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  • 51. Andersson, Sören
    et al.
    Abyhammar, Tomas
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Full-scale multiple well heat storage system for experiment and demonstration1983Inngår i: Proceedings - International Conference on Subsurface Heat Storage in Theory and Practice, Statens råd för byggnadsforskning , 1983, s. 610-615Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 52.
    Andersson, Sören
    et al.
    AIB Consulting Engineers.
    Eriksson, Anders
    AIB Consulting Engineers.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Heat storage in rock: multiple well system1981Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 53. Andersson, Sören
    et al.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Säsongslagring av värme i berg1981Inngår i: Byggnadskonst, ISSN 0007-7593, Vol. 73, nr 11, s. 45-47Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 54.
    Andersson, Sören
    et al.
    Swedish Council for Building Research.
    Johansson, Alf
    Swedish Council for Building Research.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Åbyhammar, Tomas
    Swedish Council for Building Research.
    A borehole heat store in rock: pilot trials in Luleå and preliminary design of a full-scale installation1983Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 55.
    Andersson, Sören
    et al.
    AIB Stockholm.
    Johansson, Alf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Åbyhammar, Tomas
    AIB Stockholm.
    Värmelagring i berg med borrhålssystem: Pilotförsök i Luleå och förprojektering av fullskaleanläggning1986Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 56. Andersson, Sören
    et al.
    Åbyhammar, Tomas
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Multiple well system for seasonal heat storage at Luleå1983Inngår i: Väg- och Vattenbyggaren, ISSN 0042-2177, nr 4, s. 10-11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 57.
    Andersson-Chan, Anneli
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    A rockwool biofilter for the treatment of restaurant emissions2000Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past 20 years, the use of biological air pollution control has become a popular treatment alternative for contaminated gas streams. The objective of this licentiate thesis was to investigate the feasibility of a compact rockwool biofilter to treat emissions from a restaurant, to identify an appropriate microbial population for the inoculation of the biofilter, and suitable environmental conditions for this culture. Rockwool mats with pre-set structures were shown to have a good structural stability, developed low pressure drop, did not compact, and seemed to be a appropriate habitat for microorganisms. Bacteria from different environments were enriched in batch cultures; it was found that all cultures were able to oxidize rape-seed oil. Nutrients, mainly phosphorus and nitrogen, must be added occasionally to the bacterial culture. Clogging due to high depositions of grease could be prevented by using a mechanical collector installed upstream of the biofilter. The off-gas from the fryer consisted of a complex mixture of partially oxidized hydrocarbons and the short residence times (<10 s) provided in the filter were not sufficient to achieve a significant reduction of aldehydes or fatty acids.

  • 58.
    Andersson-Chan, Anneli
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Attempted biofiltration of reduced sulphur compounds from a pulp and paper mill in Northern Sweden2006Inngår i: Environmental progress, ISSN 0278-4491, E-ISSN 1547-5921, Vol. 25, nr 2, s. 152-160Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to identify the reduced sulphur compounds (RSCs) present in waste gas from a specific deaerator at a pulp and paper mill in northern Sweden, and to investigate the feasibility of a multi-stage biofilter to treat these compounds in an industrial setting. Two filter media, rockwool mats and an organic peat and compost mixture, were used as biofilter media. A mixed population of heterotrophs and a strain of Hypomicrobium were examined for DMS and DMDS degradation. Two experimental periods were performed for 45 days each, in the fall and winter in cold climate. Process parameters as well as the number of viable cells of the filter were monitored during operation. Results were inconsistent due to the fluctuations of the system, and a number of operational problems were identified, differing from those developed under controlled, laboratory set-ups. Process conditions varied greatly, that is, fluctuating temperatures, pollutant concentrations, and airflows that led to insufficient residence times. Both biological and mass transfer limitations are possible explanations for the poor treatment results. This study can contribute to assessing the feasibility of biofilters in the pulp and paper industry, and help reduce the knowledge gap between laboratory studies and field conditions.

  • 59.
    Andersson-Chan, Anneli
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Biofiltration of odorous gas emissions2006Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofiltration has shown its potential as an interesting treatment alternative for contaminated gas streams. Unlike conventional technologies, such as adsorption, scrubbers, and incineration, biofiltration offers effective pollution control at relatively low capital and operating costs, and without the generation of secondary pollution that may require subsequent treatment. The disadvantages of biofiltration have been the large space requirements and frequent media replacements as a result of deterioration or ageing. Extensive biofilter research and development have taken place over the past 20 years internationally, in particular laboratory experiments that address the removal of single pollutants at fairly high concentrations under constant operating conditions. In field applications, such conditions are highly unusual and the feasibility of treating complex mixtures at very low concentrations relevant to many odorous gas emissions has not received much attention. The overall objective of this thesis was to reduce the knowledge gap between laboratory studies and field conditions on the topic of biofiltration for odorous gas emissions. Various operational and process related problems, such as fluctuating flows, temperatures, and pollutant concentrations, that affected the biofilter performance by creating suboptimal living conditions for the microbes were identified. A newly designed compact pilot-scale biofilter was used in three different applications with odour problems, namely restaurant, pulp mill and wastewater pumping station. The gas streams were complex mixtures with chemically diverse contaminants whose concentrations varied significantly with time. Aldehydes were the dominant compounds in restaurant emissions, while reduced sulphur compounds, primarily dimethyl sulphide, dominated the pulp mill and wastewater emissions. Overall, very low concentrations of individual compounds were found (ppb-level), and very low or no removal of the targeted compounds was achieved in the biofilter. Limitations of the biomass density in the filter media is a plausible explanation since pollutant concentrations at the ppb-level may have been too low to build up and support the bacteria. Due to the low solubility of many identified compounds, a mass transfer limitation may also have occurred due to the prevailing short residence times. Drying of the filter medium was partly a problem, pointing to the need for an improved humidification system or using a trickling filter design. In a case study at a wastewater treatment plant, a method to evaluate odour problems was developed involving local observers in an odour panel together with operational data and weather observations. Working with an odour panel proved useful in several ways; they took an active interest in and increased their knowledge of the complexity of odour problems. However, relating the panel reports to specific events at the treatment plant proved difficult, and the reports were not always consistent with current wind directions.

  • 60.
    Andersson-Chan, Anneli
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Evaluation of a Rockwool biofilter media for odorous waste gas treatment2006Inngår i: 2006 Conference of the Water Environment Federation and the Air and Waste Management Association on Odors and Air Emissions, Connecticut Convention Center, Hartford, Connecticut (USA), 9-12 Apr 2006, WEF , 2006Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 61.
    Andersson-Chan, Anneli
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Bäckström, Magnus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Hanaeus, Jörgen
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Kompetens för driftspersonal vid VA-verk: Bakgrund och utveckling2006Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The competence of operators at Swedish water and wastewater treatmentplants is analysed and sorted into four groups. A basis for future educationand continued education is discussed in relation to selected factors ofdevelopment for the surrounding world.

  • 62.
    Andersson-Chan, Anneli
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Hanaeus, Jörgen
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Odorous wastewater emissions2006Inngår i: Vatten, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 62, nr 3, s. 227-236Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this article is to review odour problems of wastewater treatment facilities and air emission treatment methods. The malodorous wastewater emissions consist of a complex mixture of substances with different properties. A screening of volatile organic and reduced sulphur compounds revealed very low concentrations of individual compounds (< 50 ppb), and only dimethyl sulphide, hydrogen sulphide and methyl mercaptan were found at concentrations above threshold values. Indicating one single compound responsible for the foul odours was not possible. Two case studies are presented and discussed. In the first, a compact biofilter was evaluated for the treatment of gas streams from a sewage pumping station. A rockwool filter media was inoculated with a mixed bacterial wastewater culture that established successfully. However, evaluating the biofilter's performance proved analytically difficult and expensive due to the low concentrations of incoming gases. In the second case study the odour nuisance situation around a wastewater treatment plant was evaluated and a holistic approach to manage the odour problems was developed. An odour panel of local observers worked well, since they got involved in the process. However, using the panel's reports on odour episodes to find the source of the odour was difficult.

  • 63. Andersson-Chan, Anneli
    et al.
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    VVS 2000: tabeller och diagram : Vatten- och avloppsteknik2004Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 64.
    Andersson-Wikström, Alexandra
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    The release of pollutants from roofing materials in laboratory experiments2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Diffuse pollution sources have been recognised by the European Water Framework Directive to significantly contribute to pollution of stormwater receivers. Stormwater runoff is considered to represent diffuse pollution sources. The aim of this study was to clarify the contributions of specific sources in the urban environment to the content of organic and inorganic pollutants in stormwater. This was done by conducting laboratory screening tests of several conventional roofing materials and coatings to determine which pollutants they release and how they might contribute to the deterioration of stormwater quality. The studied pollutants include metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, Zn) as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalates, pesticides, nonylphenols and –ethoxylates. Many of the studied roofing materials, e.g. roofing shingle, a PVC sheet and a bitumen paste for felt roof maintenance, exhibited the potential to release several of these substances into stormwater runoff. However, phthalates were not released from any of the studied materials under the tested conditions. In addition, quite similar materials exhibited rather different substance release profiles.

  • 65.
    Andersson-Wikström, Alexandra
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Size fractionation of dissolved metals in stormwater in Umeå, Sweden2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissolved metals are generally considered the most mobile, toxic and bioavailable form of metals. However, the partition between dissolved and particulate phases is conventionally defined by the fraction passing through a 0.45 μm membrane, even though it is widely known that this fraction also includes different types of organic and inorganic colloids. Further size fractionation of metals in the dissolved phase can be performed using different techniques. The knowledge on the metal fractionation in stormwater is useful for assessments of the metals’ bioavailability as well as the performance of stormwater treatment systems. In this study, the size fractionation of dissolved metals in stormwater from four different urban areas in the city of Umeå, Sweden, is determined using ultrafiltration. The objective is to find a pattern for the size fractionation of different metals in the dissolved phase in stormwater and, by this, estimate the bioavailability of the metals. The investigated catchment areas include a parking space, a highway and two different commercial sites. The sampling campaigns will take place in the spring of 2016, taking samples from the stormwater drainage system using automatic samplers.

  • 66.
    Andreasson, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Sellgren, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    River flow with excessive suspended sediment load: an evaluation of turbulent flow characteristics1986Inngår i: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 17, nr 4-5, s. 383-390Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    River flows with high volume concentrations (20-50%) of silty sediments generally imply that the mixture has non-Newtonian properties. In this study, the rheological behavior of mixtures with solids particles smaller than 0. 1 mm was identified experimentally with viscosimeters. Characteristic flow parameters, such as energy losses and depths, were then determined in several examples for turbulent open channel flows.

  • 67.
    André, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Dagsljus i ledningarna2003Inngår i: Energi och miljö, ISSN 1101-0568, nr 2, s. 60-62Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 68.
    Arnehed, Sebastian
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Cykling och gående vid större vägar: Resultat av enkät2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är en del i projektet ”Cykling och gående vid större vägar” och avser den enkät som genomförts för att studera resvanor, trygghet, säkerhet samt framkomlighet längs större vägar med fokus på gående och cyklister hos boende längs eller vid de aktuella platserna. Syftet med enkätundersökningen är att belysa hur fotgängare och cyklister upplever framkomligheten, säkerheten samt tryggheten längs de utvalda platserna i undersökningen. Syftet är även att om möjligt dra generella slutsatser om effekten av olika fysiska åtgärder som genomförts för att underlätta för gående och cyklister. Sammanlagt har tio vägsträckor och platser valts ut för enkätundersökningen. Platserna är lokaliserade från Luleå i norr till Ystad i söder. Urvalet har skett med åtanken att ge en representativ översikt över olika lösningar för att antingen färdas längs med eller korsa en större väg, till fots eller med cykel, med målet att ha en spridning över landet med olika klimat.Urvalet av respondenter har skett genom en geografisk avgränsning kopplad till de aktuella sträckorna och platserna. Till varje hushåll skickades två enkäter som två vuxna eller ungdomar i åldrarna 15 - 17 år ombads att fylla i. Enkäten skickades till 2535 hushåll och totalt svarade 1145 personer på enkäten ( svarsfrekvens 22,6 % per antaget antal respondenter, och 44,2 % per hushåll).Respondenterna utrycker generellt en oro för sin säkerhet och trygghet. De som är mest nöjda är de som bor vid och färdas längs en väg där separeringen sker med räcke, vilket var förväntat. De som är mest oroliga är de som bor vid en väg där separeringen sker genom målad kantlinje, vilket inte var förväntat. De är något mer oroliga än de som bor vid väg utan åtgärder för GC-trafik annat än bred vägren. I fortsatta arbete bör det därför undersökas hur fordonsflödet och hastigheterna påverkar respondenternas trygghet, dvs om det egentligen är de aspekterna man är orolig för och att åtgärderna inte har räckt till för att kompensera för hastigheterna. Det bör även undersökas om målningen inte efterlevs av fordonsförarna, samt hastighetsefterlevnad, vilket respondenternas svar indikerar.Vad gäller tillfällena när man korsar vägen är respondenterna som bor vid väg utan åtgärd förvånande nog mer trygg när de korsar vägen, än de som korsar vägen genom öppning i refug eller mitträcke. Även i detta fall bör fortsatta arbete därför undersöka hur fordonsflödet och hastigheterna påverkar respondenternas trygghet, dvs om det egentligen är de aspekterna man är orolig för och att åtgärderna inte har räckt till för att kompensera för hastigheterna. Det bör även undersökas hur fordonsförarna efterlever hastigheterna på platsen samt hur interaktionen mellan fordonsförare och oskyddade trafikanter går till på platserna.Det finns således anledning att fortsätta studera effekterna av de olika åtgärderna som har använts i vägmiljöer för att öka de oskyddade trafikanternas trygghet och rörlighet eftersom respondenterna tydligt uttrycker oro för trafikolycka, trots att olika åtgärder har använts för att öka tryggheten.

  • 69.
    Arnehed, Sebastian
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Öberg, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Underlag till trafikstrategi för Kiruna kommun: för hållbart resande, stadsomvandling och kallt klimat2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Aktuellt dokument är ett första steg i att formulera och ta fram en uppdragsbeskrivning gällande en trafikstrategi för Kiruna kommun. Dokumentet beskriver de huvudsakliga delarna för såväl processen med att utarbeta en trafikstrategi som det faktiska innehållet. Kiruna kommun har hittills inte varit delaktiga i denna del av processen, men är formellt ansvariga i ett fortsatt arbete.

  • 70.
    Ashley, Richard
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Cettner, Annicka
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Walker, L.
    Sharp, L.
    Westling, E.
    Overcoming barriers in the transition from piped to alternative drainage systems2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 71.
    Ashley, Richard
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Walker, Louise
    University of Leeds.
    D.Arcy, Brian
    University of Abertay, Dundee.
    Wilson, Steven
    EPG, Warrington.
    Illmann, Sue
    Illman Young Landscape Design, Cheltenham.
    Shaffer, Paul W.
    Ciria, London.
    Woods-Ballard, Bridget
    HR Wallingford, Wallingford.
    Chatfield, Philip R.
    Welsh Government, Cardiff.
    UK sustainable drainage systems: Past, present and future2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engeneers: Civil Engineering, ISSN 0965-089X, E-ISSN 1751-7672, Vol. 168, nr 3, s. 125-130Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban drainage has developed from an engineering discipline, concerned principally with public health and safety outcomes, into a multifaceted vision linking drainage with environmental and wider social and economic imperatives to deliver multifunctional outcomes. UK attention is too often focused on surface water as ‘a problem’, despite international progress and initiatives showing that an ‘opportunity-centred’ approach needs to be taken. Sustainable drainage systems, or ‘Suds’, can, when they are part of an integrated approach to water management, cost-effectively provide many benefits beyond management of water quality and quantity. New tools are available that can design Suds for maximum value to society but this requires greater collaboration across disciplines to seize all of the opportunities available. This paper introduces those tools and a roadmap for their use, including guidance, design objectives and criteria for maximising benefits. These new supporting tools and guidance can help to provide a business case for greater use of Suds in future

  • 72.
    Bakema, Guido
    et al.
    IF Technology b.v..
    Snijders, Aart L.
    IF Technology b.v..
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Underground Thermal Energy Storage: State of the art 19941995Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 73.
    Berggren, Karolina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Indicators for urban drainage system: assessment of climate change impacts2008Inngår i: Conference Proceedings : 11th International Conference on Urban Drainage: Edinburgh International Conference Centre, Scotland : 11 ICUD: 31st August - 5th September 2008, Munich: Oldenbourg Industrieverlag , 2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes of the climatic conditions will affect urban drainage systems, as they are closely related to the weather phenomenon and are built as to cope with the weather occurring. The aim of this paper is to investigate indicators that can be used to describe and compare impacts and adaptation measures in existing urban drainage systems. Problems in the system due to climate change can be summarised as problems with flooding of surfaces and basements, increased amount of combined sewer overflows (CSO), increase of the inflow to waste water treatment plants (WWTP) and increase in pollutants spreading from urban areas to the environment. The impacts needs to be described with indicators taking into account the system behaviour both before, during and after an event (e.g. urban flooding) has occurred, and can be divided into (A) description of the system performance, (B) capacity exceeding in the system, and (C) description of consequences as a result of capacity exceeding. The consequences can be divided into sustainable aspects as: technical, economical, socio-cultural, environmental, and health. The research is performed within a project which will also include model simulations of urban drainage systems in four Swedish municipalities as to assess impacts and evaluate the use of indicators.

  • 74.
    Berggren, Karolina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Urban drainage and climate change: impact assessment2007Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007), the global mean temperature has increased by 0,7 °C during the last 100 years and, as a consequence, the hydrological cycle has intensified with, for example, more intense rainfall events. As urban drainage systems have been developed over a long period of time and design criteria are based upon climatic characteristics, these changes will affect the systems and the city accordingly.The overall objective of this thesis is to increase the knowledge about urban drainage in a changing climate. In more detail, the objective is to investigate how climate change may affect urban drainage systems, and also to suggest methods for these investigations.The thesis consists of four papers. The first paper concentrates on the Delta change method for adaptation of rainfall data from climate models for urban hydrology use. The second paper is an impact assessment with urban drainage model simulation of a study area in the south of Sweden. The third paper is also an impact study, from a cause and effect approach, where the whole urban water is included. Finally, the fourth paper contains a strategy and suggestions about tools to use for assessing impacts on urban drainage systems due to climate change. The suggested tools are urban drainage model simulations, Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and risk analysis methods.The Delta change approach is feasible for handling the differences in spatial and temporal resolution between climate model data and the needs for urban drainage model simulations, as the method is relatively simple and the temporal resolution of observed rainfall series is preserved. In the study area with separated storm water system, the model simulations show that the number of surface floods as well as the geographical distribution of the floods increases in the future time periods (2011-2040, 2041-2070, and 2071-2100). Future precipitation will also increase both the flooding frequency and the duration of floods; therefore, the need to handle future situations in urban drainage systems and to have a well-planned strategy to cope with future conditions is evident. The overall impacts on urban drainage systems due to increased precipitation may, for example, be an increased number of basement floods, surface floods, problems with property and road drainage, and also increased amount of infiltration into pipes and combined sewer overflows (CSOs). The knowledge gained from this thesis, and the strategy suggested, can be used as a starting point for impact studies on urban drainage systems. Since most impacts concern several different disciplines and a multifunctional understanding, the studies should also be performed in cooperation with parties concerned.

  • 75.
    Berggren, Karolina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Urban stormwater systems in future climates: assessment and management of hydraulic overloading2014Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing global temperatures and tendencies of more frequent extreme weather events have been observed over the recent decades, and the continuation of this trend is predicted by future climate models. Such climatic changes impact on many human activities and hence the interest in, and focus on, climate change has increased rapidly in recent years. One of the fields strongly affected by ongoing climate change is urban water management and, in particular, the provision of urban drainage services. Modern urban drainage systems (UDSs) are designed to manage stormwater and convey residual runoff from urban areas to receiving waters, in order to fulfill such UDS primary functions as e.g., preserving local water balance; mitigating increases in runoff and the associated flood risks; and protecting water quality. There are also other drivers that influence the future urban runoff regime and the UDS performance, including urban planning, land-use changes (progressing urbanization), and implementation of sustainable stormwater management systems by such approaches as e.g., Best management practices (BMPs), Low impact development (LID), Water sensitive urban design (WSUD), and Green Infrastructure (GI). This doctoral thesis focuses on urban rainfall and runoff processes, and runoff conveyance by separate storm sewer systems, and the changes in these processes caused by climate change, with the overall objective of investigating urban stormwater systems response and performance related to future climate changes, and particularly the future rainfall regime, by means of urban rainfall/runoff modelling. Furthermore, future influences on the runoff regime of urban green/pervious areas have also been studied. Specifically, the thesis has focused on future rainfall changes and hydraulic performance of the stormwater system, and the influential response parameters needed for evaluating the simulated impacts, with the overall aim of contributing new knowledge to this field. The results included in the thesis are based on three published journal papers, one manuscript, and three conference papers. The research project started by addressing the needs for relevant UDS hydraulic response parameters (or indicators), which reflect both the capacity exceedance (when the UDS design fails) and indicate the safety margins in the system (e.g., locations with low or high capacities). The pipe flow rate and maximum water levels in the system exceeding a critical level, are examples of such parameters. Another issue addressed in this thesis is the difference in resolution (temporal and spatial) of the original climate model data (even if downscaled) compared to the requirements on rainfall input data in urban drainage modelling. Therefore, an existing statistical downscaling method (the delta change method, DCM) was refined by focusing on changes in rainfall intensities and seasonal rainfalls, and the refined DCM was recommended for use in UDS modelling. The UDS performance in future climates, studied by modelling these systems, showed that a future change in rainfall poses significant impacts on the existing UDSs. Important aspects in addressing such impacts are, for example, the input rainfall data types (e.g. design storms, or observed rainfall), as well as the climate factors, and the methods used to produce such factors. Green/permeable areas within the urban catchments may, however, provide opportunities for adaptation of urban catchments and UDS, by potentially increasing the infiltration of rainwater, instead of converting it into rapid runoff contributing high flows and flow volumes to the urban drainage systems. Influential factors in these processes include soil types, soil moisture content, groundwater levels and the rainfall input. While climate change with uplifted rainfalls tends to increase runoff contributions from all urban surfaces (impervious and green/pervious), strategic application of runoff controls in the form green infrastructure may counterbalance such increases, and even lead to reduced runoff inflows into the UDS.

  • 76.
    Berggren, Karolina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Lans, Axel
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Ashley, Richard
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Future changes affecting hydraulic capacity of urban storm water systems2012Inngår i: Urban Drainage Modelling: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Urban Drainage Modeling, Belgrade, Serbia, 4-6 September 2012, Belgrade: Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Belgrade , 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban areas may develop and change its character over time, but the urban drainage system is often 12 more constant in character – as the technical design life can be up to 100 years. The hydraulic capacity 13 of an existing urban storm water system is affected by future changes, e.g. rate of imperviousness 14 (urbanization), changes in the rainfall characteristics (e.g. by climate change) and system deterioration 15 (pipes and other facilities). Recently the urban planning process in Sweden and elsewhere has become 16 more appreciative of urban drainage issues, and the need to include these earlier in development 17 processes. In this paper a small urban catchment is used to study how future factors affect the 18 hydraulic capacity and the potential development of the area. Factors tested are scenarios of: (1) 19 Urbanization; (2) Climate change and (3) Pipe system deterioration. The results show that each of 20 these factors impact on the hydraulic capacity and that any sensitivity analysis should include all of 21 them to understand future development potential for the area. This type of investigation can increase 22 the understanding of the needs of the infrastructure provision in the area in a planning process context, 23 and provide information about appropriate areas of development within the catchment.

  • 77.
    Berggren, Karolina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Moghadas, Shahab
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Gustafsson, Anna-Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Ashley, Richard
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Sensitivity of urban stormwater systems to runoff from green/pervious areas in a changing climate2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 78.
    Berggren, Karolina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Olofsson, Mats
    Viklander, Maria
    Svensson, Gilbert
    Tools for measuring climate change impacts on urban drainage systems2007Inngår i: Techniques et stratégies durables pour la gestion des eaux urbaines par temps de pluie: NOVATECH 2007 ; 6e conférence internationale, juin 2007, Lyon, France, Villeurbanne: Graie , 2007, Vol. 1, s. 239-246Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 79.
    Berggren, Karolina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Olofsson, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Svensson, Gilbert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Gustafsson, Anna-Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Hydraulic impacts on urban drainage systems due to changes in rainfall, caused by climatic change2012Inngår i: Journal of hydrologic engineering, ISSN 1084-0699, E-ISSN 1943-5584, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 92-98Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The changes in climate were of a growing concern in the last decade, and will be even more so in the coming years. When investigating impacts on urban drainage systems due to changes in the climate, two challenges are (1) what type of input rainfall data to use, and (2) what parameters to measure the impacts. The overall objective of this study is to investigate the hydraulic performances ofurban drainage systems related to changes in rainfall, and through these hydraulic parameters describe impacts of climate change. Input rainfall data represents today's climate, as well as three future time periods (2011-2040, 2041-2070, and 2071-2100). The hydraulic parameters used were water levels in nodes (e.g. as the number of floods, frequency and duration of floods), and pipe flow ratio. For the study area, the number of flooded nodes and the geographical distribution of floods will increase in the future, as will both the flooding frequency and the duration of floods.

  • 80.
    Berggren, Karolina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Packman, John
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxon.
    Ashley, Richard
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Climate changed rainfalls for urban drainage capacity assessment2014Inngår i: Urban Water Journal, ISSN 1573-062X, Vol. 11, nr 7, s. 543-556Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Guidance on what type of rainfall to use when assessing hydraulic capacity of urban drainage systems under climate change is unclear; focus is mainly on what climate factors to use. Based on a case study in Kalmar, Sweden, this paper compares system performance using two design rainfalls, Block rainfalls and Chicago Design Storm (CDS), and selected observed rainfalls, with two methods of addressing future climate: a constant factor and Delta Change (DC) factors that depend on rainfall intensity. The use of CDS rainfalls presents the maximum hydraulic response, whereas Block rainfalls give lower responses but identify critical durations in the system, which may be useful addressing adaptation actions. Observed rainfalls of target return periods gave similar responses to CDS rainfalls, and can be applied with DC factors to address future changes in both intensity and volume. Differences between the two methods indicate a high dependence related to the maximum factors applied on the rainfalls

  • 81. Berggren, Karolina
    et al.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Will the existing urban drainage systems cope with future climate?: a Swedish study2006Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 82.
    Berggård, Glenn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Aktivitet: Fotgängare vintertid - effekter av halkskydd2010Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vintertid reducerar fotgängare sina förflyttningar vid halt väglag. Fallolyckor är vanligt förekommande på snö och is. I laboratoriestudier har 33 olika halkskydd för fotgängare testats och kvaliteter hos olika typer av skydd studerats. Testmetodik har utvecklats och bra och dåliga kvaliteter hos halkskydd har kunnat identifieras på olika typer av hala ytor som: grus på is, sand på is, ren is, snö på is samt salt på is. I en fältstudiestudie vårvintern 2008 har effekterna av användning av tre principiellt olika typer av bra halkskydd undersökts: hälskydd, helfotsskydd respektive fotbladsskydd. Tre olika grupper av försökspersoner i yrkesverksam ålder med likartade köns- och åldersfördelning deltog frivilligt. En grupp försågs med halkskydd. Försökspersonerna registrerade sin exponering mm i förflyttningsdagböcker. Vid upplevd halkincident/fall registrerades förhållandena vid incident/falltillfället på separat blankett. Effekten på exponering som fotgängare och förekomsten av halkincidenter/fall har analyserats. Gruppen som använde halkskydd hade högre exponering och mindre förekomst av halkincidenter/fall jämfört med gruppen som inte använde halkskydd. Halkskydd kan därigenom antas förbättra möjligheten att vistas ute vintertid på is och snö samt minska risken att halka och falla.

  • 83.
    Berggård, Glenn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Anti-slip devices to prevent pedestrians from slipping and falling during wintertime2008Inngår i: Engineering solutions to improve traffic safety in urban areas: 21st ICTCT Workshop in Riga, Latvia, on 30-31 October 2008, ICTC , 2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 84.
    Berggård, Glenn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Erfarenheter av utvecklad förekomst av arbetslivsanknytning i kursplaner2014Inngår i: NU 2014: Umeå 8-10 oktober : abstracts, Umeå: Umeå universitet. Pedagogiska institutionen , 2014, s. 174-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 85.
    Berggård, Glenn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Feasibility study for a transport flow model / database2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiences from the Sustainable Transport in the Barents Region (STBR) project and other ongoing projects show the specific conditions in the northern parts of the participating Barents region countries to be not well considered in either the modelling tools or the databases. The national transport models are only somewhat useful, at present, in analysing the cross border and specific Barents region regional transport flows. There is a need for a model capable of handling specific situations in the region, such as: -Seasonal variations -Loose networks -Countries with different development and political backgrounds -Special destinations -Handling of goods A Barents transport database (BTD) should be based on such a structure so as to be integrated with the national databases in Sweden, Norway, Finland and Russia. The database should be basically a virtual database based on already existing databases and include traditional data as well as data found in the STBR project and other later defined important data. The establishment of the database should start with the road infrastructure and include the infrastructure for other transport modes later on. Benefits from the use of existing transport flow models in the region are mainly based on the experiences from using the models for domestic comparisons of different objects in the investment planning process. A Barents Transport Analysis Tool (BTAT) should be developed based on existing national models in Sweden, Norway and Finland. The specific modules, or adoptions of existing modules, for each existing national model of special interest in the region, should be developed in a cross-country organised project. Development of the BTAT should be made as complementary modules to the already existing tools used in each of the countries. Particular Barents functionality shall be specified jointly. Development of the complementary modules shall therefore be made for each of the national models in the Barents region. Analyzing seasonal variations, in particular, should be of importance. Opportunities to create scenarios, and analyze the consequences of such scenarios, are also vital. Cross border transport flow analyses specifically considering the conditions of the Barents region shall be included.

  • 86.
    Berggård, Glenn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Principiella utformningar av halkskydd för fotgängare: erfarenheter av genomförda tester av halkskydd2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 87.
    Berggård, Glenn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    The effect of anti-slip devices on pedestrian safety during wintertime2010Inngår i: 12th World Conference on Transport Research: July 11 - 15, 2010, Lisboa, Portugal, Instituto Superior Tecnico; selected and general proceedings, Lisboa: Instituto Superior Tecnico, DeCIVIL , 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Every winter, more than 100,000 pedestrians in the Nordic countries receive medical treatment as a result of falls on slippery surfaces. Also, the risk of injury reduces the interest in outdoor activities during the wintertime. Pedestrians injured in single-pedestrian accidents on icy and snowy surfaces experience more serious injuries than pedestrians injured on other surfaces. Other studies also show that the cost for health care and health insurance for injuries from single-pedestrian accidents on icy and snowy surfaces is of the same magnitude as the costs for injuries from all other road transport accidents. Thus, there is a need for measures to reduce single-pedestrian injuries and improve the access to safe walking all year round. Different countermeasures can be used to prevent a person from slipping and sliding when walking outdoors during the wintertime. Countermeasures can relate to the use of individual ‗equipment,‘ services provided by the community directed towards vulnerable road-user groups or the public at large, and policy changes in winter-maintenance practices. The aim of the study is to develop knowledge regarding walking safety for pedestrians during the wintertime using one individual measure, the use of antislip devices. Methods have been developed to register different aspects of walking outdoors on slippery surfaces (in the wintertime) and the effect of using walking aids such as anti-slip devices. Laboratory test were conducted on seven occasions to develop test methods, to test anti-slip devices using the methods and to assess the test methods. Different surfaces were chosen to simulate the variation in winter maintenance standards on walkways: snow on ice, sand on ice, gravel on ice, salt on ice and pure ice. (...).

  • 88.
    Berggård, Glenn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    The effect of anti-slip devices on pedestrian safety: method development and practical test2010Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Every winter, more than 100,000 pedestrians in the Nordic countries receive medical treatment as a result of falls on slippery surfaces. In addition, the risk of injury reduces interest in outdoor activities during the wintertime. Pedestrians injured in single-pedestrian accidents on icy and snowy surfaces also experience more serious injuries than pedestrians injured on other surfaces. Thus, there is a clear need for measures to reduce single-pedestrian injuries and improve the safety of walking, without curtailing the activity, year round. A "slip accident" occurs when a person loses his/her balance. An attempt is normally made to recover one's balance, and the person's balance is either recovered or a fall occurs. An injury may be the consequence of such a fall. The most critical phases of the human gait are the heel strike and the toe-off.Various countermeasures can be used .to reduce the risk of a person slipping and sliding when walking outdoors during the wintertime. Such countermeasures may involve the use of individual equipment, services provided by the community to assist vulnerable road-user groups or the public at large, and policy changes in winter-maintenance practices. Examples of measures targeting individuals include information on the risk of slipperiness, and encouraging the use of (or providing) winter footwear and/or anti-slip devices to be fastened to shoes. The issues considered in this thesis are related to the prevention of injuries from single-pedestrian accidents by a specific measure, the use of anti-slip devices. More specifically, the following questions have been addressed in the studies it is based upon:How can the properties of anti-slip devices be assessed?How can more effective anti-slip devices be developed?Do anti-slip devices improve walking ability and safety?In laboratory investigations, test methods were developed and applied to 33 anti-slip devices to assess the test methods against validated criteria, and to analyse the benefits of using different types of anti-slip devices. The tests were conducted by observing people making standard movements on various surfaces chosen to simulate the variations in winter maintenance standards on walkways: snow on ice, sand on ice, gravel on ice, salt on ice and pure ice. Movements were analysed from observations of video recordings, and subjective rating scales were developed to assess walking safety and walking balance. In addition, in a field study questionnaires were used to record exposure, occurrence of slips/falls, descriptions of the slips/falls that occurred and general experiences of the use of anti-slip devices.The results show that it is possible to record the performance of anti-slip devices for pedestrians in a laboratory setting, and that the method developed for doing this is satisfactory. The methods used, together with friction measurements made by the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH), may provide a sound basis for establishing standard methodology for testing anti-slip devices as personal protective equipment.The results from the Laboratory tests can be used to identify favourable designs of anti-slip devices, and indicate that whole-foot devices are the best type, followed by heel devices, for supporting a natural gait. The results from the Field study show that the availability and use of anti-slip devices can promote walking, which is beneficial from a health perspective, and it does not lead to an increased risk of slipping/falling even though it increases exposure. Overall, the results indicate that the use of anti-slip devices is an effective traffic safety countermeasure for reducing single-pedestrian accidents.Aspects that warrant further attention include verification of the effects of anti-slip devices on exposure and the occurrence of falls, and their effects in relation to specific groups such as elderly.

  • 89.
    Berggård, Glenn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    The risk of slipping and falling as a pedestrian during wintertime2009Inngår i: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions: June 9-12, 2009, Luleå, Sweden, 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Injuries from fall accident on icy or snowy surfaces are frequently occurring in Sweden, 25-30 000 per year. This means 2-3 injuries/1000 inhabitants needing medical care are expected to occur in Sweden every year. Similar proportions exist in other northerly located countries such as Finland, Norway, Japan, Canada and so on. Outdoor activities are essential for a healthy life, therefore the prevention of slip and fall accidents are important. An intervention study has been performed during Feb-April 2008 among healthy subjects in northern Sweden. The subjects have been divided into three groups: an Intervention Group (N=25), a Control Group (N=25) and a Comparison Group (N=17) with similar distribution of gender and age. The intervention group were equipped with one of three different types of anti-slip devices for their shoes: a Heel-device, a Foot-blade device or a Whole-foot device. Four questionnaires were used: -Background, health, and earlier experiences of falling accidents during the winter 2007/2008 -Daily diary of walked distance, walking conditions, occurrence of incidences or falls reported weekly -Detailed accident or fall report used after each occurrence. -Experiences of using anti-slip devices The results show that the subjects had experienced 24 falls during the winter before the trial period. 64 incidents/accidents took place, without any injuries needing medical care, during the 10 week trial period with more than 2600 reported days. The anti-slip users walked longer compared to non users. An incident or fall among subjects wearing anti-slip devices reduced the walking distance that day. Anti-slip devices prevents from falling. The risk of slipping and falling is reduced for anti-slip users. The users of anti-slip devices will continue to use them and they will also recommend others to do so. The risk of falling as pedestrian during wintertime can thus be reduced by using anti-slip devices.

  • 90.
    Berggård, Glenn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Towards a standard method to test anti-slip devices2004Inngår i: Ergonomics society 2004 annual conference: April 14-16 2004 Swansea UK, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 2004, s. 557-561Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe the development of a standard method for testing anti-slip devices and discusses the main results from testing the anti-slip devices on a large group of healthy individuals. Methods for evaluations of perceived walking safety and balance, video recordings of walking postures and movements, measures of time to put on and take off each anti-slip device, advantages/disadvantages with each anti-slip device as well as evaluation of priority for own use according to three criteria; safety, balance and appearance are discussed. In a test on healthy individuals three different anti-slip device designs: a heel device, a foot blade device and a whole-foot device, were evaluated on different slippery surfaces: gravel, sand, salt, snow and ice. The results showed that the heel device was perceived to be the safest. It was perceived to fit the shoe and to be stable at heel-strike and on ice. It also had the highest rating of walking safety, walking balance and choice for own use

  • 91.
    Berggård, Glenn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Äntligen utbildning av lantmätare på LTU2008Inngår i: Sinus, nr 2, s. 6-7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 92.
    Berggård, Glenn
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Pedestrians in wintertime: effects of using anti-slip device2010Inngår i: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 42, nr 4, s. 1199-1204Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Pedestrians slipping and falling is a major safety problem around the world, not least in countries with long winters such as Sweden. About 25 000–30 000 people need medical care every year for treatment of fall injuries in Sweden. Use of appropriate shoes and anti-slip devices are examples of individual measures that have been suggested to prevent slipping and falling.An intervention study was performed during the period February to April 2008. The study, which focused on healthy adults in northern Sweden, examined the effect of using anti-slip devices on daily walking journeys and prevention of slip and falls.The respondents were divided into three groups: an Intervention Group, a Control Group, with similar distribution of gender and age, and a Comparison Group. Four questionnaires were distributed: (1) background, (2) daily diary of distance walked and occurrence of incidents or accidents reported weekly, (3) detailed incident or fall report and (4) experiences of using anti-slip devices for those who used these devices during the trial period.Half of the respondents stated that they had previous experience of using anti-slip devices. In this study, 52% of the respondents used anti-slip devices. Anti-slip devices improve the walking capability during wintertime. Among those using appropriate anti-slip devices, the average daily walking distance was found to be statistically significantly longer compared to people not using anti-slip devices. This study indicates that an increase in daily walking distance can be made without increasing the risk of slips/falls when using anti-slip devices. The study also indicates that by using appropriate anti-slip devices and having information about when and where to use them, based on their design, people avoid having slips and falls. The respondents experienced in using anti-slip devices in this study will continue to use them and will also recommend others to use anti-slip devises.

  • 93.
    Berggård, Glenn
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Rosander, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Larsson, Agneta
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Hälsa och rehabilitering.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Hälsa och rehabilitering.
    Konsumenttester av vinterskor och halkskydd2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sjukvårdsbaserad skadestatistik från Sverige visar att singelolyckor med fotgängare på is och snö, orsakar höga skadetal. I Sverige beräknas ca 10000 män och 15000 kvinnor uppsöka sjukvård på grund av skada vid fall på snö och is. Personer skadade i fallolyckor på snö och is har svårare skador och längre konvalescenstid jämfört med fotgängare som faller på barmark. Det är därför viktigt att identifiera preventiva metoder och hjälpmedel för fallolyckor vintertid.Syftet med detta arbete har varit att genomföra konsumenttester av vinterskor och halkskydd på olika underlag med avseende på hur väl de fungerar som skydd mot att halka samt hur användarvänliga de upplevs av brukaren. I arbetet har det också varit viktigt att försöka identifiera kriterier som kan anses vara betydelsefulla för att bedöma vinterväglagsegenskaperna. Dessutom fanns ett behov av att ta fram underlag och förslag på en standardiserad metod för halkskydds-/vinterskortester och en märkning som ger konsumenterna möjlighet att bedöma och jämföra halkskyddens respektive vinterskornas egenskaper innan köp.Testmetoden som tagits fram för att undersöka halkskyddens och skornas egenskaper bygger på tidigare erfarenheter från tester av halkskydd. Metoden bygger på att försökspersoner genomför gångtester med halkskydd och skor på olika underlag samtidigt som olika mätmetoder, både objektiva och subjektiva, används för att kategorisera gång. Tester har genomförts av 9 försökspersoner, över 45 år, 4 män och 5 kvinnor, som testat 19 halkskydd och 20 olika skor. Fyra olika underlag har använts för att kategorisera egenskaperna på de undersökta halkskydden och skorna: is, is täckt med snö, packad snö, torr betong.Testmetoden har kompletterats med laboratoriemätningar av halkskyddens och skosulornas friktion på is samt hårdheten hos skornas sulor. Multipel hierarkisk multipel regressionsanalys användes för att identifiera vilka kriterier som kan ha betydelse för fotgängarnas skattade helhetsupplevelse av de testade halkskydden på olika underlag.Resultatet av förmätningarna visar att testgruppen (fem kvinnor och fyra män med medålder 47 år) motsvarar en normalpopulation, avseende variationer i de uppmätta bakgrundsparametrarna.FIOH:s friktionsmätningar på is av samtliga skor och halkskydd visar att halkskydden har genomgående högre friktionsvärden än skorna, dvs. de har bättre fäste på is än de skor som testats men resultaten visar på små skillnader mellan de sämsta halkskydden och de bästa skorna.Resultat från friktionsmätningen, som den utförs idag i fixerat utförande, ger inte överensstämmelse med försökspersonernas upplevelser av gångsäkerhet eller fallrisk. Försökspersonernas gångcykel med hälisättning, överrullning och fotavveckling bygger upp den samlade uppfattningen om egenskaperna och fångas enbart i de subjektiva mätmetoderna.Sex kriterier som bedömts viktiga att ta hänsyn till när det gäller halkfri gång med en vintersko har kunnat identifieras via analys av försökspersonernas fritextsvar avseende fördelar, nackdelar och övrig funktionalitet: gångsäkerhet, möjliggör ett naturligt gångmönster, stabilitet, förutsägbarhet, flexibilitet och passform/komfort. Gångsäkerhet är viktigast och omfattar fäste/grepp, detta är viktigast på is, is/snö vid gång samt vid start och stopp.Sju subjektiva kriterier för halkskydd har också identifierats; gångsäkerhet, tillåter naturligt gångmönster, stabilitet, förutsägbarhet, flexibilitet, passform/komfort, och ljud. Gångsäkerhet är viktigast.Den självskattade hälisättningen på underlagen ren is samt på snö på is framkom som det viktigaste kriteriet för testpersonernas helhetsupplevelse av skyddet. Även skattad fotavveckling på alla underlag med främst på främst på snö på is var av betydelse. Upplevd balans och fallrisk var mest utslagsgivande för helhetsupplevelsen av de halkskydd som inte valdes för eget bruk. Det tyder på att en lägre grad av skattad kontroll av kroppshållning och balans under gång med skyddet är en relevant indikator för att identifiera skydd med bristande funktioner.Variablerna subjektivt skattad fallrisk, balans, hälisättning och fotavveckling kan samtliga relateras till ett skydds halkegenskaper och funktion. Upplevd fallrisk samvarierar med såväl balans, hälisättning och fotavveckling vilket innebär att kriteriet upplevd fallrisk kan antas omfatta de övriga och kan väljas som en enskild variabel i fortsatta analyser.Kvalitetsnivåer i bedömningsskalor kan antas gå att knyta till de subjektiva kriterierna.En standardiserat testmetod för klassindelning av egenskaper för vinterskor respektive halkskydd bör bygga på mätmetoder med försökspersoner enligt ovan.Fortsatta studier med fler testpersoner behövs för att verifiera de resultat som indikeras ovan.

  • 94.
    Berglund, Lotta
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Hälsa och rehabilitering.
    Tossavainen, Mia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Hälsa och rehabilitering.
    Nilsson, Kristina L.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Kostenius, Catrine
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Hälsa och rehabilitering.
    Health on thin ice: methods of giving voice to Swedish citizens in urban planning and design to promote health in a cold climate2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the northern, sub-arctic, regions of the world the climate is cold a substantial part of the year which affecting people's health as low temperatures and darkness stress the body. At the same time the cold climate offers opportunities that can be utilized in an innovative manner, both technically and aesthetically, to develop the winter environment to be attractive and health promoting in outdoor activities.The aim of the study was to develop a methodology for giving voice to citizens to be used in the process of urban planning and design for good health in a cold climate. The qualitative investigations of citizen’s experiences of health promoting aspects included two workshops focused on the following questions; What are your experiences of health and well-being in a cold climate? How can this city be planned to promote health during the winter season? The 53 participants came from two cities in the northern part of Sweden. At Workshop 1 small groups of citizens (5-8) were asked to make a collective collage cutting and pasting images from magazines without talking to each other while soft music was playing in the background.When finished the silence was broken and the participants presented their contributions. At Workshop 2 small groups of citizens (5-8) were given maps of the city with different paths for walking tours aimed to pinpoint areas for improvement. After the walk the group presented their ideas for each other and a number of innovative ideas surfaced.Including citizens in the process of urban planning is not only a good source of ideas and information useful in the planning process but may be an opportunity to strengthen health literacy and healthy behavior. This study may serve as an example of an empowerment - based method including citizens in the process of urban planning and design.

  • 95. Bergman, Gunnar
    et al.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Sandberg, Karl W.
    IT for the citizens as a means of development of Lillpite village, Sweden1999Inngår i: Circumpolar change: building a future on experiences from the past : proceeding / [ed] Håkan Myrlund; Lars Carlsson, Luleå tekniska universitet, 1999, s. 289-303Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 96.
    Bergman, Stina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Livscykelanalys för grundläggning av byggnader: Användningen idag och hur metoden kan tillämpas i praktiken2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Byggsektorn står idag för en stor andel av växthusgasutsläppen vid produktion av byggmaterial ochanvändningen av byggmaskiner under byggproduktionsskedet. Det nationella målet är att Sverige år 2045ska vara koldioxidneutralt och utifrån detta mål har Fossilfritt Sverige, tillsammans med ett stort antalaktörer från bygg- och anläggningssektorn, tagit fram en färdplan för hur branschen ska bli klimatneutralt.Grundläggning står för en betydande del av den totala byggnadens klimatpåverkan och för att nå måletmed ett klimatneutralt Sverige år 2045 är det viktigt att discipliner inom grundläggning börja arbeta medutveckling och optimering av grundläggningskonstruktioner för att minska klimatpåverkan.

    I detta examensarbete har en intervjustudie utförts för att kartlägga vilka aspekter som styr valet avgrundläggningsmetod idag utifrån entreprenören och konsultens perspektiv samt för att kartlägga hurdessa aktörer använder livscykelanalys inom grundläggning av byggnader. En fallstudie har utförts för attundersöka hur livscykelanalys kan användas för att beräkna och jämföra klimatpåverkan samtprimärenergianvändningen från grundläggningsmetoder för byggnader genom att prova och utvärderatvå digitala LCA-verktyg.

    En litteraturstudie har genomförts för att skapa kunskap inom grundläggning och för att skapa förståelseom klimatpåverkan från byggsektorn samt vilka klimatkrav som finns. Litteraturstudien har legat till grundför valet av de två digitala LCA-verktyg som används i fallstudien samt har används för att ta fram enintervjuguide. Intervjuer har genomförts med aktörer från konsult- och entreprenadföretag som harvarierande erfarenheter och kunskaper inom livscykelanalys för grundläggning. Vidare har en fallstudiegenomförts där en jämförande livscykelanalys utförs mellan två grundläggningsmetoder, platta med pålaroch platta med lastkompensation, genom att använda två digitala LCA-verktyg, Klimatkalkyl 6.0 och BM1.0. LCA-studien utgår från verktygens avgränsningar och beaktar endast första delen av livscykeln,byggskedet (modul A1-A5) där Klimatkalkyl 6.0 beräknar klimatpåverkan och primärenergianvändningenoch BM 1.0 beräknar endast klimatpåverkan.

    Resultatet från intervjuerna visar att grundläggningsmetoder ofta väljs utifrån den ekonomiska aspektenmen att personlig erfarenhet, geografisk och historisk tradition även påverkar. Respondenterna anser attklimat- och miljökrav som förekommer i projekt ofta är otydliga och svåra att förstå. Intervjustudienindikerar att användningen av livscykelanalys är begränsad. Enligt respondenterna skulle användningenöka om man utvecklade kompetens hos konsulter och entreprenörer, förenklade LCA-modellen menframförallt om deras beställare tydliggjorde kravställningarna.

    I fallstudien visar de två verktygen på olika klimatpåverkan för respektive grundläggningsmetod och olikaskillnader vid jämförandet av de två grundläggningsmetoderna. Båda verktygen visar att grundläggningmed platta med pålar ger en lägre klimatpåverkan än platta med lastkompensation under byggskedetmed givna förutsättningar. Skillnaden mellan grundläggningsmetoderna är 2 eller 5 tonkoldioxidekvivalenter beroende på vilket verktyg man använder, vilket motsvarar cirka 13 respektive 23procent i skillnad. Båda verktygen visar även att betong, cellplast och stål är de byggnadskomponentersom bär den största andelen av den totala klimatpåverkan för respektive grundläggningsmetod.

    Ingen av verktygen Klimatkalkyl 6.0 och BM 1.0 är utvecklade för grundläggning av byggnader och i bådaverktygen saknas det byggnadsdelar som ingår i grundläggningsmetoderna, som studeras i fallstudien.Resultatredovisningen från respektive verktyg är även svårtolkade och bör utvecklas. Trots detta så ansesdet att båda verktygen kan användas som hjälpmedel för att beräkna och visa vilketgrundläggningsalternativ som ger minst klimatpåverkan.

    Då den ekonomiska faktorn idag är styrande för valet av grundläggningsmetod kan denna parameteranvändas som styrmedel för att öka arbetet med klimatanpassade lösningar. Förslag på fortsatta studierär att ta fram en relation mellan kostnader och klimatpåverkan för grundläggningsmetoder samt attundersöka hur man kan implementera livscykelanalys på projektörsnivå för att öka dess användning.

  • 97.
    Bergqvist, Michaela
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Byggregler för flerbostadshus: en studie av konsekvenser och möjligheter att skapa kvalitativa bostäder genom riktad problemlösning i byggprocessen2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The National Board of Housing, Building and Planning have been conducting housing needs assessments since 1995 (Boverket 2015). The latest assessment was conducted in 2015 and showed that 71,000 homes will need to be built annually by 2020. To be able to contribute to building more homes, Willhem AB is carrying out a project called ”Så bygger vi för alla”. As part of the work, this thesis will examine the building rules and how they can contribute to innovation. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate which rules, laws and norms we have to keep to in Sweden regarding housing construction. The aim of the work is to investigate whether the regulatory framework can create creativity amongst the players in the market.

    This thesis is limited to examining which laws, government policies and eventual municipal requirements that exist in Sweden. Therefore, industry rules, such as the AMA, and contracting regulations, such as AB and ABT, will not be taken into consideration. The survey is also limited to newly built multifamily houses only. Finally, the reference objects that are studied in the thesis will be in Sweden and be limited to being either construction-technical or plan-based innovative and have been recently executed.

    This thesis is based on the existing regulations and theories from previous studies. The data collected for this survey will be studied from a qualitative point of view. The survey aims to investigate a number of reference objects more thoroughly and conduct interviews with key people involved in the project, which means a qualitative approach is best suited.

    In 1987, Sweden received a new building legislation according to Örnhall (2017), which has resulted in a transition from specification requirements to functional requirements in order to increase the liberty in housing production. However, according to Örnhall (2017 the new legislation has contributed to a wider picture of the regulatory framework. The National Board of Housing, Building and Planning is the authority that has the overall responsibility for community planning, urban development, construction and housing (Nordstrand 2008). The most important laws and government policies that the social planning sector primarily have to obey are the Planning and Building Act (PBL), the Planning and Building Regulation (PBF) as well as and the Swedish National Board of Housing, Building and Planning (BBR) (Örnhall, Swedish Construction Service 2017a). The Planning and Building Act (SFS 2010:900), PBL, regulates the planning for land and water whilst the responsibility for maintaining the regulations lies with the municipalities. The purpose of PBL is to promote social development for long-term, equal, social and environmental sustainable development for today’s society and future generations (SFS 2010: 900). When creating new homes, special consideration should be given to long term use of the home (Boverket 2016).

    At the interview stage, six areas emerged that were considered to be particularly problematic or interesting for the development of innovative and cheap housing. These areas were; accessibility, municipal requirements, rules, advice and interpretations, energy, innovation and development, and the ability to build for everyone. I perceived the accessibility aspect as very complex. Several interviewees argue that the accessibility requirements entail an increased cost for new builds, in one case it was even expressed that today’s availability requirements means the housing becomes less accessible to a larger group. The rules for creating an inclusive society also emerged at the interview stage while another recurring opinion is the renewal of the legislation.

    Several interviewees stated that they consider the regulations to be outdated and need to be updated according to today’s society. Based on this, I found The National Board of Housing, Building and Planning requirements contradictory whilst providing support for innovation, many requirements inhibits the development of housing. Therefore, extensive research should be carried out on how people in Sweden want to live today; thereafter the regulations can be updated according to today’s needs.

    In one way or another, all reference objects have been at the forefront when it comes to housing development. A common factor for the various reference objects is that a major problem was identified in all projects, which led to a product or solution being developed. They show that there is not one solution to the problem, but that different solutions can be found to achieve the same goal: better housing for more people.

  • 98.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Biofiltration technologies for stormwater quality treatment2010Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to high runoff volumes and peak flows, and significant contamination with (inter alia) sediment, metals, nutrients, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and salt, urban stormwater is a major cause of degradation of urban water ways. Since current urban drainage systems, which heavily rely on piped sewer networks, may not be sustainable, attempts are being made to develop and refine sustainable urban drainage solutions, notably in Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) and Low Impact Development (LID) concepts. Promising systems recommended for application in both WSUD and LID are stormwater biofilters (also known as bioretention systems or rain gardens) using vegetated filter media. Besides their capacity to attenuate flows and minimise runoff volumes, stormwater biofilters have proven efficacy for enhancing effluent water quality. Furthermore, they can be aesthetically pleasingly integrated even in dense urban environments. However, there are still gaps in our knowledge of the variability of biofilters' pollutant removal performance, and the factors that affect their performance.In the studies this thesis is based upon, the effects of various ambient factors, stormwater characteristics and modifications of filter design on the removal of metals, nutrients and total suspended solids (TSS) in biofilters, and pollutant pathways through them, have been investigated. For these purposes, standard biofilters and variants equipped with a submerged zone, a carbon source and different filter materials were exposed to varying temperatures and dry periods, dosed with stormwater and snowmelt, and the inflow and outflow concentrations of the pollutants were measured.Although removal percentages were consistently high (>70%), demonstrating that biofilters can reliably treat stormwater, the results show that metal outflow concentrations may vary widely depending on the biofilter design and the ambient conditions. Prolonged drying especially impaired their removal efficiency, but variations in temperature and filter media variations had little effect on metal removal rates. The adverse effects of drying could be mitigated by using a submerged zone, and thus providing a more constant moisture regime in the filters between storm events. Combined with embedded organic matter, the submerged zone especially significantly enhances Cu removal, helping to meet outflow target concentrations. Similarly, installing a mulch layer on top of the filter provides additional sorption capacity, hence metals do not ingress far into the filter and are mainly trapped on/in the top layer by sorption processes and/or mechanical trapping associated with TSS. This leads to significant metal accumulation, which facilitates biofilter maintenance since scraping off the top layer removes high proportions of previously accumulated metals, thus delaying the need to replace the whole filter media. However, removal of accumulated pollutants from the filter media is crucial for successful long-term performance of the filters to ensure that no pollutant breakthrough occurs.Nitrogen removal was found to be more variable than metal removal, and to be adversely affected by temperature increases, leading to high nitrogen leaching in warm temperatures. Phosphorus removal rates were consistently high, since most phosphorus was particle-bound and thus trapped together with TSS. However, in initial stages phosphorus was washed out from the filter media, indicating that filter media that do not have high levels of labile phosphorus should be used to avoid high effluent concentrations. Given that most outflow concentrations were far lower than those in the stormwater, biofilters are appropriate stormwater treatment systems. Dependent on the ambient conditions, the target pollutants and the sensitivity of the recipient, adaptation of the filter design is recommended. Further work is required to investigate the winter performance and improve the reliability of nitrogen removal, which is highly variable.

  • 99.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Hunt, William F.
    Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh.
    Al-Rubaei, Ahmed
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Lord, William G.
    North Carolina Cooperative Extension, North Carolina State University, Raleigh.
    Stormwater control measure (SCM) maintenance considerations to ensure designed functionality2017Inngår i: Urban Water Journal, ISSN 1573-062X, Vol. 14, nr 3, s. 278-290Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Great investment is made in the design and installation of stormwater control measures (SCMs). Substantial research investment, too, is made to optimise the performance of SCMs. However, once installed, SCMs often suffer from lack of maintenance or even outright neglect. Key maintenance needs for wet ponds, constructed stormwater wetlands, bioretention, infiltration practices, permeable pavement, swales, and rainwater harvesting systems are reviewed with many tasks, such as the cleaning of pre-treatment areas and the preservation of infiltration surfaces, being common maintenance themes among SCMs. Consequences of lacking maintenance are illustrated (mainly insufficient function or failure). Probable reasons for neglect include insufficient communication, unclear responsibilities, lack of knowledge, financial barriers, and decentralised measures. In future designs and research, maintenance (and lack thereof) should be considered. Assessing the performance of SCMs conservatively and including safety factors may prevent consequences of under-maintenance; and requiring regular inspection may help to enforce sufficient maintenance.

  • 100.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Karlsson, Kristin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Closure to “Environmental Risk Assessment of Sediments Deposited in Stormwater Treatment Facilities: Trace Metal Fractionation and Its Implication for Sediment Management”2018Inngår i: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 144, nr 4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
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