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  • 51.
    Gao, Chuansi
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Abeysekera, John
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    The assessment of the integration of slip resistance, thermal insulation and wearability of footwear on icy surfaces2002Inngår i: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 40, nr 7-8, s. 613-624Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Prevention of slip hazard in frozen environments is not paid much attention. Current winter and safety footwear does not provide sufficient slip resistance and appropriate wearability for use on icy surfaces. The objectives of this study were to assess the integration of slip resistance, thermal insulation, and wearability of footwear used on icy surfaces, and the anti-slip effect of materials spread on ice using outdoor walking trials. Twenty-five subjects wore four types of footwear walking on five different icy surfaces. A five-point rating scale was used recording wearer's perceptions of slipperiness, thermal comfort and wearability. The results showed that pure ice was perceived as very slippery. Spreading sand (180 g/m(2)) greatly decreased the slipperiness. Slip resistance, thermal insulation and wearability of footwear tested were not properly integrated, and were ranked differently. The tested winter and safety footwear did not provide Sufficient slip resistance and good wearability. In addition to thermal insulation, prevention of slip and fall hazard by improving anti-slip property and wearability must also be priorities for development of footwear for use in cold climate.

  • 52.
    Gao, Chuansi
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Abeysekera, John
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Hirvonen, Mikko
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health.
    Aschan, Carita
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health.
    The effect of footwear sole abrasion on the coefficient of friction on melting and hard ice2002Inngår i: Proceedings of the XVI Annual International Occupational Ergonomics and Safety Conference, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 10-13 June 2002., International Society for Occupational Ergonomics and Safety , 2002Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Footwear sole wear by natural use or artificial abrasion either increases or decreases slip resistance on floors or lubricated floors. The objectives of this paper were to study the effect of footwear sole abrasive wear on slip resistance on ice with respect to temperature, and to compare with the slip resistance on lubricated steel plate

  • 53.
    Gao, Chuansi
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Abeysekera, John
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Hirvonen, Mikko
    Department of Physics, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health.
    Aschan, Carita
    Department of Physics, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health.
    The effect of footwear sole abrasion on the coefficient of friction on melting and hard ice2003Inngår i: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 31, nr 5, s. 323-330Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Footwear sole wear by natural use or artificial abrasion either increases or decreases slip resistance on floors with and without lubricant. The objectives of this paper were to study the effect of footwear sole abrasive wear on slip resistance on ice with respect to temperature, and to compare the slip resistance of abraded soles on melting and hard ice with that on lubricated steel plate. The kinetic coefficient of friction (COF) of nine pairs of footwear were measured with the stationary step simulator developed at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, before and after the new footwear soles were artificially abraded. Two-way factorial ANOVA showed that the abrasion of nine pairs of footwear had no significant effect on COF on melting ice (Mean COF with abrasion=0.056, std=0.0158, COF without abrasion=0.055, std=0.0205, P=0.805). On hard ice, however, the COF of abraded soles measured (mean COF=0.244) was significantly higher than without abrasion (mean COF=0.180,p<0.001), and than abraded soles on lubricated steel (mean=0.137,p<0.001). There is statistical significance between the three types of surfaces (P<0.001). On hard ice, regardless of abrasion, curling footwear with crepe rubber soling showed significantly higher COF (mean=0.343 after abrasion, 0.261 before abrasion) than other types (P<0.001). The results indicate that artificially abraded footwear is more slip resistant than new one for use on hard ice. The abrasion requirement could be specified if developing a new standard to measure COF on ice in the future. Of the footwear measured, the curling footwear with crepe rubber soling performed best in terms of slip resistance property. Therefore, Crepe rubber soling is highly recommended for use on hard ice. Melting ice is much more slippery, in which sole abrasion does not improve slip resistance. Thus, additional measures should be taken to reduce slip and fall risk. Relevance to industrySlipping and falling accidents are common on surfaces covered with snow, ice, melting snow, melting ice or the mixed in winter for outdoor workers and pedestrians. Understanding of the friction at the interface can help footwear industry design slip resistant products, to help outdoor workers choose appropriate protective equipment, and to provide safe work practice for industries involving outdoor work.

  • 54.
    Gao, Chuansi
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Abeysekera, John
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Hirvonen, Mikko
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health.
    Grönqvist, Raoul
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health.
    Slip resistant properties of footwear on ice2004Inngår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 47, nr 6, s. 710-716Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Current research on slipperiness of footwear has mainly focused on floors and lubricated floors. Slips and falls on icy and snowy surfaces involve not only outdoor workers, but also pedestrians and the general public; and occur in cold regions and in winter season in many parts of the world. However, in comparison with the size of the problem, research on slips and falls on icy and snowy surfaces has been scarce. The objective of this paper is to explore the slip resistant properties of footwear (soling materials, roughness and hardness) on ice. The coefficients of kinetic friction of four different soling materials (synthetic rubber, nitrile rubber, natural rubber and polyurethane) were measured on ice (-12°C). The outsole roughness and hardness were also measured. Results showed that the polyurethane soling did not perform better than synthetic rubber, nitrile rubber and natural rubber on pure hard ice (-12°C). Soling roughness was positively correlated with the coefficient of kinetic friction. The most slip resistant soling material (polyurethane) on floors and lubricated floors may not provide sufficient slip resistance on ice.

  • 55.
    Gau, Chuansi
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Abeysekera, John
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Slip resistant properities of footwear on ice1999Inngår i: Proceedings of the 10th year anniversary of M. Sc. ergonomics: International conference, Luleå, Sweden, 29-30 October 1999 / [ed] John Abeysekera; Emma-Christin Lönnroth; D. Paul T. Piamonte; Houshang Shahnavaz, Luleå: Luleå University of Technology. Department of Human Work Sciences. Division of Industrial Ergonomics , 1999, s. 117-123Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 56. Giedraityte, Lina
    et al.
    Abeysekera, John
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    The impact of the cold environment on performance among outdoor workers1999Inngår i: Abstracts / Kastelli Symposium Living and Working in the North, 24-25 November 1999, Oulo, Finland, Oulu: University of Oulu, 1999Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 57. Giedraityte, Lina
    et al.
    Abeysekera, John
    The problem experienced by outdoor workers when integrating personal protective devices with cold protection2001Inngår i: Proceedings of the 6th Pan-pacific conference on occupational ergonomics: Beijing, China, August 21-24, 2001, Tianjin: Tianjin Science and Technology Press , 2001, s. 372-374Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 58.
    Grönqvist, Raoul
    et al.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Department of physics, Helsinki.
    Abeysekera, John
    Gard, Gunvor
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Hälsa och rehabilitering.
    Hsiang, Simon M.
    Department of industrial Engineering, Texas Tech University.
    Leamon, Tom B.
    Libirty mutual research center for safety and health.
    Newman, Dava J.
    MIT, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics.
    Gielo-Perczak, Krystyna
    Libirty mutual research center for safety and health.
    Lockhart, Thurmon E.
    Grado Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virgina Polytehcnic Institute and State University.
    Pai, Clive Y-C
    University of Illinois at Chicago, Department of Physical Therapy.
    Human-centred approaches in slipperiness measurement2001Inngår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 44, nr 13, s. 1167-1199Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of human-centred methodologies--subjective, objective, and combined--are used for slipperiness measurement. They comprise a variety of approaches from biomechanically-oriented experiments to psychophysical tests and subjective evaluations. The objective of this paper is to review some of the research done in the field, including such topics as awareness and perception of slipperiness, postural and balance control, rating scales for balance, adaptation to slippery conditions, measurement of unexpected movements, kinematics of slipping, and protective movements during falling. The role of human factors in slips and falls will be discussed. Strengths and weaknesses of human-centred approaches in relation to mechanical slip test methodologies are considered. Current friction-based criteria and thresholds for walking without slipping are reviewed for a number of work tasks. These include activities such as walking on a level or an inclined surface, running, stopping and jumping, as well as stair ascent and descent, manual exertion (pushing and pulling, load carrying, lifting) and particular concerns of the elderly and mobility disabled persons. Some future directions for slipperiness measurement and research in the field of slips and falls are outlined. Human-centred approaches for slipperiness measurement do have many applications. First, they are utilized to develop research hypotheses and models to predict workplace risks caused by slipping. Second, they are important alternatives to apparatus-based friction measurements and are used to validate such methodologies. Third, they are used as practical tools for evaluating and monitoring slip resistance properties of footwear, anti-skid devices and floor surfaces

  • 59.
    Illankoon, Prasanna
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Abeysekera, John
    Work Science Academy, Sweden.
    Ergonomics Motives in Lock-Out and Tag-Out Implementation: An applied research2014Inngår i: Second International Conference on The Application of Ergonomics in developing countries: Ergonomics in the service of development / [ed] Professor Hamou Boudrifa, Algiria, 2014, Vol. May, s. 72-83Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 60.
    Illankoon, Prasanna
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Abeysekera, John
    Work Science Academy, Sweden.
    Singh, Sarbjeet
    Mechanical Engineering Department, Government College of Engineering & Technology, Jammu.
    Ergonomics for enhancing detection of machine abnormalities2016Inngår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 55, nr 2, s. 271-280Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Detecting abnormal machine conditions is of great importance in an autonomous maintenance environment. Ergonomic aspects can be invaluable when detection of machine abnormalities using human senses is examined.

    OBJECTIVES:

    This research outlines the ergonomic issues involved in detecting machine abnormalities and suggests how ergonomics would improve such detections.

    METHODS:

    Cognitive Task Analysis was performed in a plant in Sri Lanka where Total Productive Maintenance is being implemented to identify sensory types that would be used to detect machine abnormalities and relevant Ergonomic characteristics.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS:

    As the outcome of this research, a methodology comprising of an Ergonomic Gap Analysis Matrix for machine abnormality detection is presented.

  • 61.
    Kuklane, Kalev
    et al.
    National Institute for Working Life.
    Gavhed, Désirée
    National Institute for Working Life.
    Karlsson, Eva
    National Institute for Working Life.
    Holmér, Ingvar
    National Institute for Working Life.
    Abeysekera, John
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Footwear for cold work: a limited questionnaire survey2000Inngår i: Ergonomics of protective clothing: proceedings of NOKOBETEF 6 and 1st European conference on protective clothing held in Stockholm, Sweden, May 7-10, 2000 / [ed] Kalev Kuklane; Ingvar Holmér, Stockholm: Arbetslivsinstitutet , 2000, s. 67-70Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This questionnaire survey was initiated to acquire information for preparation of a series of field studies. The paper deals with questions that were related to the thermal responses of the feet and footwear performance. Other data are shown for reference and background

  • 62.
    Liu, Xiaoxiong
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Abeysekera, John D.A.
    Tekniska högskolan i Luleå, CEDC.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Evaluation of helmets heat transfer properties in lagoratory and field conditions: a case study of commonly used helmets in cold and hot environments1996Inngår i: 4th Pan-Pacific Conference on Occupational Ergonomics: Taipei, Taiwan. 11-14 Nov., 1996., Ergonomics society of Taiwan , 1996, s. 91-94Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 63.
    Liu, Xiaoxiong
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Abeysekera, John
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Subjective evaluation of three helmets in cold laboratory and warm field conditions1999Inngår i: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 223-230Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Helmets are widely used in industries as a primary protection means for workers. Helmets can provide efficient protection against occupational hazards to the head, they also cause thermal discomfort to the wearers at work. To develop a reliable heat transfer testing method for helmets any objective testing method must be validated with subjective testing of the same helmets. Subjective evaluation of helmet heat transfer properties was conducted in both cold and hot conditions using three commonly used and commercially available helmets. Twenty-five subjects participated in a laboratory investigation in a simulated cold environment( + 3 degrees C and 30% RH); forty-three steel-making workers participated in a held survey in the hot environment (31 degrees C and 32% RH). Subjects were either asked to conduct certain tasks (in the laboratory investigation) or performed their regular production duties (in the filed survey) while wearing a helmet; they were then asked to answer questions in a questionnaire at the end of the surveys. The results of the subjective assessment which were compared with the objective measurements taken on a sweating manikin head using the same helmets, were found consistent.

  • 64. Liu, Xiaoxiong
    et al.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Abeysekera, John D.A.
    Tekniska högskolan i Luleå, CEDC.
    Holmer, Ingvar
    National Institute for Working Life.
    A study of the evaporative heat transfer characteristics of some commonly used industrial safety helmets in China1994Inngår i: Proceedings of the 14th Asian conference on occupational health: 15-17 Oct 1994, Bejing, China, 1994, s. 400-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 65.
    Liyanage, Jayantha P.
    et al.
    Stavanger University College, School of Science and Technology.
    Abeysekera, John
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    On the way to world-wide ergonomics: a methodical approach to introduce ergonomics to IDC's - a typical example from Sri Lanka2000Inngår i: Ergonomics for the new Millenium: proceedings of the XIVth Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association and 44th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, July 29 through August 4, 2000, San Diego, California, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 2000, Vol. Vol. 6, s. 158-161Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ergonomics has become an effective discipline and a productive field of practice and study for the last two decades with an ever-growing demand. Yet there seems to be a challenge to all concerned at the dawn of the new millennium, to spread ergonomics world-wide and to fill the unfilled gap in knowledge and in practice in different parts of the world. Third world countries have been identified as potential targets. They require critical attention, supportive sources and necessary guidance to spread the knowledge and equally to improve working conditions. This paper considers a methodical approach to introducing ergonomics to Sri Lanka, where ergonomics was hardly known even in the early 90's. This attempt has become a continuous process since 1988, and to date many intervention programmes have been planned and carried out. The paper discusses intervention programmes introducing ergonomics to the educational system and the industrial sector in Sri Lanka.

  • 66.
    Mäkinen, Tiina M.
    et al.
    University of Oulu, Thule Institute, Centre for Arctic Medicine.
    Hassi, Juhani
    University of Oulu, Thule Institute, Centre for Arctic Medicine.
    Påsche, Arvid
    THELMA AS.
    Abeysekera, John
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Holmér, Ingvar
    National Institute for Working Life.
    Project for developing a cold risk assessment and management strategy for workplaces in the Barents region2002Inngår i: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 1239-9736, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 61, nr 2, s. 136-141Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 67.
    Piamonte, D. Paul
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ohlsson, Kjell
    Linköping universitet.
    Abeysekera, John D.A.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Evaluating telecom icons among Asian countries1997Inngår i: Design of computing systems: proceedings of the seventh International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, (HCI International '97), San Francisco, California, USA, August 24-29, 1997 / [ed] Gavriel Salvendy; Michael J. Smith; Richard J. Koubek, Elsevier, 1997, s. 169-172Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 68.
    Piamonte, D. Paul T.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Abeysekera, John D.A.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ohlsson, Kjell
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    A user-based evaluation of telecommunication icons: some cross-cultural issues1996Inngår i: Proceedings of the First Asia-pacific conference on computer-human interface: human factors of IT : enhancing producitivity and quality of life, Singapore, June 25-28 1996, APCHI , 1996, s. 145-150Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 69.
    Piamonte, D. Paul T.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Abeysekera, John D.A.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ohlsson, Kjell
    Linköpings universitet.
    Testing videophone graphical symbols in Southeast Asia1999Inngår i: Human-computer interaction: proceedings of HCI International '99 (the 8th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction), Munich, Germany, August 22-26, 1999 / [ed] Hans-Jörg Bullinger; Jürgen Ziegler, IEEE Communications Society, 1999, s. 793-797Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aimed to study how symbols designed and tested in Europe fared among subjects from different countries in Southeast Asia. It was part of an international study on graphic symbols involving countries from Southeast Asia. Specifically, videotelephone symbols designed and tested by the European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI) were evaluated using subjects from five Southeast Asian countries.

  • 70.
    Piamonte, D. Paul T.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Abeysekera, John D.A.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ohlsson, Kjell
    Linköping University, Division of Human Work Sciences.
    Understanding small graphical symbols: a cross-cultural study1999Inngår i: Proceedings of the 10th year anniversary of M. Sc. ergonomics: International conference, Luleå, Sweden, 29-30 October 1999 / [ed] John Abeysekera; Emma-Christin Lönnroth; D. Paul T. Piamonte; Houshang Shahnavaz, Luleå: Luleå University of Technology. Department of Human Work Sciences. Division of Industrial Ergonomics , 1999, s. 274-280Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 71.
    Piamonte, D. Paul T.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ohlsson, Kjell
    Linköpings universitet.
    Abeysekera, John
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    An Empirical Evaluation of Videophone Symbols: An International Study1999Inngår i: Human-computer interaction: proceedings of HCI International '99 (the 8th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction), Munich, Germany, August 22-26, 1999 / [ed] Hans-Jörg Bullinger; Jürgen Ziegler, IEEE Communications Society, 1999, s. 798-802Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was part of an international project on evaluating telecommunication symbols. One of the major objectives was to test different graphical symbols (in this case, those of the videophone), designed and tested in Western Europe using subjects from different subject groups from Asia and the United States. The elderly as a special group was also included. The previous paper dealt with the study using subjects from five Southeast Asian countries. This paper discusses the results involving U.S. and Finnish elderly subjects and compares them with the Asian results.

  • 72.
    Piamonte, D. Paul T.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ohlsson, Kjell
    Linköpings universitet, Division of industrial ergonomics.
    Abeysekera, John
    On the merits of using multiple indices in evaluating small graphical symbols2000Inngår i: Ergonomics for the new Millenium: proceedings of the XIVth Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association and 44th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, July 29 through August 4, 2000, San Diego, California USA, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 2000, Vol. Vol. 6, s. 657-660Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The advantages of using multiple indices in evaluating small graphical symbols were discussed. Prospective users from eastern (Asian) and western countries were used as subjects. Several tests were performed utilizing videophone symbols based on studies done by the Human Factors Technical Committee (HFTC) of the European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI). The results show that using multiple indices helped reveal subtle but potentially important differences in the results between different cultural groups.

  • 73.
    Piamonte, D. Paul T.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ohlsson, Kjell
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Abeysekera, John D.A.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Icon identification among different cultures1997Inngår i: New risk frontiers: meeting of the Society for Risk Analysis-Europe : proceedings : [10th anniversary] / [ed] Britt-Marie Drottz-Sjöberg, Center for Risk Research , 1997, s. 679-685Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 74.
    Piamonte, D. Paul T.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ohlsson, Kjell
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Abeysekera, John D.A.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Spontaneous identification and cued responses in symbols evaluation in Southeast Asia1997Inngår i: Care for the Future: Proceedings of the Fifth Southeast Asian Ergonomics Society Conference on Human Factors Vision / [ed] Halimahtun M Khalid, Kuala Lumpur: IEA press , 1997, s. 281-286Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 75.
    Piamonte, Dominic Paul T
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Abeysekera, John D. A.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ohlsson, Kjell
    Linköpings universitet.
    Understanding small graphical symbols: a cross-cultural study2001Inngår i: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 27, nr 6, s. 399-404Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Graphical symbols such as icons or pictograms as interfaces in modern technological devices have become quite common. Although generally designed in western countries, their use can be found worldwide from audio-visual appliances to computers and computer-related devices. A basic ergonomic principle is to involve the potential users in the design and evaluation stages especially when the user groups are quite diverse. This study was part of an international project on evaluating telecommunication symbols. One of the major objectives was to test different graphical symbols (of the videophone), designed, and tested in Western Europe using subject groups from Asia, Europe, and the United States. This paper would discuss the major portions of the tests involving US and Swedish subjects. Performance indices used were hits, certainties, confusions, and semantic differential ratings. They were useful in analysing how the symbols were recognised, confused, and perceived by different subject groups. They also helped detect differences between groups which otherwise seemed to have similar test results. The results showed differences in patterns of ratings, which may be culturally linked and could help determine aspects of symbol design and usage that may be more helpful in designing instructions, learning aids, etc. Awareness of such subject bias and their implications are important on how one interprets the test results.

  • 76.
    Piamonte, Dominic Paul T.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ohlsson, Kjell
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Abeysekera, John
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Across the seas: a user-based evaluation of candidate telecommunication icons1999Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This project aimed to evaluate candidate telecommunication graphical symbols (icons and pictograms) developed in the west by means of different memory tests. Prospective users from eastern (Asian) and western countries were used as subjects. A pilot studies in the Philippines and Sweden were initially done using three sets of twenty-three videophone symbols designed in Japan, USA and England. Cued response, subjective certainty and semantic differential tests were utilized. The succeeding studies utilized videophone symbols based on studies done by the European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI). Three sets of seven videophone symbols from the ETSI study were tested among American and Asian subjects (Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, and Sri Lanka), as well as an elderly group from Finland as special interest group. Overall, Asian subjects performed comparably well with the European and American subjects, preferring the same set of videophone symbols, but usually at the expense of more errors and confusions. However, tests with the elderly revealed an entirely different set of preferences and even failed to perform the free recall and semantic tests, strongly suggesting the need to have simpler and more practical tests for the elderly. These also implied the gravity of the problem that can occur if graphical symbols are introduced arbitrarily without considering the prospective users (e.g. the elderly) at the earliest design stages possible.

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    Solving multi-factorial work-environment problems trough participation: case sttudy : VDT operators1993Inngår i: The ergonomics of manual work: the proceedings of the International Ergonomics Association World Conference on Ergonomics of Materials Handling and Information Processing at Work, [held in] Warsaw, Poland, 14-17 June 1993 / [ed] William S Marras, London: Taylor and Francis Group , 1993, s. 499-502Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
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    Abeysekera, John ()
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    Shahnavaz, Houshang ()
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12 51 - 84 of 84
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