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  • 51. Johansson, Bernt
    et al.
    Maquoi, René
    Sedlacek, Gerhard
    New design rules for plated structures in Eurocode 32001Inngår i: Journal of constructional steel research, ISSN 0143-974X, E-ISSN 1873-5983, Vol. 57, nr 3, s. 279-311Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives an overview of Eurocode 3 Part 1.5 Design of Steel Structures. Supplementary rules for planar plated structures without transverse loading have been developed together with the Eurocode 3-2 Steel bridges. It covers stiffened and unstiffened plates in common steel bridges and similar structures. This paper presents the background and justification of some of the design rules with focus on the ultimate limit states. The design rules for buckling of stiffened plates loaded by direct stress are presented and explained. For shear resistance and patch loading the new rules are briefly derived and compared with the rules in Eurocode 3-1-1. Finally, the statistical calibration of the rules to tests is described.

  • 52. Johansson, Bernt
    et al.
    Olsson, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Current design practice and research on stainless steel structures in Sweden2000Inngår i: Journal of constructional steel research, ISSN 0143-974X, E-ISSN 1873-5983, Vol. 54, nr 1, s. 3-29Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The current design practice in Sweden is using codes for structural steel also when working with stainless steel. For load cases governed by instability this may produce non-conservative errors amounting to 10% while it may greatly underestimate the ultimate resistance in cases when instability is not governing. Three ongoing research projects are briefly described, one on weldbonding, one on plastic forming and one on the behaviour of structural components. A part of the latter concerns fundamental work regarding the material behaviour which in general is described using too simple models. This is presented in some detail and its results will be used to provide improved finite element simulations.

  • 53. Johansson, Bernt
    et al.
    Sundquist, Håkan
    Europastandarder - välsignelse och probelm?1993Inngår i: Dagens Industri, ISSN 0346-640XArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 54. Johansson, Bernt
    et al.
    Veljkovic, Milan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Frågor och svar för dimensionering av förband enligt Eurokod 32003Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 55. Johansson, Bernt
    et al.
    Veljkovic, Milan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Review of plate buckling rules in EN 1993-1-52009Inngår i: Steel Construction - Design and Research, ISSN 1867-0520, Vol. 2, nr 4, s. 228-234Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    EN 1993-1-5 provides harmonized European design rules for plated structures. It is a step forward in the harmonization process, but like all the Eurocodes it includes many options for national choices, in terms of parameters and also methods, which leads to quite different results. Actually, there are four different methods for dealing with buckling problems. One purpose of this paper is to illustrate differences by way of examples and also to suggest topics for studies intended to improve the design rules and bring them closer together. The revision of EN 1993-1-5 is due to take place around 2014 and there is ample time for performing research projects that can form the basis for the new version. Examples of such topics are the recalibration of buckling curves, reviewing the interaction checks and the verification format of the reduced stress method.

  • 56. Johansson, Bernt
    et al.
    Veljkovic, Milan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Steel plated structures2001Inngår i: Progress in Structural Engineering and Materials, ISSN 1365-0556, E-ISSN 1528-2716, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 13-27Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Steel plated structures are important because they are used in large structures of vital importance for society. For the steel construction industry they are however of less importance as they are a small part of the turnover. Since the big disasters with box girder bridges more than thirty years ago very little money, public or private, has been spent on development of plated structures and hence progress has been fairly slow. Fortunately, the scientific interest in buckling problems is still high and this has led to some important steps forward. The European project of harmonizing design standards has brought plated structures onto the agenda again in connection with the conversion of Eurocode 3 to EN. There are several open questions, some of which are discussed in the context of new experimental and theoretical results

  • 57. Johansson, Bernt
    et al.
    Wredling, Staffan
    Snön som föll i fjol1989Inngår i: Bygg & Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, nr 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 58. Kuhlmann, Ulrike
    et al.
    Braun, B.
    Johansson, Bernt
    Raoul, J.
    Clarin, Mattias
    Davaine, L.
    Gozzi, Jonas
    Martin, P-O
    A survey on patch loading models for bridge launching2007Inngår i: Improving Infrastructure Worldwide: IABSE symposium, Weimar 2007, [September 19 - 21, 2007] ; report / [ed] Ulrike Kuhlmann, Zürich: International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, 2007, artikkel-id A-0202Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During the incremental launching of steel and composite bridges high support reactions have to be introduced into the slender steel webs of the bridge girder. In the past, the specific characteristics of bridge launching such as long loading lengths and longitudinal stiffeners were not covered appropriately by existing design formulae for patch loading. In the frame of the research project “Competitive Steel and Composite Bridges by Improved Steel Plated Structures (COMBRI)” a clear improvement of the patch loading resistances for I-girders and box sections could be derived leading to more economic solutions for this type of loading. The paper introduces the basic concepts of the developed models for both unstiffened girders and girders with open-section and closed-section longitudinal stiffeners as well as a software tool for the advanced determination of elastic critical buckling loads and modes. A comparison of the main area of application and the resulting economic advantages concludes the survey.

  • 59.
    Lagerqvist, Ove
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Johansson, Bernt
    Bostäder och lokaler på funktionsentreprenad: stöd för upphandling2004Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 60.
    Lagerqvist, Ove
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Johansson, Bernt
    Resistance of I-girders to concentrated loads1996Inngår i: Journal of constructional steel research, ISSN 0143-974X, E-ISSN 1873-5983, Vol. 39, nr 2, s. 87-119Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results from an experimental investigation including tests with welded girders and rolled beams subjected to three different cases of concentrated loads applied to the girder flanges. The welded girders were made from a high strength, quenched and tempered steel, while the rolled beams were of an ordinary steel grade. The results from the experimental investigation presented herein have been added to test results taken from the literature and used for a formulation of a design procedure for the resistance to concentrated loads. The suggested design procedure is unified for the three different load applications and also harmonized with the design procedures normally used for describing buckling problems in the steel codes. The design procedure is a further development of the design procedure for patch loading suggested in B. Johansson & O. Lagerqvist [J. Construct. Steel Res., 32 (1995) 69-105] and has in a simplfied form been suggested for use in Eurocode 3 Part 2 (Bridges), as well as in Eurocode 9.

  • 61.
    Lagerqvist, Ove
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Johansson, Bernt
    Résistance des âmes de poutres de pont pendant le lancement1996Inngår i: Construction Métallique, ISSN 0045-8198, nr 2, s. 4-16Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 62.
    Möller, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Johansson, Bernt
    Collin, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    New analytical model of inelastic local flange buckling1997Inngår i: Journal of constructional steel research, ISSN 0143-974X, E-ISSN 1873-5983, Vol. 43, nr 1-3, s. 43-63Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with analytical modelling of inelastic local flange buckling of compressed I-beam flanges. A short discussion of the relevance of different constitutive models for the inelastic material behaviour is carried out. It is claimed that what is known as the `plastic buckling paradox' is not at all a paradox but a result of improper use of plasticity theory. An analytical model for the inelastic local buckling of an I-beam flange is proposed. The model considers the buckling process as being composed of two pans. The first is associated with inelastic torsional buckling of a compressed flange and the second part corresponds to a yield line plate buckling configuration which includes the effect of stress redistribution due to large deformations. The transition between these phases is left out in the model. The model is capable of predicting approximately the force-deformation relation of a locally buckling stocky flange for different stress-strain relations. The model is evaluated against experiments and the agreement is found quite reasonable.

  • 63.
    Patrón, A.
    et al.
    Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussées, France.
    Cremona, C.
    Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussées, France.
    Hoehler, S.
    RWTH Institute of Steel Construction, Aachen.
    Johansson, Bernt
    Larsson, Tobias
    Maksymowicz, M.
    Universidade do Minho.
    Improved assessment methods for static and fatigue resistance of metallic railway bridges in Europe2006Inngår i: Bridge maintenance, safety, management, life-cycle performance and cost: proceedings of the Third International Conference on Bridge Maintenance, Safety and Management, Porto, Portugal, 16 - 19 July 2006 / [ed] Paulo J. S. Cruz; Dan M. Frangopol, London: Taylor & Francis Group, 2006, s. 751-753Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A very important part of the bridges in the European railway networks are metallic bridges that have been built during the last 100 years (some of them are much older). The increasing volume of traffic and axle weight of trains means that for many structures the loads today are much higher than those envisaged when they were designed. This paper deals with the research program established to develop improved assessment methods for existing metallic bridges in the context of the work package 4 (Loads, Capacity and Resistance) of the 6th framework European project Sustainable Bridges. Three main research topics under development. The first topic concerns information about material properties of steel and iron used in old existing railway bridges. Any safety assessment for an old bridge requires the knowledge of the structural resistance and therefore the information of the material properties. For the resistance to static loads the material strength expressed as yield strength (fy) is the significant parameter. In order to ensure sufficient fatigue resistance, next to the classic fatigue methods using damage accumulation further assessment models have been established that are based on fracture mechanics. For the classic fatigue assessment the fatigue properties are needed. Fracture mechanical approaches, taking into account that crack-like defects are very likely to be in the structure, use the fracture toughness as material resistance. This is usually given by J-Integrals (Ji, Jc) or stress-intensity-factors (KIc). Also further crack growth parameters, e.g. threshold values for crack growth, are important. The early metal bridges in the 19th century were fabricated of cast iron or puddle iron (wrought iron). Puddle iron surpassed cast iron having a lower carbon content that goes along with a better ductility and it allowed forging and an easier workmanship. Yet at the beginning of the 20th century puddle iron was superseded by mild steels that obtained higher qualities concerning the chemical composition and cleanness as well as better technological material properties (e.g. weldability, strength). For these old metal bridges, that were built between 1870 and 1940 in particular, the material parameters are in many cases not available. One reason is that although steel production and construction technology (bolting and welding of joints) developed quickly, appropriate testing methods to examine relevant properties as toughness, fatigue, etc., were missing completely and were not available until many decades later. Therefore only fragmentary knowledge exists concerning early iron materials, complicating the handling and assessment of old metal structures. Therefore this research activity is based on the collection of material data from more than 120 old bridges from Sweden, France and Germany. The second topic is associated with the development of new assessment methods for resistance of riveted structures. This mainly concerns the study of resistance and deformation capacity of cross sections formed by riveted slender plates. Modern standards for design of steel structures like Eurocode 3 cover riveted structures but they do not give complete information. Old design standards on the other hand are quite incomplete concerning instability phenomena and they cover elastic design only. In this research Eurocode 3 is considered as the starting point and some additional information relevant for riveted structures will be developed. The cross section classes in Eurocode 3 are essential in defining the resistance to bending moment. They are defined for rolled or welded sections but those definitions are not sufficient for riveted girders. First the maximum distance between rivets in the stress direction has to be defined. Further, there are some beneficial effects of confinement of plates in certain cases. The traditional method for assessing the resistance of steel bridges is based on elastic analysis. In case the resistance in ULS is insufficient it is possible that allowing for plastic deformations gives a more favourable answer. This is very obvious if the girders are stocky enough for using plastic hinge analysis. This is rarely the case but also more slender girders have some plastic deformation capacity, which can be utilized for a limited redistribution of moments in the girders. The third research activity is related to the assessment of fatigue life of riveted and welded bridges. Fatigue related failures are the most common cause of failure of riveted bridges. Riveted structures were constructed over a period of more than 100 years up to the 1950s. A large number of riveted bridges (thousands) can be still found on the European railway networks. Constantly increasing loads and the fact that these bridges were not explicitly designed against fatigue raise questions regarding their remaining fatigue life. Economically its not justified to replace a bridge when it reaches the end of its design life. Often the design life it's an arbitrary value and there is considerable reserve. As is well known, metal fatigue exhibits high levels of uncertainty and can be influenced by a very important number of structure and environmental factors. An important amount of service life may be justified by a better knowledge of the fatigue behavior of riveted connections. Furthermore, the load history, which plays a main role in fatigue life evaluation, is largely unknown in most of cases. In that context, there appears to be a need to develop a comprehensive fatigue assessment methodology for riveted railway bridges. Since the 1950s welding become a useful procedure for assembling components of metallic bridges. In welded joints cracks are often localized at the welding. Indeed the welding process induce some defects which help small cracks to appear. These defects can growth under cyclical loading and can induce the joint failure, and depending of the redundancy degree of the bridge can lead to the failure of the structure. The conditions governing crack growth are respectively structural geometry, initiation site, material characteristics and loading. In general all these conditions are highly random. Therefore, an appropriate analysis of fatigue phenomena consists by treating the problem in a probabilistic manner. Fatigue durability and inspection planning are then very important issues in the design and scheduled inspection of welded bridges. Usually welded structures have to be designed for a finite life with an accepted probability of failure based on S-N approach. Consequently cracks may propagate and become critical during the estimated safe-life, unless detected in time and repaired. If fracture is not acceptable, supplementary safety measures must be taken through in-service inspection requirements specifying appropriated non-destructive inspection techniques (NDT) and inspection planning. This leads to the damage tolerance concept: a welded joint containing a crack has to resist the service loadings for some time. All through this time there must be a large probability that the crack can be detected (and repaired) before it becomes critical. In order to verify this probability, the reliability against such a failure have to be evaluated as a function of service time in support of inspection strategy. The fracture mechanics and the reliability theory provides the necessary tools for these calculations. This approach (so called probabilistic fracture mechanics) is used on the assessment of welded joints of metallic bridges. This kind of analysis is carried out using the first order reliability method (FORM) or Monte Carlo simulations, which have become the standard methods in structural reliability. A limit state is formulated by applying linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) the uncertainties of the main parameters can be considered by treating them as basic random variables. One problem, which usually appears, is that the necessary statistical informations of these variables (mean value, standard deviation, and distribution type) are not known. Another problem is that this kind approach does not give the statistical distribution of the cumulated damage, or in different words, the statistical distribution of the crack sizes at a given time. This information is important to evaluate the performance of different NDT methods used to control welded joints in bridges. An alternative approach, based on concept of Markov chain is proposed.

  • 64.
    Stoltz, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Collin, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Johansson, Bernt
    Bridge deck elements with dry joints2001Inngår i: NSCC 2001 Proceedings: Helsinki, Finland, 18 - 20 June 2001 / [organized by Helsinki University of Technology ...] / [ed] P. Mäkeläinen; J. Kesti; A. Jutila; O. Kaitila, Helsinki: Helsinki University of Technology , 2001Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 65.
    Veljkovic, Milan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Johansson, Bernt
    Design for buckling of plates due to direct stress2001Inngår i: NSCC 2001 Proceedings: Helsinki, Finland, 18 - 20 June 2001, organized by Helsinki University of Technology ... / [ed] P. Mäkeläinen; J. Kesti; A. Jutila; O. Kaitila, Helsinki: Helsinki University of Technology , 2001, s. 729-736Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 66.
    Veljkovic, Milan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Johansson, Bernt
    Design of hybrid steel girders2004Inngår i: Journal of constructional steel research, ISSN 0143-974X, E-ISSN 1873-5983, Vol. 60, nr 3-5, s. 535-547Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A hybrid steel girder is a welded girder with different steel grades in flanges and web. Usually, the flanges are made of high strength steel (HSS) like S690 and the web of a lower grade say S355 but combinations like S460 and S355 are also used. Such girders are more economical than homogenous girders. Hybrid girders have been used in the US since long but they are not commonly used in Europe. Some examples of the use of hybrid girders in Sweden are presented together with economic comparisons. Design rules for hybrid girders are presented together with justifications. Typically, hybrid girders are of cross-section class 4 according to Eurocode 3. The resistance in bending in ultimate limit state is influenced by the local yielding of the web, which limits the stresses in the web and affects the effective width of the web as well. Simplified formulae for the bending resistance are presented. For serviceability limit states, the local yielding of the web has to be accepted but the requirement of reversible behaviour will still be fulfilled. For the limit state of fatigue, Eurocode 3 states a restriction that the stress range should not exceed 1.5 times the yield strength. For hybrid girders, it is shown that this restriction applies to the yield strength of the flanges and that yielding of the web does not influence the fatigue strength.

  • 67.
    Veljkovic, Milan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Johansson, Bernt
    Design of thin-walled steel column with partially closed cross-section2006Inngår i: Proceedings of SDSS 2006: International Colloquium on Stability and Ductility of Steel Structures : [Lisbon, Instituto Superior Técnico, 06 - 08 September 2006] / [ed] Dinar Camotim, Lisboa: Instituto Superior Técnico , 2006, s. 639-647Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cold formed sections can be optimized for different purposes and they are fairly inexpensive to produce in small series. They have an inherent weakness in their small torsional stiffness, which is unfavourable for columns. The solution presented here is to make closed section by adding a thin cover plate connected with self-tapping screws. It is here called a partially closed cross-section because it is not continuously and rigidly connected. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of this solution by comparing the behaviour of partially closed and open cross-section. Four columns were tested within the project, two of them with centric axial load and two with eccentricities. Numerical analysis was performed using ABAQUS for establishing the influence of the cover plate on the critical load and the resistance. A good agreement between non-linear FEM and experiments were found. After this verification of the FE model a parametric study was carried out. Results of experiments and numerical analysis were compared with the predicted resistance by Eurocode 3, Part 1-3, and the Direct Strength Method.

  • 68.
    Veljkovic, Milan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Johansson, Bernt
    Design of uniformly compressed stiffened plates: a review of Eurocode 3-1-52000Inngår i: Coupled Instabilities In Metal Structures: Proceedings of the Third International Conference Held in Lisbon / [ed] Dinar Camotim; Dan Dubina; Jacques Rondal, Singapore: World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society, 2000, s. 305-314Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 69.
    Veljkovic, Milan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Johansson, Bernt
    Light steel framing for residential buildings2006Inngår i: Thin-walled structures, ISSN 0263-8231, E-ISSN 1879-3223, Vol. 44, nr 12, s. 1272-1279Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Building systems with light steel members, gypsum plasterboards and mineral wool have a wide spread use in the US, Australia and Japan and are gaining market in some European countries. The systems have often load-bearing walls and the floors may be of lightweight steel profiles or concrete. Such systems are suited for industrial production and can contribute to a more efficient building process. Examples of components and systems are given in the paper. For low and medium rise buildings it is natural to use the walls as stabilising for horizontal loads from wind and imperfections. In Sweden and Finland this has been common practice for single-family timber houses since the 1970s. The paper describes the traditional design model for walls with single-layer gypsum plasterboards and an extension to double layers, which are needed for fire protection in multi-storey buildings.

  • 70.
    Veljkovic, Milan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Johansson, Bernt
    Residual static resistance of welded stud shear connectors2006Inngår i: Composite Construction in Steel and Concrete V: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference / [ed] Roberto T. Leon; Jorg Lange, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2006, s. 524-533Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Headed studs are widely used in composite bridges to provide longitudinal shear force transfer in the interface between concrete deck and steel beam. There is still no theoretical model available to describe the local failure mechanism and the resistance under the monotonic loading of the stud. The standard design of shear studs assumes that the static resistance is independent of fatigue. A test series on 12.5mm studs published by Oehlers however indicates a linear reduction of the static resistance with the number of cycles. In order to shed more light on this question a test series on 22mm studs was performed, which is the common size in bridges. The residual static resistance of shear studs after cyclic loading was measured using push tests according to Eurocode 4-1-1. The test program consisted of two series of tests. Five static tests were performed for establishing a reference static resistance and five residual strength tests were used to measure residual static resistance after cyclic preloading. In order to give an insight into the local failure mechanism under the monotonic loading a realistic 3D FE analysis of a single stud embedded in the concrete is presented. Results obtained from the FE model are compared with experiments and rather good agreement is obtained.

  • 71.
    Veljkovic, Milan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Johansson, Bernt
    Stabilizing light weight steel buildings with shear walls2005Inngår i: EUROSTEEL 2005: 4th European Conference on Steel and Composite Structures / [ed] B. Hoffmeister; O. Hechler, Aachen: Verlag Mainz , 2005, s. 1.8/25-1.8/33Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 72.
    Veljkovic, Milan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Johansson, Bernt
    Thin-walled steel columns with partially closed cross-section: tests and computer simulations2008Inngår i: Journal of constructional steel research, ISSN 0143-974X, E-ISSN 1873-5983, Vol. 64, nr 7-8, s. 816-821Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cold formed sections can be optimized for different purposes and they are fairly inexpensive to produce in small series. They have an inherent weakness in their small torsional stiffness, which is unfavourable for columns. One solution presented here is to make a closed section by adding a thin cover plate connected discretely with self-tapping screws. It is here called a partially closed cross-section because it is not continuously and rigidly connected. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of this solution by comparing the behaviour of partially closed and open cross-section. Four columns were tested within the project, two of them with centric axial load and two with eccentricities. Numerical analysis was performed using ABAQUS for establishing the influence of the cover plate on the critical load and the resistance. A good agreement between non-linear FEM and experiments were found. After this verification of the FE model a parametric study was carried out. Results of experiments and numerical analysis were compared with the predicted resistance by Eurocode 3, Part 1-3, and the Direct Strength Method. Both design methods give good predictions of the resistance.

  • 73. Wargsjö, Agneta
    et al.
    Johansson, Bernt
    Plastic rotation capacity for steel girders with slender webs1993Inngår i: Proceedings, Nordic Steel Colloquium, ECCS Annual Meeting: Odense, Danish Steel Institute, September 1991, Odense: Danish Steel Institute , 1993Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
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