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  • 51.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Aldardor, Wafa
    Al al-Bayt University.
    Siergieiev, Dmytro
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Effect of treated wastewater irrigation on vegetables2013Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Vol. 21, artikkel-id 5Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Treated waste water is normally used for irrigation purposes in countries suffering from water shortages to narrow the gap between supply and demand. The concept behind this is to save water consumed for agricultural activities, which consumes most of the water, for municipal and industrial uses. The Alsukhna area in Jordan is used to grow vegetables which are irrigated by treated wastewater. Surface and groundwater samples from the Zarqa region were analyzed for their major cations, anions and heavy metals. The impact of the treated waste water on the chemical components of vegetables was studied using Zn, Mn, Fe, Pb and Ni in sweet and hot pepper, tomato, cauliflower, cabbage, squash, cucumber and eggplant which were compared with similar vegetables irrigated by natural unpolluted water from the Mafraq region. The four metals, namely Zn, Fe, Pb, and Ni, had concentrations higher than in the reference vegetables by 3423%, 155%, 397%, 2949% and 289%, 187%, 211%, 214% fortomato and cauliflower, respectively. Sweet pepper was mainly influenced by an increased content of Fe, which was almost 180% higher than that in sweet pepper from the Mafraq region. Hot pepper had highly elevated concentrations of Ni (6980%) and Zn (419%), while squash demonstrated high Zn (207%) and Pb (666%). When all the heavy metals are considered, the most affected vegetable is the hot pepper with an average percent of heavy metals accumulation of 1559% while the least effected is cabbage at 116%.

  • 52.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Hanbali, Ahmad
    Kojimatchi 4-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0083 Japan.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Locating solid waste landfills in Mafraq city, Jordan2012Inngår i: Journal of Advanced Science and Engineering Research, ISSN 2231-8844, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 40-51Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Protection of the environment from solid waste hazards is becoming a serious problem. Different laws and legislations had been put into practice for this purpose. The effect of solid waste in countries like Jordan with limited financial and natural resources and high population growth rate is more severe. To overcome these difficulties, prudent management system for solid waste is required. Furthermore, solid waste disposal site should be selected using scientific criteria to prevent any harmful effect on local communities and the environment. Criteria for solid waste disposal dump site for Mafraq city were selected in accordance with well known international requirements that suit the local conditions. These criteria were used to select the best suitable solid waste dump site using remote sensing and geographic information system techniques. The selected sites are harmless to human life, natural resources and the environment.

  • 53.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Hanbaly, Mariam
    Al al-Bayt University.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hydrology of the most ancient water harvesting schemes2013Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 15-25Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Middle East area and in particular Jordan suffer from water shortages. It is believed that water harvesting techniques can solve part of the problem. Jawa and Umm El-Jimal water harvesting schemes were established 6000 and 2000 years ago respectively. They are considered as the most ancient water harvesting scheme. The engineering design and techniques used in those schemes are very unique.The adaptation of the engineering techniques used in the ancient schemes in the newly established schemes will help to save energy and minimize the evaporation losses. In addition, harvested water can be used for ground water recharge.

  • 54.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ali, Ammar
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Suhail, Qusay
    Department of Earth Sciences, College of Science, Baghdad University.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Flow of River Tigris and its Effect on the Bed Sediment within Baghdad, Iraq Open Engineering2015Inngår i: Open Engineering (Formerly Central European J. of Engineering), ISSN 2391-5439, Vol. 5, s. 465-477Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    River Tigris is a major river in Iraq. Sediment at the bed of the river within a reach of about 18 km starting at the center of Baghdad upstream was investigated. Sixty five cross sections were surveyed and 46 sediment samples were collected and analyzed. It was noticed that fine sand was dominating the bed (90.74%). The average median size within the reach was 2.49 phi (0.177mm) while the mean size was 2.58 phi (0.16mm). In addition the sediments were moderately sorted, fine skewed and leptokurtic. The size of the bed sediment relatively decreased compared to older investigations due to the construction of Adhaim dam on tributary which used to be the main sediment supplier to the Tigris River before entering Baghdad. Furthermore, the discharge of the Tigris River for the period 1983-2013 (715m3/s) had decreased by about 40% and 30% since 1983 compared with the period 1931-1956 (1208 m3/s) and 1956-1980 (1015 m3/s ) respectively. This had decreased the capacity and competence of the river. The bed elevation had increased compared to previous surveys. It was noticed that dredging operations and obstacles (e.g. fallen bridges and islands) disturbed the flow of the river and sediment characteristics in several sites.

  • 55.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ali, Ammar
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Iraq Water Resources Planning: Perspectives and Prognoses2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is located in the Middle East. It covers an areaof 433,970 square kilometres populated by about 32 millioninhabitants. Iraq greatly relies in its water resources on the Tigrisand Euphrates Rivers. Recently, Iraq is suffering from watershortage problems. This is due to external and internal factors. Theformer includes global warming and water resources policies ofneighbouring countries while the latter includes mismanagement ofits water resources.The supply and demand are predicted to be 43 and 66.8 BillionCubic Meters (BCM) respectively in 2015, while in 2025 it will be17.61 and 77 BCM respectively. In addition, future predictionsuggests that Tigris and Euphrates Rivers will be completely dry in2040.To overcome this problem, prudent water management policiesare to be adopted. This includes Strategic Water ManagementVision, development of irrigation techniques, reduction of waterlosses, use of non-conventional water resources and research anddevelopment planning.

  • 56.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ali, Ammar
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Present conditions and future challenges of water resources problems in Iraq2014Inngår i: Journal of Water Resource and Protection, ISSN 1945-3094, E-ISSN 1945-3108, Vol. 6, nr 12, s. 1066-1098Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is part of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region). It greatly relies in its water re-sources on the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Iraq was considered rich in its water resources till 1970s. After that problems due to water scarcity aroused. Recently, it is expected that water shortage problems will be more serious. The supply and demand are predicted to be 43 and 66.8 Billion Cubic Meters (BCM) respectively in 2015, while in 2025 it will be 17.61 and 77BCM respec-tively. In addition, future prediction suggests that Tigris and Euphrates Rivers will be completely dry in 2040.To overcome this problem, prudent water management plan is to be adopted. It should include Strategic Water Management Vision, development of irrigation techniques, reduction of water losses, use of non-conventional water resources and research and development planning.

  • 57.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Alibrahiem, Naief
    Al al-Bayt University.
    Alsaman, Marwan
    Al al-Bayt University.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Water Supply Network Losses in Jordan2014Inngår i: Journal of Water Resource and Protection, ISSN 1945-3094, E-ISSN 1945-3108, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 83-96Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Water supply network losses are an international problem especially in countries suffering from water scarcitylike Jordan. Jordan is one of the poorest countries in its water resources and it is estimated to be below the waterpoverty line. Jordan is located in the Middle East and has a surface area of approximately 90,000 km2. Its populationis around 6.3 million and it is estimated that the population will be 7.8 million in 2022. The gap betweenwater supply and demand is widening due to development and a relatively high population growth rate. In addition,global climate change is expected to intensify the water shortage problem in Jordan. Thirteen years of completerecords obtained from the Ministry of Water and Irrigation were analyzed. According to these records,water losses in Jordan reach about 50%. In view of the evaluation of the data and the case study conducted inthis research, it is believed that Jordan can overcome the water shortage problem by adopting a water demandmanagement strategy. In this context, efforts should be focused on reducing water losses. If this is achieved, itwill save huge quantities of water and revenue.

  • 58.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    AlJawad, Sadeq
    Expert and Consultant Hydrogeologists, Baghdad, Iraq .
    Adamo, Nasrat
    LTU team.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG, Iraq and Private Con sultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Water Quality within the Tigris and Euphrates Catchments2018Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 95-121Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Euphrates and Tigris Rivers are the longest two rivers in southwest Asia. The Basins of these rivers cover an area of 917 103 km2 which is occupied by about 46 million inhabitants. Four countries (Turkey, Iran, Iraq and Syria) share the basin area of the Tigris River and the other four (Turkey, Syria, Iraq and Saudi Arabia) share the catchment area of the Euphrates River. The flow of the two rivers is decreasing with time due to construction of dams in the upstream part of the basins and climate change. This has impacted the water quality of the two rivers. Iraq is highly affected followed by Syria. The salinity of Tigris Rivers has become alarming downstream Baghdad while the Euphrates water quality deteriorates before entering the Iraqi border. To overcome water quality deterioration, international, regional and national cooperation is required to reach prudent planning for water resources management of the two basins.

  • 59.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Oun, Salem
    Al al-Bayt University.
    Hadad, Wafa
    Al al-Bayt University.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Water loss in Mafraq governorate, Jordan2013Inngår i: Natural Science, ISSN 2150-4091, E-ISSN 2150-4105, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 333-340Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Jordan is located in the Middle East and covers an area of 89,342 km2. The total population of Jordan is 6,508,271. Jordan is rapidly facing a severe water supply crisis due to greater demands on a finite quantity of available water. If current trends continue, it has been estimated that the country will experience a chronic water shortage by 2020. Despite these shortages, water loss in the distribution network is relatively high where it reaches 46%. Mafraq Governorate has the maximum water loss. Continuous records and data for the period 1999-2004 for Mafraq water authority were investigated for the water supply and lose. Water losses were evaluated, and suggestions were given to minimize the loss.

  • 60.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Alroubai, Ali
    Basrah University.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Bathymetry and sediment survey for two old water harvesting schemes, Jordan2012Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 2, nr 2, s. 13-23Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Jordan is among the least countries in its water resources and about 85% of its area is desertic. Due to this reason the inhabitants of the Badia region used centuries ago water harvesting techniques to augment water for human and animal use. Two ancient water harvesting schemes (Burqu and Dier Al-Kahf) were investigated. Bathymetric survey was conducted and both bottom and water samples were collected to study the nature of sediments in these schemes. The calculated volume of Burqu and Deir Al-Kahf reservoirs were 629505 and 12071m³ respectively. Sediments entering these reservoirs are mainly fine sand derived from the main and side valleys entering the reservoirs during rain events. The sediments at Burqu reservoir have a mean grain size of 0.1 mm, very poorly sorted and negatively skewed. The sand: silt: clay ratios were 70:17:13 respectively. At Deir Al-Kahf reservoir, the sediment mean grain size was 0.11mm and they were very poorly sorted and they were finely skewed. The sand: silt: clay ratios were 69: 23: 8 respectively. Annual rates of sediments deposited in these reservoirs were 29016 m3 for Burqu and 29016 m3 for Deir Al-Kahaf.

  • 61.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Alroubai, Ali
    Basrah University.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sedimentation rates in two water harvesting schemes at the Jordanian Badia2012Inngår i: International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, ISSN 0377-015X, E-ISSN 2320-5199, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 82-86Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Jordan is among the least countries in its water resources and about 85% of its area is desertic which is referred to as the Badia region. Only 5% of the population of Jordan occupies this area. The growing power of urban communities during the twentieth century has affected the local inhabitants (Bedouin) social life and the physical environment of arid lands in which they live in Jordan. The 15% of the total area of the country (urban areas) are not able anymore to absorb the expanding population. Therefore, people have started to move to the Badia. This area is very poor in its surface water resources. Due to this reason the Jordanian government started a development program for the region. Part of the program is providing water resources by establishing water harvesting schemes. It is of prime importance to maintain these schemes to support the growing development in the area.In this research, two of these schemes had been investigated for their sediment characteristics and rate of deposition. They are Beqawiya (constructed 1994) and Suweied (constructed 1995). The sediments in both schemes were generally fine sand which is poorly sorted and negatively skewed. The rate of sedimentation was found to be 1679 and 1583 m3/ year in Beqawiya and Suweied respectively.

  • 62.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ezz-Aldeen, Mohammad
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Application of swat model to estimate the sediment load from the left bank of Mosul dam2013Inngår i: Journal of Advanced Science and Engineering Research, ISSN 2231-8844, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 47-61Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul dam is the biggest dam in Iraq on Tigris River. It is a multipurpose dam with a designed storage capacity of 11.11*109 m3. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) working with Geographical Information System (GIS) was applied to simulate the daily runoff and sediment yield from the seven valleys entering the reservoir from the left side. The model was applied for the period 1988-2008 based on daily climatic data of Mosul city and Mosul Dam Stations. The results indicated that the average yearly water flow was 13.8 *106 m3. It varies with time and among the valleys depending on the soil type, land watershed topography, watershed area in addition the other effective factors, and rainfall depth of that year. The resultant average annual sediment yield was 702*106 ton from these valleys. The sediment yield from each valley depends on runoff coefficient of the valley, soil type and plant cover. These factors affect soil detachment and rainfall properties (depth and intensity) that in turn affect rainfall detachment force. The total sediment yield for the considered period was 14753*103 ton. This represent about 0.42% of the dead storage of the reservoir (2.9*109m3) which is about 0.11% of the total reservoir storage capacity.

  • 63.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ezz-Aldeen, Mohammad
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Zakaria, Saleh
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Water harvesting and reservoir optimization in selected areas of south Sinjar Mountain, Iraq2013Inngår i: Journal of hydrologic engineering, ISSN 1084-0699, E-ISSN 1943-5584, Vol. 18, nr 12, s. 1607-1616Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is experiencing water resource shortages which are expected to become more severe in the future. It is believed that rain water harvesting will be one of the solutions to overcome this problem. In this paper rain water harvest modeling techniques were applied to the Sinjar area of Northwest Iraq for agricultural purposes. A watershed modeling system (WMS) and linear programming (LP) optimization techniques were applied to maximize the irrigated area which could be supplied by each selected reservoir for the period 1990-2009. This technique proved to be efficient for solving large scale water supply problems with multiple parameters and constraints, including the required input data for the model. Two scenarios of operation were considered for each main basin. In the first, each reservoir was operated as a separate unit while, in the second, all reservoirs within the basin were operated as one system. Both scenarios gave encouraging results but scenario two provided better results.

  • 64.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ibrahim, Naeif
    Al al-Bayt University.
    Alsaman, Marwan
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Water Demand Management in Jordan2014Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 19-26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Jordan is located in the Middle East in the eastern Mediterranean. It has a surface area of approximately 90,000 km2 and its population reaches 6.3 million. Jordan is one of the fourth driest countries in the World and water demand exceeds Jordan's available water resources.Annual per capita water availability has declined from 3600m3/year in 1946 to 145 m3/year today. It is estimated that the population will continue to grow from about 5.87 million in 2008 to over 7.80 million by 2022. Total projected water demand will be 1673 million cubic meters by 2022.Fifteen years of complete records for water consumption was studied to see the supply and demand variation with time. It had been noticed that water demand management will address the actual needs for water. This management program will ensure further reduction in water use, reduce water loses through the distribution supply net, prevent pollution and waste water disposal in nature, efficient use of available water resources, prudent future planning for new water re-sources and finally imposing real cost for water supply that would be acceptable. In addition to the above, public awareness program is to be put in action. Such a program should be used in schools as well as the media. The public are to be aware of the problem and how they can assist to overcome the water shortage crisis.

  • 65.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Issa, Issa E
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Nature of the Distributed of the Bed Sediment within Mosul Dam Reservoir, Iraq2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul Dam is one of the biggest hydraulic structures in Iraq. It was constructed in 1986 on the Tigris River in the north of Iraq. The initial storage capacity and water surface area of its reservoir reaches 11.11 km3 and 380 km2 respectively at the maximum operation level 330 m a.s.l. The dam was operated in 1986. A total of 56 samples were collected from the bottom of Mosul reservoir covering most of the reservoir area. The results of the analysis of these samples revealed that they were composed of gravel (3.8%), sand (15%), silt (55.5%) and clay (25.7%). The distribution of these sediments indicates that the silt portion represents the highest followed by clay and then sand. However, sand percentages are the highest in the northern zone of the reservoir where the River Tigris enters the reservoir and decreases gradually toward the dam site. In the meantime, silt percentage decreases toward the dam site while the finer fraction (i.e. clay) increases.

  • 66.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Issa, Issa E
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sherwani, Govand
    Ministry of Higher Education, KRG.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sedimentation in the Mosul reservoir of northern Iraq2013Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Vol. 21, nr 7, s. 1-10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul Dam is one of the biggest hydraulic structures in Iraq. It was constructed in 1986 on the Tigris River in the north of Iraq for multiple purposes: irrigation, flood control and power generation. The initial storage capacity and water surface area of its reservoir reaches 11.11 km3 and 380 km2 respectively at the maximum operation level 330 m a.s.l. The dam was operated in 1986. Blockage of the intakes of the pump station for North Al-Jazira Irrigation Project in Mosul Dam reservoir has highlighted the importance of sedimentation problems within the reservoir. A total of 56 samples were collected from the bottom of Mosul reservoir covering most of the reservoir area. The results of the analysis of these samples revealed that they were composed of gravel (3.8%), sand (15%), silt (55.5%) and clay (25.7%). The distribution of these sediments indicates that the silt portion represents the highest 77% of the bottom sediments of this reservoir followed by clay (13.5%) and then sand (9.5%). However, sand percentages are the highest in the northern zone of the reservoir where the River Tigris enters the reservoir and decreases gradually toward the dam site. In the meantime, silt percentage decreases toward the dam site while the finer fraction (i.e. clay) increases. Statistically, the average median and mean sizes of the sediments are 2.81 phi (0.142 mm) and 6.1 phi (0.0146 mm) respectively. In addition, the sediments are poorly sorted, nearly symmetrical in skewness and leptokurtic, very leptokurtic, to mesocratic. Finally, it is believed that the geometry and hydrodynamics of the Mosul reservoir, the location of the River Tigris entrance together with the side tributary valleys have played the most important role in the sediments distribution and their characteristics.

  • 67.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Issa, Issa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    LTU team.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mystery of Mosul Dam the most Dangerous Dam in the World: The project2015Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 15-31Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul Dam is an earthfill multipurpose dam. It is located on the River Tigris in northwestern Iraq. The dam is 3.65 km long and its crest elevation is at 341 m above sea level. The storage capacity at normal operation level (330 m above sea level) is 11.11km3. The work to build the dam started on 25thJanuary, 1981 and finished on 24thJuly, 1986. The total cost of the development was estimated at 2.6 billion US$.The foundation of the dam lies on the Fatha Formation. This formation is composed of alternating beds of marls, limestone, gypsum and claystone. It is highly karstified, which has which created a lot of problems during the construction, impounding and operation phases.

  • 68.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Possibilities of restoring the Iraqi marshes known as the Garden of Eden2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 69.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Reduction of the storage capacity of two small reservoirs in Jordan2012Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 17-27Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Scarcity of water resources in the Middle East represents a prime factor in the stability of the region and its economic development and prosperity. Accordingly, augmenting water is considered very important. Therefore, building of dams is an important mean to achieve such a goal. Despite the fact that number of dams had been built but maintenance operations and reduction of siltation rates are still not up the standards. Two small reservoirs north west Jordan were investigated. Sad Wadi Alarab reservoir constructed in 1986 (storage capacity of 20x106 m3). The second, Alghadeer Alabyadh, was constructed 1966(storage capacity 7 x105 m3). The actual storage capacities of these reservoirs were calculated using echo-sounding traverses. Data obtained were used in special computer software to construct the bathymetric maps and calculate the existing storage volume. The results showed that the reservoir storage capacities were reduced at an average annual rate of 0.3 x106 and 1.7 x104 m3 respectively. This implies that Sad Wadi Alarab reservoir will be filled with sediment within 38 years, while Alghadeer Alabyadh reservoir is already filled with sediment now. Bottom sediments of the reservoirs were collected and analyzed. In all the cases, sand, silt and clay were the dominant sediment components.

  • 70.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Toward prudent management of water resources in Iraq2011Inngår i: Journal of Advanced Science and Engineering Research, Vol. 2011, nr 1, s. 53-67Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1977 the Turkish Government started to utilize the water of Tigris and Euphrates Rivers through South-eastern Anatolia Project (GAP). The project includes 22 dams and 19 hydraulic power plants which are to irrigate 17 103 km2 of land with a total storage capacity of 100 km3 which is three times more than the overall capacity of Iraq and Syrian reservoirs Prior to 1990, Syria used to receive 21 km3/year of the Euphrates water which dropped to 12km3 in 2000 onward and for Iraq it dropped from 29 km3 before 1990 to 4,4km3 (90% reduction) now. This reduced agricultural land in both countries from 650 103 to 240 103 hectares. Iraq used to receive 20.9 km3/year of water from the Tigris River and once Ilisu dam is constructed, this is likely to drop to 9.7 km3 which means that 47% of the river flow will be depleted. This means that 696 103 hectares of agricultural land will be abandoned due to water scarcity. The reduction of flow in the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in Iraq is considered to be national crises and will have severe negative consequences on health and on environmental, industrial and economic development. It is believed that the Iraqi Government should take solid and fast measures to ensure prudent management of its water resources and to secure the life of huge sector of its society and protect the environment.

  • 71.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ali, Ammar
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Restoring the Garden of Eden, Iraq2012Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 53-88Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Iraqi marsh lands, which are known as the Garden of Eden, cover an area about 15-20 103. km2 in the lower part of the Mesopotamian basin where the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers flow. The area had played a prominent part in the history of man kind and was inhabited since the dawn of civilization. The area was considered among the largest wetlands in the world and the greatest in west Asia. Saddam regime began to drain the marsh lands for military and political reasons. Accordingly, at 2000 less than 10% of the marshes remained. The consequences were that most of the marsh dwellers left their places and some animals and plants are eradicated now. After the fall of Saddam regime in 2003, the process of restoration and rehabilitation of Iraqi marshes started. There are number of difficulties encountered in the process. Some of them are land use changes, climatic variations and changes, soil and water salinity as well as ecological fragmentation where many species were affected as well as the marsh dwellers.In this research we would like to explore the possibilities of restoring the Iraqi marshes. It is believed that 70- 75% of the original areas of the marshes can be restored. This implies that 13 km3 water should be available to achieve this goal keeping the water quality as it is. To evaluate the water quality in the marshes, 154 samples were collected at 48 stations during summer, spring and winter. All the results indicate that the water quality was bad. To improve the water quality, then 18.86 km3 of water is required. This requires plenty of efforts and international cooperation to overcome the existing obstacles.

  • 72.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Almuqdadi, Kadhim
    Arab Academy-Denmark.
    Engineering solution for Radioactive Waste in IRAQ2014Inngår i: Journal of Advanced Science and Engineering Research, ISSN 2231-8844, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 18-36Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Depleted uranium (DU) is a by-product of the enrichment of natural uranium for nuclear reactor-grade or nuclear weapons-grade uranium. DU is chemically identical to natural uranium. Depleted uranium is chemically identical to natural uranium. DU is depleted with isotope of U235 and its radioactivity is 60% of the natural uranium and increases to 80% after few months and is usually considered as low level radioactive waste (LLW).Iraq experienced two devastating wars in 1991 and 2003, during which massive amounts of new weapons and sophisticated manufactured nuclear weapons were used -called Depleted Uranium (DU).During the second Gulf war in 2003 U.S. and British troops have reportedly used more than five times as many DU bombs and shells as the total number used during the 1991 war for the invasion and occupation of Iraq. It was estimated that more than 1100 to 2200 tons of DU was used. As a consequence the ruminants of wars are affecting the people (30 million) and environment. There are hundreds of sites contaminated with nuclear radiation.There is no Iraqi strategy and/or national program, not even well thought out plans and scientific personnel and technical equipment required to clean Iraq of these wastes. The aim of this work is to high light the environmental implications of the two Gulf wars on Iraq and suggest possible solutions to the problem.

  • 73.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The environmental implications of depleted uranium in Iraq and the principles of isolating it2014Inngår i: Waste Management and the Environment VII / [ed] C.A. Beribba; G. Passerini; H. Itoh, Southanpton: WIT Press, 2014, s. 367-376Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq experienced two devastating wars in 1991 and 2003, during which massiveamounts of new weapons and sophisticated manufactured nuclear weaponscalled depleted uranium (DU) were used. DU is a by-product of the enrichmentof natural uranium for nuclear reactor-grade or nuclear weapons-grade uranium. Depleted uranium is chemically identical to natural uranium. During the second Gulf war in 2003 U.S. and British troops used more than 1100 to 2200 tons of DU. As a consequence the ruminants of wars are reported to have seriously affected people and the environment, causing cancer and abnormal birth defects. The water and soil all over most of Iraq is contaminated. There is no strategy, national or international program for cleaning Iraq of DU wastes. Site selection criteria have been suggested for the disposal of radioactive waste but no principle of designing and constructing disposals. The present paper describes a large geological feature, a deep natural depression, which would be useful for isolating DU by isolating it in smectitic Iraqi clay.

  • 74.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    Fouad, Saffa
    Deformational Style of the Soft Sediment (SEISMITES) within the Uppermost Part of the Euphrates Formation, Western Iraq2014Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 4, nr 4, s. 71-86Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Euphrates Formation (Early Miocene) is wide spread formations in central western part of Iraq. It consists of basal conglomerate, well bedded, grey, fossiliferous and hard limestones (Lower Member), chalky like dolomitic limestone, white and massive, green marl, and deformed, brecciated dolomitic limestone and well bedded undulated limestone (Upper Member). The thickness of the formation Iraq is 35-110 m.The uppermost part of the Euphrates Formation includes Brecciated Unit. The fragments (size 1 – 3 cm) are semi angular to semi rounded, consist of very finely crystalline, silicified limestone, arranged in systematic form, which is parallel to the deformations and undulations that are present in both the brecciated mass and the overlying Undulated Limestone Unit. These characteristics of the fragments indicate that the breccia is not formed due to break in sedimentation, but it is syn-sedimentary breccia.The genesis and deformation style of the breccia is discussed in this study. The results indicate the seismic effect on the development of the breccia, during the deposition, which means syn-sedimentary origin of the breccia, most probably due to tectonic unrest, which has caused seismic shocks in the depositional area; such sediments are called "seismites".

  • 75.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Zakaria, Salih
    Mosul University.
    Ezz-Aldeen, Mohammad
    Mosul University.
    Feasibility of using small dams in water harvesting, Northern Iraq2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is experiencing water-resource shortages which are expected to become more severe in the future. Water harvesting techniques (WH) will definitely help to overcome or minimize the effect of this problem. Two areas (northwestern and northeastern part of Iraq) were tested for the feasibility of WH using small dams not more than 6m height. The locations of the dams and reservoirs were selected depending on the drainage area, the cross section of the valley (to ensure minimum construction material to be used for building the dams) and to minimize evaporation losses and insure the required storage was obtained; the ratio of surface area to storage volume was kept to a minimum. Watershed modeling system (WMS) and linear programming (LP) optimization techniques were applied to maximize the irrigated area, which could be supplied by each selected reservoir for the period 1990–2009.In northeastern part of Iraq, the technique was applied in Erbil and Sulaimaniyah. In the former, 22 dams (catchment areas ranged between 3.34 to 111.63 km2) were tested. While in the latter, five separated dams were used with total catchment area of 176.79 km2. Their area ranged between 7.35 to 98.08 km2. In northwestern part of Iraq, the technique was applied in Sinjar Mountain. At northern Sinjar Mountain, ten dams were selected, their catchment area ranged between 43.48 to197.7 km2.The results obtained from all areas were encouraging.

  • 76.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Suggested landfill sites for hazardous waste in Iraq2013Inngår i: Natural Science, ISSN 2150-4091, E-ISSN 2150-4105, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 463-477Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq experienced two devastating wars in 1991 and 2003, during which massive amounts of new weapons and sophisticated manufactured nuclear weapons were used called Depleted Uranium (DU). As a consequence of the radioactive contamination; the humans are suffering from various disease like cancer and the environment is polluted.In practice, there is no strategy and/or national program, not even well thought out plans and scientific personnel and technical equipment required to clean Iraq of these wastes. Reviewing the geological, topographical and hydrological data, it had been noticed that Umm Chaimin depression is a good candidate site to dump all contaminated radioactive scrap and soil. The suggested design of the landfill will ensure safe containment of the waste for hundreds of thousands of years even if significant climatic changes will take place.

  • 77.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Almuqdadi, Kadhim
    Arab Academy-Denmark.
    Effective isolation of radioactive military wastes in Iraq: a necessary humanitarian action2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq has been subject to a series of wars for more than fifty years, the latest one leaving large amounts of wrecked tanks, vehicles, weapons and ammunition. A considerable part of the waste has the form of, or contains, depleted uranium (DU), that is concluded to have cancerogenic effects through its radioactivity and toxicity. The DU exists in significant concentrations in areas where combat took place, mostly in and around the cities of Bagdad and Basra, the total number of particularly encountered areas being about 15. The way of long-term isolation of DU that is proposed in this paper is to construct relatively simple landfills of sandwiched contaminated soil and clay or clayey soil, covered by sand/gravel and erosion-resistant coarser material on top. The very low annual precipitation and long draught in the deserts, implying significant evaporation, means that the system of tight soil interlayered with contaminated soil, embedding wrecked military objects, minimizes percolation and release of DU, keeping it adsorbed on the finest soil particles. The clay-based material must be composed in a way that, i/ desiccation fractures are not formed in periods of long draught and ii/ not swell uncontrolled and loose strength in wet periods. The DU-contaminated soil is proposed to be scraped off and transported in closed trucks to four desert sites where landfills of the sandwich-type are proposed to be constructed.

  • 78.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Almuqdadi, Kadhim
    Arab Academy-Denmark.
    Isolation of radioactive military wastes in Iraq2013Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 1-10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq has been subject to a series of wars for more than fifty years, the latest one leaving large amounts of wrecked tanks, vehicles, weapons and ammunition. A considerable part of the waste has the form of, or contains, depleted uranium (DU), that is concluded to have cancerogenic effects through its radioactivity and toxicity. The DU exists in significant concentrations in areas where combat took place, mostly in and around the cities of Bagdad and Basra, the total number of particularly encountered areas being about 15. The way of long-term isolation of DU that is proposed in this paper is to construct relatively simple landfills of sandwiched contaminated soil and clay or clayey soil, covered by sand/gravel and erosion-resistant coarser material on top. The very low annual precipitation and long draught in the deserts, implying significant evaporation, means that the system of tight soil interlayered with contaminated soil, embedding wrecked military objects, minimizes percolation and release of DU, keeping it adsorbed on the finest soil particles. The clay-based material must be composed in a way that, i/ desiccation fractures are not formed in periods of long draught and ii/ not swell uncontrolled and loose strength in wet periods. The DU-contaminated soil is proposed to be scraped off and transported in closed trucks to four desert sites where landfills of the sandwich-type are proposed to be constructed.

  • 79.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Almuqdadi, Kadhim
    Arab Academy-Denmark.
    Saving Iraqi civilians and their environment from catastrophic implications of depleted uranium used in Gulf wars I and II2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Depleted uranium (DU) was used twice by the Americans and allied forces against Iraqi troops and personnel in 1991 and 2003. The largest single radionuclide contamination occurred in the Gulf during Gulf War II, 1991, where depleted uranium was used as an amour-penetrating ordnance. Due to this use the countryside of Iraq was contaminated to a significant extent and thus chronically exposed the civilian population and military personnel to different environmental loads i.e. DU dust, vapors, and aerosols etc. In addition to the radioactive contamination due to military activities in Gulf wars, other dangerous source of contamination has been reported from the material and equipment at the Iraqi Energy Authority. After the fall of the Baath regime in 2003, the Iraqi Energy Authority, like all other Ministries and governmental organizations, sustained immense losses due to the turmoil and looting. As an example the Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMI) reported in 2003 that uranium (as yellow cakes) as well as byproducts from processing activities in addition to tons of radioactive waste was stored in barrels. Simple citizens stole these barrels and used them for storing water. The radioactive materials in these barrels were in this way either spread in large quantities on the ground or taken to their homes. Other examples of how DU material is spread are given in the report as well. This report is highlighting the effect of radioactive waste on the people and the environment of Iraq and trying to find possible solutions to the problem. Special concerns are directed to the question of finding sustainable, environmentally acceptable and safe landfills for the final deposition of DU contaminated material.

  • 80.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Zakaria, Saleh
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mustafa, Yaseen
    University of Zakho.
    Ahmad, Payman
    Koya University.
    Ghafour, Bahra
    Koya University.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Development of Water Resources in Koya City, Iraq2013Inngår i: First International Symposium on Urban Development, UK: WIT Press, 2013, s. 91-98Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is facing water shortage problem, which is becoming more severe with time. Rain Water Harvesting (RWH) can help to minimize the water shortage problem. Seven years of rainfall records was used to find out the quantity of water that can be harvested using a Watershed modeling system (WMS).Koya city is located in the northern part of Iraq. The population of the city is about 39484.The application of the WMS model for rainfall records of seven years (2002-3 to 2010-11) showed that 275.51 million cubic meters of water can be harvested. This implies that annual average of rain harvested water is 39.4 million cubic meters and the allocation per capita to be 997 cubic meters per year. This amount of water can greatly help to the development of industry and agriculture in the city.

  • 81.
    Al-Dahan, Saadi
    et al.
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Alabidi, Abdelkadhum
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Relationship between Selected Hydrochemical Parameters in Springs of Najaf Province, Iraq2015Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 7, nr 6, s. 337-346Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several springs exist at the south-western desert of Iraq in Najaf Province at latitude 31˚00' -32˚15' and longitude 43˚30' - 44˚30'. They are almost parallel to Euphrates River on the eastern edge of western desert. General direction for the distribution of springs coincides with that of faults running northwest-southeast. The Hydrogen sulfide, temperature, pH and electrical conductivity were investigated in these springs. The analyses indicated that the concentration of H2S decreased from northwest toward southeast which is attributed to the escape of this gas to the atmosphere during the flow of groundwater near or on the earth surface. The surrounding geologic conditions did not affect the temperature and pH of the springs. Electrical conductivity showed an increase from northwest towards southeast which reflects dissolving more ions from the rocks of the aquifer. The electrical conductivity and hydrogen sulfide concentration had reverse relationship.

  • 82.
    al-Dahan, Saadi
    et al.
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    M., Hussain Hussain
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hydrochemistry of springs, Najaf area, Iraq2015Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Vol. 23, artikkel-id 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Springs exist in southwestern Iraq at Najaf area in southwestern desert (latitude 31º 00 ̄ – 32º 15 ̄ and longitude 43º 30 ̄ – 44º 30 ̄). Two aquifers exist in the area. The first is composed of recent deposits while the second aquifer is of Miocene deposits. The latter is important because it contains huge quantities of groundwater. Water of these springs is slightly brackish and very hard. The predominant salt in the water of these springs is magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) and sodium chloride (NaCl). The water type is sulfate. Most of water springs (70%) are of marine water origin, while the minority (30%) are of continental water origin.

  • 83.
    Al-Hasnawi, Salwan
    et al.
    Chemistry Department, Collage of Science, Mustansirya University, Baghdad.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The Effect of the Industrial Activities on Air Pollution at Baiji and its surrounding areas, Iraq2016Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 34-44Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The polluters of total suspended particles (TSP) and some heavy metals (Cd, Co, and Ni) concentrations were studied in the areas of Al-Fatha, Al-Alam and Baiji, Iraq. These concentrations were measured for selected 22 sample locations for two periods, January and July 2013. The analyzed values of (TSP) and (Cd) exceeded the limits of Iraqi National and the World Health Organization (WHO) for the two periods. Also, (Ni) values exceeded the limits for July only, while (Co) values were under the limits for the two periods. The difference between the two periods reflects the effect of the wind speed and direction, rainfall, and the intensity of the dust storms during the two months respectively. GIS technique makes optimal predictions possible by examining the relationships between all the sample points and producing a continuous surface of polluter’s concentration. Therefore, GIS was used to produce predictions and probabilities maps for the critical polluter values in the study area

  • 84.
    Ali, Ammar A.
    et al.
    Water Resources, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Suhail, Qusay
    Earth Sciences, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Iraq.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Spatial Measurement of Bed Load Transport in Tigris River2017Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 7, nr 4, s. 55-75Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using Helley-Smith sampler, 288 bed load samples were collected from 16 cross sections along 18 km reach length of Tigris River within Baghdad. The spatial distribution of sampling along the reach took into consideration the variance of river topography where 7 meanders, 2 islands and several bank depositions characterize the geometry of the river. The implemented regulation schemes on Tigris River have reduced 44% of water discharges compared to previous period. The spatial variance in topography was effectively scattering the results of the applied twenty bed load formulas. The study results indicated that the complicated geometry of the river reach makes finding a unique representative bed load formula along the study reach rather difficult, and there is no grantee to have good agreement with measurements in the irregular cross sections (meanders, sand bars, etc.). The closest bed load prediction formulas were van Rijn1984. The annual transported quantities of bed load were estimated to be 30 thousand tons (minimum) in 2009 and 50 thousand tons (maximum) in 2013.

  • 85.
    Ali, Ammar A.
    et al.
    College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq .
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Suhail, Qusay
    College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Spatial total load rating curve for a large river: A Case study of the Tigris River at Baghdad2019Inngår i: International Journal of River Basin Management, ISSN 1571-5124, E-ISSN 1814-2060Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Tigris River in Baghdad is a large sand-bed river, supply-limited because of the implementation of a water flow regulation scheme comprising a series of reservoirs and barrages.  The significant reduction in the water discharge has affected the hydraulic performance of the river and turned it into an under-fit river of complicated morphology where many islands and bank deposits have been showed up across an 18km reach in addition to the essential sinuosity. Measuring sediment load at individual cross-sections in the river gives misleading estimates and the corresponding sediment rating curve has a locally limited using. A spatially sediment rating by investigating sediment loads over the complicated reach is required to overcome the local limitations. Sediment transport rates have been investigated at 16 cross-sections along the study reach by collecting suspended load, bed load and bed material samples. Velocity profiles were measured at the sampling stations using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). The measurement results indicated that the suspended load is the dominant mode of transport (93.5%). However, bedloads were considered in determining the total loads. A spatial total load rating curve in the form of a power function was established and examined against the sediment measurements. Twenty-two previously published total load formulae where applied at the same sections and of these the Colby1964 formula gave the closest fit to the measured loads. Based on the results from this study a recommended procedure is established for using a spatial total load rating curve to estimate sediment transport rates for similar morphologically complicated rivers. Average annual transport rates during the period 2009-13 was estimated at 3.21 million tons.

  • 86.
    Ali, Ammar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. College of Engineering, Unive rsity of Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Suhail, Qusay
    College of Science, University of Baghdad.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Three-Dimensional Morphodynamic Modelling of TigrisRiver in Baghdad2017Inngår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 11, nr 6, s. 571-594Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bathymetric and land surveys were conducted for the northern Tigris River reach (18 km length) in Baghdad, producing 180cross sections. A river bed topography map was constructed from these cross sections. The velocity profiles and the water discharges were measured using ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) at 16 cross sections, where intensive number of sediment samples was collected to determine riverbed characteristics and sediment transport rate. The three-dimensional morphodynamic model (SSIIM (simulation of sediment movements in water intakes with multiblock option)) was used to simulate the velocity field and the water surface profile along the river reach. The model was calibrated for the water levels, the velocity profiles and the sediment concentration profiles using different combinations of parameters and algorithms. The calibration and the validation results showed good agreement with field measurements, and the model was used to predict the future changes in river hydro-morphology for a period of 14 months. The results of the future predictions showed the Tigris River which behaved like an under-fit river, increases in depositions on the shallow part of the cross section having lower velocity, and the river deepens the incised route to fit its current hydrologic condition leaving the former wide section as a floodplain for the newer river. The net deposition/erosion rate was 67.44 kg/s in average and the total deposition quantity was 2.12 million ton annually. An expansion in the size of current islands was predicted. An indication of thepotential threats of the river banks’ collapse and the bridge piers’ instability was given by high erosion along the thalweg line.

  • 87.
    Ali, Ammar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Impact of Growing Islands on the Flood Capacity of Tigris River in Baghdad City2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing islands became noticeable phenomena in the channel of River Tigris within Baghdad City during recent years.Despite the fact that large amount of sediments are trapped in reservoirs on the River Tigris and its tributaries thenumber of islands are increasing with time. This is due to the debris of destroyed bridges in the wars of 1991 and 2003.As a consequence the ability of the river had been reduced to pass ood waves. This fact caused ooding parts of majorcities like Baghdad. Cross sections of the River Tigris were surveyed in dierent occasions (1976, 1991 and 2008). In1977 the survey was conducted by Geohydraulique and in 1991 by University of Technology - Baghdad (extended forthe previous study). The last survey was conducted in 2008 by Ministry of Water Resources extending 48 kilometersfrom Al-Muthana Bridge till the conuence with Diyala River at intervals having horizontal spacing of 250m. The datawas used to predict the maximum ood capacity for the river using HEC-RAS through performed a one- dimensionalhydraulic model for the ow. The average discharge of the river in Baghdad had been calculated for the past ten years.This value was introduced in the model. Then dierent scenarios were applied by increasing the discharge in orderto nd out the critical discharge that can cause inundation. The procedure continued to detect the areas that had beeninundated and the water level was recorded. The primary runs for the model showed a signicant reduction in thecurrent river capacity in comparison with what the river had used to hold during oods of 1971 and 1988. The threesurveys that had been conducted on the same reach of the River Tigris indicated that the capacity of the river to passwater had been decreased. In addition the changes in the morphology of the river cross sections were very clear.

  • 88.
    Ali, Ammar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Morphology of Tigris river within Baghdad city2012Inngår i: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, ISSN 1027-5606, E-ISSN 1607-7938, Vol. 16, nr 10, s. 3783-3790Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in the morphology of the River Tigris within Baghdad City are very noticeablein recent years. The number of islands is increasing with time despite the fact that hugeamount of sediments are trapped in reservoirs upstream Baghdad City. The debris of5 destroyed bridges in the wars of 1991 and 2003 had enhanced the development ofthese islands. As a consequence the ability of the river had been reduced to pass floodwaves. This fact caused partial flooding of parts of Baghdad City.Cross sections of the River Tigris were surveyed in three occasions (1976, 1991and 2008). The last survey conducted in 2008 by Ministry of Water Resources covered10 49 km of the river from Al-Muthana Bridge to its confluence with Diyala River at 250mintervals. The data was used to predict the maximum flood capacity for the river usingone-dimensional hydraulic model for steady flow “HEC-RAS”. Calibration was carriedout for the model using field measurements for water levels along the last 15 km fromits reach and the last 10 yr observations at Sarai Baghdad station.15 The average discharge of the river in Baghdad had been calculated for the past tenyears. This value was introduced in the model. Then different scenarios were appliedby increasing the discharge in order to find out the critical discharge that can causeinundation. The procedure continued to detect the areas that had been inundated andthe water level was recorded.20 The model showed a significant reduction in the current river capacity in comparisonwith what the river had used to hold during floods of 1971 and 1988. The three surveysconducted on the same reach of the River Tigris indicated that the capacity of the riverto pass water had been decreased. In addition the changes in the morphology of theriver cross sections were very clear.

  • 89.
    Ali, Ammar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Suhail, Qusay
    Baghdad University.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Evaluation of dredging operations for Tigris river within Baghdad, Iraq2014Inngår i: Journal of Water Resource and Protection, ISSN 1945-3094, E-ISSN 1945-3108, Vol. 6, nr 4, s. 202-213Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    River Tigris divides Baghdad, capital of Iraq, in two parts. The reach of the river within Baghdad is about 60 km long. Many islands and bars are obstructing the flow of the river within Baghdad. To overcome this problem, dredging operations started along most of Tigris River inside Baghdad City to remove many islands and side bars, which reduced the flooding capacity and the efficiency of water intakes. An examination for the dredging plan under process and two proposed additional plans were performed using HEC-RAS program for a 50km long river reach to investigate whether they can recover the designed flooding capacity of the river or just improving it. Calibration and verification processes were implemented in the model using observed water levels at Sarai Baghdad gauging station and along the last 15 km of the river reach. Comparisons of computed water levels were conducted with those of previous studies and historical data. Some improvement of flood capacity was achieved based on the recorded data of the last three decades. Cautions about the water intakes should be considered to maintain their function with the expected drop in water level due to dredging operations.

  • 90.
    Ali, Salahalddin
    et al.
    Department of Geology, School of Science, Faculty of Science and Science Education, University of Sulaimaniyah.
    Al-Umary, Foad A.
    Department of Geography, College of Education, University of Tikrit.
    Salar, Sarkawt G.
    Department of Geography, Faculty of Education/Kalar, University of Garmian.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    GIS Based Soil Erosion Estimation Using EPM Method, Garmiyan Area, Kurdistan Region, Iraq2016Inngår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 10, s. 291-308Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using empirical model is one of the approaches of evaluating sediment yield. This research is aimed at predicting erosion and sedimentation in Garmiyan area at Kurdistan Region, Iraq used EPM (erosion potential model) incorporating into GIS (geographic information system) software. This basin area is about 1,620 km2. It has a range of vegetation, slope, geological, soil texture and land use types. The spatial distribution of gully erosion shows three main zones in the studied area (slight to moderate gully, high gully and sever fluvial erosion). They form about 10%, 89% and 1% of gully erosion in the studied area respectively. The results of the EPM model show that the values of the coefficient of erosion Z are classified as moderate to high erosion intensity. They increase northward due to increasing of slope, elevation and rate of precipitation that generate Hortonian overland flow, which is due to high discharge and huge fluvial erosion power that cause ground surface erosion to produce large quantity of sediment. The results of GSP (spatial sediment rate) are increasing northward similar to Z due the same reasons, while the value of total sediment rate, shows different values for each watershed because they are mainly affected by the total watershed area.

  • 91.
    Ali, Salahalddin
    et al.
    Department of Geology, School of Science, Faculty of Science and Science Education, University of Sulaimaniyah.
    Al-Umary, Foad
    Department of Geography, College of Education, University of Tikrit.
    Sarkawt, Salar
    Department of Geography, Faculty of Education/Kalar, University of Garmian.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Geomorphology of Garmiyan Area Using GIS Technique, Kurdistan Region, Iraq2016Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 63-87Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The goals of the present study are to investigate, explore and assess the geomorphologic characteristics of a part of Garmiyan area through highlighting the forming and controlling factors of the geomorphology, mapping the landforms and reveal the geomorphologic processes that created them in Garmiyan area. Geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing through satellite images and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) have facilitated the investigation in this large area with more accuracy.The Garmiyan area is a part of Garmiyan area located about (62 Km) south of Sulaimani City and (104 km) east of Kirkuk city. It lies between longitudes (45o10- - 45o32-) E and latitude (34o40-- 35o02-) N. It is within unstable shelf where 3.9% of it lie within the High Folded Zone and 96.1 % within the Foothill Zone. The geologic formations are forming 57.93% and the Quaternary deposits are forming 42.07%. Clastic sedimentary rocks are forming nearly 99% of the total area, while non clastic sedimentary rocks are forming nearly 1%. The topography of the studied area is greatly influenced by lithologic characteristics of the geologic units. The factors, which influence the geomorphology of the studied area, are tectonics, lithology, climate, vegetation and humans. Hence the geomorphologic evolution is controlled by many geomorphologic processes. The main endogenic process is uplifting of the western and north western sides of the studied area which was the final stage of Zagros Fold Thrust Belt formation during the Arabia–Eurasia collision. The main exogenic processes include weathering, erosion, fluvial, hillslope processes, karstification and anthropogenic processes. The main geomorphologic landforms recognized in the studied area are structural, denudational, fluvial, solutional and anthropogenic landforms. Anthropogenic landforms produced by excavation by road cuttings, quarrying and farming. The geomorphic landforms indicate that deformation is propagating from northeast to southwest.

  • 92. Ali, Salahaldin
    et al.
    Al-Umary, Foad
    Salar, Sarkawt
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Evaluation of selected site location for subsurface dam construction within Isayi watershed using GIS and RS Garmiyan area, Kurdistan region2014Inngår i: Journal of Water Resource and Protection, ISSN 1945-3094, E-ISSN 1945-3108, Vol. 6, nr 11, s. 972-987Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Garmiyan area suffers from many water problems such as poor rainfall rate, water shortage, aridity and absence of groundwater in many places. Hence the subsurface dam is the best solution due to many advantages such as; low cost of construction, least maintenance, low evaporation, no con-tamination, utilization of the land over the dam and better storage. The objective of this study is to evaluate the suitability of the selected site location for subsurface dam construction, to serve as strategic water supply storage, to solute the aridity and water shortage in this area of arid to semi arid climate in Isayi watershed within the stream deposits.Geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing through satellite images and Digital El-evation Model (DEM) interpretation and analysis have facilitated the investigation with more ac-curacy. ArcGIS helped in construction of thematic maps of the studied area.The geologic, structural, geomorphologic, hydrologic, hydrogeologic, characteristics with GPR survey show the suitability of the selected site location for construction of subsurface dam. According to the standard water quality for domestic, irrigation and livestock the water quality of all water samples are within the recommended range and the best time to be chosen, for construction of the subsurface dam, is during the autumn season from September to November.

  • 93.
    Al-Jabban, Wathiq
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Modification-Stabilization of Clayey Silt Soil Using Small Amounts of Cement2017Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 77-96Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the effects of using a small percentage of cement to stabilize clayey silt with a low organic content. Cement was added at percentages of 1, 2, 4 and 7% by dry weight. The physical and mechanical properties of the treated and untreated soil were evaluated by laboratory tests including tests of consistency limits, unconfined compressive strength, soil density, solidification and pH values. These tests have been conducted after 7, 14, 28, 60 and 90 days of curing time. Workability is defined as how easily the soil can be control or to handle physically. Results showed that the engineering properties of the clayey silt were improved. The soil exhibited better workability directly after treatment, and the workability increased with time. Soil density increased, while water content decreased, with increasing cement content and longer curing time. The pH value was immediately raised to 12 after adding 7% cement content, and then it gradually decreased as curing time increased. An increase of unconfined compressive strength and stiffness was observed, while strain at failure decreased. A gradual change in failure mode from ductile behavior to brittle failure was observed. The findings are useful when there is a need for modification and stabilization of clayey silt in order to increase the possibilities for different use which will reduce transportation and excavation.

  • 94.
    Al-Jabban, Wathiq
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Stabilization of Clayey Silt Soil UsingSmall Amounts of Petrit T2017Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 9, nr 6, s. 540-562Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of using small amounts of a Petrit T, a by-product of manufacture sponge iron, to modify clayey silt soil were investigated in this study. Petrit T was added at 2%, 4% and 7% of soil dry weight. A series of unconfined compressive strength tests, consistency limits tests and pH tests were conducted at 7, 14, 28, 60 and 90 days of curing periods to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of treated soil. Results indicated improving in the unconfined compressive strength, stiffness and workability of treated soil directly after treatment and over time. Increasing in soil density and decreasing in water content were observed, with increasing Petrit T content and curing time. The pH value was immediately increasing after treatment and then gradually decreased over time. Failure mode gradually changed from plastic to brittle behavior with increasing binder content and curing time. The outcomes of this research show a promising way of using a new by-product binder to stabilize soft soils in various engineering projects in order to reduce the costs which are associated with of excavation and transportation works.

  • 95.
    Al-Jabban, Wathiq
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    A Comparative Evaluation of Cement and By-Product Petrit T in Soil Stabilization2019Inngår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, nr 23, artikkel-id 5238Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a comparison between the effectiveness of adding low binder amounts of industrial by-product Petrit T as well as cement to modify and improve fine-grained soil. Binder amount was added by soil dry weight; cement at 1%, 2%, 4% and 7% and Petrit T at 2%, 4% and 7%. The unconfined compressive strength (UCS) was used as an indicator of soil strength. In addition, the consistency limits, laser particle size analysis, and pH tests were also conducted on the treated soil. The samples were cured at 20 °C for different periods from 7 to 90 days before testing. Results indicate that cement is more effective at improving the physical and engineering properties of the treated soil. Soil plasticity index decreases after treatment and with time. Liquidity index and the water content to plastic limit ratio are introduced as new indices to define the improvement in the workability of treated soil. Soil particle size distribution is changed by reducing the clay size fraction and increasing the silt size fraction after treatment. The findings confirm that adding small binder contents improve soil properties, which subsequently reduce the environmental threats and costs that are associated with using a high amount of binder.

  • 96.
    Al-Jabban, Wathiq
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Engineering Dept., University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Effect of Disintegration Times of the Homogeneity of Soil prior to Treatment2019Inngår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, nr 22, artikkel-id 4791Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an experimental study to investigate the effect of various disintegration times on the homogeneity of pre-treated natural soil before mixing with cementitious binders. Various disintegration times were applied, ranging from 10 s to 120 s. Four different soils were used with different characteristics from high, medium and low plasticity properties. Visual and sieving assessment were used to evaluate the best disintegration times to allow for a uniform distribution of water content and small-sized particles that would produce a uniform distribution of the binder around the soil particles. Results showed that a proper mixing time to homogenize and disintegrate the soil prior to treatment depended on several factors: soil type, water content and plasticity properties. For high plasticity soil, the disintegration time should be kept as short as possible. Increasing the disintegration time ha negative effects on the uniformity of distribution of the binder around soil particles. The homogenizing and disintegration time were less important for low plasticity soils with low water content than for medium to high plasticity soils. The findings could assist various construction projects that deal with soil improvement through preparation of soil before adding a cementitious binder to ensure uniformity of distribution of the binder around soil particles and obtain uniform soil–binder mixtures

  • 97.
    AlJawad, Sadeq
    et al.
    Expert and Consultant Hydrogeologists, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Expert and Consultant Hydrogeologists, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    LTU team.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG, Iraq and Private Con sultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Groundwater Quality and Their Uses in Iraq2018Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 123-144Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquifers are porous media with various physical criteria and hydraulic conditions that largely affect the quality of water they contain. When an aquifer is a sedimentary rock, its depositional environment draws along with its present recharge condition and the footprint of its groundwater quality. The geologic setting of Iraq consists of a sedimentary cover 4 – 13 km thick with a sequence of alternating pervious and impervious sedimentary rock beds of coarse clastics and fractured carbonates with fine clastics and hard rock carbonate. This succession has developed a successive multi aquifer systems. The present study has recognized the major formations that so far have been explored and sampled using available data to identify the probability of their water quality which might be obtained when drilling a well through any of the formations. From among tens of thousands of wells drilled to produce water from whatever horizons they encounter, only those wells which penetrate a single formation were considered. The results show that groundwater quality expressed as total dissolved solids in the explored 17 aquifers or aquifer systems are highly variable. Nevertheless, an indicative medium range value can be deduced for each. In principle, lower salinity values and carbonate water type associate with the unconfined aquifers that receive active contemporary recharge as in the case of the exposed aquifers in the High, and to less extend the Low Folded Zones. Even in the Stable Shelf where present recharge is limited, unconfined part of the aquifers is differentiated by their lower salinity and water type. On the other hand, a partial displacement of sea water in the marine deposit carbonates has as well occurred due to previous recharge periods. This was possible to the karstified carbonates of the Stable Shelf due to their high porosity. The finer marine deposits in the Mesopotamia Basin maintained their high groundwater salinity and marine water type. Water suitability for human drinking can be found in most of the aquifers especially aquifers in the High and Low Folded Zones. In the Stable Shelf, Al-Jazira, and even in the Mesopotamian Plain, recharge boundary conditions of the aquifer in the selected drilling spot should be carefully examined. The high variations of water quality in the aquifers in the latter zones requires an evaluation of water suitability well by well. However, most of the groundwater derived from the northern parts of the Stable Shelf and Al-Jazira Zones aquifers are suitable for agriculture, while that those of the southern parts and the Mesopotamian Plain are questionable or unsuitable.

  • 98.
    Al-Khateeb, Mukdad
    et al.
    University of Technology, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    A Spatial Sustainable Development Model Based on Partnership between Government, Community and Specialist in Baghdad2016Inngår i: Creative Education, ISSN 2151-4755, E-ISSN 2151-4771, Vol. 7, nr 14, s. 1881-1890Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is facing fatal challenges: internal, external and natural that are threatening the well-being of the Iraqi community at present and certainly jeopardizing the sustainable development at all levels of Sustainable Development (SD)-Capitals: natural, human and social, and manufactured/financial. This paper is intended to discuss on establishing a Sustainable Neighborhood in Baghdad, where it could serve as an experimental project to test the forms of expenditure that would guarantee the best eco-efficient transformation of expenditure to Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The paper illustrates the challenges of SD and the factors that would exacerbate their effect unless dealing with through scientific-well managed procedures based on green growth policiesand sustainable development strategies.

  • 99.
    Al-Khateeb, Mukdad
    et al.
    University of Technology.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sustainable University Model for Higher Ed-ucation Iraq2014Inngår i: Creative Education, ISSN 2151-4755, E-ISSN 2151-4771, Vol. 5, nr 5, s. 318-328Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Education can become another burden on the development unless addresses the internal, external and natural challenges by Sustainable Universities that provide an educational, cultural and teaching model through a sustainable development strategy. This paper tends to illustrate the dif-ferent challenges of sustainable development in Iraq coupled with the full ignorance of the concept and principles of sustainability and suggests a model for a sustainable university. Although the suggested model is rather complicated, but it is crucial to encompass the different affects of human resources on the sustainable development capitals, at and beyond, the university campus.

  • 100.
    Al-Madhlom, Qais
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. University of Babylon, Coolege of Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Department of Geology, College of Science, Kufa University.
    Lindblom, Jenny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Abdullah, Twana
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Abid Hamza, Basher
    University of Babylon, Coolege of Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Seepage Velocity of Dibdibba Formation in Karbala, Iraq2017Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 279-290Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq highly depends on its surface water resources. Now it is facing water shortage problems. For these reasons, the utilization of groundwater will be increasing with time. Karbala Governorate is located in the central part of Iraq. It covers an area of 5034 km2 and the population exceeds one million. It is characterized by an arid or semiarid environment. Karbala Governorate lack surface water resource and consequently, groundwater is the only available resource. The main groundwater aquifer within the area is Dibdibba formation. It is composed of poorly sorted sand and sand stone with gravel. In this research hydrological and hydrogeological information were used to find out the magnitude and the direction of groundwater seepage velocity. The results indicate that groundwater flow toward the flood plain to the east of the study region. The seepage velocity ranges from 0 to 0.18 m/d, with a general increase when moving from the west to the east.

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