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  • 51.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Who wins from academic consulting2013Ingår i: Design Education-Growing Our Future: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education (E&pde13, Glasgow: The Design Society Institution of Engineering Designers , 2013, s. 82-87Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    University teachers who start teaching right after graduation have not used and developed their knowledge professionally thus they have never had the opportunity to test their acquired knowledge in practice. This results in teaching that tends to be heavily theoretical because the teacher teaches what he/she has learned in studies, instead of teaching the knowledge gained through professional experience. Unfortunately a teacher can feel insecure when not knowing if their teaching reflects currently used methods and/or appropriate tools. An effect of this can be that teachers who feel insufficient in their role as teachers. The aim of this paper is to see if academic consulting not only increases the practical experience of the teacher, but also helps the teacher in their role and gives them a better understanding of what the state of the art is. While some schools have some cooperation with the business community, both in student projects and research projects, although it is not common with external non-research consultation projects, which are conducted by the university teachers. A questionnaire was sent to both teachers and students’ asking them of their experience of academic consulting’s benefits to the classroom experience. As a follow-up were several interviewed, along with clients to gain more insight. The results showed that teachers, students and the clients benefited from these types of projects.

  • 52.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Håkansson, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    A systematic self-assessment tool2012Ingår i: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education: Design Education for Future Wellbeing, EPDE 2012, 2012, s. 311-316Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Bologna Process has led to fundamental changes in the way students are taught. This in turn has led to new quality assurance systems for teaching. For good outcomes to occur both the teachers and students need to be aware of the intended learning outcome (ILO) and this is made clearer by well defined Teacher/Learner Activities (TLAs). The Systematic Grading Procedure (SGP) has been shown to assist teachers grading student’s 3D-image work, fulfilling a need for assistance in subjects requiring grading of subjective nature. With the application of this method have both teachers and students been given a tool that helps them better understand the grading process and the level of importance of different parts of the 3D work. The aim of this study was to assess students’ learning outcomes. The SGP was used and compared by both teachers and students in assessing their own work. This study used four students who were introduced to the SGP at the introduction of the course. This was done to give then an idea how they are to understand the ILOs. After one of their assignments was graded the students were given an opportunity to improve their work using the SPG. Three of the four choose to improve their work. The ensuing interview and results showed that the SGP could be used as a tool to help students and teachers with the ILO and TLAs. In addition to that the SGP should further be tested for verification.

  • 53.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Högström, Per
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Pedagogik språk och Ämnesdidaktik.
    Is video feedback in higher education worth a byte?2015Ingår i: Great Expectations: Design Teaching, Research & Enterprise: Design Teaching, Research & Enterprise - Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education (E&PDE15) / [ed] Ahmed Kovacevic ; Guy Bingham; Brian Parkinsson, Glasgow: The Design Society Institution of Engineering Designers , 2015, s. 258-263Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Feedback can be given in various situations, like after examinations, project work, and course completion. It is widely accepted that feedback is important for students’ learning, and it can be used in various ways, such as, written, face-to-face, and with the assistance of video recordings. This study focuses on the use of video recorded feedback to gather knowledge on how video recorded feedback can enhance the students learning. Since feedback in the study was given in video recordings, an alternate way was introduced, which add further insights for teaching and learning at university levels. The results showed that 94% preferred video recorded feedback over written feedback and they, in general, preferred face to face feedback (59%). Although, follow-up questions showed that the students found the recorded option beneficial since they could review the video several times in order to see and hear exactly what was stated and what part of their work it related to. In conclusion, video feedback of student work was perceived to be beneficial and the students and the teacher positively accepted it.

  • 54.
    Bergmark, Ulrika
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Pedagogik språk och Ämnesdidaktik.
    Ekberg, Niclas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Pedagogik språk och Ämnesdidaktik.
    Leonardson, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Pedagogik språk och Ämnesdidaktik.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Westman, Susanne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Pedagogik språk och Ämnesdidaktik.
    Developing teachers for the 21st century by focusing on professional competences2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 55.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Söderholm, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Karrbom Gustavsson, Tina
    Arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad, KTH, Sverige.
    Projekt: Offentlig upphandling av järnvägsunderhåll2015Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 56.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Networking to boost lean six sigma potential2008Ingår i: Third international Conference on Sex Sigma / [ed] Jiju Antony; Maneesh Kumar; Chidebere Ogbu, Glasgow: University of Strathclyde, 2008, s. 488-500Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    At the beginning of 2008 three SMEs in a small town in Sweden started a network project inspired by the Six Sigma programme, and hired a full-time Black Belt to lead the improvement activities. Three months into the project, we interviewed the top management of the participating companies and the Black Belt, to pinpoint success factors as well as risks of the cooperation project. Results show that statistical methods were unused in favour of methods associated with lean manufacturing such as 5S. Accordingly, the expectations of the CEOs were related to production improvements and flow rather than quality. Both the Black Belt and the CEOs stated that management commitment was vital for the success of the partnership, but also that the visibility of this commitment could be improved. Despite this, all interviewees agreed that the project had gotten a good start and the managers had high expectations for its progress.

  • 57.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Networking to make improvements sustainable: an SME success factor?2009Ingår i: Proceedings 7th ANQ Congress Tokyo 2009, 2009, s. 522-531Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    I mars 2008 beslutade tre svenska mindre företag att öka takten i sitt förbättringsarbete och anställde gemensamt en förbättringskonsult på heltid. Detta dokument beskriver företagens arbete och presenterar resultat från en undersökning baserad på Ajzen's teori om planerat beteende, riktad till samtliga anställda och genomförd efter nio månader. Resultaten visar att arbetstagarnas avsikt att genomföra förbättringsarbete var korrelerade med tron på den egna förmågan att utföra förbättringsarbete, och med ledningens normer. Således kan nyckeln till ett framgångsrikt förbättringsarbete för dessa företag ses ligga i att ha en engagerad ledning och erbjuda anställda utbildning och handledning.

  • 58.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Testing for motivation to engage in improvements: a conceptual framework and an initial empirical test2014Ingår i: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 25, nr 11-12, s. 1224-1235Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to develop a conceptual framework for testing the motivation to engage in improvement work. The framework is based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior (TPB), that we suggest can be used to facilitate the implementation of improvement programmes. By using the model and probing intentions, attitudes, norms and perceived ability related to improvement work, we believe hindrances for implementation of improvement programmes will be exposed. When operationalising the framework we developed a survey instrument based on TPB and then made an initial empirical test by distributing it to 124 employees (response rate 67%) of three manufacturing small- and medium-sized enterprises. Factor analysis and regression were used to analyse the survey and follow-up interviews with employees and managers were used to validate the results. This initial test of the instrument showed that it has sound measurement properties, indicated by clear factor structure and good internal consistency. Interview data also validated that the instrument was able to capture important aspects related to implementation of improvement work. Based on the result, we conclude that TPB may be useful for guiding management actions. However, since our study only draws on a limited empirical sample, future research is needed to test the contextual validity.

  • 59.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Testing for willingness to engage in improvement work2011Ingår i: Quality Innovation Knowledge: 10th International Research Conference on Quality, Innovation and Knowledge, Monash University , 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 60.
    Bergström, Mattias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Getting physical: tangibles in a distributed virtual environment2006Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of products is an increasingly complex task, where companies do not have and do not want the in-house competence to manage the development of entire products. Consequently, companies outsource parts of product development projects to other companies or join in partnerships. There is also an industrial shift of focus towards offering a total offer, i.e. selling functions instead of products. The function provider will have the responsibility of the physical artefact throughout the lifecycle and also have the capacity to continually improve the customer value through innovations. Hence, the provider will be able to reengineer, reuse and recycle the physical artefact. This puts new demands on the product development process, in which the total offer is not being offered by a single company because there is simply too much risk in such a commitment. To supply a total offer companies must collaborate closer than before, by exchanging among other things, intellectual properties in new temporary organizations (i.e. extended enterprise), permitting each partner to thus focus on their core competence. The total offer commitment promotes intense collaboration. Partners in the extended enterprise will most likely be geographically dispersed; therefore, tools and methods for distributed collaborative work are becoming increasingly important. Physical artefacts still play a predominant role in the product development process, even though virtual prototyping is used in everyday operations. The tangibility of physical artefacts makes them easy to use in design discourse (e.g. in design reviews, prototype evaluation). When performing design in distributed teams, a need to share physical objects will inevitably occur. This thesis presents the development of a new solution for distributed collaborative work that focuses on physical objects instead of person to person video conferencing. The author studied a design team at a leading industrial company in Sweden that used mock-ups as an integral part of their design process. Insights of their interaction with physical artefacts provided the requirements for a new type of collaborative tool for distributed work. The presented system allows remote collaborators a first- person view of physical artefacts or environments, e.g. mock-ups. This licentiate thesis also presents how the design process changed with the introduction of the new tool, i.e. remote engineers can share their "virtual" CAD data simultaneously with the technician situated at the prototype, who shares his "physical" data with the engineers. The new tools also provided unexpected support for co-located meetings, enabling users to look behind panels and view items that were normally hidden from their sight.

  • 61.
    Bergström, Mattias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Probing for innovation: how small design teams collaborate2009Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Ongoing globalization is placing greater demands on industry. One strategy to stay competitive is to move from supplying only hardware to supplying total offers, e.g. thrust on wings or power by the hour. The total offer is a combination of a product and service, a product service system. This approach to the product development process focuses on the function of the offered system, i.e. functional product development. The function provider retains the ownership and responsibility of the function carrier, i.e. the hardware. This makes for greater risk, but also greater revenue. To deal with this new reality companies are collaborating to supply these types of total offer. Another aspect of retaining ownership of the function carrier is that through continuous innovations, companies can improve the product over the life cycle of the offer. In an industrial context, and often in a global setting, designing is primarily performed through collaboration in teams, e.g. a group of people possessing distinct competences respectively contributing to the task. Hence, with the deployment of a functional product development strategy, the team is given the challenge to collaborate as a global team, i.e. the individuals of the team are spread over a number of companies, sites and countries. Yet another challenge is to increase the innovation in the team. Consequently, with these diverse teams the ability to express thoughts, ideas and different point of views is important for team-based design. The team must not only solve a design task, but also understand and define the task. This kind of design is by default ill-defined and thus referred to as a ‘wicked problem’. However, it is in these wicked design tasks that new and breakthrough products are most likely to be found. But to reach the goal of innovation, the team must allow and embrace ambiguity, as well as act in a supportive environment. The purpose in this thesis is to illustrate activities in design teams when confronted with wicked design tasks. The focus is on how the team explores and communicates problems. The thesis also addresses how physical spaces affect the creative process. Insight into these issues will deepen the understanding of the design processes and enable development of new tools, models and methods, and thus improve the performance of team-based innovation. The cases are studied primarily through observations of small engineering design teams engaged in distributed and co-located collaborative work in early development. The research indicates that designers experience difficulties in communicating notions, such as ideas or thoughts, by solely relying on the usual approach of using sketches, writings and mere utterances. In team-based innovation, designers tend to use their own body, forming embodied representations, to fill in the blanks. Designers embody the future product, e.g. by envisioning themselves as the proposed product, or putting themselves in the users’ position to interact with a future product or both. Hence, the embodied representation becomes a form of prototyping. The designer occasionally incorporates an everyday object to add another dimension to this kind of prototyping activity. Normally, in the manufacturing industry, prototypes are refined and in a state of pre-production. Thus, they limit ambiguity and do not lend themselves to prompt designers to add new ideas. To support the team’s communication of ideas, the prototyping process has to allow the designers to explore the problem, change and propose new ideas, and aid their communicative and collaborative efforts. From the studies, a model derived for an iterative prototyping process in the early design phases is proposed. The model has its starting point in probing, which allows both the problem and the solution to be explored. Probing can incorporate a question, an idea, a concept, or an embodied representation. The design team acknowledges and interprets the probe, creating a shared or contrasted understanding. Still, it is in the differentiated and contrasted understanding that team members find the inspiration to ideate and create additional probing activities that provide for innovations. By looping this process numerous times, the understanding becomes shared and the product concept becomes more refined. However, the main value of the prototyping process is not the prototype per se, but rather the value in the process as such, since it allows the team to reflect in practice and experience through prototyping. The activities of a design team may be supported or hampered by the environment where the activities occur. A room and furniture, specifically designed to prompt a collaborative and creative mode, are suggested and demonstrated in this thesis. Insight from observing design activities in these creative environments provides a basis for further research.

  • 62.
    Bergström, Mattias
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Prototyping – a way to think together2009Ingår i: Research into Design: Supporting multiple facets of product development / [ed] Amaresh Chakrabarti, Singapore: Research Publishing Services, 2009, s. 450-457Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The descriptive study presented in this paper is based on the empirical data generated by observing a global student design team. Their prototyping process are described and discussed to feed input to the facilitation of team based innovation. The emerging of a shared design vision as early as possible is vital for the subsequent design activities, in particular for innovation projects. Every day items, body language and simple rough prototypes are used by the student team to communicate their ideas, to generate feedback on the ideas and to put forward new ideas. The study indicates that the process of doing rough prototypes enables designers to make their implicit understandings visible in such cases when the development starts from scratch, e.g., innovations. Thus, prototyping, i.e., the use of rough prototypes and body language etc, assist designers to collaborate and share experiences in early phases when no agreed upon design vision exists.

  • 63.
    Bergström, Mattias
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Larsson, Madelene
    Nergård, Henrik
    Larsson, Tobias
    Renström, Boo
    Voxit.
    Needs as a basis for design rationale2008Ingår i: Design 2008: 10th International Design Conference, May 19-22, 2008, Dubrovnik, Croatia / [ed] Dorian Marjanovic; Mario Storga; Neven Pavkovic; Nenad Bojcetic, Zagreb: University of Zagreb , 2008, s. 281-288Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is based on data from a Swedish real-life industrial product development project for e-health care of elderly. The purpose in the paper is to discuss identification of user needs. Information about the elderly is transferred in recurrent meetings. Besides the perception that these meetings occupy time which could be spent giving care, the nurses find it problematic to convey such information to substitutes, as well as they have to rely on their memory. In this case, a Dictaphone device was a solution. Reports on practical activities of identifying user needs and how they affect decisions in product development are limited; one contribution of this paper is insights into such a case

  • 64.
    Bergström, Mattias
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Matzen, Detlef
    Technical University of Denmark, Engineering Design and Product Development.
    Tan, Adrian
    Technical University of Denmark, Engineering Design and Product Development.
    Educating engineering designers for a multidisciplinary future2007Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary companies on a global market are experiencing constantly changing business demands and increased competition. Increasing focus in product development is now put on issues like understanding users and their needs, the context where users’ activities take place and creating sustainable solutions (McAloone, et.al., 2007). In manufacturing companies, engineering designers play a significant role in realising what is captured in these words.Future engineering designers will hold wider responsibilities for such tasks (McAloone, et.al., 2007; Larsson, et.al., 2005), thus challenging current engineering design education. Educating engineering designers today significantly differs from traditional engineering education (McAloone, et.al., 2007). However, a broader view of design activities gains little attention. The project course Product/Service-Systems, which is coupled to the lecture based course Product life and Environmental issues at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and the master programme in Product Development at the Luleå University of Technology (LTU), Sweden, are both curriculums with a broader view than traditional (mechanical) engineering design. Based on these two representatives of a Scandinavian approach, the purpose in this presentation is to describe two ways of educating engineering designers to enable them to develop these broader competencies of socio-technical aspects of engineering design. Product Development at LTU A process, called Participatory Product Innovation (P2I) underpins the master programme Product Development and originates from the Design for Wellbeing (DfW) framework (Larsson, et.al., 2005). This is an inclusive framework which seeks to bring together business, human issues and technology in a comprehensive approach to support the creation of tomorrow’s innovations. A main principle is that many different disciplines should contribute to spur innovation by collaboration across disciplines (Larsson, et.al., 2007). The P2I process starting position is in Needfinding (Patnaik and Becker, 1999), were the students conduct observations and interviews to gain access to ualities in the users’ context. An identified challenge here is to keep people in view and not jump into conclusions, i.e., to understand a situation perceived by its actors as problematic and to widen the design space. Product/Service-Systems at DTU Besides the teaching of traditional engineering skills, the curriculum for the project course aims to build up multidisciplinary competences such as understanding the socio technical aspects of product design and synthesis of products and delivery systems. The students are assigned to redesign an existing physical product, such as a washing machine, and turn it into a product/service-system. The main objective for the project is that the resulting solution should have a substantially lower environmental impact whilst maintaining a similar functional performance as the initial product. The student teams are first guided through an analysis of the initial product’s product life cycle, yielding insights into four aspects of product design:1. indentification of current environmental impacts, 2. life phase systems the product encounters, 3. activities that involve the human actor (i.e. customer) and the product, 4. actor-network that support and supply these activities throughout the product’s life. Based on the analysis, goals are set for the improved solution and concepts are developed for a new product/service-system. This way the students are lead through engineering and socio-technical analysis tasks and thereby laying the foundation for their synthesis work in the concept development phase of the project. Concluding Remark By emphasising socio technical aspects in a process model or in a project course, the students are more likely to consider users, their context and sustainable solutions. This we see as essential competencies in product/service-system design and functional product development. References Larsson, A., Larsson, T., Leifer, L., Van der Loos, M., Feland, J. (2005), Design for Wellbeing: Innovations for People, In proceedings of 15th International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED 05, August 15-18, Melbourne, Australia.McAloone, T.C., Andreasen, M.M., Boelskifte, P. (2007), A Scandinavian Model of Innovative Product Development, In Proccedings of the 17th CIRP Design Conference, Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Patnaik, D., Becker, R. (1999), Needfinding: The Why and How of Uncovering People’s Needs, Design Management Journal, 10 (2), 37-43.

  • 65.
    Bergström, Mattias
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Törlind, Peter
    4I4I : Four I:s for Innovation: a book with easy to use methods and ideas to foster innovative product development2010Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    A book with easy to use methods and ideas to foster innovative product development.

  • 66.
    Bergström, Mattias
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Johansson, Christian
    Assessment of team based innovation in a Product Service System development process2011Ingår i: Research into Design: Supporting Sustainable Product Development / [ed] Amaresh Chakrabarti, Bangalore, India: Research Publishing Services, 2011, s. 711-718Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation is often measured based on how the product performs on the market. This makes it difficult to measure the performance of a team since the time to develop a product may take several years. In this paper we show the importance of creating a common ground and facilitation in a team, two aspects that is not easy measure, but should be assessed. We also discuss innovation on three interrelated organizational levels, the operational, which is the development team and in focus in this paper, the managerial and the strategic level. We found that companies need indicators to measure and/or assess performance on all three levels and thatmore research is needed to find the inter-links between the levels to prescribe measures and assessment points.

  • 67. Bergström, Mattias
    et al.
    Törlind, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Enabling technologies for distributed collaboration in functional product development2007Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 68. Bergström, Mattias
    et al.
    Törlind, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Examining creative collaboration in distributed and co-located design teams2007Ingår i: Design for society: knowledge, innovation and sustainability ; ICED '07 - Paris, 16th International Conference on Engineering Design ; 28 - 30 August 2007, Paris, France ; conference proceedings, Paris: Design Research Society, 2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Product development, including all its phases, is today performed to a greater extent in globally dispersed teams. This paper compares two creative design sessions early in the product development process, one co-located session and one distributed session. The workflow in the co-located session was fluid and natural, whereas in the distributed session, it was sometimes disturbed by limitations ofthe mediating technology. The major deficiencies of the technology are the limited support for shared drawing surfaces, for shared control of these surfaces and for creation of concepts. In the co-located session embodied representation were used to describe, communicate and build upon concepts. Due to the limitations of the technology, these types of communication were seldom used in the distributedsession.

  • 69.
    Bergström, Mattias
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Törlind, Peter
    Getting physical: interacting with physical objects in distributed collaboration2005Ingår i: 15th International Conference on Engineering Design - ICED 05: 15 - 28 August 2005 / [ed] Andrew Samuel; William Lewis, Barton: Institution of Engineers, Australia , 2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 70. Bergström, Mattias
    et al.
    Törlind, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Towards virtual co-location in functional product development2008Ingår i: Collaboration and the Knowledge Economy: Issues, Applications, Case studies / [ed] Paul Cunningham; Miriam Cunningham, IOS Press, 2008, s. 806-814Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The shift in industry towards Functional Product Innovation implies more collaborative efforts between the partners forming joint ventures, i.e. cross-company collaboration. Hence, new demands are put on collaborative technology. Insights into needs for both industry and collaborative design teams provide the possibilities for ‘virtual co-location' to be enhanced. Following a workshop format, the radical innovation workshop, industrial criterions for collaborative technology has been analyzed based on empirical data from five Swedish manufacturing companies. During the workshop three scenarios were put forward by the industry as most relevant; (1) the design review, (2) to on-site remotely collaborate with an expert and (3) the day-to-day communication. Based on these scenarios, three industrial criterions emerged, namely efficient collaboration, effortless setup of communication and the capability to create trust without touch. Technologies to support Functional Product Innovation seem to insist on meeting these criterions.

  • 71.
    Bergström, Mattias
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Törlind, Peter
    Johanson, Mathias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Sharing the unshareable: distributed product review using tangibles2005Ingår i: Proceedings: 2nd International Forum on Applied Wearable Computing, IFAWC : March 17 - 18, 2005 in Zurich, Switzerland / [ed] Otthein Herzog; Michael Lawo, Berlin: VDE-Verlag , 2005, s. 161-175Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the ongoing globalization of businesses and the collaboration occurring between geographically dispersed organizations, distributed collaborative work using computer based support tools becomes increasingly important. When trying to perform design work while relying heavily on the use of physical artefacts such as early mock-ups, a need to share the unshareable, i.e. physical objects, will inevitably occur in a distributed setting. In an attempt to realize this, the authors studied a design team during their design reviews where a physical mock-up was used. A wearable conferencing unit (the Boblebee computer) was then developed to give remote collaborators a first person view of the mock-up using a head mounted video camera. With the Boblebee computer, remote collaboration with large tangible objects can successfully be realized. This paper relates experiences from the design of the system, and reports on early observations of its use.

  • 72.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    A multi-modal approach to soft systems methodology2002Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of my research is to explore ways of enriching Soft Systems Methodology by developing intellectual tools that can help designers to conceptualise, create and evaluate different design alternatives. This directs the focus on the methodology’s modelling phase even though some ideas related to analysis also will be presented. In order to realize this objective the study proposes the following supplements. Firstly, a framework of 15 modalities (knowledge areas) is suggested as a supplement to existing analysis techniques, with the aim of helping the analyst identify important aspects that need to be understood in order to identify relevant issues for modelling. Secondly, a concept called qualifying function is proposed as an additional modelling tool for drawing out different perspectives of a particular problem situation, discussing desirable purposes for the design, and for exploring the underlying rationale behind a suggested transformation or a stated Weltanschauung. Thirdly, an expansion of the measures of performance used in SSM modelling, for evaluating conceptual models of possible design alternatives, is suggested. This expansion also builds on the modal framework. Based on both the theoretical and the practical work I have done I conclude that using the modalities as a general framework in analysis, modelling and evaluation, as well as using the concept qualifying function to tease out and clarify relevant transformations and underlying value systems has practical benefits and therefore can be said to enrich Soft Systems Methodology.

  • 73.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Cultural and industrial values in change2006Ingår i: International Journal of Knowledge, Culture and Change Management, ISSN 1447-9524, E-ISSN 1447-9575, Vol. 6, nr 4, s. 157-163Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the potential of using a systems design methodology named Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) as a methodology for evaluation.

  • 74.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Diversity is in the air: it is time to challenge our weltanschauung2007Ingår i: Systemist, ISSN 0961-8309, Vol. 28, nr 2, s. 13-25Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 75.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Diversity is in the air: it is time to expose our Weltanschauungen2005Ingår i: Towards Humane Leadership: Proceedings of the 11th annual CPTS working conference / [ed] Albert Helberg; Jan van der Stoep; Sytse Strijbos, Maarssen: Centre for Philosophy, Technology and Social Systems , 2005, s. 1-16Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 76.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Enriching the model-building phase of soft systems methodology2002Ingår i: Systems research and behavioral science, ISSN 1092-7026, E-ISSN 1099-1743, Vol. 19, nr 1, s. 27-48Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) has been criticized for its tendency to result in regulatory, rather than radical, agendas for change. It has also been argued that when stressing the difference between different Weltanschauungs SSM takes them at face value and does not investigate the similarities between them or seek an explanation for this in terms of the structure of society. The aim of the paper is to address these critical comments made towards SSM by incorporating a concept called qualifying function as a conceptual tool for modelling and design. The concept has the potential to help people in a particular problem situation to view the situation from new and different perspectives. It also has the potential to enrich the conceptual models by directing the transformation process. Finally, it provides an alternative technique for model validation by relating the root definition and the conceptual model closer together.

  • 77.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Qualifying function in SSM modeling: a case study2002Ingår i: Systemic Practice and Action Research, ISSN 1094-429X, E-ISSN 1573-9295, Vol. 15, nr 4, s. 309-330Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In a previous paper the author introduced a concept called qualifying function as a conceptual tool for modeling and design. The concept was incorporated into the modeling phase of soft systems methodology (SSM), with the purpose of addressing some of the criticism directed toward the methodology, such as its tendency to result in regulatory, rather than radical, agendas for change. It was argued that the concept had the potential to help people in a particular problem situation to view the situation from new and different perspectives and that it could enrich the conceptual models by giving the transformation process a direction. The aim of this paper is to apply the concept, embedded in SSM, to a case study involving two projects, focused on creating new work opportunities, to explore the practical applicability and usefulness of the concept, both in general and as a part of the modeling phase of SSM

  • 78.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Reflecting on the use of the concept of qualifying function in system design2006Ingår i: In Search of an Integrative Vision for Technology, New York: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2006, s. 39-62Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 79.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    The role of the qualifying function concept in systems design2001Ingår i: Systemic Practice and Action Research, ISSN 1094-429X, E-ISSN 1573-9295, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 79-93Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I explore potential benefits with using the concept qualifying function as a tool for systems design. The concept originates from the philosophy of Herman Dooyeweerd and refers to the function or character that guides and directs the internal structure of an entity or activity. This means that if the qualifying function for an entity or activity changes, its structure as a whole will change as well. Due to this, the concept and its related theory can help people to view situations from new and different perspectives and to explore the consequences of different views. It can provide a common base for the design around which accommodation more easily can be reached and from where further discussions can be continued. Finally, it has the potential to point at fundamental differences of opinion between participants and stakeholders.

  • 80.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Using soft systems methodology as a methodology for multi-modal systems design2000Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this research is to contribute to the field of systems design by developing intellectual tools that can help designers to conceptualise, create and evaluate different design alternatives. In this work I focus my attention on Soft Systems Methodology. More specifically, I analyse how this methodology can develop its present methods for drawing out different perspectives of a particular problem situation. I also study its process for reaching agreement or consensus on objectives for the design and for evaluating different design alternatives. To address the above issues a framework of 15 dimensions, together with its related concept qualifying function, was incorporated into the different phases of SSM. The framework is based on human experience and developed by Herman Dooyeweerd. The lessons learnt form this is as follows. The framework provides a kind of control device for highlighting dimensions that are perceived as important as well as dimensions that might be lost when analysing a problem situation. It also strengthens the process of drawing out different perspectives and helps to indicate similarities and differences in focus between or within different groups of people. Further, it provides a way to compare different design alternatives as well as their consequences. Finally, it facilitates the model building, and strengthens the model validation.

  • 81.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Klefsjö, Bengt
    Creating social change in a municipality using a Total Quality Management approach2009Ingår i: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 20, nr 12, s. 1375-1393Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna artikel beskriver ett projekt som gemensamt startades av medborgare, handel och myndigheter i Jokkmokk för att skapa en positiv samhällsutveckling baserad på offensiv kvalitetsutvecklings grundläggande värderingar. Projektet löpte under två år, och även ett parallellt arbete i Mansfield, Storbritannien ingick i projektet. Detta dokument beskriver enbart Jokkmokkdelen av projektet. Utvärderingen av projektet är baserad på enkäter och intervjuer som analyserats med hjälp av Soft Systems Methodology. Analysen visar att de flesta tillfrågade tyckte att projektet lyckats förändra attityden hos folket i Jokkmokk och skapa värdefulla nätverk. Projektets målsättning var också att skapa delaktighet för medborgarna och många aktiviteter riktade sig att låta medborgarna utveckla och generera idéer och delta i samhällets verksamhet och beslutsfattande. Utvärderingen visade att ledare och politiker i Jokkmokk inte var redo för det använda projektets underifrånperspektiv. Analysen understryker också vikten av att kommunicera uppdraget och projektets mål. Mot bakgrund av den korta projekttiden anser vi att betydande och värdefulla lärdomar, såväl positiva som negativa, kan dras utifrån ett samhällsutvecklingsperspektiv.

  • 82.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Björn, Michael
    Ericsson.
    Chincholle, Didier
    Ericsson.
    Motivational profiles of toolkit users: iPhone and Android developers2011Ingår i: International Journal of Technology Marketing, ISSN 1741-878X, E-ISSN 1741-8798, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 36-56Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Toolkits for development and distribution of mobile applications can potentially influence the ecosystem for mobile services. While these toolkits began to surface in the late 1990s, it was not until 2008, when Apple launched its App Store, that their potential became more visible. For these toolkits to create value to all the different stakeholders, we need to understand these innovation milieus and their inhabitants, areas that are becoming increasingly important yet under-researched in the literature. In this paper, we address the questions of who the pioneering users of the Apple and Android owned toolkits are, what attracted them to the mobile application market, and what affected their choice of platform for mobile application development. Emerging from the analysis are four different developer profiles of early adopters of the Android and iPhone platforms.

  • 83.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Broberg, Anders
    Umeå universitet.
    Lassinantti, Josefin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Davoli, Lorenzo
    Umeå universitet.
    Kuenen, Stoffel
    Umeå universitet.
    Palmquist, Lena
    Umeå universitet.
    Parnes, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Wennberg, Paula
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, CDT.
    User toolkits for citizen-centric mobild service innovation2012Ingår i: eChallenges e-2012 Conference Proceedings / [ed] Paul Cunningham; Miriam Cunningham, IIMC International Information Management Corporation , 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Around the world, there is an ongoing shift from en economy focusing on product development to an economy with focus on digital service development. An ongoing initiative in Europe to support this shift is the Internet of Services (IoS) which strives for a situation where everything that is needed to use a software is available as a service. The aim of this paper is to present a toolkit that non-programmers can use develop their own innovative mobile services. This environment strives to put forth a situation where technologies are made available as components that easily can be composed into a mobile services by just about anyone. This has tremendous impact on the feasibility of citizen-centric services where citizens create apps based on their current needs in their contemporary situation.

  • 84.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Chronéer, Diana
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Styvén, Maria Ek
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Engström, Anne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Malmström, Malin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Nilsson, Michael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, CDT.
    CASE 7: Smart Growth MeMo: A business model tool for mobile services2011Ingår i: Meeting the challenges of Europe 2020: The Transformative Power of Service Innovation : Case studies collected by the expert panel on service innovation in the EU, Europe Innova , 2011, s. 12-12Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 85.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Eriksson, Carina Ihlström
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Svensson, Jesper
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    A milieu for innovation: defining living labs2009Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2nd ISPIM innovation symposium: Simulating recovery - the Role of innovation management, New York City, USA 6-9 December 2009 / [ed] K.R.E. Huizingh; S. Conn; M. Torkkeli; I. Bitran, 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A new trend of user involvement in open innovation processes has emerged. Concurring with this trend the Living Lab concept has been revitalized.This concept has attracted attention lately, but there exist no coherentview. In this paper we discuss and define the concept and propose five keycomponents and five key principles for Living Labs based on experiences fromover 30 development and research projects within two Living Labs, Botnia Living Lab and Halmstad Living Lab. The key components are: ICT &Infrastructure; Management; Partners & Users; Research; and Approach. Thekey principles are: Openness; Influence; Realism; Value; and Sustainability.Our proposed definition of a Living Lab is: A Living Lab is a user-centricinnovation milieu built on every-day practice and research, with an approachthat facilitates user influence in open and distributed innovation processesengaging all relevant partners in real-life contexts, aiming to create sustainable values.

  • 86.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Grahn, Anita
    Expanding the framework for monitor and control in soft systems methodology1996Ingår i: Systems Practice, ISSN 0894-9859, Vol. 9, nr 5, s. 469-495Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) has been criticized for its interpretivistic stance by, among others, Critical systems thinkers. By locating problems inherent in the techniques of SSM, this paper proposes an expanded theoretical framework, concerning measure of performance in the conceptual models. The expansion is based on the theories behind Multi-Modal Methodology and has resulted in a new model of performance indicators for the design.

  • 87.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Holst, Marita
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, CDT.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Concept design with a living lab approach2009Ingår i: 2009 42nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences: HICSS ; Waikoloa, Hawaii, 5 - 8 January 20 / [ed] Ralph H Sprague Jr, IEEE Communications Society, 2009, s. 1-10Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Living Labs is a rather new research area and phenomena that introduces new ways of managing innovation processes. The underlying idea is that people's ideas, experiences, and knowledge, as well as their daily needs of support from products, services, or applications, should be the starting point in innovation. This paper illuminates experiences and accumulated knowledge to the area of concept design in an innovation process within a Living Lab. FormIT, a methodology developed for innovation processes within Living Labs is introduced through an illustration of how it has been utilised in a case. The experiences and the method are related to characteristics of Living Labs, and the paper closes with some concluding remarks in relation to concept design in a Living Lab.

  • 88.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Holst, Marita
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, CDT.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Creating a new leverage point for information systems development2008Ingår i: Designing information and organisations with a positive lens, Amsterdam: JAI Press Ltd, 2008, s. 75-95Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a new approach that shifts the leverage point of information systems development from problem orientation to opportunity development. Our approach, entitled FormIT, employs a careful focus on enhanced user involvement, concentrating on users as human beings, and attention to users’ needs as opposed to system requirements. As theoretical and methodological foundations, we build on the 4-D cycle model of Appreciative Inquiry and current research on needfinding. Our field experience demonstrates that FormIT shifts the systems development process from being reactive to being proactive, and in turn, enables a smoother implementation of inevitable change, particularly radical change. Moreover, FormIT stimulates the generation of rich local knowledge and helps reveal deep insights into the development process and the overall organization.

  • 89.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Howcroft, Debra
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Crowdsourcing and ICT work: a study of Apple and Google mobile phone application developers2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 90.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Howcroft, Debra
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Mobile applications development on Apple and Google platforms2011Ingår i: Communications of the Association for Information Systems, ISSN 1529-3181, E-ISSN 1529-3181, Vol. 29, nr 1, artikel-id 30Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 91.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Howcroft, Debra
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Persistent problems and practices in information systems development: a study of mobile applications development and distribution2014Ingår i: Information Systems Journal, ISSN 1350-1917, E-ISSN 1365-2575, Vol. 24, nr 5, s. 425-444Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread uptake of mobile technologies has witnessed a re-structuring of the mobile market with major shifts in the predominance of particular firms and the emergence of new business models. These sociotechnical trends are significant in the ways that they are influencing and shaping the working lives of software professionals. Building on prior research investigating the persistent problems and practices of systems development, this paper examines mobile applications development and distribution. A qualitative study of 60 developers based in Sweden, the UK and the USA was analysed around the interrelated problems of diversity, knowledge and structure. The analysis revealed how platform-based development in an evolving mobile market represents significant changes at the business environment level. These changes ripple through and accentuate ongoing trends and developments, intensifying the persistent problems and challenges facing software developers.

  • 92.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Howcroft, Debra
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    The Apple business model: Crowdsourcing mobile applications2013Ingår i: Accounting Forum, ISSN 0155-9982, E-ISSN 1467-6303, Vol. 37, nr 4, s. 280-289Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Much to Apple's chagrin, the ‘suicide express’ at the Foxconn manufacturing complex in China has been widely reported. While outsourcing the manufacture of technology components is neither new nor unique, the external sourcing of digital content is integral to the success of Apple's business model. In 2008, Apple opened up their platform to third-party IT developers, leveraging their expertise for the supply of applications. Apple's rapid dominance of the mobile market led to the emergence of a business model that weaves together Internet-enabled mobile devices with digital content, brought together within a closed proprietary platform or ecosystem. Applying a Global Production Network analysis, this paper reports on fieldwork among Apple mobile application developers in Sweden, the UK, and the US. The analysis shows that although some developers experience success, financial returns remain elusive and many encounter intense pressure to generate and market new products in a competitive and saturated market. Crowdsourcing allows Apple to effectively source development to a global base of software developers, capitalizing on the mass production of digital products while simultaneously managing to sidestep the incurred costs and responsibilities associated with directly employing a high-tech workforce.

  • 93.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Howcroft, Debra
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    ‘The future’s bright, the future’s mobile’: a study of Apple and Google mobile application developers2013Ingår i: Work, Employment and Society, ISSN 0950-0170, E-ISSN 1469-8722, Vol. 27, nr 6, s. 964-981Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Software work is often depicted as a ‘sunrise occupation’, consisting of knowledge workers that are able to craft stable careers. The aim of this article is to question this account by analysing the experiences of mobile applications developers, with a focus on Apple and Google platforms. The analysis is situated in the context of wider socioeconomic trends and developments in product and technology markets, since these structures frame the working practices of software developers. Drawing on qualitative fieldwork in Sweden, the UK, and the US, the study reveals how changing market structures have given rise to increasingly precarious working conditions and unstable labour markets.

  • 94.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Howcroft, Debra
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Chincholle, Dider
    Ericsson User Experience Lab.
    Outsourcing creative work: A study of mobile application development2011Ingår i: International Conference on Information Systems 2010 (ICIS 2010): St. Louis, Missouri, USA, 12 - 15 December 2010, Red Hook: Curran Associates, Inc., 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As the mobile phone industry converges with the IT/software industry, the emerging internetenabled multifunctional mobile devices are bringing together many diverse stakeholders. This paper examines the under-researched area of mobile application developers. We frame our study within the wider context of the mobile application industry in order to illustrate how the business models of large IT firms shape the everyday practices of systems developers, specifically those working on iPhone and Android platforms. By broadening out the study in this way we are able to situate seemingly new and distinctive technological artefacts and practices and show how they build on a number of continuing trends within the field. Drawing on qualitative data with developers working in this emerging market, we analyse their practices in order to (a) provide detail on this under-studied area and (b) show the ways in which developers adapt to the turbulent environment of the IT sector.

  • 95.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Howcroft, Debra
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Disregarding history: Contemporary IS contexts and participatory design2014Ingår i: Communications of the Association for Information Systems, ISSN 1529-3181, E-ISSN 1529-3181, Vol. 34, nr 1, s. 1319-1332, artikel-id 68Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    User participation has long been seen as a core topic of study within the IS field, yet its relevance to contemporary development environments and contexts has recently been brought into question. The aim of this article is to investigate the extent to which this rich history and experience is used to inform contemporary practices. We provide a survey that evaluates the degree to which PD (participatory design) is currently represented in the IS literature, the results of which reveal a low representation. Based on these findings, a number of propositions are offered. © 2014 by the Association for Information Systems.

  • 96.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Howcroft, Debra
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Melander-Wikman, Anita
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Hälsa och rehabilitering.
    Participation in living lab: designing systems with users2010Ingår i: Human Benefit through the Diffusion of Information Systems Design Science Research: IFIP WG 8.2/8.6 International Working Conference, Perth, Australia, March 30 - April 1, 2010, Proceedings / [ed] Jan Pries-Heje; John J. Veneble; Deborah Bunker; Nancy L. Russo; Janice I. DeGross, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2010, s. 317-326Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on a case study of a living lab, this paper considers the process of participation during the design stages of a health care project for the elderly in Sweden. While participation has an established history, more recently it has been described as an "old, tired concept" that is in need of revitalization in order to cater for changing IS practices. In this paper, we reflect on how participation materializes in a context that is quite dissimilar from more traditional development settings and report on the kinds of practices that may be used to assist design with users

  • 97.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Larsson, Staffan
    Ericsson Research, Luleå.
    A case study of real-world testing2008Ingår i: MUM'08 Proceedings: 7th ACM International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia, December 3 - 5, 2008, Umeå, Sweden, New York: ACM Digital Library, 2008, s. 113-116Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present the results of a real-world test of a mobile application for public transportation, as well as lessons learnt by carrying out the test. By this we contribute with experience and accumulated knowledge to the area of mobile applications for public transportation and to the area of real-life testing. Through the test we learnt a number of lessons related to the application, related concepts, people's behavior in relation to public transportation, and last but not least in relation to our method.

  • 98.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Mirijamdotter, Anita
    Basden, Andrew
    Information Systems Institute, University of Salford.
    Basic principles of SSM modeling: an examination of CATWOE from a soft perspective2004Ingår i: Systemic Practice and Action Research, ISSN 1094-429X, E-ISSN 1573-9295, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 55-73Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the SSM technique CATWOE, which focuses on defining necessary elements that together constitute a human activity system from a certain perspective. Despite its recognition within the literature and its numerous uses, there are few studies on how the technique can be improved. This research reflects on each of the elements both from a theoretical and a practical perspective. Findings point to the fact that some of the terms have a meaning in everyday language that differs from its definition within CATWOE. Other concepts are not well-defined. This is unfortunate and may both lead to misunderstandings and limit analysis. The paper points to a number of ways in which the use of CATWOE can be developed in order to further support the process of eliciting novel ideas for future actions. Hence, the overall conclusion is that the elements need to be rethought and some of them renamed.

  • 99.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Nielsen, Peter AxelAalborg University.
    Creating Value for All Through IT: IFIP WG 8.6 International Conference on Transfer and Diffusion of IT, TDIT 2014, Aalborg, Denmark, June 2-4, 2014. Proceedings2014Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the IFIP WG 8.6 International Working Conference "Creating Value for All Through IT" on Transfer and Diffusion of IT, TDIT 2014, held in Aalborg, Denmark, in June 2014. The 18 revised full papers presented together with 5 research-in-progress papers, 2 experience reports and a panel were carefully reviewed and selected from 37 submissions. The full papers are organized in the following topical sections: creating value; creating value through software development; and creating value through applications.

  • 100.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Living lab: an open and citizen-centric approach for innovation2009Ingår i: International Journal of Innovation and Regional Development, ISSN 1753-0660, E-ISSN 1753-0679, Vol. 1, nr 4, s. 356-370Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we focus on a new research area, Living Lab that introduces new ways of managing innovation processes. A Living Lab can be viewed as both an innovation milieu and an innovation approach and the aim of this paper is to clarify these two perspectives, as well as to illustrate how they can enrich each other. This is done by presenting one Living Lab milieu, Botnia Living Lab and its key components; and one Living Lab approach, FormIT and its key principles. The presentation is done on two levels, one general level and one case specific level. The case focuses on involving citizens in the design of an e-service aimed to increase their influence in a municipality and its development. Through this, we learnt that the key components of a Living Lab constitutes important structures that enhance the process and as such the principles.

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