Ändra sökning
Avgränsa sökresultatet
1234567 51 - 100 av 1493
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Träffar per sida
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
Markera
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 51.
    Axsäter, Sven
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Samuelsson, Björn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Evaluation of a new type of sequentiallot sizing techniques1990Ingår i: Engineering Costs and Production Economics, ISSN 0167-188X, E-ISSN 1878-4011, Vol. 19, nr 1-3, s. 281-286Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The classical dynamic lot size problem without backlogging is usually solved with the aid of various heuristics. Most heuristics are sequential, i.e. the demand is considered period for period, and a decision whether to include the demand in a certain period in the preceding batch is taken without regarding the future demand. Recently, it has been shown how to design a sequential lot sizing rule that will optimize the average performance, provided that a typical demand looks like a sequence of independent and identically distributed random numbers. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate if and how this methodology can be implemented in practice. The new lot sizing techniques are evaluated in a simulation study for different types of demand.

  • 52.
    Azadegan, Arash
    et al.
    New Mexico State University.
    Patel, Pankaj
    Ball State University.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Operational slack and venture survival2013Ingår i: Production and operations management, ISSN 1059-1478, E-ISSN 1937-5956, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 1-18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Slack can act as a double-edged sword. While it can buffer against environmental threats to help ensure business continuity, slack canalso be costly and reduce profitability. In this study, we focus on operational slack, the form related to the firm’s production processes. We investigate the role of operational slack on firm survival during its venture stage, when its survival is significantly challenged by environmental threats. Specifically, we explore how change in three types of environmental uncertainty, namely dynamism, complexity and lack of munificence affect the relationship between operational slack and venture survival. Results suggest that with increase inenvironmental uncertainty, operational slack lowers the likelihood of venture failure.

  • 53.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå university.
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå university.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Co-opetition dynamics: an outline for further inquiry2010Ingår i: Competitiveness Review: an international business journal, ISSN 1059-5422, E-ISSN 2051-3143, Vol. 20, nr 2, s. 194-214Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to conceptually develop the understanding of co-opetition dynamics and to enhance the conceptual clarity of co-opetition by developing a definition based on previous research efforts. Design/methodology/approach - This conceptual paper integrates various approaches to the concept co-opetition into a definition that holds for co-opetitive interactions across multiple levels. Different co-opetitive interactions and the resulting dynamics are discussed by drawing upon competition and cooperation theories. The paper concludes with an agenda for further research on co-opetition dynamics. Findings - The paper outlines how different types of co-opetitive interactions result in archetypical situations where the dynamics of co-opetition are present as well as where the dynamics of co-opetition are missing due to a lack of balance between cooperation and competition. It notes four co-opetitive forces: over-embedding, distancing, confronting, and colluding. These four forces drive development towards situations without dynamics. Originality/value - This paper provides a conceptual understanding of co-opetition dynamics and will reveal that in order to adequately account for co-opetition dynamics, a definition of co-opetition must analytically separate the cooperative and the competitive interaction inherent in co-opetition.

  • 54.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå university.
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå university.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Coopetition: new ideas for a new paradigm2010Ingår i: Coopetition Strategy: Winning Strategies for the 21st Century, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, Incorporated , 2010, s. 19-39Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 55.
    Berg, Sven
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Turesson, Jonas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Ekevad, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Björnfot, Anders
    Faculty of Engineering, Department of Manufacturing and Civil Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Gjøvik, Norway.
    In-plane Shear Modulus of Cross-laminated Timber by Diagonal Compression Test2019Ingår i: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 14, nr 3, s. 5559-5572Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is an engineered wood material that is used in the construction industry, e.g., for floors, walls, and beams. In cases where CLT-elements are used as shear walls, the in-plane-stiffness is an important property. For non-edge glued CLT, in-plane shear stiffness is lower than for edge-glued CLT. To evaluate the non-edge glued CLT panel’s in-plane shear modulus, the diagonal compression test and finite element (FE) simulation was used. FE-models with both isotropic and orthotropic material models were used to calculate the shear stiffness. The FE models using pure shear loads were used as a reference to determine the correct value of the shear modulus. To verify the FE simulations, diagonal compression tests were conducted on 30 CLT samples. A calibration formula was derived using the least square method for calculation of shear modulus. The formula gave accurate results. The results showed that FE simulations can reproduce the same shear stiffness as tests of non-edge glued 3-layer and 5-layer CLT panels.

  • 56. Bergh, Pontus
    et al.
    Johansson-Lindfors, Maj-Britt
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Lonely rangers together: the development of trust among entrepreneurs in learning networks2008Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 57.
    Bergh, Pontus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Entrepreneurs learning together: the importance of building trust for learning and exploiting business opportunities2011Ingår i: The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, ISSN 1554-7191, E-ISSN 1555-1938, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 17-37Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This longitudinal, qualitative case study examines trust-building processes and learning outcomes among entrepreneurs who participated in formal networks designed to develop competence and knowledge. This study is built on rich data collected through observation and video recordings made during network meetings and get-togethers. Additional data was gleaned from personal interviews with participating entrepreneurs. All data sources reveal on how trust develops and how entrepreneurs can use networks to learn and improve their capacity to exploit business opportunities. Studying how trust is built over time among entrepreneurs who demonstrate a low level of trust when they join the network, this study provides insights into micro-processes and important components of building trust. Findings suggest three processes that build commitment, companionship, and competence trust. Moreover, acknowledging the notion of social learning, the findings suggest that when entrepreneurs build trust with one another they can experience cognitive, emotional, and social changes by participating in a network. This may bring potential consequences for their exploiting opportunies. Implications for academics and managers are discussed.

  • 58.
    Bergh, Pontus
    et al.
    Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Trust and self-efficacy in formal learning networks: the effects on entrepreneurs' capacity to act upon business opportunities2012Ingår i: International Journal of Innovation and Learning, ISSN 1471-8197, E-ISSN 1741-8089, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 197-216Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In efforts to promote better realisation of business opportunities, government support of formal policy led learning networks among entrepreneurs has been a popular approach worldwide. This article uses survey data from 109 entrepreneurs who took part in formal learning networks to examine how trust in network partners influences the capacity to act upon business opportunities for entrepreneurs. Further, we examine how this influence is moderated by the entrepreneurs' own self-efficacy. Our results support a positive relationship between developing trust in other networking entrepreneurs and the capacity to act upon business opportunities. Self-efficacy was found to moderate this relationship. For entrepreneurs with low self-efficacy, results support an inverted U-shaped relationship, with the greatest outcomes reached with an intermediate level of trust. For entrepreneurs with high self-efficacy, a positive linear relationship is supported. We discuss implications for further research on trust and realisation of opportunities, and for learning network policy.

  • 59.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Sturm, Dennis
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Embracing entrepreneurial behavior in a research school2009Ingår i: Design has never been this cool: ICED 09, the 17th International Conference on Engineering Design ; 24 - 27 August 2009, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA ; proceedings volume / [ed] Magareta Norell Bergendahl; Martin Grimheden; Larry Leifer, Design Research Society, 2009, Vol. 1: Design processes, s. 245-256Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PIEp (Product Innovation Engineering programme) is a newly established research school in product development engineering with the aim to increase innovation capabilities in the Swedish industries and to promote entrepreneurial behavior. By following a bottom-up approach PIEp has been able to embrace and foster entrepreneurial behavior. As an outcome the young research school has been able to change preexisting mindsets and to encourage the PIEp PhD students to be more proactive, risk-taking and innovative. This paper presents the chain of events that have happened since the establishment of the PIEp research school. In an action research approach the authors additionally state their own perceptions. Providing rich, descriptive examples and explaining certain cases in detail it is outlined how the transformation of the initial idea has been pursued until today. The insights provided are made public for future research, comparison to other research schools, and to policy makers interested in founding new research schools.

  • 60.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Development of the systematic grading procedure2011Ingår i: Design education for creativity and business innovation: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education / [ed] Ahmed Kovacevic, Glasgow: Design Research Society, 2011, s. 293-298Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A challenge in design education is the grading of students work when the task is based upon the student’s ability to show applied knowledge. Due to this difficulty the grading criteria needs to be and is most often subjectively focused. As previous research has shown the assessments can vary between teachers, thus, increasing the chance for varied and possibly improper scores. Much has to do with the level of experience and knowledge a particular teacher has and the individual preferences to which parameters make a good picture or animation. The Systematic Grading Procedure (SGP) is a method in which an assignment is broken down and the task is graded depending upon the assessment areas. The aim of this paper is to validate the SGP as a grading method for teachers in 3D modeling and 3D-visualisation and further develop the SGP as an assessment tool for lesser-experienced teachers. The SGP has previously shown to be helpful in giving and receiving feedback. Previous work did not show significant differences between SGP and the commonly used methods but this more extensive study did show that the SGP did significantly help reduce the variation in grading for both experienced 3D teachers and inexperienced 3D teachers but not for non-teachers. There seems to be a good potential for the SGP method to help teachers give more consistent grades and at the same time help students through feedback which helps both by helping them with a better understanding of the grading methods and measures.

  • 61.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Systematic grading procedure based on subjective values2010Ingår i: When design education and design research meet-: proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) Trondheim, Norway, 2nd-3rd September 2010 / [ed] Casper Boks, Glasgow: Design Research Society, 2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In Design education there can be a challenge in grading students when the task is based upon the student's ability to learn new knowledge and apply it. Thus the grading criteria needs to be and is most often subjectively focused. For example, one requirement is that, "the object should have realistic lighting". Since there is no way to, with absolute values, measure whether an image has realistic lighting, the teacher's subjective values are the base for assessment and the student's score. An observed result is that these types of assessments can vary between teachers, thus, increasing the chance for varied and possibly improper scores. Much has to do with the level of experience and knowledge a particular teacher has and the individual differences to which parameters make a good picture or animation. It is also true that two different teachers can find separate items in student's work that are praiseworthy. This paper proposes that it is possible to systematize the evaluation process with a weighting method. A Systematic Grading Procedure (SGP) can be used in design projects to separate and weigh design criteria against each other without losing the overall picture of the work. This method will be tested to see if it can help teachers in grading students more accurately.In Design education there can be a challenge in grading students when the task is based upon the student's ability to learn new knowledge and apply it. Thus the grading criteria needs to be and is most often subjectively focused. For example, one requirement is that, "the object should have realistic lighting". Since there is no way to, with absolute values, measure whether an image has realistic lighting, the teacher's subjective values are the base for assessment and the student's score. An observed result is that these types of assessments can vary between teachers, thus, increasing the chance for varied and possibly improper scores. Much has to do with the level of experience and knowledge a particular teacher has and the individual differences to which parameters make a good picture or animation. It is also true that two different teachers can find separate items in student's work that are praiseworthy. This paper proposes that it is possible to systematize the evaluation process with a weighting method. A Systematic Grading Procedure (SGP) can be used in design projects to separate and weigh design criteria against each other without losing the overall picture of the work. This method will be tested to see if it can help teachers in grading students more accurately.

  • 62.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Who wins from academic consulting2013Ingår i: Design Education-Growing Our Future: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education (E&pde13, Glasgow: The Design Society Institution of Engineering Designers , 2013, s. 82-87Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    University teachers who start teaching right after graduation have not used and developed their knowledge professionally thus they have never had the opportunity to test their acquired knowledge in practice. This results in teaching that tends to be heavily theoretical because the teacher teaches what he/she has learned in studies, instead of teaching the knowledge gained through professional experience. Unfortunately a teacher can feel insecure when not knowing if their teaching reflects currently used methods and/or appropriate tools. An effect of this can be that teachers who feel insufficient in their role as teachers. The aim of this paper is to see if academic consulting not only increases the practical experience of the teacher, but also helps the teacher in their role and gives them a better understanding of what the state of the art is. While some schools have some cooperation with the business community, both in student projects and research projects, although it is not common with external non-research consultation projects, which are conducted by the university teachers. A questionnaire was sent to both teachers and students’ asking them of their experience of academic consulting’s benefits to the classroom experience. As a follow-up were several interviewed, along with clients to gain more insight. The results showed that teachers, students and the clients benefited from these types of projects.

  • 63.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Håkansson, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    A systematic self-assessment tool2012Ingår i: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education: Design Education for Future Wellbeing, EPDE 2012, 2012, s. 311-316Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Bologna Process has led to fundamental changes in the way students are taught. This in turn has led to new quality assurance systems for teaching. For good outcomes to occur both the teachers and students need to be aware of the intended learning outcome (ILO) and this is made clearer by well defined Teacher/Learner Activities (TLAs). The Systematic Grading Procedure (SGP) has been shown to assist teachers grading student’s 3D-image work, fulfilling a need for assistance in subjects requiring grading of subjective nature. With the application of this method have both teachers and students been given a tool that helps them better understand the grading process and the level of importance of different parts of the 3D work. The aim of this study was to assess students’ learning outcomes. The SGP was used and compared by both teachers and students in assessing their own work. This study used four students who were introduced to the SGP at the introduction of the course. This was done to give then an idea how they are to understand the ILOs. After one of their assignments was graded the students were given an opportunity to improve their work using the SPG. Three of the four choose to improve their work. The ensuing interview and results showed that the SGP could be used as a tool to help students and teachers with the ILO and TLAs. In addition to that the SGP should further be tested for verification.

  • 64.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Högström, Per
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Pedagogik språk och Ämnesdidaktik.
    Is video feedback in higher education worth a byte?2015Ingår i: Great Expectations: Design Teaching, Research & Enterprise: Design Teaching, Research & Enterprise - Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education (E&PDE15) / [ed] Ahmed Kovacevic ; Guy Bingham; Brian Parkinsson, Glasgow: The Design Society Institution of Engineering Designers , 2015, s. 258-263Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Feedback can be given in various situations, like after examinations, project work, and course completion. It is widely accepted that feedback is important for students’ learning, and it can be used in various ways, such as, written, face-to-face, and with the assistance of video recordings. This study focuses on the use of video recorded feedback to gather knowledge on how video recorded feedback can enhance the students learning. Since feedback in the study was given in video recordings, an alternate way was introduced, which add further insights for teaching and learning at university levels. The results showed that 94% preferred video recorded feedback over written feedback and they, in general, preferred face to face feedback (59%). Although, follow-up questions showed that the students found the recorded option beneficial since they could review the video several times in order to see and hear exactly what was stated and what part of their work it related to. In conclusion, video feedback of student work was perceived to be beneficial and the students and the teacher positively accepted it.

  • 65.
    Berglund, Andreas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Falk, Anton
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Färm, Felix
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Gerhardsson, Linn
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Göransson, Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Higberg, Ronny
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Jäderblom, Niklas
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Muhl, Christoffer
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Nilsson, Joel
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Petäjävaara, Ellen
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Roos, Elin
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Uttberg, Julia
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Vedin, Elin
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Vikström, Fanny
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Vo, Vivi
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    15 koncept för bättre ergonomi: Inom äldreomsorg, fysioterapi, däckmontering och varuhantering2015Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här boken är resultatet av en kurs i ergonomi vid Teknisk design, Luleå tekniska universitet, våren 2015. 15 kursdeltagare har under 10 veckor använt designmetodik och ergonomiska teorier och metoder för att utveckla 15 konceptuella förbättringsförslag baserade på de 4 undersökta kontexterna äldreomsorg, fysioterapi, däckmontering och varuhantering. Fokus för ergonomi inom området teknisk design är att se till att all design, oavsett vilket system det avser, kompletterar människans styrkor och förmågor. Vi ska kort och gott se till att arbetsuppgifter, utrustning, apparater, processer, miljöer och organisationer utformas med människan som utgångspunkt, istället för att tvinga människan att anpassa sig med olika former av överbelastning som möjlig påföljd. För att uppnå detta behöver vi förstå och designa för den variabilitet som är representerad bland oss människor: vi är olika, har olika åldrar, storlek, styrka, kognitiv förmåga, erfarenheter, förväntningar och mål. Att tillämpa ergonomi betyder att studera hur människor interagerar med produkter, processer, miljöer och system för att förbättra dem, dvs. göra dem enklare, säkrare, bekvämare och effektivare att använda. För att kunna göra det behöver vi kunskap om människans förutsättningar och behov. Teknisk design med utgångspunkt och mål i god ergonomi innebär att exempelvis: Att designa produkter och utrustning som är enkla och tillförlitliga att använda med utgångspunkt i kunskap om kognitiv ergonomi, antropometri och belastningsergonomiska och biomekaniska analyserAtt designa säkra och effektiva tillverkningsprocesser med utgångspunkt i kunskap om kognitiv ergonomi och belastningsergonomiska analyserAtt designa organisationer utifrån kunskap om arbetslivsfysiologi och organisationsergonomiAtt designa arbetsuppgifter utifrån kunskap om kognitiv ergonomi, biomekanik och belastningsergonomiska analyserAtt designa enkla och användarvänliga gränssnitt med utgångspunkt i kognitiv ergonomiErgonomisk anpassning av en produkt eller en arbetsmiljö kan exempelvis handla om att se till att människan inte använder kroppen felaktigt. Det kan handla om fysisk belastning när en uppgift utförs, såväl som sensorisk input från olika system eller psykosocial belastning i form av stress. Det handlar om att utveckla kunskaper om människans begränsningar och förmågor, vilket ger bättre förutsättningar att bidra till användarvänliga lösningar. Det i sin tur bidrar till säkerhet och användarvänlighet och i slutändan att alla produkter, system och miljöer i vår omvärld fungerar väl för människan – det är hållbar utveckling om något. I kursen Ergonomi 2 vid civilingenjörsutbildningen Teknisk design, Luleå tekniska universitet, ingår en projektuppgift. Den syftar till att få fördjupad förståelse inom ergonomi genom att tillämpa kunskap och metoder i ett designprojekt för en verklig situation. Våren 2015 omfattade projektuppgiften att enanalys av valfri kontext, med syfte att förstå problem och utmaningar i den miljö, det sammanhang, den situation och för de personer som var berörda. Inledningsvis arbetade kursdeltagarna i grupper bestående av 3-4 personer, för att sedan gå in i en konceptutvecklingsfas individuellt. Det innebar att kursdeltagarna kunde genomföra ergonomiska analyser gemensamt och sedan utveckla konceptuella lösningar på egen hand. Det resulterade i att kursdeltagarna utvecklade tämligen olika lösningar, även om de haft en gemensam utgångspunkt. Bokens kapitel omfattar en beskrivning av respektive kontext följt av de konceptförslag som kursdeltagarna utvecklade. Som lärare är det alltid extra roligt när kursdeltagare är motiverade och engagerade inför projektuppgifter. Vår förhoppning är att det engagemanget ska framgå på följande sidor och att koncepten ska ge inspiration till att förbättra ergonomin i våra vardagsliv. Åsa Wikberg Nilsson, Therese Öhrling, Lars Sundström, Agneta Larsson och Ulrik RöijezonTeknisk design Luleå tekniska universitet, Augusti 2015

  • 66.
    Bergmark, Ulrika
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Pedagogik språk och Ämnesdidaktik.
    Ekberg, Niclas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Pedagogik språk och Ämnesdidaktik.
    Leonardson, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Pedagogik språk och Ämnesdidaktik.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Westman, Susanne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Pedagogik språk och Ämnesdidaktik.
    Developing teachers for the 21st century by focusing on professional competences2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 67.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Söderholm, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Karrbom Gustavsson, Tina
    Arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad, KTH, Sverige.
    Projekt: Offentlig upphandling av järnvägsunderhåll2015Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 68.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Networking to boost lean six sigma potential2008Ingår i: Third international Conference on Sex Sigma / [ed] Jiju Antony; Maneesh Kumar; Chidebere Ogbu, Glasgow: University of Strathclyde, 2008, s. 488-500Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    At the beginning of 2008 three SMEs in a small town in Sweden started a network project inspired by the Six Sigma programme, and hired a full-time Black Belt to lead the improvement activities. Three months into the project, we interviewed the top management of the participating companies and the Black Belt, to pinpoint success factors as well as risks of the cooperation project. Results show that statistical methods were unused in favour of methods associated with lean manufacturing such as 5S. Accordingly, the expectations of the CEOs were related to production improvements and flow rather than quality. Both the Black Belt and the CEOs stated that management commitment was vital for the success of the partnership, but also that the visibility of this commitment could be improved. Despite this, all interviewees agreed that the project had gotten a good start and the managers had high expectations for its progress.

  • 69.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Networking to make improvements sustainable: an SME success factor?2009Ingår i: Proceedings 7th ANQ Congress Tokyo 2009, 2009, s. 522-531Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    I mars 2008 beslutade tre svenska mindre företag att öka takten i sitt förbättringsarbete och anställde gemensamt en förbättringskonsult på heltid. Detta dokument beskriver företagens arbete och presenterar resultat från en undersökning baserad på Ajzen's teori om planerat beteende, riktad till samtliga anställda och genomförd efter nio månader. Resultaten visar att arbetstagarnas avsikt att genomföra förbättringsarbete var korrelerade med tron på den egna förmågan att utföra förbättringsarbete, och med ledningens normer. Således kan nyckeln till ett framgångsrikt förbättringsarbete för dessa företag ses ligga i att ha en engagerad ledning och erbjuda anställda utbildning och handledning.

  • 70.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Testing for motivation to engage in improvements: a conceptual framework and an initial empirical test2014Ingår i: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 25, nr 11-12, s. 1224-1235Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to develop a conceptual framework for testing the motivation to engage in improvement work. The framework is based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior (TPB), that we suggest can be used to facilitate the implementation of improvement programmes. By using the model and probing intentions, attitudes, norms and perceived ability related to improvement work, we believe hindrances for implementation of improvement programmes will be exposed. When operationalising the framework we developed a survey instrument based on TPB and then made an initial empirical test by distributing it to 124 employees (response rate 67%) of three manufacturing small- and medium-sized enterprises. Factor analysis and regression were used to analyse the survey and follow-up interviews with employees and managers were used to validate the results. This initial test of the instrument showed that it has sound measurement properties, indicated by clear factor structure and good internal consistency. Interview data also validated that the instrument was able to capture important aspects related to implementation of improvement work. Based on the result, we conclude that TPB may be useful for guiding management actions. However, since our study only draws on a limited empirical sample, future research is needed to test the contextual validity.

  • 71.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Testing for willingness to engage in improvement work2011Ingår i: Quality Innovation Knowledge: 10th International Research Conference on Quality, Innovation and Knowledge, Monash University , 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 72.
    Bergström, Alexander
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Karlson, Anton
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Risk management in a business ecosystem2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this thesis is to advance the understanding of risk exposure and management for different roles in business ecosystems. The following research questions have been derived to fulfill this purpose: RQ1: Which risks are different business ecosystem roles exposed to, and in what way? RQ2: How can business ecosystem actors mitigate risks?

    Method – A single case study has been conducted on a business ecosystem surrounding the development of autonomous cars in the EU. An abductive and qualitative approach has been applied, which allowed the combination of existing literature and new empirical findings as to the foundation for building new theory. Data was collected through 21 semi-structured interviews and analyzed through comparison between codes on risks, roles, and risk mitigation strategies.

    Findings – The already existing literature on business ecosystem risks was confirmed and nuanced. On top of this, two new risks were found, disintermediation risk (the risk of being fully or partially excluded from the ecosystem) and accountability risk (the risk of being responsible for other business ecosystem actors output to a third party). The findings also declare that risks vary between actors, but also due to other factors such as investment in the ecosystem and an actor's relative size to other actors. Finally, suggested risk response strategies for each risk were derived.

    Theoretical implications - We have contributed to the literature on risks within business ecosystems by adding two new risks: disintermediation risk and accountability risk. We have also contributed to the overall literature on business ecosystems by combining the two sub-streams risks in business ecosystems and roles in business ecosystems. In addition to the theoretical implications for the business ecosystem literature, we have contributed to the risk management literature by applying it in the new context of business ecosystemsto extend the applicability of the risk management literature.

    Practical implications - Our findings shed light on how risks are distributed between different roles and can therefore provide guidance in this issue. The current study also contributes to the understanding of how risks vary with respect to other factors than roles, which could be valuable knowledge for managers. Finally, practical guidance on how risks can be mitigated is presented which is valuable for any actor in a Business ecosystem.

  • 73.
    Bergström, Mattias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Getting physical: tangibles in a distributed virtual environment2006Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of products is an increasingly complex task, where companies do not have and do not want the in-house competence to manage the development of entire products. Consequently, companies outsource parts of product development projects to other companies or join in partnerships. There is also an industrial shift of focus towards offering a total offer, i.e. selling functions instead of products. The function provider will have the responsibility of the physical artefact throughout the lifecycle and also have the capacity to continually improve the customer value through innovations. Hence, the provider will be able to reengineer, reuse and recycle the physical artefact. This puts new demands on the product development process, in which the total offer is not being offered by a single company because there is simply too much risk in such a commitment. To supply a total offer companies must collaborate closer than before, by exchanging among other things, intellectual properties in new temporary organizations (i.e. extended enterprise), permitting each partner to thus focus on their core competence. The total offer commitment promotes intense collaboration. Partners in the extended enterprise will most likely be geographically dispersed; therefore, tools and methods for distributed collaborative work are becoming increasingly important. Physical artefacts still play a predominant role in the product development process, even though virtual prototyping is used in everyday operations. The tangibility of physical artefacts makes them easy to use in design discourse (e.g. in design reviews, prototype evaluation). When performing design in distributed teams, a need to share physical objects will inevitably occur. This thesis presents the development of a new solution for distributed collaborative work that focuses on physical objects instead of person to person video conferencing. The author studied a design team at a leading industrial company in Sweden that used mock-ups as an integral part of their design process. Insights of their interaction with physical artefacts provided the requirements for a new type of collaborative tool for distributed work. The presented system allows remote collaborators a first- person view of physical artefacts or environments, e.g. mock-ups. This licentiate thesis also presents how the design process changed with the introduction of the new tool, i.e. remote engineers can share their "virtual" CAD data simultaneously with the technician situated at the prototype, who shares his "physical" data with the engineers. The new tools also provided unexpected support for co-located meetings, enabling users to look behind panels and view items that were normally hidden from their sight.

  • 74.
    Bergström, Mattias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Probing for innovation: how small design teams collaborate2009Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Ongoing globalization is placing greater demands on industry. One strategy to stay competitive is to move from supplying only hardware to supplying total offers, e.g. thrust on wings or power by the hour. The total offer is a combination of a product and service, a product service system. This approach to the product development process focuses on the function of the offered system, i.e. functional product development. The function provider retains the ownership and responsibility of the function carrier, i.e. the hardware. This makes for greater risk, but also greater revenue. To deal with this new reality companies are collaborating to supply these types of total offer. Another aspect of retaining ownership of the function carrier is that through continuous innovations, companies can improve the product over the life cycle of the offer. In an industrial context, and often in a global setting, designing is primarily performed through collaboration in teams, e.g. a group of people possessing distinct competences respectively contributing to the task. Hence, with the deployment of a functional product development strategy, the team is given the challenge to collaborate as a global team, i.e. the individuals of the team are spread over a number of companies, sites and countries. Yet another challenge is to increase the innovation in the team. Consequently, with these diverse teams the ability to express thoughts, ideas and different point of views is important for team-based design. The team must not only solve a design task, but also understand and define the task. This kind of design is by default ill-defined and thus referred to as a ‘wicked problem’. However, it is in these wicked design tasks that new and breakthrough products are most likely to be found. But to reach the goal of innovation, the team must allow and embrace ambiguity, as well as act in a supportive environment. The purpose in this thesis is to illustrate activities in design teams when confronted with wicked design tasks. The focus is on how the team explores and communicates problems. The thesis also addresses how physical spaces affect the creative process. Insight into these issues will deepen the understanding of the design processes and enable development of new tools, models and methods, and thus improve the performance of team-based innovation. The cases are studied primarily through observations of small engineering design teams engaged in distributed and co-located collaborative work in early development. The research indicates that designers experience difficulties in communicating notions, such as ideas or thoughts, by solely relying on the usual approach of using sketches, writings and mere utterances. In team-based innovation, designers tend to use their own body, forming embodied representations, to fill in the blanks. Designers embody the future product, e.g. by envisioning themselves as the proposed product, or putting themselves in the users’ position to interact with a future product or both. Hence, the embodied representation becomes a form of prototyping. The designer occasionally incorporates an everyday object to add another dimension to this kind of prototyping activity. Normally, in the manufacturing industry, prototypes are refined and in a state of pre-production. Thus, they limit ambiguity and do not lend themselves to prompt designers to add new ideas. To support the team’s communication of ideas, the prototyping process has to allow the designers to explore the problem, change and propose new ideas, and aid their communicative and collaborative efforts. From the studies, a model derived for an iterative prototyping process in the early design phases is proposed. The model has its starting point in probing, which allows both the problem and the solution to be explored. Probing can incorporate a question, an idea, a concept, or an embodied representation. The design team acknowledges and interprets the probe, creating a shared or contrasted understanding. Still, it is in the differentiated and contrasted understanding that team members find the inspiration to ideate and create additional probing activities that provide for innovations. By looping this process numerous times, the understanding becomes shared and the product concept becomes more refined. However, the main value of the prototyping process is not the prototype per se, but rather the value in the process as such, since it allows the team to reflect in practice and experience through prototyping. The activities of a design team may be supported or hampered by the environment where the activities occur. A room and furniture, specifically designed to prompt a collaborative and creative mode, are suggested and demonstrated in this thesis. Insight from observing design activities in these creative environments provides a basis for further research.

  • 75.
    Bergström, Mattias
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Prototyping – a way to think together2009Ingår i: Research into Design: Supporting multiple facets of product development / [ed] Amaresh Chakrabarti, Singapore: Research Publishing Services, 2009, s. 450-457Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The descriptive study presented in this paper is based on the empirical data generated by observing a global student design team. Their prototyping process are described and discussed to feed input to the facilitation of team based innovation. The emerging of a shared design vision as early as possible is vital for the subsequent design activities, in particular for innovation projects. Every day items, body language and simple rough prototypes are used by the student team to communicate their ideas, to generate feedback on the ideas and to put forward new ideas. The study indicates that the process of doing rough prototypes enables designers to make their implicit understandings visible in such cases when the development starts from scratch, e.g., innovations. Thus, prototyping, i.e., the use of rough prototypes and body language etc, assist designers to collaborate and share experiences in early phases when no agreed upon design vision exists.

  • 76.
    Bergström, Mattias
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Larsson, Madelene
    Nergård, Henrik
    Larsson, Tobias
    Renström, Boo
    Voxit.
    Needs as a basis for design rationale2008Ingår i: Design 2008: 10th International Design Conference, May 19-22, 2008, Dubrovnik, Croatia / [ed] Dorian Marjanovic; Mario Storga; Neven Pavkovic; Nenad Bojcetic, Zagreb: University of Zagreb , 2008, s. 281-288Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is based on data from a Swedish real-life industrial product development project for e-health care of elderly. The purpose in the paper is to discuss identification of user needs. Information about the elderly is transferred in recurrent meetings. Besides the perception that these meetings occupy time which could be spent giving care, the nurses find it problematic to convey such information to substitutes, as well as they have to rely on their memory. In this case, a Dictaphone device was a solution. Reports on practical activities of identifying user needs and how they affect decisions in product development are limited; one contribution of this paper is insights into such a case

  • 77.
    Bergström, Mattias
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Matzen, Detlef
    Technical University of Denmark, Engineering Design and Product Development.
    Tan, Adrian
    Technical University of Denmark, Engineering Design and Product Development.
    Educating engineering designers for a multidisciplinary future2007Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary companies on a global market are experiencing constantly changing business demands and increased competition. Increasing focus in product development is now put on issues like understanding users and their needs, the context where users’ activities take place and creating sustainable solutions (McAloone, et.al., 2007). In manufacturing companies, engineering designers play a significant role in realising what is captured in these words.Future engineering designers will hold wider responsibilities for such tasks (McAloone, et.al., 2007; Larsson, et.al., 2005), thus challenging current engineering design education. Educating engineering designers today significantly differs from traditional engineering education (McAloone, et.al., 2007). However, a broader view of design activities gains little attention. The project course Product/Service-Systems, which is coupled to the lecture based course Product life and Environmental issues at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and the master programme in Product Development at the Luleå University of Technology (LTU), Sweden, are both curriculums with a broader view than traditional (mechanical) engineering design. Based on these two representatives of a Scandinavian approach, the purpose in this presentation is to describe two ways of educating engineering designers to enable them to develop these broader competencies of socio-technical aspects of engineering design. Product Development at LTU A process, called Participatory Product Innovation (P2I) underpins the master programme Product Development and originates from the Design for Wellbeing (DfW) framework (Larsson, et.al., 2005). This is an inclusive framework which seeks to bring together business, human issues and technology in a comprehensive approach to support the creation of tomorrow’s innovations. A main principle is that many different disciplines should contribute to spur innovation by collaboration across disciplines (Larsson, et.al., 2007). The P2I process starting position is in Needfinding (Patnaik and Becker, 1999), were the students conduct observations and interviews to gain access to ualities in the users’ context. An identified challenge here is to keep people in view and not jump into conclusions, i.e., to understand a situation perceived by its actors as problematic and to widen the design space. Product/Service-Systems at DTU Besides the teaching of traditional engineering skills, the curriculum for the project course aims to build up multidisciplinary competences such as understanding the socio technical aspects of product design and synthesis of products and delivery systems. The students are assigned to redesign an existing physical product, such as a washing machine, and turn it into a product/service-system. The main objective for the project is that the resulting solution should have a substantially lower environmental impact whilst maintaining a similar functional performance as the initial product. The student teams are first guided through an analysis of the initial product’s product life cycle, yielding insights into four aspects of product design:1. indentification of current environmental impacts, 2. life phase systems the product encounters, 3. activities that involve the human actor (i.e. customer) and the product, 4. actor-network that support and supply these activities throughout the product’s life. Based on the analysis, goals are set for the improved solution and concepts are developed for a new product/service-system. This way the students are lead through engineering and socio-technical analysis tasks and thereby laying the foundation for their synthesis work in the concept development phase of the project. Concluding Remark By emphasising socio technical aspects in a process model or in a project course, the students are more likely to consider users, their context and sustainable solutions. This we see as essential competencies in product/service-system design and functional product development. References Larsson, A., Larsson, T., Leifer, L., Van der Loos, M., Feland, J. (2005), Design for Wellbeing: Innovations for People, In proceedings of 15th International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED 05, August 15-18, Melbourne, Australia.McAloone, T.C., Andreasen, M.M., Boelskifte, P. (2007), A Scandinavian Model of Innovative Product Development, In Proccedings of the 17th CIRP Design Conference, Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Patnaik, D., Becker, R. (1999), Needfinding: The Why and How of Uncovering People’s Needs, Design Management Journal, 10 (2), 37-43.

  • 78.
    Bergström, Mattias
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Törlind, Peter
    4I4I : Four I:s for Innovation: a book with easy to use methods and ideas to foster innovative product development2010Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    A book with easy to use methods and ideas to foster innovative product development.

  • 79.
    Bergström, Mattias
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Johansson, Christian
    Assessment of team based innovation in a Product Service System development process2011Ingår i: Research into Design: Supporting Sustainable Product Development / [ed] Amaresh Chakrabarti, Bangalore, India: Research Publishing Services, 2011, s. 711-718Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation is often measured based on how the product performs on the market. This makes it difficult to measure the performance of a team since the time to develop a product may take several years. In this paper we show the importance of creating a common ground and facilitation in a team, two aspects that is not easy measure, but should be assessed. We also discuss innovation on three interrelated organizational levels, the operational, which is the development team and in focus in this paper, the managerial and the strategic level. We found that companies need indicators to measure and/or assess performance on all three levels and thatmore research is needed to find the inter-links between the levels to prescribe measures and assessment points.

  • 80. Bergström, Mattias
    et al.
    Törlind, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Enabling technologies for distributed collaboration in functional product development2007Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 81. Bergström, Mattias
    et al.
    Törlind, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Examining creative collaboration in distributed and co-located design teams2007Ingår i: Design for society: knowledge, innovation and sustainability ; ICED '07 - Paris, 16th International Conference on Engineering Design ; 28 - 30 August 2007, Paris, France ; conference proceedings, Paris: Design Research Society, 2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Product development, including all its phases, is today performed to a greater extent in globally dispersed teams. This paper compares two creative design sessions early in the product development process, one co-located session and one distributed session. The workflow in the co-located session was fluid and natural, whereas in the distributed session, it was sometimes disturbed by limitations ofthe mediating technology. The major deficiencies of the technology are the limited support for shared drawing surfaces, for shared control of these surfaces and for creation of concepts. In the co-located session embodied representation were used to describe, communicate and build upon concepts. Due to the limitations of the technology, these types of communication were seldom used in the distributedsession.

  • 82.
    Bergström, Mattias
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Törlind, Peter
    Getting physical: interacting with physical objects in distributed collaboration2005Ingår i: 15th International Conference on Engineering Design - ICED 05: 15 - 28 August 2005 / [ed] Andrew Samuel; William Lewis, Barton: Institution of Engineers, Australia , 2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 83. Bergström, Mattias
    et al.
    Törlind, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Towards virtual co-location in functional product development2008Ingår i: Collaboration and the Knowledge Economy: Issues, Applications, Case studies / [ed] Paul Cunningham; Miriam Cunningham, IOS Press, 2008, s. 806-814Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The shift in industry towards Functional Product Innovation implies more collaborative efforts between the partners forming joint ventures, i.e. cross-company collaboration. Hence, new demands are put on collaborative technology. Insights into needs for both industry and collaborative design teams provide the possibilities for ‘virtual co-location' to be enhanced. Following a workshop format, the radical innovation workshop, industrial criterions for collaborative technology has been analyzed based on empirical data from five Swedish manufacturing companies. During the workshop three scenarios were put forward by the industry as most relevant; (1) the design review, (2) to on-site remotely collaborate with an expert and (3) the day-to-day communication. Based on these scenarios, three industrial criterions emerged, namely efficient collaboration, effortless setup of communication and the capability to create trust without touch. Technologies to support Functional Product Innovation seem to insist on meeting these criterions.

  • 84.
    Bergström, Mattias
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Törlind, Peter
    Johanson, Mathias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Sharing the unshareable: distributed product review using tangibles2005Ingår i: Proceedings: 2nd International Forum on Applied Wearable Computing, IFAWC : March 17 - 18, 2005 in Zurich, Switzerland / [ed] Otthein Herzog; Michael Lawo, Berlin: VDE-Verlag , 2005, s. 161-175Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the ongoing globalization of businesses and the collaboration occurring between geographically dispersed organizations, distributed collaborative work using computer based support tools becomes increasingly important. When trying to perform design work while relying heavily on the use of physical artefacts such as early mock-ups, a need to share the unshareable, i.e. physical objects, will inevitably occur in a distributed setting. In an attempt to realize this, the authors studied a design team during their design reviews where a physical mock-up was used. A wearable conferencing unit (the Boblebee computer) was then developed to give remote collaborators a first person view of the mock-up using a head mounted video camera. With the Boblebee computer, remote collaboration with large tangible objects can successfully be realized. This paper relates experiences from the design of the system, and reports on early observations of its use.

  • 85.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Analyzing Product-Service Systems conceptual design: the effect of color-coded 3D representation2013Ingår i: Design Studies, ISSN 0142-694X, E-ISSN 1872-6909, Vol. 34, nr 6, s. 763-793Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents the testing activity of a color-coded 3D visualization approach, developed to enhance the designers’ awareness during the conceptual design of a Product Service System (PSS). Protocol analysis is applied to eight design sessions to compare the behavior of different design teams when featuring printouts of color-coded CAD models, instead of spreadsheets with numerical tables, as carrier of value-related information. The analysis focuses on the time spent on the different activities during the sessions, highlighting the problem solving strategies and the consideration of PSS related aspects. The analysis shows that design teams featuring printouts of color-coded CAD models made a more extensive use of information during problem analysis, following a more structured design process, than teams using spreadsheets.

  • 86.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Value assessment capabilities in early PSS development: a study in the aerospace industry2012Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Providing added value to standalone products by adding services is at the core of product service systems (PSS) offered in manufacturing industries. Providing PSS requires a change not only in the way products are sold, but also in the way they are designed and developed. Engineers need to assess the value of a forthcoming PSS solution as soon as possible in the design process, addressing service-related issues that often fall outside their technical horizon and are challenging to seamlessly translate into the product technical requirements. The aim of the thesis is to investigate the early stages of aerospace product development, proposing methods and tools in order to improve the decision-making process, by enhancing the awareness of engineers and designers about the value contribution of different design alternatives. This academic work was performed through action research in close collaboration with major European aerospace manufacturers, research centers, and academic institutions conducting research in product development. The thesis first depicts the current practices and limitations of value assessment in early design stages, describing the increasing complexity of the aerospace development projects. Improvements for current practices are proposed in terms of developing value assessment capabilities coupled with requirements analysis and enhancing communication of the expected value contribution of a forthcoming solution.Second, this thesis proposes a conceptual approach aiming to enhance the communication between engineers and designers of the value-related aspects of a solution in early design stages. This approach allows for the visualization of the results of a value assessment activity using color-coded features on the product computer aided design (CAD) model. The characteristic of the approach is to allow for the simultaneous visualization of value scores and knowledge maturity in a unique representation. The approach is meant to increase the awareness about the multifaceted aspects of the value assessment of different designs, promoting tradeoff and impact analysis.In conclusion the thesis summarizes the findings of the empirical analysis, showing the need to complement requirements information with the assessment of value and knowledge maturity, and proposing color coded CAD models as technological enabler for the communication of the outcomes of the value assessment. Finally guidelines for future research are provided.

  • 87.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Value Driven Design: a methodology for value-oriented decision making in preliminary design2013Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Making design decisions during preliminary design of a complex product, such as an aircraft, is a difficult activity. Numerous teams, acting on a global scale, take part in such design activities, approaching the problem from different perspectives and at different levels of granularity. Based on their position in the supply chain, design teams can focus either on the product as a whole, on its service-related aspects, or on the design of specific components of the product itself. The complexity of the design causes design teams to often base decisions on flawed or incomplete information, since stakeholders’ needs and perceptions are difficult to predict and communicate among teams. Such situations make it problematic for the developers to understand which design concept would be the most valuable to develop.Through collaboration with major European aerospace manufacturers, this research has highlighted the limits of current product development practices in addressing the promotion of more value-oriented design decisions in preliminary design This thesis has investigated the meaning of value in preliminary design decision-making and proposed a way forward towards its assessment and communication, introducing a value-oriented perspective to decision-making. This thesis builds on the Value Driven Design (VDD) concept increasingly discussed in the aerospace industry. VDD, in its original formulation, promotes the use of the mathematical optimization of a value function to select the most valuable design concepts. VDD is debated in literature, and an established VDD theory is not present. Contributing to such debate, this thesis proposes a Value Driven Design methodology for decision making in preliminary design that goes beyond the concept of mathematical optimization of a single value function. It considers the value of a design concept as encompassing stakeholders’ needs that are not always quantitatively quantifiable in a mathematical function, giving up with the idea of obtaining an absolute numerical measurement for value. The methodology takes the standpoint of an aircraft sub-system manufacturer. It merges concepts available in literature (i.e. Value Creation Strategy, Knowledge Maturity, Customer-Oriented Design Analysis) with the approaches developed from the findings of the empirical study. The methodology is based on correlating value aspects at different supply chain levels, assessing the maturity of the knowledge and computing the value of a design alternative compared to a baseline and a target. The use of colored features in CAD models to enhance the communication of value-related information is also proposed, and preliminary tested.Finally, guidelines for value assessment and visualization in preliminary design are provided, and the contributions to the VDD field are discussed together with the industrial implications of the methodology.

  • 88.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Assessing the value of product service systems alternatives: a conceptual framework2011Ingår i: Design Principles and Practices: An International Journal, ISSN 1833-1874, Vol. 5, nr 5, s. 655-672Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper proposes a conceptual framework, linking value-oriented criteria, simulation approaches and knowledge sources, to support the value-driven assessment of Product/Service Systems in the preliminary product development phase. The paper describes the peculiarities of the Multi Attribute Decision Making (MADM) problem in the PSS domain, identifying relevant categories of criteria to guide the preliminary value assessment of Product/Service Systems. Each criteria has been analyzed and linked to the appropriate simulation method, and each method has been further associated to people/roles in the Virtual Enterprise who might possess relevant knowledge to populate the models. The value assessment of an aircraft engine component has been used as case study for the definition of the value attributes. The list of generic value-related criteria, coupled with the respective simulation approaches has to be considered the main result of the paper.

  • 89.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Effectiveness of colour-coded CAD models value visualisation in PSS conceptual design2013Ingår i: Product-Service Integration for Sustainable Solutions: Proceedings of the 5th CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems, Bochum, Germany, March 14th - 15th, 2013 / [ed] Horst Meier, Berlin: Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2013, s. 495-506Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 3rd CIRP IPS2 conference an approach toward communicating the value contribution of different PSS design alternatives using colour-coded CAD models was presented. Building on this work, the paper presents and discusses the results of the testing activity undertaken to verify the effectiveness of the colour-coding approach. The paper describes the setting and the findings of a series of PSS Design Experiments involving 8 design teams composed by master students in product development. Through the application of protocol analysis to the recorded design sessions, the paper compares the behavior of the design teams when using colour-coded CAD models, instead of QFD-like numerical tables, for value communication in PSS conceptual design.

  • 90. Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Communicating the value of PSS design alternatives using color-coded CAD models2011Ingår i: Functional Thinking for Value Creation: Proceedings of the 3rd CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product Service Systems, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany, May 5th - 6th, 2011 / [ed] Jürgen Hesselbach; Christoph Herrmann, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2011, s. 51-56Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper proposes an approach to increase the decision makers’ awareness at the gate, when evaluating PSS design alternatives from a lifecycle and value oriented perspective. The paper illustrates a lightweight value visualization tool, running on top of existing CAD systems, supporting value visualization of a given part or assembly, thanks to color coding. Information from value assessment is in this way translated into visual features of the CAD 3D model. Despite the approach is still on a start-up phase, an early mock-up of the tool has been developed and applied to a real aircraft engine component, in order to verify the feasibility of the approach.

  • 91.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Value visualization in product service systems preliminary design2013Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 53, s. 103-117Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Emerging from a study in the European aerospace industry, this paper identifies a gap in the way value-related information is communicated to designers of hardware in the preliminary stages of Product Service System (PSS) design. To fit this gap a Lifecycle Value Representation Approach, named LiVReA, that uses color-coded 3D CAD models to enable value information to be translated into visual features, is presented. Such approach aims at enhancing designers’ awareness of the value contribution of an early design concept on the overall PSS offer by complementing requirements-based information with criteria reflecting the fulfillment of customers and system value. The paper details the development of the approach, its underlying rationale, the results of preliminary validation activities and the potential for industrial application in the light of the currently available PSS representation tools.

  • 92.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Enhancing intra-cognitive communication in product design with color-coded CAD models: a visualization approach2012Ingår i: Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Infocommunications: CogInfoCom 2012, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2012, s. 487-492Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Empirical investigation in the European aerospace industry has shown major drawbacks in the way design teams share information about the value contribution of a solution during early design stages. Across functions and organizations, design teams collaborate mainly using the contractual requirements as a basis, lacking of recording and communicating the contextual knowledge and the overall intent of product and service development projects. The paper proposes an approach that uses color-coded 3D CAD models for intra-cognitive communication of such value-related information to enhance the decision-making process in design. The paper first introduces the concept of product service systems and the benefits provided by visualization, afterwards it describes how value visualization can be implemented in a CAD 3D environment. A case study derived from the aerospace industry is presented to provide an example of application of the approach in a real industrial environment.

  • 93.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Assessing the value of sub-system technologies including life cycle alternatives2011Ingår i: Glocalized Solutions for Sustainability in Manufacturing: Proceedings of the 18th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, 2011, s. 669-674Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Emerging from an industrial case study in the aerospace industry, the paper proposes an approach to evaluate subsystem technology concepts from a life cycle perspective. The approach is composed by 5 main phases that aims to drive product designers towards more value-oriented design decisions. It is shown how different life cycle alternatives, such as the selling of a Product-Service- System instead of a traditional product, deeply impact the value of design alternatives. The described approach has been developed in collaboration with industrial partners and represents a potential instrument to enhance value-driven product design.

  • 94.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Bottom-up knowledge sharing in PSS design: a classification framework2010Ingår i: Design 2010: 11th International Design Conference, Dubrovnik - Croatia, May 17 - 20, 2010 / [ed] D. Marjanovic; M. Storga; N. Pavkovic; N. Bojcetic, Zagreb: Design Research Society, 2010, s. 1461-1470Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents an approach to visualize the knowledge sharing capabilities of Web 2.0 tools and mash-ups in the design of Product Service Systems. Drawing on data from the Swedish manufacturing industry, it proposes 12 dimensions on which bottom-up to...

  • 95.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Broeze, Henk
    SIEMENS PLM.
    Dubourg, Gilles
    SIEMENS PLM.
    Sundhurst, Clive
    SIEMENS PLM.
    Using 3D CAD models for value visualization: an approach with SIEMENS NX HD3D Visual Reporting2014Ingår i: Computer-Aided Design and Applications, ISSN 1686-4360, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 284-294Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent literature in Systems Engineering has suggested the use of “value” to drive decision-making activities during preliminary design. Here the choice of a technology for a system/component is often oriented by the outcomes of a value analysis. However, to correctly evaluate design trade-offs, a visual link has to be established between these results and the product requirements/geometry. The paper proposes the use of color-coded 3D CAD models to support the visualization of value analysis results in a Stage-Gate® process. The approach has been developed and exemplified within a case study related to the design of an aero-engine component, and has been demonstrated using SIEMENS NX HD3D Visual Reporting. Eventually, the paper presents the results of verification activities conducted in academia.

  • 96.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Experiences with value visualisation in preliminary design: results from an aero-engine component study2012Ingår i: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Through-life Engineering Services: (TESConf 2012), 5 - 6 November 2012, Cranfield University Press , 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 97.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Amnell, Henrik
    GKN Aerospace Systems Sweden.
    Johansson, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Value-oriented concept selection in aero-engine sub-systems design: the EVOKE approach2013Ingår i: 23rd Annual International Symposium of the International Council on Systems Engineering, INCOSE 2013: Philadelphia, PA, 24-27 June 2013, 2013, Vol. 2, s. 977-991Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of complex systems requires detailed analysis to be moved earlier in the design process. Value Driven Design methodologies extend the Requirements Management and Systems Engineering processes to reduce time and costs needed to identify the right solution direction to be pursued in detailed design. Emerging from the findings of an EU FP7 research project, the paper describes an approach for preliminary concept selection, named EVOKE, that uses value as a basis for decision. EVOKE enables quick value analysis to be executed by component manufacturers by taking as input a set of value dimensions and drivers communicated by the system integrators, together with information about the high-level engineering characteristics of the sub-systems under consideration. The approach and its technological enablers are described in detail through the use of a case study related to the design of new intermediate compressor case for turbofan engines.

  • 98.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Johansson, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Towards assessing the value of aerospace components: a conceptual scenario2011Ingår i: Impacting society through engineering design: ICED 11 København, the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design; 15th - 18th August 2011, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Copenhagen, Denmark; proceedings volumes / [ed] Steve Culley; Ben Hicks; Tim McAloone; T.J. Howard, Glasgow: Design Research Society, 2011, Vol. 9 : Design methods and tools, s. 226-235Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of complex products, characterized by long lifecycles and deep supply chains, requires enhanced capabilities to assess, in an early design stage, the value of a solution not merely from a requirement fulfillment perspective. The paper proposes a conceptual scenario, described in terms of activities, inputs, outputs, actors and mechanisms, which details how aircraft components can be developed and assessed with a focus on their value contribution at system level. The scenario proposes a set of methodological and technological tools needed to enable value assessment in preliminary design, and has been created and preliminary validated together with major European aerospace manufacturers. The importance of being able to communicate the lifecycle value contribution of design solutions during the development work emerged clearly from the study. In this spirit, an approach to visualize such contribution directly in a 3D CAD model (across a set of value criteria, dimensions and drivers) has been proposed and it is currently under development.

  • 99.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Bordegoni, Monica
    Politecnico di Milano.
    Cugini, Umberto
    Politecnico di Milano.
    Regazzoni, D.
    Università degli Studi di Bergamo.
    Rizzi, C.
    Università degli Studi di Bergamo.
    PLM paradigm: how to lead BPR within product development field2009Ingår i: Computers in industry (Print), ISSN 0166-3615, E-ISSN 1872-6194, Vol. 60, nr 7, s. 476-484Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The design and implementation of a PLM solution in a cross-company environment is a complex and labour intensive operation, which is often coupled with a Business Process Re-engineering (BPR) project to better deploy technologies as well as methodologies and to target the system implementation on the real company needs. Enterprise Modelling (EM) languages are typically used to collect and share process knowledge among the BPR participants. Plenty of techniques are actually available at this scope and it is not always easy to understand how to select and use them in the different steps of re-engineering. The main purpose of this paper is to perform a qualitative analysis of three well known EM languages (IDEF, UML and ARIS) and to propose a new methodology, based on their integrated use, supporting BPR efforts in the Product Development domain.

  • 100.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Bordegoni, Monica
    Politecnico di Milano.
    Johansson, Christian
    Larsson, Tobias
    Pilot specifications definition guidelines for the implementation of a KEE solution in the aeronautical domain2008Ingår i: CIRP Design Conference 2008: April 7 - 9, 2008, Enschede / [ed] Fred J. A. M. van Houten, Enschede: Laboratory of Design, Production and Management, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Univ. of Twente , 2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The design and implementation of a new Knowledge Enabled Engineering (KEE) in the context of a Virtual Enterprise is a labour intensive and risky task. In order to check, before embarking on a full-scale implementation, if the system will satisfy initial expectations, physical prototypes (Pilots) have to be tested in a near real usage environment to obtain qualitative and quantitative information for the final tuning activity. This paper proposes a methodology to guide this Pilot specifications definition process. The main aim of the roadmap proposed is to support the KMS design team in configuring a Pilot solution able to provide valid feedbacks of final system behaviour both from a software and non-software point of view.On one side the methodology guides the definition of Pilot implementation specifications from a technical perspective. It helps engineers and knowledge experts in selecting, refining, merging and cascading down the initial heterogeneous Pilot high level objectives to a lower level, and in elaborating a functional description of the KMS prototype. It proposes, moreover, a structured framework to classify KMS' performance indicators to help the Pilot task force in properly carry out the validation task.The methodology, on the other side, pushes the design team in considering those behavioural and methodological issues that arise from the necessary change in work practice as a result of implementing the KMS within a Virtual design environment. In parallel with the definition of technical specifications, the roadmap supports knowledge experts in developing and testing a set of Knowledge Management guidelines, intended as a list of Best Practices and Lesson Learned aiming to help users in utilizing the potentialities of the new solution.The methodology has been developed within the European project VIVACE to support the design and implementation of a new KEE system in the aeronautical domain.

1234567 51 - 100 av 1493
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf