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  • 51. Leduc, Sylvain
    et al.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Franklin, O.
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    Dotzauer, E.
    Mälardalen University.
    Location of a biomass based methanol production plant: a dynamic problem in northern Sweden2010Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 87, nr 1, s. 68-75Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Concerning production and use of biofuels, mismatch between the locations of feedstock and the biofuel consumer may lead to high transportation costs and negative environmental impact. In order to minimize these consequences, it is important to locate the production plant at an appropriate location. In this paper, a case study of the county of Norrbotten in northern Sweden is presented with the purpose to illustrate how an optimization model could be used to assess a proper location for a biomass based methanol production plant. The production of lignocellulosic based methanol via gasification has been chosen, as methanol seems to be one promising alternative to replace fossil gasoline as an automotive fuel and Norrbotten has abundant resources of woody biomass. If methanol would be produced in a stand-alone production plant in the county, the cost for transportation of the feedstock as well as the produced methanol would have great impact on the final cost depending on where the methanol plant is located. Three different production plant sizes have been considered in the study, 100, 200 and 400 MW (biomass fuel input), respectively. When assessing a proper location for this kind of plant, it is important to also consider the future motor fuel demand as well as to identify a heat sink for the residual heat. In this study, four different automotive fuel- and district heating demand scenarios have been created until the year 2025. The results show that methanol can be produced at a maximum cost of 0.48 €/l without heat sales. By selling the residual heat as district heating, the methanol production cost per liter fuel may decrease by up to 10% when the plant is located close to an area with high annual heat demand.

  • 52. Leduc, Sylvain
    et al.
    Starfelt, F.
    Mälardalen University.
    Dotzauer, E.
    Mälardalen University.
    Kindermann, G.
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    McCallum, I.
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    Obersteiner, M.
    Obersteiner.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Optimal location of lignocellulosic ethanol refineries with polygeneration in Sweden2010Ingår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 35, nr 6, s. 2709-2716Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The integration of ethanol production with combined heat and power plants is considered in this paper. An energy balance process model has been used to generate data for the production of ethanol, electricity, heat and biogas. The geographical position of such plants becomes of importance when using local biomass and delivering transportation fuel and heat. An optimization model has thus been used to determine the optimal locations for such plants in Sweden. The entire energy supply and demand chain from biomass outtake to gas stations filling is included in the optimization. Input parameters have been studied for their influence on both the final ethanol cost and the optimal locations of the plants. The results show that the biomass cost, biomass availability and district heating price are crucial for the positioning of the plant and the ethanol to be competitive against imported ethanol. The optimal location to set up polygeneration plants is demonstrated to be in areas where the biomass cost is competitive and in the vicinity of small to medium size cities. Carbon tax does not influence the ethanol cost, but solicits the production of ethanol in Sweden, and changes thus the geography of the plant locations.

  • 53.
    Ji, Xiaoyan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Wang, Chuan
    Center for Process Integration in Steelmaking, Swerea MEFOS, Luleå.
    Dahl, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Process simulation and energy optimization for the pulp and paper mill2010Ingår i: PRES 2010: 13th Conference on Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction, 28 August - 1 September 2010, Prague, Czech Republic / [ed] J.J. Klemeš; H.L. Lam; P.S. Varbanov, 2010, s. 283-288Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 54.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    Combustion of horse manure for heat production2009Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 100, nr 12, s. 3121-3126Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objectives of this paper have been to evaluate the use of horse manure and wood-shavings as a fuel for heat production and to provide sets of data on the chemical composition, ash characteristics and ash forming elements of the fuel. Another objective has been to investigate the possibility to use the ash as fertiliser by analysing the heavy metal and nutrient contents. The results showed that the fuel is well suited for combustion for heat production causing low emissions of products of incomplete combustion. The emissions of NOx were however high due to the high content of fuel bound nitrogen. Emissions of CO and NOx were typically in the range of 30-150 mg/Nm3 and 280-350 mg/Nm3 at 10 vol% O2, respectively. The analysis of the ash showed on sufficiently low concentration of heavy metals to allow recycling.

  • 55.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Helmerius, Jonas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Integration of a hemicellulose extraction process into a biomass based heat and power plant2009Ingår i: Proceedings of ECOS 2009: 22nd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, Foz do Iguaçú: ABCM, Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering , 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of processes where lignocellulosic biomass can be refined to several different end-products in the same plant, i.e. a biorefinery, will be important in the development towards a more sustainable society where fossil fuels are replaced. This paper presents the idea to integrate the production of green chemicals via hot water hemicellulose extraction of birch wood (hardwood) into a small-scale combined heat and power plant (CHP), in this case an externally fired gas turbine. A techno-economically successful concept could provide the option to turn a small- to medium scale CHP plant into a small- to medium scale biorefinery. The results show that the extracted wood-chips would serve very well as a fuel for combustion and gasification processes due to the relatively high heating value, low ash content and significantly lower concentrations of alkali metals. Under the assumed economic conditions, electricity can be produced to a cost in the range of €85.6 to €196.2 per MWhel and a fermentable feedstock stream with a xylose concentration of 65 g/L to a cost in between €0.44 to €4.15 per kg xylose depending on plant size and number of annual operational hours.

  • 56.
    Carvalho, Lara
    et al.
    Bioenergy 2020+ GmbH.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Wopienka, Elisabeth
    Bioenergy 2020+ GmbH.
    Challenges in small-scale combustion of agricultural biomass fuels2008Ingår i: International Journal of Energy for a Clean Environment, ISSN 2150-3621, E-ISSN 2150-363X, Vol. 9, nr 1-3, s. 127-142Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Straw, Miscanthus, maize, and horse manure were reviewed in terms of fuel characteristics. They were tested in existing boilers, and the particulate and gaseous emissions were monitored. The ash was analyzed for the presence of sintered material. All the fuels showed problems with ash lumping and slag formation. Different boiler technologies showed different operational performances. Maize and horse manure are problematic fuels regarding NOx and particulate emissions. Miscanthus was the best fuel tested. Due to the big variation of fuel properties and therefore combustion behavior of agricultural biomass, further R&D is required to adapt the existing boilers for these fuels.

  • 57.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Asp, Björn
    Larsson, Mikael
    Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Methanol production at an integrated steel mill2008Ingår i: Proceedings of the 18th International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering: 24th - 28th August, Prague, Czech Republic, Prague: ČSCHI - Czech Society of Chemical Engineering , 2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Residual steel work gases are often utilised internally at the steel plant as a fuel and as well as for heat- and power production in heat recovery steam boilers located near the steel mill. This study aims to investigate the technical and economic consequences to use the coke oven gas (COG) to produce methanol (MeOH) to be used as automotive fuel. In a case study of a steel mill located in the northern Sweden, SSAB Tunnplåt AB in the town of Luleå, four different production processes have been studied. Two of them only use COG as a fuel, while the other two systems also use biomass based synthesis gas to blend with the COG. The results show that nearly 300 GWh of MeOH could be produced annually from COG only to a production cost in the range of €0.13 to €0.26 per litre MeOH. If also 420 GWh per year of biomass for synthesis gas production is supplied and the gas blended with the COG totally 570 GWh of MeOH can be produced annually to a similar production cost range. The main conclusion is that MeOH can be produced to a competitive cost independent of production system. Turning a steel mill into a refinery may also result in other benefits, such as better energy storage possibilities and increased incentives to utilise residual heat currently not motivated to make use of.

  • 58.
    Carvalho, Lara
    et al.
    Austrian Bioenergy Centre.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Wopienka, Elisabeth
    Austrian Bioenergy Centre.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Challenges in small-scale combustion of agricultural biomass fuels2007Ingår i: 9th Conference on Energy for a Clean Environment: Clean Air 2007, 2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, several agricultural biomass fuels, namely straw, Miscanthus,maize whole crop and horse manure mixed with two bedding materials, woodshavings and straw, were reviewed in terms of fuel characteristics. Furthermore,these fuels were tested in several existing boiler technologies and the particulateand gaseous emissions were monitored. The ash was analysed visually in terms ofpresence of sintered material. As expected, all the fuels showed problems withash lumping and slag formation, especially straw and horse manure. Differentboiler technologies showed different operational performance regarding ash andslag management. Miscanthus was the best fuel tested regarding emissions. Maizeand horse manure are problematic fuels regarding NOx and particulate emissions.Due to the big variation of the fuel properties and therefore combustion behaviourof agricultural biomass, further R&D is required to adapt the existing small-scalecombustion systems for these new fuels. Improvements in the combustionchamber design, controlling technology and ash removal systems of small-scalecombustion systems are therefore essential.

  • 59. Leduc, Sylvain
    et al.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Franklin, Oskar
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    Schmid, Erwin
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Optimal location for a biomass based methanol production plant: case study in Northern Sweden2007Ingår i: From Research to Market Deployment: 15th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition ; proceedings of the international conference held in Berlin, Germany, 7 - 11 May 2007 / [ed] K. Maniatis, Florence: ETA - Renewable Energies , 2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Methanol appears to be a new alternative fuel in the transport sector. Methanol can be produced through gasification of lignocellulosic biomass, which makes it a renewable fuel, and its utilization has therefore an impact on greenhouse gas emissions. The county of Norrbotten in northern Sweden has the characteristic to have great amount of woody biomass, and a sparsely inhabited area. Transportation distances of both biomass and methanol would then have a great impact on the final cost of methanol depending on where the methanol plant is located. This county was therefore studied as a case study with a twenty year perspective in order to validate an optimization model. The optimal locations of three different sizes of methanol plants were studied for four demographic scenarios. From this study it appears that methanol plants of 100 MWbiomass and 200 MWbiomass would be set up closer to the demand area than a 400 MWbiomass that would optimally be set up more inlands close to the available biomass.

  • 60. Wang, Chuan
    et al.
    Chen, Shuming
    National Bio Energy Co., Ltd..
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Dahl, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Technical and economic barriers for utilization of straw-fired co-generation in China2007Ingår i: From Research to Market Deployment: 15th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition ; proceedings of the international conference held in Berlin, Germany, 7 - 11 May 2007 / [ed] K. Maniatis, Florence: ETA - Renewable Energies , 2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to promote the development and utilization of renewable energy, improve the energy structure, diversify energy supplies, safeguard energy security, protect the environment, and realize the sustainable development of the economy and society, the Chinese government is now paying more attention to develop and utilizing the renewable energy in China. The available biomass resources (e.g. straw and crop residues) for energy use in China are abundant. As one bioenergy technology, straw-fired cogeneration technology can provide clean energy in rural areas in China. In recent years, some investors have shown their interests in developing straw-fired cogeneration plants. Some projects are already in the pipeline and the number of projects is expected to increase in the near future. However, there exist technical as well as economic barriers hindering the implementation of straw-fired cogeneration projects. These barriers include 1) feedstock preparation barrier regarding the straw collection, transportation, treatment and storage and less incentives from farmers; 2) some technical and production operation management barriers; 3) over-expected market demands; 4) economic barriers; 5) lack of strong policy support, etc. In this paper, all these barriers have been studied and analyzed. In addition, good management experiences of straw-fired cogeneration plants from European countries have been reviewed as a comparison with those plants in China and based on that, some recommendations have been made to improve the implementation conditions for straw-fired cogeneration projects in China.

  • 61. Pettersson, Esbjörn
    et al.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Hermansson, Roger
    Co-combustion of wood-shavings and horse manure in a small scale heating plant2006Ingår i: Proceedings: World Bioenergy 2006 : taking you from know-how to show-how ; 30 May - 1 June 2006, Jönköping, Stockholm: Swedish Bioenergy Association (SVEBIO) , 2006, s. 396-400Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 62. Wang, Chuan
    et al.
    Zeng, Lei
    Yan, Jinyue
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Potential carbon dioxide emission reduction in China by using Swedish bioenergy technologies2006Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    During recent years, an increased attention has been given by industries and governments from industrialized as well as developing countries to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through the clean development mechanism (CDM). As China has increasing demands on bioenergy and Sweden has good practices and competence in developing and utilizing bioenergy technologies, this paper studies the resulting consequence if implementing Swedish bioenergy technologies in China. The potential CO2 emission reduction from each technology in China is studied. A few priority areas for future CDM projects selection by using Swedish technologies are recommended.

  • 63. Lundgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Hermansson, Roger
    Dahl, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    New furnace designed for small-scale combustion of wet and inhomogeneous biomass fuels2005Ingår i: Biomass for energy, industry and climate protection: 14th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition ; proceedings of the international conference held in Paris, France, 17 - 21 October 2005 / [ed] L. Sjunnesson, Florence: ETA - Renewable Energies , 2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 64. Wang, Chuan
    et al.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Hermansson, Roger
    Dahl, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Straw-fired congeneration as a possibility to provide clean energy in rural areas in China2005Ingår i: Biomass for energy, industry and climate protection: 14th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition ; proceedings of the international conference held in Paris, France, 17 - 21 October 2005, Florence: ETA - Renewable Energies , 2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 65.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Design and experimental studies of a biomass fired furnace for small- and medium scale heating applications2004Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of the work was to develop a biomass fired furnace for small and medium scale heating systems, which has the ability to manage wet as well as unclassified biofuels with maintained low emissions of harmful substances. The system should also be able to cope with large and frequently occurring thermal output variations fulfilling rigorous environmental restrictions. The furnace consists of two combustion stages, a primary- and a secondary zone, and has a maximum thermal output of 500 kW. The studies have been focussed on the evaluation of the environmental performance of the new furnace. The main conclusion of the work is that the furnace fulfils all the pre-set requirements regarding operational- and environmental performance. The study has also shown that it is possible to use refuse in the form of horse manure mixed with wood-shavings and straw with satisfactorily environmental performance.

  • 66. Lundgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Hermansson, Roger
    Dahl, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Experimental studies during heat load fluctuations in a 500 kW wood-chips fired boiler2004Ingår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 26, nr 3, s. 255-267Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Several long-term experiments with fluctuating thermal outputs have been carried out in a newly developed biomass fuelled boiler suitable for small district heating networks. The experiments have been performed by either using the furnace only or the furnace together with a water heat store. Comparisons between these two operation strategies have been made concerning emissions and overall performance. Furthermore, the plant has been run to match a simulated heat demand during different seasons, in order to study the performance of the system during more realistic operation conditions. The results are very satisfactory concerning both performance and emissions, using any of the control strategies. Typical emissions of CO and NOx during the experiments are in the range of 10–50 mgNm−3 (5–25 mgMJ−1) and 130–175 mgNm−3 (60–90 mgMJ−1), respectively. However, during summer when the heat demand is low or zero, operational problems will occur if the heat store is excluded. Therefore, the main conclusion is that the most appropriate solution for a small district-heating system is to use a water heat store to match the heat load variations, while the furnace operates at as constant thermal output as possible.

  • 67.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Hermansson, Roger
    Dahl, Jan
    Experimental studies of a biomass boiler suitable for small district heating systems2004Ingår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 26, nr 5, s. 443-453Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Extensive experiments have been carried out in a newly developed furnace suitable for small district heating networks. The fuel is wood-chips with moisture content in the range of 30-58%. One of the unique features of this new furnace is the broad thermal output span, which makes it possible to run the boiler down to 10% of maximum heat load, with maintained low emissions of CO and total hydrocarbons (THC). The aim of this study has been to evaluate the performance of the combustion chamber during steady-state operation in the complete thermal output range. The experiments show very good results over the entire thermal output range. In the range 60 kW up to 500 kW, the average CO content in the stack gases is typically below 25 mg Nm-3(20 ppm) and the NOx concentration below 195 mg Nm-3(95 ppm) during steady state conditions. At lower thermal outputs, the average CO content is below 105 mg Nm-3(84 ppm). (All values standardised to 10 vol% O 2.)

  • 68.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    Practical, environmental and economic evaluation of different options for horse manure management2004Ingår i: CHISA 2004: 16th International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering, 22 - 26 August 2004, Prague, Czech Republic, Prague, 2004Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 69.
    Hermansson, Roger
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Solar assisted small-scale biomass district heating system in the northern part of Sweden2004Ingår i: International Journal of Green Energy, ISSN 1543-5075, E-ISSN 1543-5083, Vol. 1, nr 4, s. 467-482Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a case study of a projected solar assisted biomass district heating system in the north of Sweden. It is generally known that a biomass district heating system combined with solar heat brings many important benefits. The most common system solution is to install a heat store and a large solar collector field near the heating central. No plant of this type is however in operation in the northern part of Sweden. The main reason for this is that the solar irradiation at these latitudes is very low when the demand for heat is high. Solar heat could however be useful during summer in order to generate hot tap water. One problem is that the heat losses, calculated as percentage of the delivered heat, become very large during these months. This article presents the idea of allowing the connected households to generate their own hot tap water using solar collectors and heat stores installed in each house. The district heating network can therefore be closed in summer, which eliminates the heat losses outside the heating period. A case study of a projected plant has been carried out and it is shown that it is possible to reduce the heat losses by 20% compared to a conventional system. This idea also provides many other important technical and economic benefits.

  • 70.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Hermansson, Roger
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik.
    Lundqvist, M.
    Design of a secondary combustion chamber for a 350 kW wood-chips fired furnace2003Ingår i: Proceedings, 4th International Conference on Fluid and Thermal Energy Conversion: FTEC 2003, 2003Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 71.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Performance of a new wood-chips fired boiler for small district heating systems2002Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A new bio fuel based boiler concept for small district heating systems has been developed. The boiler enables heat load variations from 100% down to 10% of nominal thermal output 500 kW fulfilling the most rigorous environmental restrictions. To obtain as low fuel costs as possible, an unrefined fuel in the form of wood-chips with moisture content in the range of 35-58% is used. The results are very satisfactory concerning both performance and emissions. Typical emissions of CO and NOx during the experiments are in the range 10 to 50 mg Nm-3 (5 to 25 mg MJ-1) and 130 to 175 mg Nm-3 (60 to 90 mg MJ-1), respectively.

  • 72. Lundgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Hermansson, Roger
    Dahl, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    A new biomass based boiler concept for small district heating networks2001Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2001 Joint international combustion symposium: Toward efficient zero emission combustion - advances in air-fuel and oxy-fuel technlogies, Houston, Tex: International Energy Agency (IEA), 2001Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
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