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  • 51. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Klaassen, Ger
    Wagner, Fabian
    The GAINS model for greenhouse gases: Version 1.0: Carbon dioxide (CO2)2005Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 52. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Citizen and consumer: the dual role of individuals in environmental policy2006Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the dual role - exemplified by the ideal-types of the consumer and the citizen - individuals' face in contemporary environmental policy. As crowding-out theory highlights the implications of using ‘wrong' incentives or controlling means, examining the match between policy and those value-systems guiding individuals' decision-making process in practice should indeed be a relevant undertaking. Sweden provides the empirical example for the article, in which a text analysis of policy documents is compared with the results of a mail-out survey to 4000 individuals in four different counties. The article finds that external motivations are perceived as being highly relevant for the promotion of ecological sustainability in Sweden and, thus, that the notion of the consumer-role as guiding individuals' behaviour in the environmental field is rather strong. However, at the same time people tend to ascribe the motivational values included in the Self-transcendence cluster (altruism) a far greater importance as guiding principles in life than the opposing values of Self-enhancement (egoism), indicating that the citizen-role indeed is important to account for in policy-making. Hence, clearly there is a mismatch between Sweden's contemporary policy documents and the general value orientation held by Swedish people in general.

  • 53. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Citizen and consumer: the dual role of individuals in environmental policy2006Ingår i: Environmental Politics, ISSN 0964-4016, E-ISSN 1743-8934, Vol. 15, nr 4, s. 550-571Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the dual role – exemplified by the ideal types of the consumer and the citizen – individuals face in the contemporary environmental policy context. As crowding-out theory highlights the implications of using the ‘wrong’ incentives, examining the match between policy and the value systems guiding individuals' decision-making process in practice is a relevant undertaking. Sweden provides the empirical context for the article, in which official environmental policy-discourse in Sweden is compared with the results of a mail-out survey to 4,000 individuals in four different counties. It is suggested that external motivations are perceived as highly relevant for the promotion of ecological sustainability, so the consumer element as a motivating feature of individuals' behaviour in the environmental field is indeed of considerable importance. However, at the same time people tend to ascribe far greater importance to the motivational values included in the self-transcendence cluster (altruism) as guiding principles in life than to the opposing values of self-enhancement (egoism), indicating that the citizen-role is also important to take into account in policy design. It is concluded that there is a mismatch between the content of Sweden's policy documents and the general value orientation held by the Swedish citizenry.

  • 54. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Evaluating new institutional settings: a pilot study of new common property forest in Tanzania1999Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Development Alternatives, ISSN 0280-2791, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 43-54Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the creation of institutions concerned with common forests in an economy in transition, Tanzania. The paper uses a framework developed by Ostrom [1990]. Focusing on successful community-oriented, organized irrigation networks Ostrom defines eight design principles. These eight principles are tools that can be used in evaluating common pool resource systems. The initial experiences of the two villages Duru and Ayasanda help to illustrate how the common forests of the villages will work in the future. In evaluating these forests, using Ostrom's framework, the paper finds that most of the fundamental requirements are fulfilled.

  • 55.
    Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Otterheim, Fredrik
    Sverige och de internationella råvarumarknaderna2007Ingår i: Råvarumarknaden, Stockholm: SNS förlag, 2007, s. 265-287Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 56. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    An econometric analysis of global waste paper recovery and utilization2003Ingår i: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 26, nr 2, s. 429-456Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this paper is to provide aneconometric analysis of the most importantdeterminants of inter-country differences inwaste paper recovery and utilization rates. Byemploying pooled time series and cross-sectiondata over 49 countries worldwide and sevenyears, the paper concludes that relative wastepaper recovery and use depend largely onlong-standing economic factors such aspopulation intensity and competitiveness in theworld market for paper and board products. Wealso find evidence that supports the conjecturethat rich countries tend to recover relativelymore waste paper than is the case in low-incomecountries, reflecting the higher demand forwaste management and environmental policies inmore developed economies. As recovery andutilization rates are determined by economicand demographic characteristics the degree ofpolicy flexibility in affecting these rates maybe limited. In particular, an ambitiousutilization rate target may be very costly toenforce as it can conflict with existing tradepatterns of paper and board products as well aswith other environmental goals. Additionalpolicy targets may therefore be desirable,especially since paper recycling is motivatedprimarily by environmental concerns and seldomis a benign activity in itself.

  • 57. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Complementing empirical evidence on global recycling and trade of waste paper2003Ingår i: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 31, nr 4, s. 743-754Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This comment provides a critical analysis of Van Beukering and Bouman’s [World Development 29 (2001) 1717] article on global paper recycling and trade. We first question their notion that developing countries specialize in waste paper utilization and developed countries in recovery activities primarily because of different patterns of waste paper trade. An increased focus on relative waste paper availability, we argue, provides us with a better understanding of global paper recycling. We also criticize some of the implicit assumptions made in their regression analysis of waste paper utilization rates. An alternative regression model is therefore derived and estimated. In contrast to the approach used by Van Beukering and Bouman our analysis (a) is consistent with basic microeconomic theory; (b) distinguishes clearly between short- and long-run impacts; and (c) produces results that support our initial conjecture that waste paper availability is the most important determinant of waste paper use.

  • 58. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Källsortering i Eskilstuna Kommun: hushållens aktiviteter, erfarenheter och attityder inför försöket med insamling efter materialströmmar2008Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Naturvårdsverket har utsett Eskilstuna som försökskommun för att testa ett nytt system för avfallshantering. Syftet är att studera hur insamlingen påverkas av att hushållen källsorterar efter materialströmmar till skillnad från idag efter förpackningar. Försöket inbegriper hårdplast och metall och innebär att dessa material utöver alla hårdplast- och metallförpackningar, t ex diskborstar, kastruller, bestick, mm., ska slängas vid återvinningsstationer och/eller i behållare i de fastighetsnära utrymmena. Försöket pågår från september 2007 till september 2008. Ett viktigt mål är att ett eventuellt nytt system baserat på materialströmmar ska vara lättillgängligt och betraktas som legitimt utifrån hushållens synvinkel. Syftet med denna rapport är att göra en så kallad "nollmätning", dvs. en undersökning av hushållens källsorteringsaktiviteter, erfarenheter och attityder inför försöket med materialinsamling. Resultaten bygger på en postenkät som skickades ut i augusti 2007 till 798 hushåll i de bostadsområden i Eskilstuna som omfattas av försöket. Undersökningen inbegriper hushållens erfarenheter av och attityder gentemot källsorteringen i Eskilstuna i stort, men speciellt utrymme ges åt hushållens källsortering av avfall baserat på metall och hårdplast.

  • 59. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Modeling technical change in energy system analysis: analyzing the introduction of learning-by-doing in bottom-up energy models2006Ingår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 34, nr 12, s. 1344-1356Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this paper is to provide an overview and a critical analysis of the recent literature on incorporating induced technical change in energy systems models. Special emphasis is put on surveying recent studies aimed at integrating learning-by-doing into bottom-up energy systems models through so-called learning curves, and on analyzing the relevance of learning curve analysis for understanding the process of innovation and technology diffusion in the energy sector. The survey indicates that this model work represents a major advance in energy research, and embeds important policy implications, not the least concerning the cost and the timing of environmental policies (including carbon emission constraints). However, bottom-up energy models with endogenous learning are also limited in their characterization of technology diffusion and innovation. While they provide a detailed account of technical options—which is absent in many top-down models—they also lack important aspects of diffusion behavior that are captured in top-down representations. For instance, they often fail in capturing strategic technology diffusion behavior in the energy sector as well as the energy sector's endogenous responses to policy, and they neglect important general equilibrium impacts (such as the opportunity cost of redirecting R&D support to the energy sector). Some suggestions on how innovation and diffusion modeling in bottom-up analysis can be improved are put forward.

  • 60. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Modeling technical change in energy system analysis: analyzing the introduction of learning-by-doing in bottom-upenergy models2005Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this paper is to provide an overview and acritical analysis of the recent literature on incorporatinginduced technical change in energy systems models. Special emphasisis put on surveying recent studies aiming at integrating learning-by-doing into bottom-up energy systems models through so-calledlearning curves, and on analyzing the relevance of learning curveanalysis for understanding the process of innovation and technologydiffusion in the energy sector. The survey indicates that this modelwork represents a major advance in energy research, and embedsimportant policy implications, not the least concerning the costand the timing of environmental policies (including carbon emissionconstraints). However, bottom-up energy models with endogenouslearning are also limited in their characterization of technologydiffusion and innovation. While they provide a detailed accountof technical options - which is absent in many top-down models -they also lack important aspects of diffusion behavior that arecaptured in top-down representations. For instance, they fall incapturing strategic technology diffusion behavior in the energysector, and they neglect important general equilibrium impacts(such as the opportunity cost of redirecting R&D support to theenergy sector). For these reasons bottom-up and top-down modelswith induced technical change should not be viewed as substitutes but rather as complements.

  • 61. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Swedish Competition Authority.
    A note on inter-country differences in waste paper recovery and utilization2002Ingår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 34, nr 3, s. 175-191Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Countries worldwide express waste paper recycling targets in terms of recovery and utilization rates. The main purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze the most important determinants of inter-country differences in these waste paper rates. By employing two regression models and using data for 89 and 81 countries, respectively, the paper concludes that relative waste paper recovery and use are largely market-determined, and depend thus on long-standing economic factors such as population intensity and competitiveness in the world market for paper and board products. We also find evidence that supports the conjecture that rich countries tend to recover relatively more waste paper than is the case in low-income countries, reflecting the higher demand for waste management and environmental policies in more developed economies. As recovery and utilization rates are determined largely by long-standing economic and demographic characteristics the degree of policy flexibility in affecting these rates may be limited. In particular, an ambitious utilization rate target may be very costly to enforce as it can conflict with existing trade patterns of paper and board products as well as with other environmental goals. Additional policy targets may, therefore, be desirable, especially since paper recycling is motivated primarily by environmental concerns and seldom is a benign activity in itself.

  • 62. Bergman, Lars
    et al.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Global klimatpolitik: konsekvenser för Sveriges ekonomi och energisektor2003Ingår i: Kemivärlden : med Kemisk tidskrift, ISSN 1650-0725, nr 11, s. 651-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 63. Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Swedish Competition Authority.
    Imports of pulpwood and price discrimination: A test of buying power in the swedish pulpwood market1999Ingår i: Journal of Forest Economics, ISSN 1104-6899, E-ISSN 1618-1530, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 365-385Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish pulp and paper industry's ability to exert monopsony power is tested both with a conjectural variation model, which parameterizes the firms' expectations about other firms' behavior, and with a model that estimates country-specific effects and effects of currency fluctuations on import prices. We use industry data for the 1970-1993 period and find only weak evidence of market power, in spite of the apparent lack of competition

  • 64.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Kinneryd, Hanna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Command-and-control revisited: environmental compliance and innovation in Swedish industry 1970-19902012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the issue of environmental policy instrument choice for achieving deep emissions reductions in the industrial sector. Specifically, it provides: (a) a theoretical review of the conditions under which performance standards can provide efficient incentives for environmental compliance and innovation ; and (b) an analysis of the design and the outcomes of the standards-based regulation of industrial pollutants in Sweden during the period 1970 - 1990. The empirical findings suggest that the Swedish regulatory approach comprised many key elements of an efficient policy-induced transition towards radically lower emissions in the metal smelting and pulp and paper industries. The regulation relied heavily on performance standards, thus granting flexibility to firms in terms of selecting the appropriate compliance measures, and the standards were implemented in combination with extended probation periods. R&D projects and the new knowledge that was advanced incrementally in interaction between the company, the environmental authorities and the research institutions provided a direct catalyst to the regulatory process. As such the Swedish regulatory approach provided scope for creative solutions, environmental innovation, and permitted the affected firms to coordinate pollution prevention measures with productive investments.

  • 65.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Department of Economic History, Umeå university.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Kinneryd, Hanna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Department of Economic History, Umeå university.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Command-and-control revisited: environmental compliance and technological change in Swedish industry 1970-19902013Ingår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 85, s. 6-19Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the issue of environmental policy instrument choice for achieving deep emission reductions in the industrial sector. Specifically, it provides: (a) a theoretical and empirical review of the conditions under which performance standards can provide efficient incentives for deep emission reductions and technology adoption; and (b) an analysis of the design and the outcomes of the standards-based regulation of industrial pollutants in Sweden during the period 1970–1990. Our empirical findings suggest that the Swedish regulatory approach comprised many key elements of an efficient policy-induced transition towards radically lower emissions in the metal smelting and pulp and paper industries. The regulation relied solely on performance standards, thus granting flexibility to firms in terms of selecting the appropriate compliance measures. These standards were implemented in combination with extended compliance periods. R&D projects and the new knowledge that was advanced incrementally in interaction between the company, the environmental authorities and research institutions provided a direct catalyst to the regulatory process. In these ways the Swedish regulatory approach provided scope for creative solutions, environmental innovation, and permitted the affected companies to coordinate pollution abatement measures with productive investments.

  • 66.
    Bergsten, Peter
    et al.
    ÅF-Industry AB.
    Nicolin, Stéphanie
    ÅF-Industry AB.
    Frisk, Anders
    ÅF-Industry AB.
    Rydgren, Bernt
    ÅF-Industry AB.
    Björklund, Inger Poveda
    ÅF-Industry AB.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Miljöförbättrande åtgärder i Mörrumsån och Ångermanälven, med fokus på havsvandrande arter2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande rapports syfte är att sammanställa resultaten från en utredning av förutsättningar för miljöförbättrande åtgärder i de utbyggda vattendragen Ångermanälven och Mörrumsån. Förutsättningar för de geografiska områdena är sammanställda och effekter av möjliga åtgärder har analyserats; dels hydrauliska flödessimuleringar, dels en populationsmodell för laxfisk. Fokus har lagts på åtgärder för havsvandrande fisk.ÅngermanälvenÅngermanälven är Sveriges tredje största älv i fråga om vattenföring, med en medelvattenföring på knappt 500 m3/s. Det finns ett fyrtiotal större vattenkraftverk, samt ett antal mindre, fördelade i de tre huvudgrenarna Åsele-, Fax- och Fjällsjöälven. Studien omfattar nedre delarna av Åseleälven (upp till Nämforsen) och Faxälven (upp till Storfinnforsen). Bland de inom uppdraget aktuella kraftverken finns gamla åfåror i anslutning till de fyra stationerna i Faxälven, Hjälta, Forsse, Edsele och Ramsele.Idag når havsvandrande arter upp till Sollefteå kraftverk, ca 3 mil uppströms mynningen. Lax och havsöring fiskas enbart nedströms Sollefteå kraftverk, och utsättningar görs från två kompensationsodlingar, vid Forsmo och strax nedströms Hjälta.Resultaten för Ångermanälven visar på en potential för att etablera ett svagt men livskraftigt laxbestånd uppströms Sollefteå kraftverk. Förutsättningarna utgörs av en kombination av åtgärder, fiskväg vid Sollefteå samt minimitappning av ca 8 m3/s vid Hjälta kraftstation. Detta skulle enligt modellförsök resultera i ett bestånd av i medeltal ca 150 återvändande laxar per år, med en uppskattad kostnad på ca 26 MSEK/år (exklusive kostnad för fiskvandringsväg vid Sollefteå), p.g.a. produktionsbortfall.Möjligheterna för åtgärder riktade mot havsvandrande fisk längre upp i Faxälven är mycket små. Mindre arealer potentiella reproduktionsområden, i kombination med dödlighet vid passage av kraftverk, gör att bara några 10-tal honor tar sig upp per år. Ramsele gamla fåra skulle kunna erbjuda förhållandevis stora reproduktionsområden, men en nödvändig passage av fyra kraftverk gör det mycket svårt att tillgängliggöra sträckan, även om fiskvägar installeras.MörrumsånMörrumsån mynnar i Pukavikbukten vid Mörrum, och har en medelvattenföring på knappt 30 m3/s. Inom hela systemet Mörrumsån finns 24 vattenkraftverk, varav de sju som omfattas av denna utredning ligger belägna i den nedre delen av ån, nedströms sjön Åsnen. Genom denna avgränsning omfattar studien samtliga E.ONs anläggningar i Mörrumsån. Av de aktuella kraftverken finns gamla åfåror i anslutning till Granö, Hemsjö övre, Hemsjö nedre samt Fridafors nedre.Mörrumsån anses utgöra södra Sveriges viktigaste laxälv och idag når havsvandrande fisk upp till Fridafors nedre, ca 3 mil från mynningen. Fiskvägar finns installerade vid de tre nedströms kraftstationerna, Marieberg och Hemsjö nedre och övre. Utsättningar av smolt och yngel från havsöring sker årligen i de nedre delarna av ån, smolt i Kungsforsen vid Mörrum, och yngel i flera av de tillrinnande bäckarna.Med utgångspunkt i potentiella reproduktionsområden i Granö gamla fåra har möjligheten att etablera lax- och öringbestånd uppströms Fridafors studerats. Åtgärderna utgörs av fiskvägar i Fridafors samt minimitappning i Granö, ev. i kombination med biotopvårdsåtgärder. Resultaten visar att för att uppnå ett livskraftigt bestånd uppströms Fridafors ställs höga krav på funktion av de fem fiskvägarna. Om ett antagande görs att 95% av smolten passerar varje station tack vare spill under utvandringsperioden, måste uppströmspassage ske med en genomsnittlig effektivitet av 90% per station. Vid 80% klarar bara ett par tiotal honor sig upp till fåran för lek, medan populationen balanserar på gränsen till livskraftighet vid 90%. Eftersom det är så många fiskvägar får passagerna stort utslag på överlevnaden, och det ger t.ex. större effekt att öka fiskvägarnas effektivitet från 80 till 90% jämfört med att dubblera mängden reproduktionsområdena från 3,5 till 7 ha . Att maximera den gamla fårans potential genom biotopvårdsåtgärder är relevant, men bör därför ha lägre prioritet jämfört med att säkerställa fiskvägarnas funktion.Den föreslagna minimitappningen i Granö på 2,3 m3/s baseras på resultaten från flödessimuleringarna för att på ett kostnadseffektivt sätt nå goda förhållanden för reproduktion i fåran. Den totala årliga kostnaden uppskattas till ca 2 MSEK, om flödet ökas till 9,5 m3/s ger det ett ca 4 gånger så stort produktionsbortfall, medan den ekologiska effekten endast ökar med ca 10 %.En tänkbar åtgärd för att uppnå en positiv effekt på laxfisk i Mörrumsån vore en utrivning av Mariebergs kraftstation, en åtgärd som enligt modellen har potential att fördubbla laxbeståndet uppströms Marieberg. En utrivning av Marieberg skulle, utöver kostnader för återställning och utrivning, innebära ett produktionsbortfall bestående av hela kraftstationens kapacitet (3,2 GWh), motsvarande ca 1 MSEK per år (inräknad nuvarande kostnader för drift och underhåll, men exklusive utrivningskostnader).Frånsett utrivning är potentialen ur ett ekologiskt perspektiv, räknat i antal återvändande laxfisk, likvärdig i Ångermanälven, med en fiskväg i Sollefteå kombinerat med minimitappning i Hjälta, jämfört med Granö i Mörrumsån. Ur ett kostnadsperspektiv vore det ca 4 gånger så dyrt (ca 26 MSEK/år exklusive fiskväg i Sollefteå) som att genomföra åtgärderna vid Fridafors/Granö. Skillnaden ligger bland annat i att i Mörrumsån innebär studerade åtgärder ett tillskott till en befintlig population i vattendraget, medan det i Ångermanälven idag inte finns ett bestånd med naturlig reproduktion.Utifrån den samhällsekonomiska analysen ger ingen åtgärd med minimitappningar och/eller fiskvägar ett positivt resultat. Beroende på vilka scenarier som används blir den samhällsekonomiska förlusten av åtgärder i Granö från 10 MSEK och uppåt (nuvärde), medan förlusten i Ångermanälven blir drygt 200 MSEK och uppåt.

  • 67.
    Bezabih Ayele, Mintewab
    et al.
    Environment and Climate Research center, Ethiopian Development Research Institute.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    How much is too much?: Individual biodiversity conservation2019Ingår i: Economics Bulletin, ISSN 1545-2921, E-ISSN 1545-2921, Vol. 39, nr 1, s. 247-255Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The individual farmer has little incentive to care about the public good properties of on-farm biodiversity in the formof different crop varieties. There is a common assumption that, because of this, farmers will tend to maintain too littlebiodiversity on their farms compared with the social optimum. However, in developing countries, this assumption doesnot fit with the empirical data: because of poorly functioning insurance markets, farmers tend to maintain a wide rangeof different crop varieties to hedge against weather shocks and other uncertainties. In this paper we develop atheoretical model to account for this apparent contradiction, and show that farmers may in fact even maintain toomuch biodiversity on their farms, compared with the social optimum.

  • 68.
    Björklund, Emma
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Consumers’ Willingness to Pay for Alternative Fueled Rental Cars: A Choice Experiment Study in Luleå, Sweden2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden, as a country, has set the goal to achieve a fossil independent vehicle fleet by 2030, which means that Sweden has to reduce its CO2 emissions by 80 percent. Sources argue that the regulations and different implementations that have been done are not enough to reach the 80 percent reduction in time. The purpose of this paper is to analyze consumers’ preferences towards alternative fuel vehicles by estimating the willingness to pay for rental cars in Sweden. The paper also tries to define the explanatory factors for choosing an alternative fuel vehicle. The data used in this thesis was collected through a choice experiment questionnaire that was distributed to employees and students at Luleå University of Technology. The study concludes that respondents have a willingness to pay at approximately SEK 280 extra to rent and use an electric rental car.

  • 69.
    Bladh, Mats
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Ek, Kristina
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Shared or individual responsibility: eco-labelling and consumer choice in Sweden2010Ingår i: Environmental Policy and Household Behaviour: Sustainability and Everyday Life, London: Earthscan / James & James, 2010, s. 173-192Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 70.
    Bladh, Mats
    et al.
    Energimyndigheten.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    UP-rapport Allmänna energisystemstudier: Rådgivande underlag från utvecklingsplattformen Allmänna energisystemstudier till Energimyndighetens FOKUS-process2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 71.
    Blomberg, Jerry
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Economic models of secondary aluminium pricing and supply2002Ingår i: TMS fall 2002 Extraction and Processing Division Meeting on Recycling and Waste Treatment in Mineral and Metal Processing: technical and economic aspects / [ed] Bo Björkman; Caisa Samuelsson; Jan-Olov Wikström, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2002, s. 219-231Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 72.
    Blomberg, Jerry
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Essays on the economics of the aluminium industry2007Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of an introduction and five self-contained papers all dealing with various aspects of the economics of aluminium markets and production. Paper I focuses on various efficiency issues within the global primary aluminium industry. Using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and data for the year 2003, we find that in general primary aluminium smelters are efficient given the scale of operation. However, many smelters operate with increasing returns to scale. Thus, many smelters would lower their average costs if the scale of production was increased. Furthermore, there exist substantial allocative inefficiencies in the industry, i.e., smelters are inefficient in changing the factor set up according to market prices. Overall, there are significant variations in the level of efficiency across smelter locations. Finally, we estimate the potential for factor reductions across smelter technologies and locations. Paper II analyzes the development in total factor productivity (TFP) over the period 1993-2003 in the global primary aluminium industry using DEA. The Malmquist indices calculated show that with the exception of Western Europe, smelters in high cost regions have experienced rapid TFP-growth, mainly driven by technical progress and not (as a priori assumed) by efficiency improvements. In regions with rapid capacity build-up, TFP-change is found to be weaker but likewise driven mainly by technical change. Finally, we do not find support for the notion that the dispersion of different smelter technologies affects regional smelter performance. Using a Translog variable cost function model, Paper III examines the ex post factor substitution possibilities in the primary aluminium industry in Western Europe and the Africa-Middle East region (AME) for the period 1990-2003. The results indicate higher short-run own- and cross-price elasticities at smelters in the AME region than in Western Europe, at least when it comes to labour and electricity demand. The results also suggest that in both regions the demand for electricity has over time become less sensitive to short-run price changes, while the substitution possibilities between labour and material have increased but only in the AME-region. The liberalization of the Western European electricity markets in combination with the rigid labour markets in this part of the world suggest that the shift in production capacity from the western world to the AME-region as well as China may continue. Paper IV provides an econometric analysis of the determinants of short-run supply and demand in the Western European market for secondary aluminium for the period 1983-1997. The empirical results indicate both price inelastic demand and supply. Policies aimed at increasing aluminium recycling by manipulating price will thus be ineffective considering the low own-price elasticity of secondary supply. However, increased demand for better fuel efficiency and safety in cars might increase the demand for materials with a favourable strength to weight ratio, such as aluminium, thus potentially increasing the demand for secondary aluminium. Finally, Paper V extends the analyzes in Paper IV by; (a) explicitly modelling the interdependencies between the primary and the secondary aluminium markets; (b) estimating secondary aluminium supply in a Cobb-Douglas framework; and (c) modelling aluminium scrap generation. The econometric results indicate that the secondary industry acts like a price taker to the primary aluminium industry. Taking account of the dependencies between input and output prices in secondary aluminium production, we find inelastic supply responses, thus confirming the ineffectiveness of price-driven policies aimed at stimulating recycling. We further calculate a continuously growing stock of scrap. Increased availability of aluminium scrap raises the probability of secondary producers to find the wanted quality, thus lowering the cost of recycling. The impact on supply is however found to be small. Given that increased recycling probably must come from the stock, the low responsiveness of supply from increased scrap availability indicates that attempts to stimulate ‘mining' of the scrap stock may be costly.

  • 73.
    Blomberg, Jerry
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    The West European market for secondary aluminium: supply and demand models2000Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of two self-contained papers on the West European market for aluminium metal made from scrap, so called secondary aluminium. The purpose of the first paper is to identify and estimate the relative importance of factors determining supply and demand of secondary aluminium casting alloys in the short-run. The analysis is carried out within a neo- classical market framework using pooled time series and cross section data for Germany, France, Italy and the UK over the time period 1983-97. The results show that both the supply and the derived demand for secondary aluminium is own-price inelastic, which is reasonable considering the short run framework. On the demand side, the level of auto production is found to have a substantial impact on the level of secondary aluminium alloy demanded. We conclude that the model seem to describe the market reasonably well. The inelastic supply in combination with the cyclical demand from auto manufacturers provides a tentative answer to the observed volatility in secondary aluminium prices. Further, the inelastic supply identified, indicates that policies aimed at increasing recycling by using price-based incentives will be relatively inefficient. The first purpose of the second paper is to examine pricing in the market for secondary aluminium, especially the interdependencies with the market for primary aluminium. We develop a simple model assuming that the price for secondary aluminium is determined by the price of primary aluminium and industrial activity. The entire secondary industry is thus viewed as a price taker. Using pooled time series and cross section data for Germany, France, Italy and the UK over the time period 1983-97, the OLS results show an inelastic, though still sizeable reaction of the secondary price to changes in primary price, leading us to conclude that the secondary aluminium industry as a whole indeed seem to be a price taker. The inelastic response also leads us to further conclude that the secondary industry cannot completely fill the slack caused by fluctuating primary prices. The cause of this is that substitution between secondary and primary only takes place in the market for castings. A second purpose is to refine the supply elasticity estimates from paper 1, and further to calculate and estimate the impact from the stock of aluminium scrap on the supply of secondary aluminium. To do that, a theoretical model of secondary aluminium supply is developed, that integrates microeconomic theories of production and cost with a simple model of scrap generation and accumulation. The parameters of the supply model are estimated in ‘two steps', using data for the same countries and time period as above. In the first step, we explicitly include input costs for scrap. The TSLS results show an inelastic, though still quite significant own-price response of secondary supply. However, we demonstrate that since the input price of scrap is not independent of the output price of secondary aluminum alloys, the resulting own price elasticity will be overestimated. Thus, in a second step, an alternative supply function accounting for this is estimated, where we assume that secondary and scrap prices have a fixed relationship to each other. The results of this exercise indicate, as expected, a significantly reduced own-price elasticity. A 1 percent increase in price leads to a fifth of a percent increase in secondary output, which is in accordance with previous research. We show that due to the inelasticity of supply, subsidies to secondary refiners equaling almost 20 percent price increase will increase the market share of recycled aluminium with only 1 percent. Thus, we confirm the result from the first paper that price driven policies will fail to achieve increased recycling. We further calculate a continuously growing stock of scrap during the period in question. The increased availability of aluminium scrap increases the probability of secondary producers to find the wanted quality, thus lowering the cost of recycling. The impact on supply is however found to be small, less than on tenth of a percent. Given that increased recycling probably must come from the stock, the low responsiveness of supply from increase scrap availability indicates that attempts to stimulate ‘mining' of the scrap stock will be costly.

  • 74.
    Blomberg, Jerry
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Hellmer, Stefan
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Short-run demand and supply elasticities in the West European market for secondary aluminium2000Ingår i: Resources policy, ISSN 0301-4207, E-ISSN 1873-7641, Vol. 26, nr 1, s. 39-50Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As the principal user of old scrap, secondary Al smelters and refiners have traditionally played a key role in the recycling of Al, producing primarily cast material demanded primarily by the automobile industry. The purpose of the paper is to explore the supply-demand relationships in the market for secondary Al alloys. Based on a standard microeconomic model, where the determinants of supply and demand are identified, an econometric model, using data from Germany, France, Italy and the UK for the time period 1983-1997, is estimated. The model is used to assess the relative importance of the factors determining the supply and demand of the European secondary Al industry. The results show that both the supply and the derived demand for secondary Al is own-price inelastic, which is reasonable given the short-run framework. On the demand side, the level of auto production is found to have a substantial impact on the level of secondary Al alloy demand. It is concluded that the model describes the market reasonably well. The inelastic supply in combination with the sensitivity to changes in the level of auto production provides a tentative explanation of the observed volatility in secondary Al prices. Furthermore, the inelastic supply responses indicate that policies aimed at increasing recycling using price-based incentives will be inefficient.

  • 75.
    Blomberg, Jerry
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Hellmer, Stefan
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    The economics of the West European secondary aluminium industry: a short-run equilibrium model approach1999Ingår i: 4th ASM International Conference and Exhibition on the Recycling of Metals: 17-18 June 1999, Vienna, Austria, ASM International Europe , 1999, s. 35-47Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As the principal user of old scrap, West European secondary aluminum smelters and refiners have traditionally played a key role in recycling of Al, producing for example cast material demanded primarily by the automobile industry. Over the last decade, the West European secondary smelter industry's position as the nucelus of the Al recycling industry has been challenged, due to changes in both the supply and demand sides of the secondary industry. On the supply side of example, there is now more competition for high-grade (new) scrap from wrought remelters and primary producers, with narrower margins for the refiners as a consequence. On the demand side, the secondary industry is still heavily dependent on the development in the auto industry. The purpose of this paper is to explore the supply-demand relationships in the market for secondary Al alloys. Based on a standard microeconomic model of price determination in the short run where the determinants of supply and demand are identified, a simple econometric model, using data for Germany, France, Italy and the UK for the period 1983-1997 will be developed. The model will be used to assess the relative importance of the factors determining the supply and demand of the European secondary Al industry

  • 76.
    Blomberg, Jerry
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Henriksson, Eva
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Energy efficiency and policy in Swedish pulp and paper mills: a data envelopment analysis approach2012Ingår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 42, s. 569-579Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper provides an empirical assessment of the electricity efficiency improvement potential in the Swedish pulp and paper industry by employing data envelopment analysis (DEA) and mill-specific input and output data for the years 1995, 2000 and 2005. The empirical results are discussed in relation to the reported outcomes of the Swedish voluntary energy efficiency programme PFE. The estimated electricity efficiency gap is relatively stable over the time period; it equals roughly 1 TWh per year for the sample mills and this is three times higher than the corresponding self-reported electricity savings in PFE. This result is largely a reflection of the fact that in the pulp and paper industry electricity efficiency improvements are typically embodied in the diffusion of new capital equipment, and there is a risk that some of the reported measures in PFE simply constitute an inefficient speed-up of capital turnover. The above does not preclude, though, that many other measures in PFE may have addressed some relevant market failures and barriers in the energy efficiency market. Overall the analysis suggests that future energy efficiency programs could plausibly be better targeted at explicitly promoting technological progress as well as at addressing the most important information and behaviour-related failures.

  • 77.
    Blomberg, Jerry
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Jonsson, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Evaluating the efficency of the global primary aluminium smelting industry: a data envelopment approach2011Ingår i: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 24, nr 1, s. 29-44Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of the global primary aluminum industry. Efficiency is here taken to be evaluated relative to some benchmark, i.e., the smelter or smelters identified as the most efficient in the data set, thus forming the production frontier. The performance of individual smelters, specifically their technical, allocative, and scale efficiencies are calculated by the means of data envelopment analysis. A proprietary database containing data on inputs used, output, and cost of production for 151 primary aluminum smelters operational globally in 2003 were used in the efficiency estimations. In order to assess and contrast the performance of smelters at different locations, facing dissimilar policy and factor supply environments, smelters are grouped into geographical regions. Furthermore, the technology used will also be evaluated in terms of the above efficiency measures. For each region, measures of potential technical and cost-wise factor savings will be calculated in order to assess specifically in what way production factors improvements can be made and approximately how large these improvements are. The findings indicate that; (a) smelters are overall highly efficient given the scale of operation, (b) many smelters operate with increasing returns to scale and thus we find significant scale inefficiencies, (c) substantial allocative inefficiencies exist within the industry, and (d) there are significant variations in the level of efficiency across regions. The allocative efficiency is particularly low in regions such as China and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) region. Finally, the greatest potential for factor reductions is in labor input in China, the CIS region and in Asia.

  • 78.
    Blomberg, Jerry
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Institutional arrangements and firm behavior: the case of common forests in Sweden1997Ingår i: Journal of Economic Issues, ISSN 0021-3624, E-ISSN 1946-326X, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 401-408Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Examines the effect of property rights systems within common forests on output decisions in Sweden. History of common forests in Sweden; Structure and governance of Swedish common property forests; Behavioral assumption behind the actions of managers and co-owners of the common forests in Sweden.

  • 79.
    Blomberg, Jerry
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Factor demand flexibility in the primary aluminium industry: Evidence from stagnating and expanding regions2011Ingår i: Resources policy, ISSN 0301-4207, E-ISSN 1873-7641, Vol. 36, nr 3, s. 238-248Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the paper is to analyse and compare short-run factor demand responses to price changes in the primary aluminium industry in Western Europe and the Africa-Middle East (AME) region. We outline a Translog variable cost function model, which is estimated employing a panel data set at the individual smelter level over the time period 1990-2003. The empirical results show evidence of limited - but far from insignificant - price-induced factor demand responses in the short-run. Overall aluminium smelters in the AME-region show evidence of higher estimated short-run own- and cross-price elasticities than their competitors in Western Europe, at least when it comes to labour and electricity demand. One important reason for this result is the greater number of pot lines with slightly different technologies at each smelter as well as the more intense use of the Prebake technology in the AME-region making retrofits in existing plants less costly than in Western Europe. The results also suggest that in both regions the demand for electricity has over time become less sensitive to short-run price changes, while the labour and material demand responses to price changes have increased but only in the AME-region. The liberalisation of the Western European electricity markets in combination with the rigid labour markets in this part of the world suggest that the shift in production capacity from the western world to the AME-region as well as China may continue

  • 80. Blomberg, Jerry
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    The economics of secondary aluminium supply: an econometric analysis based on European data2009Ingår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 58, nr 8, s. 455-463Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the economics of secondary aluminium supply in Western Europe. We derive a supply model of secondary aluminium recovery and recycling, which integrates microeconomic theory of production with a dynamic model of scrap generation and accumulation. The supply function contains the secondary output price, a vector of input prices, and a measure of the size of the stock of old aluminium scrap. The model is estimated using pooled cross-section and annual time-series data for four European countries, Germany, France, Italy and the United Kingdom, over the time period 1983-2000. The estimated own-price elasticity of secondary aluminium supply is low (0.21) as is the supply response to changes in the stock of old scrap. The empirical results are useful for analyzing market behavior and policy impacts in the secondary aluminium market. The low supply responses to changes in the output price can - in combination with the high-income elasticity of material demand - help explain the observed price volatility of secondary aluminium prices. They also suggest that price-based policies influencing the supply side of the market may only have limited impacts on aluminium recycling rates, and that national collection of aluminium scrap is likely to have small influences on secondary aluminium production internationally.

  • 81.
    Blomkvist, Marita
    et al.
    School of Business, Economics and Law at the University of Gothenburg.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi. Halmstad University.
    Rodgers, Waymond
    Business school at University of Texas el Paso & Hull University Business School.
    Examining Entrepreneurs' Knowledge Based View of the Firm: lnfluencing financial information in innovative activities2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 82.
    Bohlin, Rolf
    et al.
    Kammarrätten Stockholm.
    Buht, Karl-Henrik
    Finansdepartementet.
    Lundgren, Jens
    Energimarknadsinspektionen.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Energiskatt på el: En översyn av det nuvarande systemet : Betänkande från Utredningen om sektorsneutral och konkurrenskraftig energiskatt på el2015Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 83.
    Bohlin, Rolf
    et al.
    Kammarrätten Stockholm.
    Ärlebrant, Åsa
    Kammarrätten Sundsvall.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Beskattning av mikroproducerad el m.m.2013Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 84.
    Boodnah, Krista Devi
    et al.
    University of Technology, Mauritius.
    Jaunky, Vishal
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Armoogum, Vinaye
    University of Technology, Mauritius.
    Armoogum, Sheeba
    University of Mauritius.
    Towards Smart Tourism: An individual appreciation of Porlwi-By-Light festival: An Ordered Probit Approach2016Ingår i: 2016 IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Innovative Business Practices for the Transformation of Societies, EmergiTech 2016, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, s. 323-328, artikel-id 7737360Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The festival of light is considered as one application of Smart Tourism to intelligently promote this sector. This paper examines how different socio-demographic and psychological aspects are complementary to attitude towards individual appreciation of the recent festival of light (Porlwi-By-Light). In order to obtain a precise description and understanding of individual perception, specific attempts have been carried out to control for personality traits and the anger scale of individual. The big five factor model of personality traits and individual anger scale are thereby considered. We apply a cross sectional data, captured from a drop-off survey with a sample size of 725 observations. Within an ordered probit and negative binomial framework, gender, age, residential location, educational level, family size, income, marital status, numbers of attendees at the festival, the extent to which they wish to go again to Porlwi-By-Light festival, whether it was a good season to organize the festival, the festival was appreciative, to extent to which the traffic jam affected the visitors, how the 5Es (education, entertainment, escapism, esthetics and economic value) contributed in the festival as well as personality traits and motivational factors, are found to be the conclusive factors affecting an individual appreciation at the festival. Our findings help us to draw consideration to the consequences of festival's experience and how personality-specific policies can be designed to influence public's perceptions

  • 85. Boyce, John R.
    et al.
    Nilsson, Mats A.N.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Interest Group Competition and the Alaska Native Land Claims Settlement Act1999Ingår i: Natural resources journal, ISSN 0028-0739, Vol. 39, nr 4, s. 755-798Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the competition among three main sets of interest groups during the struggle to resolve the Native land claims issue: the Natives, the development interests (oil companies and the state of Alaska) and conservation interests (environmentalists and the Department of Interior). We examine the history of the Native land claims struggle as it was waged in the courts and in Congress, paying particular attention to the behavior of the various interest groups as they competed against one another. We also conduct an analysis of the voting behavior in the United States House of Representatives, where roll call voting data is available for votes on amendments in which the conservation and development interests had clear objectives. From both the historical and econometric voting analysis, we found that environmentalists and the oil industry significantly affected the final form of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act.

  • 86.
    Brolund, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Policy induced technological change: Productivity and innovation effects in biomass-using industry and energy generation2016Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this thesis is to investigate the impact of public environmental policy on technological change in the biomass-using industry and energy generation. The thesis contains an introductory part followed by the empirical investigation which is divided into two self-contained articles.One of the determinants of technological change is research and innovative activities. Article I studies whether renewable energy support schemes directed towards the production and usage of bioenergy have affected innovation with respect to bioenergy technology. A negative binominal count data model is employed analysing a panel consisting of 14 OECD countries over the years 1978–2009. As a proxy for innovation, bioenergy patents counts are used as the dependent variable explained by a set of policy variables as well as other determinants of innovation. The renewable energy policies investigated are feedin tariffs (FIT), renewable energy certificates (REC) and public investment support schemes. The results indicate that feed-in tariffs have had a positive impact on innovation but renewable energy certificates have not. The result regarding investment support schemes is ambiguous since the dummy variable representing strong investment policies was statistically significant whereas the continuous variable for investment support schemes was not. Furthermore, the regressions suggest that market factors such as total energy consumption and electricity prices are important drivers of innovation within bioenergy technology.A concept sometimes used in order to empirically investigate technological change is productivity. Article II aims to disentangle whether environmental regulation has affected the productivity development in the pulp and paper industry through its impact on technological change. A dynamic panel data approach is selected analysing a sample consisting of the pulp and paper industry in eight European countries. Industry total factor productivity for the period 1993–2009 is used as the dependent variable and is explained by the intensity of environmental regulation and a number of other determinants of productivity. The results indicate that regulation of nitrogen oxides is associated with productivity improvements with a one-year lag, whereas regulations regarding sulphur dioxide and carbon dioxide have not had any statistically significant impact. However, since increased regulation, as displayed by the chosen proxy, not only mirrors environmental regulation stringency, but also investments in new capital and learning which coincide with lower emissions, the positive result does not per see imply that the maximum growth has been reached. The results could therefore not be viewed as a proof of the so-called strong Porter hypothesis which postulates that stringent well-designed environmental regulations increase productivity growth compared to a no-policy scenario.

  • 87.
    Brolund, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Skapar verkligen Förbifart Stockholm ekonomisk tillväxt?: Ett kritiskt debattinlägg om modernistisk statsbyggnad och dess finansiering i Stockholmsregionen inför valet 20142014Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 88.
    Brolund, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Bioenergy innovations and their determinants: A negative binominal count data analysis2014Ingår i: Drewno, ISSN 1644-3985, Vol. 57, nr 192, s. 41-61Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The research employed a negative binominal count data model approach to analyse the determinants of bioenergy innovations with a special focus on the effect of energy and climate policies. A panel of 14 OECD countries were analysed using patent counts for the period 1978-2009 as a proxy for innovations. The policies examined were feed-in tariffs, quota obligations and different types of investment support schemes. The study found that feed-in tariffs affected innovation positively but quota obligations did not. The results regarding investment support programs were ambiguous since the dummy variable representing strong investment policies was statistically significant whereas the continuous variable for investment support schemes was not. Another finding was that electricity prices seemed to be an important determinant of innovation and that the accumulated stock of knowledge in the bioenergy sector also had a positive impact on bioenergy innovation.

  • 89.
    Brolund, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Effect of Environmental Regulation Stringency on the Pulp and Paper Industry2017Ingår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, nr 12, artikel-id 2323Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    he article investigates whether environmental regulations have affected productivity development and technological change in the European pulp and paper industry. A dynamic panel data approach is selected for analyzing a sample consisting of the pulp and paper industries in eight European countries. Industry total factor productivity for the period 1993–2009 is used as the dependent variable; it is explained by the intensities of environmental regulations for various types of pollutants, as well as by a number of other independent variables. The econometric results indicate that the regulation of nitrogen oxides is associated with productivity improvements with a one-year lag, whereas regulations regarding sulphur dioxide and carbon dioxide have not had any statistically significant impact. In line with the a priori expectations, the price of pulp is connected to a negative effect, while lagged R&D expenditures have had corresponding positive impacts. However, since stationary tests are asymptotic and the data series are quite short, strong conclusions regarding the actual causal effect of environmental policy could not be drawn. The results could therefore not be viewed as a proof of the so-called strong Porter hypothesis postulating that stringent well-designed environmental regulations increase productivity growth compared to a no-policy scenario.

  • 90.
    Brolund, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Induced Innovation and Renewable Energy Policies for Bioenergy: An Econometric Analysis2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 91.
    Bryngemark, Elina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Second generation biofuels and the competition for forest raw materials: A partial equilibrium analysis of Sweden2019Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 109, artikel-id 102022Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reach the renewable energy policy targets in the transport sector, biofuels from forest raw materials (e.g., harvesting residues) can play an important role. However, these raw materials are currently used in both the heat and power (HP) sector and the traditional forest industries. It is essential to understand how these sectors would be affected by an increased penetration of second generation (2G) biofuels. This study investigates price development and resource allocation in the Swedish forest raw materials market in the presence of 5–30 TWh of 2G biofuel production. Sweden is an interesting case study due to its well-developed forest industries and mature district heating sector, something which makes it a suitable country for future 2G biofuel production. A national partial equilibrium model of the forest sector is extended with a 2G biofuel module to address the impacts of such production. The simulation results show increasing forest industry by-product (e.g. sawdust) prices, thus displaying that the 2G biofuel targets lead to increased raw material competition. The higher feedstock prices make the use of forest biomass in the HP sector less profitable, but we find meagre evidence of substitution of fossil fuels for by-products. In this sector, there is instead an increased use of harvesting residues. Fiberboard and particleboard production ceases entirely due to increased input prices. There is also evidence of synergy effects between the sawmill sector and the use of forest raw materials in the HP sector. Higher by-product prices spur sawmills to produce more sawnwood, something that in turn induces forest owners to increase harvest levels. Already in the 5 TWh Bio-SNG scenario, there is an increase in the harvest level, suggesting that this by-product effect kicks in from start.

  • 92.
    Bryngemark, Elina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    The Competition for Forest Raw Materials in the Presence of Increased Bioenergy Demand: Partial Equilibrium Analysis of the Swedish Case2019Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing energy use and greenhouse gas emissions have implied an increased attention to the development of renewable energy sources. Bioenergy from forest biomass is expected to be one of the cornerstones in reaching renewable energy targets, especially in forest-rich countries such as Sweden. However, forest biomass is a limited resource, and an intensified use of bioenergy could affect roundwood and forest products’ markets in several ways. The overall purpose of this thesis is to analyze price formation and resource allocation of forest raw materials in the presence of increased bioenergy demand. The empirical focus is on the competition for wood fibres between bioenergy use and the traditional forest industries, as well as synergy effects between the various sectors using forest raw materials. The methodologic approach is partial equilibrium modeling (forest sector model), and the geographical focus is on Sweden. The thesis comprises three self-contained articles, which all address the above issues.

    The first paper presents an economic assessment of two different policies – both implying an increased demand for forest ecosystem services – and how these could affect the competition for forest raw materials. A forest sector trade model is updated to a new base year (2016), and used to analyze the consequences of increased bioenergy use in the heat and power (HP) sector as well as increased forest conservation in Sweden. These overall scenarios are assessed individually and in combination. The results show how various forest raw material-using sectors are affected in terms of price changes and responses in production. A particularly interesting market impact is that bioenergy promotion and forest conservation tend to have opposite effects on forest industry by-product prices. Moreover, combining the two policies mitigates the forest industry by-product price increase compared to the case where only the bioenergy-promoting policy is implemented. In other words, the HP sector is less negatively affected in terms of increased feedstock prices if bioenergy demand target are accompanied by increased forest conservation. This effect is due to increasing pulpwood prices, which reduces pulp, paper and board production, and in turn mitiges the competition for the associated by-products. Overall, the paper illustrates the great complexity of the forest raw material market, and the importance of considering demand and supply responses within and between sectors in energy and forest policy designs.

    The second article investigates the forest raw material market effects from introducing second-generation transport biofuel (exemplified by Bio-SNG) production in Sweden. Increases in Bio-SNG demand between 5 and 30 TWh are investigated. The simulation results illustrate increasing forest industry by-product (i.e., sawdust, wood chips and bark) prices, not least in the high-production scenarios (i.e. 20-30 TWh). This suggests that increases in second-generation biofuel productions lead to increased competition for the forest raw materials. The higher feedstock prices make the HP sector less profitable, but very meagre evidence of substitution of fossil fuels for by-products can be found. In this sector, there is instead an increased use of harvesting residues. Fiberboard and particleboard production ceases entirely due to increased input prices. There is also evidence of synergy (“by-product”) effects between the sawmill sector and the use of forest raw materials in the HP sector. Higher by-product prices spur sawmills to produce more sawnwood, something that in turn induces forest owners to increase harvest levels. Already in the 5 TWh Bio-SNG scenario, there is an increase in the harvest level, thus suggesting that the by-product effect kicks in from start.

    Biofuels and green chemicals are likely to play significant roles in achieving the transition towards a zero-carbon society. However, large-scale biorefineries are not yet cost-competitive with their fossil-fuel counterparts, and it is therefore important to identify biorefinery concepts with high economic performance in order to achieve widespread deployment in the future. For evaluations of early-stage biorefinery concepts, there is a need to consider not only the technical performance and the process costs, but also the performance of the full supply chain and the impact of its implementation in the feedstock and products markets. The third article presents – and argues for – a conceptual interdisciplinary framework that can form the basis for future evaluations of the full supply-chain performance of various novel biorefinery concepts. This framework considers the competition for biomass feedstocks across sectors, and assumes exogenous end-use product demand and various geographical and technical constraints. It can be used to evaluate the impacts of the introduction of various biorefinery concepts in the biomass markets in terms of feedstock allocations and prices. Policy evaluations, taking into account both engineering constraints and market mechanisms, should also be possible.

    Overall, the thesis illustrates the importance of considering the market effects when designing and evaluating forest policies and bioenergy policy targets. The forest industry sector and the bioenergy sector are closely interlinked and can both make or break one another depending on the policy design. The results indicate that for an increased demand of bioenergy, an industrial transformation is to be expected, as well as increased roundwood harvest.

  • 93.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Aronsson, Thomas
    Umeå universitet.
    Bäckstrand, Karin
    Lunds universitet.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Gren, Ing-Marie
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Vetenskapliga rådets utblick2012Ingår i: Miljö, ekonomi och politik 2012, Stockholm: Konjunkturinstitutet , 2012, s. 189-194Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 94. Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Aronsson, Thomas
    Gren, Ing-Marie
    Keskitalo, Carina
    Leck, Caroline
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Vetenskapliga rådets utblick2014Ingår i: Miljö, ekonomi och politik 2014, Stockholm: Konjunkturinstitutet , 2014, s. 117-123Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 95. Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Aronsson, Thomas
    Gren, Ing-Marie
    Keskitalo, Carina
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Vetenskapliga rådets utblick2013Ingår i: Miljö, ekonomi och politik, Stockholm: Konjunkturinstitutet , 2013, s. 145-151Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 96. Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Aronsson, Thomas
    Gren, Ing-Marie
    Leck, Caroline
    Mickwitz, Per
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Vetenskapliga rådets utblick2015Ingår i: Miljö, ekonomi och politik 2015, Stockholm: Konjunkturinstitutet , 2015, s. 113-119Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 97. Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Karimu, Amin
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Convergence in carbon dioxide emissions and the role of growth and institutions: A parametric and nonparametric analysis2014Rapport (Refereegranskat)
  • 98.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics, Umea School of Business and Economics, Umea University, Umea, Sweden.
    Karimu, Amin
    Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics, Umea School of Business and Economics, Umea University, Umea, Sweden.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Convergence in carbon dioxide emissions and the role of growth and institutions: a parametric and nonparametric analysis2017Ingår i: Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, ISSN 1432-847X, E-ISSN 1867-383X, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 359-390Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines convergence of per capita carbon dioxide (CO2) emission for a panel of 124 countries taking into account the impact of economic growth and the quality of government institutions. The analysis builds on both parametric and non-parametric panel data techniques, and we examine the β-convergence hypothesis in a neoclassical growth model setting with institutional quality as one of the independent variables influencing both emissions and output growth. The results reveal evidence in support of β-convergence of per capita CO2 emissions for the global sample, and for the sub-samples comprising OECD versus non-OECD countries and high- versus low-income countries, respectively. There is, however, heterogeneity in β-convergence and it tends to vary with the level of the initial per capita CO2 emissions. We also report evidence of a negative direct effect of institutional quality on growth in per capita CO2 emissions, especially for the global and high-income samples. However, institutional quality also promotes economic growth, thus generating a positive indirect effect on emissions growth. Overall the empirical results suggest a positive net effect of institutional quality on growth in per capita CO2 emissions in the global sample. Finally, the non-parametric approach reveals some evidence of bias in the parametric approach, in particular in the case of the estimates for the convergence parameter at either end of the distribution.

  • 99. Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Convergence of carbon dioxide performance across Swedish industrial sectors: An environmental index approach2014Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall objective of the paper is to analyze convergence of CO2 emission intensity across manufacturing sectors in Sweden. Our approach differs from previous work on carbon convergence in that it employs a theoretical framework to construct a CO2 performance index, which explicitly takes into account that industrial firms produce good as well as bad outputs. This index is then used as the dependent variable in a growth-type regression equation. We employ a data set covering 14 industrial sectors over the time period 1990-2008. The results suggest the presence of conditional β-convergence in CO2 performance among the industrial sectors in Sweden. Moreover, the speed of convergence varies significantly in the sense that the higher the capital intensity is, the lower is the convergence rate to the different steady states. This reflects the importance of – and in part the costs associated with – capital turnover to achieve a transition towards lower CO2 emission paths.

  • 100.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE), Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE), Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Convergence of carbon dioxide performance across Swedish industrial sectors: an environmental index approach2015Ingår i: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 51, s. 227-235Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall objective of the paper is to analyze convergence of CO2 emission intensity across manufacturing sectors in Sweden. Our approach differs from previous work on carbon convergence in that it employs a theoretical framework to construct a CO2 performance index, which explicitly takes into account that industrial firms produce good as well as bad outputs. This index is then used as the dependent variable in a growth-type regression equation. We employ a data set covering 14 industrial sectors over the time period 1990–2008. The results suggest the presence of conditional β-convergence in CO2 performance among the industrial sectors in Sweden. Moreover, the speed of convergence varies significantly in the sense that the higher the capital intensity is, the lower is the convergence rate to the different steady states. This is likely to reflect the importance of – and in part the costs associated with – capital turnover to achieve a transition towards lower CO2 emission paths.

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