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  • 51.
    Ekeroot, Jonas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Selection of stimuli for listening tests by software-assisted ranking2014Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the academic field of audio technology, which is the context of this thesis, research questions related to various forms of perceptual audio evaluation of different types of audio systems are important and commonly encountered. Methods for systematic evaluations of listeners’ perceived audio quality, based on different experimental designs, have evolved over a time span of several decades and are collectively referred to as listening tests. Typically, some 20 to 30 subjects take part as listeners in such studies, where the task for the subjects normally involves listening to a number of different audio stimuli that have been processed by the audio systems under study. The assessment of the perceived audio quality can be made in several ways, and can for example aim for a ranking of the systems under study or ask subjects to grade them on one or several scales.The selection of which audio stimuli to include in a listening test is of great importance and can greatly effect the results. This is well known from the literature, but it is also known that such selection normally is both time-consuming and labour-intensive and can be difficult to conduct in a systematic way. However, publications on systematic selection procedures are rare. International listening test recommendations call for the use of so called critical audio stimuli, with only a very brief further explication that critical stimuli are such stimuli that stress the systems under test to reveal differences among them.In this thesis, custom made software was developed to enable experimental listening studies to find out if a group of listeners could discern different audio stimuli using the notion critical. The objective of the experiments was to investigate if a group of listeners that were asked to rank a set of audio stimuli according to their criticality would produce any significant differences between the median rankings of the different audio stimuli. The specific ranking method used was ranking-by-elimination. Two experiments were performed – one using a randomized complete block design (RCBD), and one using a balanced incomplete block design (BIBD). The results indicated a valid and meaningful use of the notion critical in listening test contexts, and that stimuli could be rank ordered according to their degree of being more or less critical. As a basis for a software-assisted method of selecting critical audio stimuli for listening tests, such a resulting rank order constitutes an important contribution to a systematic strategy for the selection process.The developed software is planned to be made public in the future, to encourage and promote the use of open-source software in audio research as a basis for better control of software audio quality in demanding experimental contexts such as listening tests.

  • 52.
    Ekeroot, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Berg, Jan
    Audio software development: an audio quality perspective2008Inngår i: Audio Engineering Society Convention 124th: Audio Engineering Society Convention Papers, Curran Associates, Inc., 2008, artikkel-id 7438Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When developing audio applications, different choices on software implementation aspects influence the total audio software signal path and can be of importance from an audio quality perspective. The field is not well documented in the literature. A study was carried out aiming at identifying relevant questions that must be considered. The general development perspective was on audio software written in C++ to be run on general purpose CPUs. A research review, comprising literature from different fields such as audio engineering, computer science and software engineering, was conducted to summarize and integrate an overview of the field. The result can be viewed as a map of questions for future research activities, consisting of further literature studies and experiments with software prototypes.

  • 53.
    Ekeroot, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Nykänen, Arne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    A balanced incomplete block design experiment for ranking criticality of stimuli for listening testsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 54.
    Ekeroot, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Nykänen, Arne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Criticality of audio stimuli for listening tests: listening durations during a ranking task2014Inngår i: 136th Audio Engineering Society Convention 2014, Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2014, s. 114-122Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of selecting critical audio stimuli for listening tests is known from the literature to be both labor-intensive and time-consuming, and has been described as more of art than science. Explicit accounts of systematic procedures are not the most commonly encountered. In a previous study a ranking-by-elimination method was investigated, resulting in a rank order that could be used as a guide for critical stimuli selection. This paper presents a further exploratory analysis of data on the subjects’ listening durations, both as a function of number of stimuli left on screen and individually per stimulus. A strong negative correlation was found between the rank order of criticality and playing duration.

  • 55.
    Ekeroot, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Nykänen, Arne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Ranking criticality of stimuli for listening tests2016Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 56.
    Ekeroot, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Nykänen, Arne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Selection of audio stimuli for listening tests2011Inngår i: 130th Audio Engineering Society convention 2011: London, United Kingdom, 13 - 16 May 2011, Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2011, Vol. 2, s. 1211-1217Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two listening test methods in common use for the subjective assessment of audio quality are the ITU-R recommendations BS.1116-1 for small impairments and BS.1534-1 (MUSHRA) for intermediate quality. They stipulate the usage of only critical audio stimuli (BS.1116-1) to reveal differences among systems under test, or critical audio stimuli which represents typical audio material in a specific application context (MUSHRA). A poor selection of stimuli can cause experimental insensitivity and introduce bias, leading to inconclusive results. At the same time this selection process is time-consuming and labour-intensive, and is difficult to conduct in a systematic way. This paper reviews and discusses the selection of audio stimuli in listening test-related studies.

  • 57.
    Eklund, Victor
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Föredragen ljudkvalité: En jämförelse av ljudkvalitet hos högtalare med strömning som distributionsmedium2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna undersökning har gjorts för att ta reda på vikten i att äga ett dyrt högtalarsystem när man lyssnar på strömmad musik samt hur påverkad man blir av vetskapen om priset hos vederbörande högtalare. Tre olika högtalare i tre olika prisklasser har testats. 22 personer deltog och fick lyssna på valfri låt igenom strömmningstjänsten Spotify. Lyssnarna fick först ranka högtalarna efter uppskattad generell ljudkvalité utan att se vilka högtalare de lyssnade på, sedan fick de göra om samma test fast med möjlighet att se högtalarna och vetskapen om hur mycket de kostade. Det visade sig att vetskapen om pris eller utseende inte hade någon påverkan på lyssnaren. Inte heller källan som musiken spelades upp ifrån, Spotify eller CD visade sig ha någon betydelse. Det har också visat sig ligga ganska lite koppling mellan pris och kvalité då den billigaste högtalaren rankades bland de bästa i detta test. Detta har lett till en diskussion om betydelsen av högtalarnas karaktär. Den karaktär som i sig kan ge lyssnaren en bra eller dålig upplevelse i den uppfattade ljudkvalitén beroende på lyssnarens egna preferenser. Frekvenskaraktären kan dominera över högtalarens många andra egenskaper. En billigare högtalare kan alltså föredras över en dyrare om frekvenskaraktären för den mindre påkostade högtalaren överensstämmer med åhörarens tycke och smak.

  • 58.
    Emilsson, Adrian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Artificial Reverb vs. Real Recorded Reverb in the Back Channels in a 5.1 Surround Setup2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    When recording music for surround audio engineers sometimes face limitations in time, ideal microphone positions or a noisy audience. If this cannot be dealt with at the location, artificial reverbs are often used in the mixing to “fill in the blanks”. In this study, three instruments were recorded separately with two 5.1 surround microphone setups. Two audio engineer students created artificial reverbs that replaced the back channels of each microphone setup. A listening test was conducted where test subjects compared the 5.1 real recording to the two other stimuli with artificial back channels in terms of realism, envelopment and preference. The result showed that the real recording and the artificial back channels were interchangeable, but that the artificial back channels pointed towards more envelopment, and that the real recording pointed towards more realism.

  • 59.
    Enlund, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier, ljudteknik och teater.
    How do bass enhancement algorithms impact mixing decisions when monitoring on headphones?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    As music production moves from the big professional studios into small bedroom studios, Headphones become more commonly used for monitoring. This brings a new set of problems based on the limitations of headphones compared to loudspeakers. This research explores how a bass enhancement algorithm impacts the results when mixing low frequency audio on headphones. This is done through a simple mixing experiment where subjects are tasked with balancing the amplitude of a low frequency element in a song, both with and without a bass enhancement algorithm enhancing the headphone monitoring. It is shown that while subjects do not perceive a difference in difficulty with this task, the results differ as subjects overall mix the bass frequencies lower in amplitude when aided by the bass enhancement algorithm. It is concluded that the bass enhancement algorithm is useful in this manner.

  • 60.
    Eriksson, Martin Ljungdahl
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Soundscape attribute identification2009Inngår i: 126th Audio Engineering Society convention 2009: Munich, Germany, 7 - 10 May 2009, Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2009, Vol. 2, s. 753-759Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In soundscape research, the field's methods can be employed in combination with approaches involving sound quality attributes in order to create a deeper understanding of sound images and soundscapes and how these may be described and designed. The integration of four methods are outlined, two from the soundscape domain and two from the sound engineering domain.

  • 61.
    Eriksson, Per-Robin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    A Comparison Of Two Commercially Available Alternatives For Spatializing Audio Over Headphones In A Game Setting2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The video game industry is experiencing tremendous growth and developing games that stand out against the competition requires ever increasing production budgets. Graphics have been a selling point for video games for a long time, resulting in huge technical advancements in visuals. Audio has received more attention during the recent years, both in terms of sound-design and technical developments.

    This study compared two alternatives for spatializing audio over headphones in a game setting, while also comparing them against a more traditional stereo output. A commercial game was used to provide the game setting and participants rated the three different outputs based on three attributes and described their experience using Microsoft Product Reaction Cards. No statistically significant differences were found between the three outputs in any of the six rated attributes when doing a paired t-test or a Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test. Further analysis of frequency content, participants’ comments and Microsoft Product Reaction Cards were done to find out what sets the spatializing alternatives and stereo apart from each other.

  • 62.
    Eriksson, Siri
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Lundkvist, Fanny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Hedonistiskt Köpbeteende: Kopplingen till menscykel och känslor2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker om det kan påvisas en koppling mellan menstruationscykeln och hedonistiskt köpbeteende, samt få reda på vilka känslor dessa köp är kopplade till. Metodernasom använts är av kvantitativ och kvalitativ natur. Deltagarna består av fem kvinnor i åldern 25-35 år och är boende inom det geografiska området Norrbotten. Ingen av deltagarna har barn och använde heller inte något hormonellt preventivmedel under studiens tidsspann. Den kvantitativa metoden innebar en insamling av alla inköp utförda under två sammanhängande menstruationscykler per deltagare. Materialet över inköpen samlades in genom att deltagarna redovisade sina registrerade kortköp via sin internetbank, synkroniserat med menstruationscyklerna. Därefter fick deltagarna redovisa vilka köp de själva upplevde som hedonistiska. Den kvalitativa undersökningen bestod av ett webbaserat frågeformulär som behandlade deltagarnas känslotillstånd kring hedonistiska köp. Resultatet av studien visade att deltagarna utförde flest hedonistiska inköp under deras luteala period i menstruationscykel och kategorin av produkter som deltagarna fann mest hedonistiskt var matrelaterade. Deras känslor före, under och efter ett hedonistiskt köp var i merpart positivt betingade känslor.

  • 63.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Ekberg, Niclas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Pedagogik språk och Ämnesdidaktik.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Allan, Jon
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Burkhart, Patrick
    Evolving Bildung in the Nexus of Streaming Services, Art andUsers : Spotify as a Case 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The changed landscape of media, with digital distribution as a keyfactor, creates new conditions for people’s access to cultural expressions. This has mainly been studied through technical and financial perspectives, focusing on the record industry, file sharing, human–technology interaction, and click frequency. New questionsare necessary for an understanding of what functions streamed musicand art expressions can have in people’s lives, and how companies such as Spotify relate to these functions.The aim of the study is to explore Bildung in the nexus of streaming services, art and users, with Spotify as a case study. Research questions: How and to what extent do technical, legal, economic, and ethical factors control possibilities for meaningmaking in the interaction between streaming media such as Spotify, arts, and human beings? How does the quality of art/music distributed through streaming influence opportunites for Bildung? How do users make meaning in the specific contexts? To what extent is the user involved in her own Bildung via the algorithms making up the participation?

    To achieve this aim and address the research questions an interdisciplinary study is needed, which makes it possible to understand the complex phenomena of a streaming media platform in relation to Bildung. Technicians and researchers from the humanities and social sciences will approach the research problem and form a holistic understanding of streaming media in relation to human beings, art, and technology. Hence, combinations of methodological approaches are required. Big-data analysis will provide access to how varied demographics use Spotify. The Spotify users’ activities, experiences of streaming media interactions, and meaning-making will be accessed through qualitative netnographical observations, shadowing, and interviews. Sound quality analysis will clarify what aesthetic values are involved in the most appreciated listening experiences, which will be related to Bildung.

  • 64.
    Friberg, Ulf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier, ljudteknik och teater. Luleå University of Technology.
    Artistically speaking: New paths, new rooms2018Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Issues of power relations and the culture of silence were prominent in this past winter’s political debates. What is the importance of trust, working methods and the performance space itself in the artistic process? Can the kind of social mobilization we have seen in the #metoo-movement contribute to artistic mobilization? And could new ways of organizing performance art provide better conditions for creativity? Follow a visionary conversation about working methods, artistic creation, and artistic form and content within and beyond institutional performance art.

  • 65.
    Friberg, Ulf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier, ljudteknik och teater.
    Forskning enda möjlighet till konstnärlig kritik2014Inngår i: Scen & film, ISSN 2001-5518, nr 6, s. 30-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den akademiska plattformen är hart när den enda position från vilken kritik fortfarande är möjlig. Detta måste skyndsamt förändras, för konstens skull.

  • 66.
    Friberg, Ulf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier, ljudteknik och teater.
    Rädslan urholkar själen2005Inngår i: AKT, ISSN 0283-8176Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Alla har vi hört historier. De berättas som skrönor i korridorer och fikarum. Man skrattar åt dumheter och elakheter. Men bakom finns en verklighet av smärta och utanförskap. Jag ville tydliggöra missförhållanden och starta en diskussion. 

  • 67.
    Friberg, Ulf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier, ljudteknik och teater.
    Skådespelaren Ulf Friberg: ”Flexibilitet kan inte bara vara att kapa bort människor”2018Inngår i: Dagens Nyheter, Vol. 11/11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Örebro länsteater hotas av nedskärningar och i lördags hölls en manifestation i Örebro för ensemblen. ”Kultur går med vinst, det är bevisat, kruxet är att beräkna hur mycket och till vem”, skriver skådespelaren Ulf Friberg till stöd för sina kollegor.

  • 68.
    Friberg, Ulf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier, ljudteknik och teater.
    Teaterchefen som feodalherre: På tjugo år har antalet fast anställda minskat från 70 till 20 procent. Som frilansare blir personalen försiktigare.2011Inngår i: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, Vol. 2011, nr 1 aprilArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi reproducerar alla det ledarskap och den människosyn som grasserar. Varför ifrågasätts inte maktfullkomlighet? Varför glider vi långsamt med? Vilken pjäs är det som spelas upp framför oss egentligen? Vad gör Klaus Manns Mefistokaraktär Hendrik Höfgen hos oss på 2000-talet? Inte handlar väl Mefisto om oss? Vi har väl ingen mörkbrun skugga på väggen bakom oss? Nej, vi har något som är ännu värre. Hotet är internaliserat i oss. Vi är våra egna fiender. Hendrik Höfgen klättrar på oss och vi sträcker villigt upp våra händer för att hjälpa till. 

  • 69.
    Gardelli, Teodor
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Backman, Ylva
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Pedagogik språk och Ämnesdidaktik.
    Gardelli, Viktor
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Pedagogik språk och Ämnesdidaktik.
    Gardelli, Åsa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Pedagogik språk och Ämnesdidaktik. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Strömberg, Caroline
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Philosophical dialogues in education for persons with acquired brain injuries2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 70.
    Gelter, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Disneyfication of the polar experiences: ice- and snow hotels, snow castles and igloo villages2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is based on a survey of the recent trend of experience production in polar tourism, based on snow and ice construction to create a kind of disneyfied "winter wonder land". Snow and ice constructions have been around as long as people have been living in polar areas. Most famous are the snow igloos of the Inuit people of western arctic. This snow igloo has become a major icon for the people of the far north and the Arctic, and is used in many different contexts such as brand names, product names, comic stripes and animated films, games, architectural design, art, toys and different events. A google search on the world igloo gave 4 220 000 hits and 1 250 000 picture hits, where only a small fraction is about the Inuit igloo. Igloos are now used as tourist attractions, mainly in ski resorts in central Europe where companies such as Iglu-Dorf (on six ski destinations), IglooBase, AlpenIglu, etc. have developed extensive igloo constructions to differentiate the winter experiences of ski resorts. In association to festivals and carnivals in the north, snow construction have been used since the first "House of Ice" in St Petersburg 1739, and the first snow castles in Montreal in 1883 and forward. The first "real" Icehotel was constructed in Jukkasjärvi, 1989, and today there are seven in Finland, four in Norway, one in Canada and at least 13 igloo hotels in central Europe. This trend of creating a "dream world of snow and ice" of the polar experience, instead of the "real experience", is interesting in regard to Jensen´s prediction (1999) of the Dream Society and the new Experience Economy based on staged experience production.

  • 71.
    Gelter, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Experience production in digital media and games2007Inngår i: Articles on Experiences 4: Digital Media & Games, Rovaniemi: Lapland University of Applied Sciences, 2007, s. 136-155Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 72.
    Gelter, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Forskning, ett nästa steg2007Inngår i: Framtidsinsatser för upplevelse och turism: ett tillväxtförslag för upplevelseindustrin utifrån FUNK-modellen. Mötesplats Upplevelseindustrin i Piteå, Piteå: Mötesplats Upplevelseindustrin , 2007, s. 29-39Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 73.
    Gelter, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Forskning inom turism och upplevelseproduktion: två framväxande forskningsfält för det nya upplevelsesamhället2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 74.
    Gelter, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Friluftsliv as experience production: from slow experiences to flow and peak experiences2009Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Friluftsliv as an environmental philosophy deeply rooted in Scandinavian people may be a way to great experiences in nature to contrast the post modern urban every-day life. In this paper Friluftsliv will be analysed in the context of the contemporary "Experience Society" and investigate connections and similarities between Friluftsliv and Environmental Education, Tildenian Nature and Culture Interpretation and Experience Production. This paper will address the common roots of these ideas of nature interaction and nature learning and show that these common roots are based on basic human biological traits for our way of interacting with and understanding our environment. Based on new theoretical development within Experience Production the concept of Friluftsliv will be discussed in a framework of Experiential learning and Experience Production.

  • 75.
    Gelter, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Friluftsliv as slow and peak experiences in the transmodern society2010Inngår i: Norwegian Journal of FriluftslivArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is an attempt to look at friluftsliv through the glasses of the experience society and some of the experience theory adapted from the experience economy. Identifying the basic experiences, slow, flow and peak experiences as central to friluftsliv and identifying that today's society is constituted by several generations differing in their values and world views, this paper proposes a background to the contemporary development of friluftsliv into a sportified "fast and furious" post-modern form of friluftsliv. In the contemporary "nanosecond culture" the need of genuine friluftsliv in the sense of Nansen, as a philosophical approach to interconnect with our original home, nature, seems to be needed more then ever, and is here suggested in the form of slow experiences through friluftsliv. The contemporary shift towards a Transmodern society with radically different values compared to the modern and post-modern society, opens the possibility that friluftsliv could be a Transmodern way to reconnect with nature and provide basic experiences of interconnectedness with a more-than-human world. Therefore friluftsliv could be a means to foster a Generation G for the Transmodern society.

  • 76.
    Gelter, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Friluftsliv as slow experiences in a post-modern experience society2007Inngår i: Nature First: Outdoor Life the Friluftsliv Way, Ontario: Natural heritage books, 2007, s. 37-46Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 77.
    Gelter, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Friluftsliv, entrepreneurship and experiential learning in wilderness educational expeditions2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 78.
    Gelter, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Friluftsliv: the Scandinavian philosophy of Outdoor recreation.2000Inngår i: Canadian Journal of Environmental Education, ISSN 1205-5352, Vol. 5, s. 77-92Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the roots of the Scandinavian outdoor lifestyle of Friluftsliv and its philosophical implication as well as its applications for environmental education. Friluftsliv as a philosophy is deeply rooted in Norway and Sweden but has lately obtained a more a superficial meaning by the commercialisation of outdoor activities. The philosophy and biology of is explored showing its importance as a mean in environmental education to facilitate a true connectedness to the more-than-human world.

  • 79.
    Gelter, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Från Linné till upplevelseguide: den transmoderne guiden – certifiering och kunskapsutveckling2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 80.
    Gelter, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Genuine Friluftsliv as a Way to Great Natural Experiences and Professional Experience Production2005Inngår i: Articles on Experiences.: Digital media & games, Rovaniemi: Lapland Centre of Expertise for the Experience Industry , 2005, s. 8-26Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 81.
    Gelter, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Interpretation and Total Experience Management (TEM) as innovative methods for sustainable nature based tourism: a benchmarking analysis2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the trans-modern society tourism has to transform into meaningful and learning experiences that contribute to a better and sustainable world. Integrating the methodology of natural interpretation and environmental education with developing theories of meaningful experience production, new innovative nature tourism products can be developed for glocal sustainability. Combining Marslow´s pyramid of needs with TQM, I developed the concept of Total Experience Management (TEM), as a powerful tool for qualitative experience production. Combining interpretation and TEM, innovative nature experiences with meaningful bearings on sustainability can be produced according to Pine & Gilmore´s model of the four experience realms of entertainment, education, escapism and aesthetics. Based on the methods of interpretation and TEM I have developed a benchmarking tool which I tested on 15 nature and cultural based guided tours in Canada, Australia, Finland, Norway, Iceland and Sweden. Within two projects for developing guiding qualities we surveyed 115 entrepreneurs and tourism organisations in Finland, Sweden and Norway, about their view on "guide competence" and quality certification of guides. The benchmark study showed that interpretation as method is still rare and there are needs for quality improvements of the nature experience production in the light of TEM. The business survey indicated a need for certification and quality improvement of nature guides. However, when hiring a guide their education and reputation was more important then their certification. I thus conclude that the methods and skills of the nature guide could be a key factor for improving sustainable outcome of nature based tourism. 

  • 82.
    Gelter, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Introducing an emotional experience learning model based on a critical analysis of experiential learning in environmental and outdoor education and experience production2006Inngår i: Social Sciences in Resource Management: Global Challenges & Local Responses: Book of Abstracts, 12th International Symposium on Society and Resource Management, ISSRM 2006 / [ed] Ben Beardmore; Krista Englund ; Wolfgang Haider, Burnaby, BC: Simon Fraser University , 2006, s. 97-98Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Engagement and awareness of environmental issues are emerged by formal environmental education, media communication and from personal environmental experiences in leisure activities. Learning in environmental education has traditional been a cognitive communication of knowledge based on a scientifically objective epistemology leaving the constructive integration process and understanding the world to the student. This traditional "learning about" has recently been complimented by a "learning from" through experiential learning and outdoor education. The passive absorption of knowledge has shifted towards a more active immersion in the experiences of the world. The emergence of active experience production based on Pine and Gimore´s staged "Experience Realms" and new neuro-cognitive findings opens up for deeper understanding of the processes of learning through experiences. Colb´s experiential learning is based on an active cognitive reflection process, "learning from" our actions and experiences. Using the metaphor of experiences and actions as a temporal process illustrated as a river, Colb´s experiential learning is based on of the process of stepping out of the river and from the beach active reflect on what happened in the river with the purpose to learn and become better prepared for further actions when re-entering the river of experiences. Colb´s experiential learning model is thus a "time-out" reflective process from the experience, and therefore not a true experiential learning, thus not a "learning in" the experience.I here propose a model of "emotional experiential learning" based on neuro-cognitive processes such as unconscious learning and emotions as relevance detectors in the learning process. The learning occurs in the river of experiences generating a silent emotionally based unconscious knowledge. This model emphasis the importance of the materialistic component of the experience composed of the socio-spatial constitution of the experiential space and the subjective immaterialistic component of the experience. The model can be used both in environmental and outdoor education as well as in experience production in tourism and leisure. This silent emotional knowledge acquired unconsciously "in" and "through" the experiences may be a more powerful agency for environmental awareness and engagement then the traditional cognitively acquired communicative knowledge learned "about" the environment.

  • 83.
    Gelter, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Learning from a distressed loon: contribution to wilderness expedition conference2012Inngår i: Pathways : the Ontario Journal of Outdoor Education, ISSN 0840-8114, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 28-29Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 84.
    Gelter, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Polar tourist experiences: challenges and possibilities for transmodern tourism2011Inngår i: Polar Tourism: A Tool for Regional Development, Québec: Presses de L'Université du Québec, 2011Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this report is to contribute to the new polar tourism research area, the polar tourist experience, by conceptually discuss different approaches to study tourist experiences. These frameworks are integrated with the emerging concept of Transmodern tourism and its implications for the polar travel industry and future empirical research on polar tourism.

  • 85.
    Gelter, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Projekt: BART - Offentligt - privat partnership inom Barents Regionen2010Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Ett Kolarctic ENPI CBC Program projekt initierat av Rovaniemi University of Applied Science med 12 partners i Ryssland, en i Norge och LTU i Sverige. Projektet ". Startar januari 2011.

  • 86.
    Gelter, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier, ljudteknik och teater.
    Projekt: Friluftsliv och naturturism ur ett upplevelseperspektiv2012Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 87.
    Gelter, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier, ljudteknik och teater.
    Projekt: Snö och is som innovativ resurs för besöksnäringen2012Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med projektet är att generera generiska kunskaper om snö och is som naturlig och hållbar resurs för innovativ produkt- och destinationsutveckling. Via omvärldsanalys och benchmarking, thinktank för koncept och produktutveckling och skapande av en experimentell IceLab och test-arena för snökonstruktioner och upplevelser kring snö och is, avser projektet att bidra till ny kunskap och innovativ inspiration till besöksnäringen att utnyttja snö och is som resurs till produkt- och destinationsutveckling och därigenom stärka Sverige som en innovativ vinterdestination. Målgrupp för projektets resultat är förutom forskarvärlden, befintliga och tillkommande entreprenörer samt destinationsorganisationer (DMO´s) och kommuner som har en naturlig tillgång till snö och is.

  • 88.
    Gelter, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Service och Värdskap inom Piteås handel - "Mystery Shopping" studie med LTU studenter 2010-2011: Delrapport-1: Guldfynd2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 89.
    Gelter, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier, ljudteknik och teater.
    Snow and ice as a resource for innovative tourist experiences in northern Sweden: the case of Ice Theater and Ice Music Hall2008Inngår i: The Vienna Symposium on Polar Tourism: October 22nd to 25th 2008. A contribution of TU Wien to the International Polar Year 2007-2009 / [ed] Meinhard Breiling, 2008, s. 55-73Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This report of two innovative snow construction projects that border-cross the traditional cultural context of theatre and music with snow and ice shows the great experiential and touristic potential of such projects. At the same time several problems are associated with such projects. The most obvious that resulted in financial problems both with the Ice Dome Theatre at Jukkasjärvi and the Ice Music Concert Hall in Piteå are the high construction and production costs compared with the relative limited income during a short period available for performances. This problem is accentuated by climate change problems where the winter season even in northern Sweden appear to become more unstable affecting the time available for the return of cost. This has Linhart solved by constructing the Ice Dome Concert Hall at 3200 meters elevation, which however result in other problems such as access and material transport costs as well as high altitude fatigue among workers, musicians and audience.  The projects have however taught us that high quality experiences can be produced based on traditional cultural art in combination with snow and ice. Further research on methods to reduce both construction and production costs and as well as the economical calculations and project management for such projects should be initiated.

  • 90.
    Gelter, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Sustainable Polar tourism innovations through staging polar experiences for the experience economy: applying the TEM product development concept2009Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Already in 1970 Alvin Tofler in his book "Future Shock" introduced the concept of "Experience production". The consequences of an experience society was further analysed by Shultze in 1992 and became more widely known by Pine and Gilmore in 1999 as the Experience Economy. Its cultural consequences as a "dream society", "attention economy",  "Creative culture" etc. and understanding the "experiencescapes" for the  tourist experience  has since then been explored by several authors. The contemporary cultural shift from a post-modern to a trans-modern society with focus on glocal sustainability and interconnectedness by web 2.0 and modern communication technology, gives us new implications in staging tourist experiences. The same holds for fusing "entertainment industry" with both the educational and traditional tourism industries in the form of edutainment in the tourist experience. Several models for staging or "producing" experiences within tourism have been proposed to give tourist entrepreneurs tools for innovative product development within the experience economy. This paper will explore the application of a product development concept "Total Experience Management", TEM, within Polar Tourism with examples from Northern Scandinavia.

  • 91.
    Gelter, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    The Solander Trail: an innovative hiking trail development process based on the Experience Economy paradigm2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 92.
    Gelter, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Theoretical Reflection on the Concept of Hostmanship in the Light of Two Emerging Tourism Regions.2013Inngår i: Interregional tourism cooperation: experiences from the Barents /, Rovaniemi: Lapland University Consortium , 2013, s. 44-52Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the potential of shifting from providing services to producing experiences in emerging tourism destinations such as the Barents and the Adriatic Sea Regions. It is based on a theoretical reflection and personal experiences of service and hospitality in these areas.It explores the progression of offerings in the experience economy as a means for destination development. In the light of three main ways of product development for experience offerings, the “soft” dimensions of hospitality and hostmanship will be discussed, and how the experience economy can transform unique selling points to experiential value promises.

  • 93.
    Gelter, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Total experience management: a conceptual model for transformational experiences within tourism2010Inngår i: The nordic conference on experience: research, education and practice in media 2008 : conference proceedings / [ed] Sol-Britt Arnolds-Granlund; Peter Björk, Vaasa: Tritonia , 2010, s. 46-78Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging Experience Economy will have interesting implications for experience production within tourism. By integrating theoretical frameworks of the Experience Economy with the context of Transmodern tourism, this paper explores concept of transformational offerings into meaningful and learning experiences that contribute to a sustainable world.  Based on theoretical frameworks from Experiential Learning, Tildenian interpretation, Experiencescapes and Maslow´s hierarchy of human needs, a Total Experience Management model of experience production has been developed. This model of TEM could be a tool to transform the Erlebnis aspects of the experience into meaningful Erfahrung and Life Experiences. In the context of sustainability and the intention of Agenda 21 the transformational aspects of experiences can be applied to transform tourists into an engagement of sustainability issues. Nature based tourism can thereby develop innovative themes of transformations within the transformational offerings and economy proposed by Pine and Gilmore 1999.

  • 94.
    Gelter, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Total Experience Management (TEM) as innovativemethods for sustainable nature based tourism2008Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 95.
    Gelter, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Towards a Swedish Validation and Certification system för Nature Guides and Interpreter´s2006Inngår i: 2nd National Wildlife Tourism Conference 2006, 2006, s. 43-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    As nature tourism becomes an increasingly important component within the experience economy, the demands and expectations increase on nature guides as well as on tour and safari operators. This is partly a consequence of increased demands among better and better educated visitors within the new information society. The offered experience need to be extraordinary, of high quality and personalized to fulfill demands from the new experienceeconomy. The emergence of eco-tourism as a consequence of demands for sustainable environmental management and an explicit environmental ethical awareness and Biophilic values in society sets new standards within nature tourism. These new demands have to be combined with the need for tourist companies for economical sustainability and possibility to grow and develop.The growing nature tourism in Sweden which previously has been a peripheral area for tourism in Europe, and these new demands in the experience economy has resulted in a Swedish quality marking system, "Nature´´ s Best" of nature based tourist products which has gained international interest. But the educational and professional system for nature guides is still undeveloped in Sweden where most are self learned or more or less educated without anycertification standards. The concept of certified nature Interpreter's as in US has not yet been introduced in Sweden and Scandinavia. Based on similar principles as "Nature's Best" ecocertification, a system for educational curriculum, validation of established nature guides and a national certification system is being established with the aim of integrating the concepts of Interpretation, Experience Production and sustainable Eco-tourism.

  • 96.
    Gelter, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Towards an understanding of experience production2007Inngår i: Articles on Experiences 4: Digital Media & Games, Rovaniemi: Lapland University of Applied Sciences, 2007, s. 28-50Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 97.
    Gelter, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Upplevelsen av naturkontakt: implikationer för friluftsliv2009Inngår i: Friluftsforskning 2009: Sammanfattning av presentationer vid konferensen Friluftsforskning 2009 den 18-19:e november vid Mittuniversitetet, campus Östersund / [ed] Anders Mossing; Peter Fredman, Friluftsliv i förändring , 2009, s. 18-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Naturkontakt anses vara en positiv upplevelse för de flesta och används som argument för stimulering av ett aktivt Friluftsliv. Men vad händer under själva naturupplevelsen? I en upplevelsebaserad studie av en kortvarig naturupplevelse, där personen fick sitta ensam i naturen under 5-10 minuter och sedan redogöra för sina upplevelser, får vi intressanta inblickar i vad naturkontakten skapar för upplevelser. Implikationer av denna studie för friluftsliv disskuteras i presentationen

  • 98.
    Gelter, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier, ljudteknik och teater.
    What do we mean by Experience Production? - A suggested ecology for the diverse concepts of producing and analyzing tourism experiences.2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 99.
    Gelter, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Why is reflective thinking uncommon?2003Inngår i: Reflective Practice, ISSN 1462-3943, E-ISSN 1470-1103, Vol. 4, nr 3, s. 337-344Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents some thoughts about the use of the word 'reflection' and the provocative statement that reflection seems not to be a spontaneous everyday activity in our professions or everyday life. The discussion focuses on the cognitive aspects of reflection. As reflection is regarded as a conscious activity the hypothesis of a conscious 'I' and an unconscious 'me' is discussed in the light of information theory and their suggested functions in understanding and grasping the world. It is suggested that as a consequence of short-term memory and our flashlight-like consciousness scanning our perceptive world, it is difficult to keep our consciousness focused on one thing for longer times. This is suggested to be of evolutionary survival value with the consequence that focused reflection needs active effort and energy, and thus is not a spontaneous activity. It is also suggested that the conscious 'I' and its capacity to reflect is of evolutionary and historic recent origin, arising in the dawn of modern society in association with the development of a free will. The reflective capacity is thus epigenetic and has to be learned and encouraged

  • 100.
    Gelter, Hans
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Forsman, Arne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Pedagogik språk och Ämnesdidaktik.
    Utvärdering av Projekt Nepal: ett pedagogiskt utvecklingsprojekt för upplevelsebaserat och globalt lärande2006Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
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