water gap) along Sinjar anticline is slightly towards west of the Iraqi – Syrian border. Even now, it forms a low land where it is occupied as unpaved truck to cross the mountain; inside Syria. The estimated age of abandoning Wadi Al-Ajeej to its original course is most probably during the Late Pleistocene.

  • 75. Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Ahad, Ayda Abdul
    Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hassan, Rebwar
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The Regional Geology of Dokan Area, NE Iraq2016Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 35-63Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The northern and northeastern part of Iraq, which includes the Iraqi Kurdistan Region, is characterized by mountainous area with very rugged relief. The difference in relief may reach up to 1000 m and locally more when the height reaches up to 3600 m (a.s.l.). The mountains usually represent anticlines, whereas the depressions are represented by synclines. The Lower Cretaceous rocks usually form the carapace of the mountains, whereas the soft clastics of Upper Cretaceous and Paleocene form the synclines. However, some exceptions occur when the area is affected structurally by main faults. The main trend of the anticlines in the study area is NW – SE, which are dissected by either NE – SW normal faults or by reverse and/ or thrust faults oriented in NW – SE trend; however, some exceptions occur too. The Dokan area is characterized by a large depression in which the Lesser Zab River was flowing; before construction of Dokan dam (1954 – 1959). The depression is a big one with surface area of about 260 Km2. The height at the surface of the reservoir when filled to normal operational level is 511 m (a.s.l.); however, the depression is surrounded; almost from all sides by high mountains that range from (800 – 1300) m (a.s.l.).he depression is believed to be structurally controlled, a normal fault with NE – SW trend had dissected the southwestern limb of Ranya anticline, the eastern block being the down thrown one that had formed the depression, besides the exposure of soft rocks of Sarmord, Chis Gara, Barsarin and Naokelekan formations that form the core of Ranya anticline. The regional geology of Dokan area including structure and tectonics, stratigraphy and geomorphology is discussed aiming to explain the development of the large and wide depression in a mountainous area.

  • 76.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Ahad, Ayda Abdul
    Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Geology of the Archeological Hills and Monuments: Examples from Iraq2016Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 1-28Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is the cradle of many civilizations; therefore, it is very rich in archeological sites, which are represented in different forms; among them are the archeological hills and monuments. Hundreds of archeological hills and monuments are located in different parts of Iraq, but the majority of the hills are located in the Mesopotamia and Low Mountainous Province; with less abundant in the Jazira Province. The isolated archeological hills are of two different forms: Either are in form of dumping soil to a certain height to build the hill, or has gained their heights due to the presence of multi stories of civilizations. In both cases, the geological setting has played a big role in the formation of the isolated archeological hills. The archeological isolated hills, which are built by soil dumping are usually of conical shape; flat topped and limited sizes; with heights not more than 10 m and base diameter of (20 – 100) m. They can be seen from far distances that attain to few kilometers. Since they are usually built in flat areas and are believed to be used as watching towers. However, those which are present in the Mesopotamia Province are smaller in size; not more than (3 – 5) m in height and about 10 m in base diameter; also with conical shape, they are called as "Ishan". The isolated archeological sites, which are built by multi stories, are either in form of citadels (castles) like Arbeel and Kirkuk castles, or built as a certain form and used for religious purposes; called "Zaqoorah", like Aqarqoof and Ur Zaqooras. Tens of monuments were discovered in different parts of Iraq witnessing different civilizations. Some of the monuments are built and/ or sculptured from rocks. Usually, the nearby exposed rocks were used; however, locally rocks were transported from few tens of kilometers. The most common used rocks are gypsum and limestone; however, very rarely basalt was used too. In certain locations, the geology of the quarried rocks is given too.

  • 77.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Erbil, Iraq.
    Ahad, Ayda Abdul
    Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Geology of Wadi Hauran, the Largest Valley in Iraqi Western Desert2017Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 103-132Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Wadi (valley) Hauran is the largest valley not only in the Iraqi Western Desert but the whole Iraqi Territory. The length of the valley inside Iraq is about 420 Km, whereas the drainage basin area inside Iraq is 16550 Km2. The valley exhibits different forms along its course; like shallow and wide, deep and wide, and canyon. The valley starts from the Iraqi – Saudi Arabian international borders and even inside Saudi Arabia and runs generally northeast wards; with slight changes in its main course trend, exhibiting many right angle meanders. The oldest exposed rocks along the course and banks of wadi Hauran belong to the Upper Triassic Zor Hauran Formation, whereas the youngest exposed rocks belong to the Middle Miocene Nfayil Formation. Different Quaternary sediments occur in the valleys course and banks. The main structural elements along the course of wadi Hauran are a set of NW – SE trending faults, beside extensive jointing of the rocks, especially in the left bank northwest of Rutbah town. Different geomorphological units and forms are developed along the course of the valley and on its banks. From economical point of view, enormous amounts of sand and gravel are developed as valley fill sediments. Limestone for cement industry and many other metallurgical industries with huge geological reserves is available in different formations, like Ratga and Euphrates. Pure silica for glass and crystal industry is available in Rutbah Formation. Bauxite and sedimentary iron are available in Hussainiyat Formation. Clays for different industrial uses are available in different formations; like Ubaid, Hussainiyat, Muhaiwir, Hartha, Tayarat and Akashat formations. The different forms of wadi Hauran along its course with different exposed rocks and developed different slopes along its banks have developed different mass wasting phenomena in different parts. Among the most common forms are: Toppling, rock fall, slumping, creep and very rare sliding.

  • 78. Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Ahad, Ayda Abdul
    Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Origin of a Circular Morphological Form in Lolan Valley, Khwakoork Area, North Iraq2016Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 121-132Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The northern and north-eastern parts of Iraq are mountainous area with very rugged topography that includes high and steep cliffs, deep valleys; locally canyon shape, and rare wide and flat plains. The main exposed rocks over all the area are the carbonates, especially limestone and dolostone of different varieties. Tens of geological formations consist of very think limestones and/ or dolostone.This article deals with the origin of a circular form developed in one of the main valleys called Lolan Valley in Khwakurk area, northern part of Iraq. Different geomorphological, lithological, structural and stratigraphical indications are used to conclude the origin of the circular form, which is confirmed to be a sinkhole due to karstification of thick carbonate rocks.The outer diameter of the circular form is 386 m; the width of the valley ranges from (35 – 150) m, the length of the circular form is 1045 m, which means the length to valley width ration is 20.9 times, the ratio of the radius to the width is 4 times. These two ratios are other indications that the meander of Lolan valley is not a normal meander, but a meander formed due to the collapse of existed sinkhole alongside the valley.

  • 79. Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Ahad, Ayda Abdul
    Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Tourism in North and Northeastern Parts of Iraq2016Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 90-107Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism Geology in Iraq is not common yet, although many sites do exist inthe northern and northeastern parts of Iraq, which are mountainous areas attaining 3600 m (a.s.l.) providing spectacular scenes. Majority of those sites are used by the local people and those coming from other parts of Iraq, all of them are linked by paved roads with a lot of facilities of relevant accommodation. However, all of those sites are abandoned in winter season due to very cold and rainy season; occasionally are covered by snow. Majority of those sites include fresh drinkable water; usually supplied from springs that yield enormous amount of water; some of them are controlled by structural elements and karst morphology. The exposed rocks in those sites are mainly of sedimentary dominated by carbonate rocks and very rarely some igneous and metamorphic rocks occur too.

  • 80.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Ahad, Ayda D. Abdul
    Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Drainage Indications on the Growth of Anah Anticline, West of Iraq2016Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 29-46Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Anah anticline is a conspicuous structural and geomorphological feature in the central western part of Iraq, which is a flat plain dissected by dense drainage net, some of the valleys cross the anticline; whereas others run on both sides, the axis not being the water divide. The anticline trends almost E – W with length of about 90 km, the northern limb is steep, whereas the southern lomb is very gentle; giving monoclinal shape to the anticline. The oldest exposed rocks in the core of the anticline belong to the Baba Formation of Middle Oligocene age, whereas the carapace is built of the Euphrates Formation of Early Miocene age and partly by the Anah Formation of Late Oligocene age, all formations consist mainly of limestone, those of the Anah Formation are very hard to extremely hard, splintery; locally silicified and karstified.Anah anticline forms the extreme western part of the contact between the Inner and Outer Platforms of the Arabian Plate. Towards the north is the Jazira Zone, whereas towards the south is the Western Desert Zone. The continuation of the contact; towards southeast is the active Abu Jir – Euphrates Fault Zone. Anah anticline was originally a subsurface graben, which was inverted to anticline during Late Cretaceous – Paleocene, as many others towards north of the anticline; within the Jazira Zone. Many valleys cross the anticline in S – N trend; the largest one is Chab'bab valley, which exhibits canyon form in some parts with sharp knick point. Many other valleys exhibit knick points too along their courses; through crossing the anticline. The height of the knick points ranges from (3 – 8) m, all are located along one lineament, which is almost parallel to the axis of the anticline. The knick points along the courses of the valleys and the crossing of the anticline by many valleys; forming wind gaps are clear indications for the lateral and vertical growths of the anticline.

  • 81.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Issa, Issa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    LTU team.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mystery of Mosul Dam the most Dangerous Dam in the World: General Geology2015Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 1-13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul Dam project is the most important water resources project in Iraq. It is located on the River Tigris in northwestern part of Iraq, about 60 km north of Mosul city. This project is multipurpose project; to provide water for three irrigation projects in the north of Iraq and many other projects in the middle and south of the country, flood control and hydropower generation. Its storage capacity is 11.11 km3. The oldest exposed rocks in the reservoir area belong to the Pila Spi Formation of Late Eocene age, while at the dam site; the oldest exposed rocks belong to the Fatha Formation (ex-Lower Fars) of Middle Miocene age. The topography of the Mosul Dam and reservoir area is characterized by hilly terrain that rise to low mountainous area; representing physiographically Low Mountainous Province. Tectonically, Mosul Dam site and reservoir area are located within the Cham – Chamal Subzone of the Low Folded Zone of the Outer Platform of the Arabian Plate. The project is located far from Zagros Active Seismic Zone, but still many earthquakes were recorded in areas surrounding the project area.

  • 82.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Karst Forms in Iraq2015Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 1-26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is one of the countries where karst forms are densely formed in different forms, sizes and shapes. Each physiographic province has its own form(s), except the Mesopotamia Plain, which is covered by Quaternary sediments; mainly of river flood plain sediments and their enclosures. Moreover, the extreme northeastern parts, which are covered by igneous and metamorphic rocks, are also free from karst forms.Karst forms developed in limestone beds are quite different from those developed in gypsum beds, the formers are more extensive, larger in size and depth and diverse in types than the latter. The main types are sinkholes and collapses, less abundant are caves. Each of these forms has a name indicating a geographical location or explaining the form. Among them are: Nuqrat Al-Salman; in the Southern Desert, Um Chaimin; in the Western Desert, and Shanidar in the northern part of Iraq.

  • 83.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Origin of Different Types of Isolated Hills, Examples from Iraq2015Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. 1-28Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Al-JaziraIraqi is located almost in the central part of the Middle East with diverse topography and different exposed sedimentary rocks covering an area of about 443 000 Km2. These diverse topography, lithology and tectonic activities have contributed in development of many types of natural isolated hills of different sizes and shapes; however, anthropogenic (artificial) hills of different shapes and sizes are developed too in different parts of the country. The main reason for development of the isolated hills is the differential weathering and erosion acting on the flat lying beds in the Western and Southern Deserts, as well in the Jazira Plain, which is located in the central western part of the country, besides some diagenetic processes. Anthropogenic hills are located in the Mesopotamia Plain witnessing different civilizations and in the northern central part; witnessing the Assyrian civilization and many others. The natural isolated hills are formed in forms of buttes, mesas and small plateaus, called "Tal, Tel, Marqab, Gara, whereas the anthropogenic hills have mainly flat lying pyramid shape with circular base; of different sizes, called either "Zaqoora" or "Ishan".

  • 84.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    University of Kurdistan, Hewler, KRG, Iraq and Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Siting of Landfills for Hazardous Waste in Iraq from a Geological Perspective2019Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 295-311Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq has been involved with two major wars in 1991 and 2003 (Gulf war I and II), which resulted in leaving large amounts of wrecked tanks, vehicles, weapons and ammunition. A considerable amount of the military waste contains depleted uranium (DU), which is a by-product of the enrichment of natural uranium for nuclear reactor-grade or nuclear weapons-grade uranium. DU used during the second Gulf war is more than 1100 to 2000 tons. This has serious effects on humans in Iraq and the environment. There is no national or international program for cleaning Iraq of DU wastes. To protect humans and the environment, three locations for disposals were suggested according to the geological conditions. These locations fulfill the requirements so that radioactive waste does not affect human life and the environment. To use these sites there should be proper design for the landfills so that it can perform for long period of time.

  • 85.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Al-Mousawi, Hala
    Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Old Alluvial Fan Relics in North and Northeast Iraq2015Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. 45-62Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The southern part of Sulaimaniyah Governorate and northern parts of Erbil, Kirkuk and Diyala Governorates are mountainous and hilly areas, the relief difference ranges from (50 – 500) m. Tectonically, they represent the contact between the Low Folded and High Folded Zones, which is marked by an outstanding geomorphological feature that is a continuous limestone ridge represented by the Pila Spi Formation (Late Eocene). The ridge form the southwestern limb of tens of anticlines that have NW – SE trend. The continuous ridge faces; south and southwest ward a highly dissected plain, which is covered by clastics of Injana, Mukdadiya and Bai Hassan formations, the plain forms typical badland morphology. Moreover, the Pila Spi Formation is overlain mainly by the Fatha Formation (Middle Miocene), it consists of clastics alternated with rarelimestone and gypsum. However, locally, the Pila Spi Formation is overlain by Oligocene and Early Miocene rocks, mainly of carbonate. During Pleistocene, due to wet phases, the flat plain was a favorite depositional basin for the flowing rivers, streams and valleys from the north and northeast to deposit their carried loads after gradient changes. Accordingly, huge amount of sediments were laid down in form of alluvial fans that are usually capped by calcrete. The developed fans were covering vast areas that extend southwards; about 45 Km from the main ridge of the Pila Spi Formation. The thickness of the alluvial fans is highly variable, it ranges from (3 – 15) m. The main constituents are also variable; either consists mainly of carbonates that are derived from the Pila Spi Formation cemented by calcareous and sandy materials, or consists of pebbles; derived mainly from the Bai Hassan Formation, which are carbonates and silicates, with subordinate amounts of igneous and metamorphic rocks cemented by calcareous and sandy materials with rare gypsuous materials too. The size of the clasts is also variable, in the former case they reach up to 50 cm, whereas in the latter case, they reach up to 30 cm. During Holocene, most probably late Holocene, the alluvial fans have suffered from intense erosion, consequently large parts were eroded and washed out by the developed dense drainage system.The remaining parts nowadays, are in form of relics capping folded rocks of Fatha, Injana, Mukdadiya and Bai Hassan formations. Those which are nearby the main ridge form plateaus of different sizes, with gentle inclination manifesting the paleo-relief. Whereas,those which are far from the main ridge; form almost flat areas, occasionally are occupied as agricultural fields.

  • 86. Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Al-Musawi, Hala
    Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The Origin and Genesis of the Dokan Conglomerate, NE Iraq2016Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 1-15Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The "Dokan Conglomerate" is a new lithostratigraphic unit of Pleistocene age added to the Iraqi stratigraphic column within the Quaternary Period. The conglomerate is exposed northwest of Sulaimaniyah, starting from Khalikan anticline, near KaniWatman village; it extends on the top of the anticline for about 5 Km, and is exposed also along the southern and eastern banks of Dokan Lake. The Dokan Conglomerate consists of almost monotype clasts, which are derived mainly from the Qamchuqa Formation, well cemented by calcareous materials forming very hard beds; however, locally, sandstone and claystone are interbedded with the conglomerate beds. The thickness of the conglomerate reaches up to 300 m, but generally varies between (100 – 200) m.The Dokan Conglomerate is thickly well bedded to massive, either horizontally capping Tanjero, Shiranish, Kometan and Qamchuqa formations, on the top of Khalikan anticline, or overlies them along the northeastern limb of the anticline; with clear dipping beds. The origin and the mode of deposition of the Dokan Conglomerate are given, discussed and its deposition is tectonically correlated with the growth and development of Khalikan anticline, besides the effect of a large normal fault that is responsible for development of the depression, which is used as Dokan Reservoir. Geomorphological and structural evidences are given too; to confirm the mode of deposition. The estimated age of the conglomerate is Pliocene? – Pleistocene.

  • 87.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Erbil, Iraq.
    Capigian, Arsen O.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Characters and Types of Alluvial Fans in the Middleand Eastern Parts of Iraq2017Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 115-140Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hundreds of alluvial fans are developed and still under development in thecentral and eastern parts of Iraq. The fans are of different sizes, types, shapes   andstages, laid down by rivers, permanent streams and valleys. The composition of  the sediments of the fans differs widely depending on the source of the sediments, the depositional area, size and type of the fan. Some of the alluvial fans have typical fan forms; others are hardly recognized, especially in the field; in nature; and more specifically when the fan areas are occupied as agricultural fields and/ or are very large with very gentle gradient that hinder their occurrences.Majority of the studied alluvial fans in the studied area are not presented on geological maps. This is attributed to the fact that they are not presented on the base geological maps because they are unrecognizable in the field, mainly because they have lost their fan shapes. Others; however, are presented even on the geological map of Iraq at scale of 1:1000000.In this study, the main alluvial fans are presented and described with the reason and form of their deposition. Accordingly, different types of alluvial fans are presented and described including their coverage areas, types, number of stages, shape and constituents. This is performed through interpretation of different types of satellite images, documented field data and the experience of theauthors with their long careers and expertize in the field.

  • 88. Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Jabbo, Basim
    Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Age Estimation of Alqosh Main Landslide, North Iraq Using Exposure Dating Method2016Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 163-176Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Alqosh town is located in the central part of north Iraq, along the southernlimb of Alqosh anticline, a rugged mountain with maximum elevation of 837 m(a.s.l.) in the study area. The exposed formation is Pila Spi (Eocene), it consists of thickly well bedded and hard dolostone, dolomitic limestone with some marlintercalations. The dip amount varies from (15 – 45) southwards. The southernlimb of Alqosh anticline is densely dissected by deep valleys; some of them are in canyon form. The spacing between valleys ranges from (115 – 235) m, they all run almost in straight courses downslope, with some slight meandering.Alqosh town is one of the old towns in the vicinity, it dates back to 1000years B.C. with population of about 11 000 inhabitants. In the old part of the town, the houses are built of large blocks of dolostone and dolomitic limestone quarried from the Pila Spi Formation. Due to north of the town, a large and very old landslide exists, the toe has reached the extreme northern part of the town. Tens of houses are built on the toe area; indicating that the landslide is very old. The involved area by the landslide is about 50 000 m2 with length and width of 500 m and (62 – 144) m, respectively. To estimate the age of the landslide, field work was carried out to map the toe area, check about the slid materials and to measure the size of the existing slid blocks and any other evidence of the landslide. The exposure dating method is used to estimate the age of the landslide. The old living people in the town were asked about the age of the houses that are built on the toe to estimate the age of the landslide. Moreover, the covered materials of the toe and other parts of the landslide were carefully inspected to find indications for age estimation. Some archaeological data also were used for age estimation. Depending on all available data, the age of the landslide is estimated to be about 3000 (three thousand) years.

  • 89.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    et al.
    University of Kurdistan, Hewler, KRG. Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Badush Dam, NW Iraq: A Geological Study2018Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 1-15Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The river Tigris flows from Turkey towards Iraq in its northwestern part dissecting the whole Iraqi territory. During 1981– 1986 a very large earth fill dam was constructed, which is Mosul Dam impounding the flow of the Tigris River. It is the largest dam in Iraq and one of the largest in the Middle East. The geological conditions of the dam site and surroundings, however, are not suitable due to thick exposures of the Fatha Formation, which consists of marl, clay, limestone and gypsum. The gypsum and limestone beds are highly karstified causing severe problems to the dam foundation. Mosul dam suffers from serious problems due to the presence of karstified rocks; therefore, the Ministry of Irrigation in Baghdad, decided to construct a protection dam downstream of Mosul Dam; it is called Badush Dam. The geological conditions at Badush Dam site are the same as those at Mosul Dam site, which means the foundations of the dam are located on karstified rocks. Therefore, grouting works were planned and designed and it was partly performed from the beginning of the construction in 1988. The construction of the dam; however, stopped in 1991 due to the consequences of the First Gulf War. The constructed parts of the dam are (30 – 40) %. In this study, we have presented the main problems, which will cause real danger to Badush Dam, if its construction is re-started, and we have suggested many requirements to avoid any hazard that may cause the collapse of Badush Dam.

  • 90.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    et al.
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG. Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Elagely, Malik
    Private consultant, Baghdad, Iraq.
    A Comparative Study of Mosul and Haditha Dams, Iraq: Geological conditions2018Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 35-52Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul and Haditha Dams are the largest dams on the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in Iraq, respectively. Both dams are of earthfill type and constructed on sedimentary rocks, but have different geological conditions. Both of them suffer from karstification problems. The former; however, suffers from intense karstification, which has endangered the stability of the dam and possible failure. The karstification in both sites is of different origins, types, shapes, sizes and depths, as well as in different rocks and geological formations. In Mosul Dam site, the highly dissolved gypsum beds of the Fatha Formation has formed solution type sinkholes with cavities of different shapes and sizes at different depth; attaining to about 250 m upon which the foundations of the dam are located. In Haditha Dam site, the karstification occur in the limestone beds of the Euphrates Formation, the developed sinkholes are of collapse type with regular shapes; either circular or oval apertures. The thickness of the karstified sequence in the foundations is not more 50 m. This research work is to highlight the role of the geological conditions, especially when the karstification in the safety of both dams is concerned and its effect on the foundations of the dams.

  • 91.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    et al.
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG, Iraq and Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    LTU team.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Geology of the Euphrates River with Emphasize on the Iraqi Part2018Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 167-185Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Euphrates River is one of the longest rivers in Iraq with five main tributaries along its course. But without any tributary inside Iraq. The river flows from eastern highlands of Turkey then through Syria and enters into the Iraqi territory from central western part and runs westwards to the central part of Iraq and then meets with the Tigris River in the southern part. The geology of the Euphrates River’s basin is presented with emphasize on the Iraqi part. Besides, the stratigraphy of the basin, the tectonic style, main geomorphological features and minerals’ resources are presented within the basin too. Wide range of rocks; age wise are exposed in the basin, with different economic potentials at different parts of the basin. This study is a unique one, which deals with the geology of the Euphrates River’s basin. It is conducted using the most relevant updated geological data.

  • 92.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    et al.
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG, Iraq and Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG, Iraq and Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    LTU team.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Geology of the Tigris River with Emphasize on the Iraqi Part2018Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 145-166Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Tigris River is the longest river in Iraq with 5 main tributaries inside Iraq. The river flows from the Eastern highlands of Turkey then crosses the Iraqi territory from extreme north-western part to the central part then meets with the Euphrates River in the southern part. The geology of the Tigris River’s basin is presented with emphasize on the Iraqi part. Besides, the stratigraphy of the basin, the tectonic style, main geomorphological features and minerals’ resources are presented within the basin too. Wide range of rocks; age wise, are exposed in the basin, with different economic potentials at different parts of the basin. This study is a unique one, which deals with the geology of the Tigris River’s basin. It is conducted using the most relevant updated geological data.

  • 93.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Karim, Sahira
    Al-Kubaisy, Kifah
    Iraq Geological Survey.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The Miocene Sequence in Iraq, a Review and Discussion on the Stratigraphy, Paleogeography and Economic potential2016Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 271-317Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Miocene Sequence (23.03 – 5.33 Ma), in Iraq has large diversity inlithofacies, biofacies, depositional environments, tectonic effect, and geographicaldistribution. The Savian movements caused development of broad and shallowbasins, which had covered large areas in the Iraqi territory, as compared with theearlier Oligocene sequence, which was characterized by great sea level dropcausing very limited depositional basins, the main intraplate basin becamenarrower due to the tilting of west Arabia.The Miocene Sequence, in Iraq includes 11 stratigraphic units, some of themhave not formation order, and these are: Serikagni, Euphrates, Ghar, DhibanAnhydrite, Jeribe, Fatha, Nfayil, Injana, Mukdadiya, Govanda Limestone and RedBed Series. However, some of these units have age that is not limited to theMiocene, they have range of either younger or older than Miocene.The main major event that had occurred during the Miocene was the changefrom the dominating marine phase in the Early Miocene to continental phaseduring the Late Miocene. This main change is attributed to the major thrusting,which occurred during the collision of the Sanandaj – Sirjan Zone with theArabian Plate. This event also is considered as the beginning of the Neotectoniceffect in Iraq. Many formations were terminated; others were started with differentlithological and depositional environments, as well as different faunalassemblages.The faunal assemblages, depositional environments, paleogeography, lithologyof each exposed stratigraphic units are reviewed and discussed. Moreover, thetectonic effect on each exposed unit in different tectonic zones is discussed too,beside the mutual relation between the exposed units.

  • 94.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Erbil, Iraq.
    Mustafa, Hawkar L.
    University of Kurdistan, Hawler, Erbil.
    Haris, Gowar H.
    University of Kurdistan, Hawler, Erbil.
    Sadiq, Sakar A.
    University of Kurdistan, Hawler, Erbil.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Landslides in Hareer Anticline, Central Northern Part of Iraq: Landslides in Hareer Anticline, Central Northern Part of Iraq2017Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, EISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 25-43Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

     Hareer anticline is a double plunging anticline with NW – SE trends, very strange and special hinge zone, hence its northwestern plunge is normal but towards southeast the hinge zone becomes very wide. The northeastern limb is very gentle with dip amount that ranges from (5 – 15) whereas the southwestern limb is very steep with dip amount that ranges from (45 – 85). The well bedded and very hard carbonates of the Bekhme Formation form the carapace of Hareer Mountain, with small exposures of the Qamchuqa Formation in the southwestern limb within few deeply cut valleys. The main reasons of the landslides are the presence of soft to fairly hard succession of marl and limestone in the lowermost part of the Bekhme Formation and the steeply dipping beds of the southwestern limb of Hareer anticline. The wet climate during the sliding and the gravitational forces have played significant role in triggering and acceleration of the two landslides that have moved short distance from the mountain. This is attributed to the presence of cliffs of the Khurmala and Pila Spi Formation at the end of the slope; the cliffs played as retaining walls to stop the sliding. To estimate the age of the two landslides in Hareer anticline, the Exposure Dating Method is used. The diverted and blocked valleys, the developed small alluvial fans from the slid mass and the weathering status of the rock blocks within the slid mass are used to estimate the age of the two landslides. The age is estimated to be few thousand years, which means during late Holocene.

  • 95.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Erbil, Iraq.
    Shihab, Ahmed T.
    Iraq Geological Survey.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The Geology and Evolution of the Ga’ara Depression,Iraqi Western Desert2018Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 65-90Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ga’ara

    Depression is the largest natural depression in the Iraqi Western Desert. The oldest and youngest exposed rocks in the area are of Permian and Eocene ages. Although the beds are almost horizontal in the area; towards the east, but the exposed formations on the four rims are not the same, large differences occur in ages of the exposed formations. Ga’ara Depression covers an area of about 1383 Km2, it has a rectangular shape; elongated in E – W direction. The southern rim is the highest and steepest, whereas the eastern one is the lowest with gentle slopes. The maximum and minimum elevations on the surrounding rims are 613 m and 423 m (a.s.l.), respectively. The four rims suffer from different type of mass movements. The depression is known to be a structural high and a topographic low. The structural high is confirmed by the exposure of Permian rocks, beside the presence of dense tension and shear joints; especially in the western, northwestern and southwestern sides of the depression. Those areas are also characterized by the presence of dense karst forms. The geomorphology and geology of the depression indicates that it started in development since the Oligocene Period, the area suffered from non-deposition; therefore, the whole deposited sequence above was subjected to intense erosion leading to the development of the depression and continuous retreatment of the rims, which is still active. The estimated numerical age of the nowadays depression is about 540655 years.

  • 96.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Erbil, Iraq.
    Shihab, Ahmed T.
    Iraq Geological Survey.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    New Tectonic Finding and its Implications on Locating Oilfields in parts of the Gulf Region2017Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 51-75Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Oilfield in southern part of Iraq, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia represent subsurface anticlines within the folded zone. Iraq forms the extreme northeastern parts of the Arabian Plate. It is divided into two main tectonic units which are Inner and the Outer Platforms. The former covers the southern and western parts of Iraq and is less affected by tectonic forces than the Outer Platform, which has, and still is, affected by tectonic compressional forces. The contact between the Inner Platform and outer Platform is delineated by the Abu Jir - Euphrates Active Fault Zone. Its northwestern extension is clearly visible while the southeastern extension is less clear since it is hidden under Quaternary sediments. The delineation of the contact in this part of the fault zone is the main scope of this study. Geophysical and different types of Digital Elevation Models, Landsat images, Quick Bird images, GIS and remote sensing techniques were used to delineate the contact, besides other relevant geological data such as the location of subsurface oil fields, structural contour maps on top of Cretaceous rocks and the drop in surface gradients represented by Al-Batin Alluvial Fan. Therefore, the contact is likely to be more precisely located. The concerned contact has regional interest, since it forms the contact between the folded and unfolded areas within the Arabian Plate. The folded area represents the existing subsurface anticlines that form oil fields in the southern part of Iraq, and Kuwait and more southwards to Saudi Arabia.

  • 97.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Erbil, Iraq.
    Sidiq, Sakar A.
    University of Kurdistan, Hawler, Erbil.
    Haris, Gowar H.
    University of Kurdistan, Hawler, Erbil.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Age Estimation of Qara Chattan Landslide, Using Exposure Dating Method, Sulaimaniyah, Northeast Iraq2017Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 1-23Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The northeastern part of Iraq; the Kurdistan Region is a mountainous area with rough topography that increases in relief differences and roughness towards north and northeast. Among those mountains is Pera Magroon with highest peak at elevation of 2773 m (a.s.l.) and relief difference with the southern plain of about 1000 m. Pera Magroon Mountain represents a double plunging anticline trending NW – SE; with many minor complications on both limbs. The oldest exposed rocks in the anticline belong to Late Jurassic, whereas the rocks of the Qamchuqa Formation form the carapace of the mountain. The southwestern limb is steeper than the northeastern one; almost being vertical. A very old and large landslide had occurred along the southwestern limb of Pera Magroon anticline ended near Qara Chattan village; therefore, it is called “Qara Chattan Landslide”. The landslide is a rock slide type with rectangular tongue-shaped and crescent-like toe area. The slid blocks belong to Qamchuqa Formation, range in size up to 3 m3; but the average size is about 1 m3. The Qara Chattan Slide had happened; most probably above an area that was originally an old alluvial fan. The slid mass has swiped the alluvial fan sediments as the large blocks were moving in very high speed down the slope during the sliding. However, on both sides of the landslide the remnant of the alluvial fan sediments can be seen in form of longitudinal and narrow masses; like embankments. To estimate the age of Qara Cahttan Landslide, the exposure dating method is used depending on the size, depth and length of the existing valleys, the age of the nearby landslide and alluvial fans, and historical data acquired from archaeological site. Accordingly, the age of the landslide is estimated to be few thousand years; during the Holocene.

  • 98. Sissalkian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Ayda, Abdulahad
    Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Factors Controlling the Karstification Process in the Fatha Formation in Iraq2016Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 147-162Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Fatha Formation (ex-Lower Fars) is Middle Miocene of age and consistsof cyclic sediments, each ideal cycle consists of marl, limestone and gypsum.However, in the upper half part of the formation, reddish brown claystone occur in the cycles. Moreover, in the uppermost part of the formation, fine reddish brown siltstone and claystone occur in the cycles too. The formation is divided into two members depending on the lithological constituents. Lower Member and Upper Member, the former is characterised by the absence of red clastic in the cycles and presence of thick gypsum beds, whereas the latter is characterised by the presence of fine red clastic with subordinate limestone beds. The Fatah Formation covers considerable parts of the Iraqi territory,especially in the central western part and the central northern part too. In theformer area, the formation usually crops out in a horizontal beds, whereas in thelatter area; it is exposed in the limbs of anticlines and occasionally in their cores. The Fatha Formation is one of the main problematic geological formations in Iraq. Due to intense karstification, the rocks of the formation have caused severe damages to the constructed structures built on its exposure areas. This article deals with the factors controlling the karstification process in the rocks of the Fatha Formation and shade light why karstification is not distributed over all the exposure areas of the formation in Iraq. The study concluded that the main factors that control the karstification process in the Fatha Formation are lithological and tectonic factors.

  • 99.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lindskog, Staffan
    Swedish Radiation Safety Authority.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Long term aspects of landfilling and surface disposal: Lessons learned from nuclear and non-nuclear decommissioning, remediation and waste management2013Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 2, nr 2, s. 35-51Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The fields of landfilling of conventional waste and that of surface disposal of nuclear waste have developed quite independently and also partly out of phase with each other. The paper analyses what knowledge and experience might be mutually beneficial as well as what further knowledge may be needed.It is found that even though knowledge may exist, and information from lessons learned elsewhere be available, action may be subject to considerable initiation or incubation times. Legislation on financial reporting is summarized and its implications for early technical and financial planning are assessed. Prerequisites for long-term behaviour are analysed for the waste forms as well as for the seals and covers. The rationale for using natural and anthropogenic analogues is compiled, and alternative seals for landfills are analysed based on this information. Lessons learned from nuclear decommissioning are presented, and the difficulties encountered when the decommissioning takes place long times after commissioning and operation of a facility are illuminated. Comparison is made with contaminated soil in which area openly available domestic publications are lass abundant in some areas. The differences between end of license and end of responsibilities are clarified. Uranium-containing waste is presented as an example. Prerequisites are presented for natural uranium together with its progenies and for depleted uranium, initially without any daughters. It is found that both alternatives are associated with a number of issues to consider, and that both call for long-term containment for conventional chemical hazard and radiological hazard reasons.

  • 100.
    Umar, Sraj Banda
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sjöberg, Jonny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Nordlund, Erling
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Rock mass characterization and conceptual modeling of the Printzsköld orebody of the Malmberget mine, Sweden2013Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 3, nr 4, s. 147-173Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The LKAB Malmberget Mine is mined using sublevel caving. This mining method is cost-effective but results in successive caving of the host rock and mining-induced ground deformations. Consequently, re- locations of residential areas have been in progress in Malmberget ever since iron ore extraction on industrial scale commenced about a century ago. This study seeks to increase the understanding of the intrinsic characteristics of the rock mass governing deformation and caving activities. Rock mass characterizations were done in two selected orebodies — Printzsköld and Fabian. Two drill holes were drilled in each orebody from the surface. Geotechnical core logging was performed using the RMR system. Weakness zones were categorized to determine what role they played in the caving process. Point load testing was conducted for a sampling interval of about 5 m and selected uniaxial compressive strength tests were conducted to calibrate the point load index. Tunnel mapping was conducted in the hangingwall of the Printzsköld orebody. The finite element modeling code Phase2 was used for a sensitivity analysis of rock strength parameters and tostudy factors that may influence initiation of caving of the hangingwall.

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