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  • 51.
    Dai, Wenbin
    et al.
    University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Transformation from PLC to distributed control using ontology mapping2012Ingår i: 10th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), IEEE Communications Society, 2012, s. 436-441Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A new methodology of transformation from IEC 61131-3 PLCs to IEC 61499 function blocks is proposed in this paper. The aim of this process is to recreate IEC 61131-3 programs in the IEC 61499 format automatically. The original PLC cyclical execution is fulfilled in the IEC 61499 function blocks. Definitions of IEC 61131-3 and IEC 61499 ontology model are provided. Also the ontology mapping between those two standards is also achieved by using the SQWRL. A small airport baggage handling system implemented in the IEC 61131-3 PLC is converted to the IEC 61499 function block as a demonstration

  • 52.
    Dai, Wenbin
    et al.
    University of Auckland, Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China, Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Chen, Cailian
    Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China, Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Guan, Xinping
    Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China, Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Modeling distributed automation systems in cyber-physical view2015Ingår i: 10th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications: ICIEA 2015, Auckland. New Zealand; 15 - 17 June 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, s. 984-989, artikel-id 7334251Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With increasing complexity of automation processes, distributed automation systems are required to meet real-time constraints of control and communication for processes. On the other hand, cyber-physical system is committed for solving complexities of networked embedded systems. In the cyber-physical view, distributed systems are combination of control, computation and communication. One key research topic is to solve design complexities of industrial cyber-physical systems by applying modeling techniques. In this paper, an IEC 61499-based modeling language is propsed for industrial cyber-physical systems. Furthermore, how these modeling techniques could be beneficial for industrial cyber-physical systems are investigated. Finally, an industrial cyber-physical system design tool is implemented by applying the proposed IEC 61499-based modeling language

  • 53.
    Dai, Wenbin
    et al.
    Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Christensen, James H.
    Holobloc Inc., Cleveland.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    Department of Computer Science, University of Penza, Penza, Russia.
    Response to “Comments on Bridging Service-Oriented Architecture and IEC 61499 for Flexibility and Interoperability”2017Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 1497-1502, artikel-id 7931583Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Service-oriented architecture is increasingly applied in industrial cyber-physical systems to provide better flexibility and interoperability between various systems and devices. In the previous work (IEEE Trans. On Industrial Informatics, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp 771 – 781, June 2015), a service-based execution environment for IEC 61499 is proposed to enhance flexibility and interoperability in distributed automation systems. In this paper we discuss questions raised by some readers, for example performance overhead of the proposed method. Also other clarifications are made in order to address possible confusions expressed in the received comments

  • 54. Dai, Wenbin
    et al.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Dubinin, V.
    Ontology-based design recovery and migration between IEC 61499 - compliant tools2011Ingår i: IECON 2011 - 37th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IEEE Communications Society, 2011, s. 4332-4337Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a new method of semantic design recovery of automation applications, with source code used to generate ontological semantic model of IEC 61499 application. The model can be used for automatic semantic analysis of the system and automatic code generation for various IEC 61499 tools. This method creates a foundation for correct-by-design development tools and automatic migration between different tools. The semantic enrichment and analysis are fulfilled via ontology reasoning and query. This complete design loop is implemented in a software tool including code capture engine, semantic analyzer and code generation engine with the pre-defined IEC 61499 ontology model. The method is demonstrated on a simple control system case study.

  • 55.
    Dai, Wenbin
    et al.
    University of Auckland, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Pang, Cheng
    Department of Electrical and Computer System Engineering, University of Auckland, University of Auckland, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Christensen, James H.
    Rockwell Automation Advanced Technologies, Mayfield Heights, Holobloc Inc., Cleveland Heigths.
    Time-stamped event based execution semantics for industrial cyber-physical systems2015Ingår i: IEEE 13th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), 2015: Cambridge, United Kingdom, 22-24 July 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, s. 1263-1268, artikel-id 7281916Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-physical systems show their impacts in many areas including industrial automation. Design and analysis of cyber-physical automation systems requires an integral model that takes into account tight coordination of control, communication and physical plants dynamics, thus creating a new research domain, namely industrial cyber-physical systems. This paper proposes a new execution semantics for the IEC 61499 standard that is based on the concepts of discrete-event systems augmented with timestamping of events to guarantee real-time constraints for industrial cyber-physical systems. The proposed execution semantics is implemented in an IEC 61499 execution environment and a case study on building automation systems is used to verify the results.

  • 56.
    Dai, Wenbin
    et al.
    Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Zhang, Zhijie
    Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Wang, Peng
    Shenyang Institute of Automation, China Academy of Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Christensen, James H.
    Department of Research and Development, Holobloc Inc., Cleveland, OH.
    Service-oriented data acquisition and management for industrial cyber-physical systems2017Ingår i: Proceedings: 2017 IEEE 15th International Conference on Industrial Informatics, INDIN 2017, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 759-764, artikel-id 8104867Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

     With rapid improvement in information and communication technologies, industrial automation systems are under the revolution. Legacy industrial automation systems lack flexibility and interoperability due to multi-layered architecture. From industrial cyber-physical system point of view, a new system architecture is needed to allow vertical and horizontal integration between all devices and systems from enterprise level to sensor level. In this paper, a RESTful service-oriented architecture is proposed for industrial controllers. By adopting RESTful services over HTTP methods, better efficiency for data acquisition from sensors, actuators, and controllers is achieved. In addition, service-oriented device management for industrial controllers is also implemented along with data acquisition. The reference architecture experiments on a car manufacturing demonstration line

  • 57.
    Dai, William
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    University of Penza.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Migration From PLC to IEC 61499 Using Semantic Web Technologies2014Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man & Cybernetics. Systems, ISSN 2168-2216, Vol. 44, nr 3, s. 277-291Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a new methodology of migration from IEC 61131-3 PLCs to IEC 61499 function blocks. The aim of this migration process is to recreate IEC 61131-3 applications in IEC 61499 implementations with equivalent execution behavior. The formal model of the IEC 61131-3 standard for migration and cyclical execution model is defined. This method also creates a foundation for correct-by-design development tools and automatic migration between the IEC 61131-3 and IEC 61499 standard. Formal migration rules based on ontology mappings, restoring execution model including tasks and programs scheduling and variables mapping with different access levels, are provided. A transformation engine for importing PLC code, mapping from PLC ontology model to function block model and code generation is implemented based on the ontological knowledge base and semantic query-enhanced web rule language. The migration approach is demonstrated on a simple airport baggage handling system.

  • 58.
    Dai, William
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Peltola, Jukka
    Aalto University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Pang, Cheng
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Service-Oriented Distributed Control Software Design for Process Automation Systems2014Ingår i: Conference Proceedings / IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, ISSN 1062-922X, s. 3637-3642Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving software development efficiency and reusability of existing programs is an important topic for industrial automation. Recently, modern software paradigms have been introduced into the automation domain such as object-oriented programming using the IEC 61131-3 standard and component-based design based on the IEC 61499 standard. In this paper, another software paradigm – service-oriented architecture is applied to the software design for automation programs. The proposed SOA pattern is based on a multi-layered structure with enhanced reusability and flexibility. A case study of water heating system is implemented to prove the concept of SOA paradigm.

  • 59.
    Dai, William
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Riliskis, Laurynas
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    A Configurable Cloud-Based Testing Infrastructure for Interoperable Distributed Automation Systems2015Ingår i: IECON 2014: 40th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Dallas, TX, USA , Oct. 29 2014-Nov. 1 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, s. 2492-2498Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The interoperability between various automation systems is considered as one of the major character of future automation systems. Service-oriented Architecture is a possible interoperability enabler between legacy and future automation systems. In order to prove the interoperability between those systems, a verification framework is essential. This paper proposes a configurable cloud-based validation environment for interoperability tests between various distributed automation systems. The testing framework is implemented in a multi-layer structure which provides automated closed-loop testing from the protocol level to the system level. The testing infrastructure is also capable for simulating automation systems as well as wireless sensor networks in the cloud. Test cases could be automatically generated and executed by the framework.

  • 60.
    Dai, William
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    A component-based design pattern for improving reusability of automation programs2013Ingår i: 39th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2013, IEEE Communications Society, 2013, s. 4328-4333Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a component-based design pattern for distributed automation programs. This design pattern aims to improve reusability of programs and reduce redevelopment time. Component-based design issues in both IEC 61131-3 and IEC 61499 platforms are analyzed. Then the design pattern is proposed in a form of a set of rules. The pattern combines properties of service-oriented architecture (SOA) with multi-layered organization and engineering benefits of component organization. This design pattern is applied to both IEC 61131-3 and IEC 61499 on example of a real airport baggage handling automation system. The result proves that the design pattern brings convenience for developers of automation programs and improves reusability of software components.

  • 61.
    Dai, William
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Christensen, James
    The Application of Service-Oriented Architectures in Distributed Automation Systems2014Ingår i: 2014 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, s. 252-257Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The complexity and scale of automation industry applications have increased substantially in recent years, posing new challenges to fulfill growing requirements for reusability, interoperability, flexibility and reconfigurability. The adoption of service-oriented architectures (SOAs) could be a feasible solution to meeting these challenges. Based on a comparison between the conceptual frameworks of SOAs versus modern standards for distributed automation, a methodology is proposed for the application of SOAs in the distributed automation domain. The implementation of the Service-Oriented Architecture based PLC execution environment is demonstrated on a case study.

  • 62.
    Dai, William
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Christensen, James H.
    Holobloc Inc.
    Essential elements for programming of distributed automation and control systems2013Ingår i: Proceedings of 2013 IEEE 18th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2013): Cagliari, Italy, 10-13 September 2013, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013, artikel-id 6647942Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Distributed control systems are widely deployed to all areas in industrial automation. However, a systematic approach to the design and programming of distributed automation and control systems is not clearly defined. This paper analyzes the differences between two control system architectures defined in IEC Standards - IEC 61131-3 for centralized control with programmable controllers (PLCs) vs. IEC 61499 for the use of function blocks (FBs) in distributed automation and control - in an attempt to identify the essential elements - the sine qua non - for such programming. Through this analysis, two indispensable elements - software modularity and the use of communication services - are identified. Guidelines are given for the use of these elements in both PLC and FB systems, and the application of these guidelines is illustrated in a case study of airport baggage handling systems

  • 63.
    Dai, William
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Dubinin, Victor
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Christensen, James
    Enhancing Distributed Automation Systems with Efficiency and Reliability by Applying Autonomic Service Management2014Ingår i: Proceedings of 2014 IEEE 19th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2014): Barcelona, Spain, 16-19 Sept. 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, s. 1-8, artikel-id 7005123Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Improvement of flexibility and interoperability is a usual concern of industrial automation systems developers. Service-oriented architecture is one approach promising improvement of flexibility and interoperability in existing distributed automation systems. However, the intelligent self-managing features cannot be fully achieved by just applying the service-oriented architecture. In order to improve efficiency and reliability of distributed automation systems, the service-oriented architecture is extended in this paper by autonomic service management. The design of the autonomic service manager is provided and some key features such as self-configuration, self-healing and self-optimization are demonstrated. The design of a flexible and interoperable execution environment is also illustrated. Some preliminary tests are completed with a case study.

  • 64.
    Dai, William
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Dubinin, Victor
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Christensen, James
    Function Block Implementation of Service Oriented Architecture: Case Study2014Ingår i: IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, IEEE Communications Society, 2014, s. 112-117Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), initially developed for general purpose computing, is becoming increasingly popular in industrial automation, especially due to the growing importance of distributed measurement and control systems, Internet of Things and wireless sensor network infrastructures. There are two serious gaps in the current implementations of SOA for automation: the lack of a proper standard form for representing the logical relation between services at the system level, and, in particular, lack for a proper visual representation format enabling intuitive understanding and reconfiguration of services during the system lifecycle. In this paper, it is shown how these gaps can be filled using the IEC 61499 function block architecture in the most intuitive and natural way. The ideas are illustrated on example of systems, composed form intelligent mechatronic devices. Such features, as software reuse, flexibility, reconfigurability and scalability are demonstrated. The paper shows complementarity of the SOA and IEC 61499.

  • 65.
    Davidescu, George
    et al.
    IMT School for Advanced Studies Lucca.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Network planning and self-repair in models of urban distribution networks via Hill Climbing2017Ingår i: Proceedings IECON 2017: 43rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 5477-5482Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Network Planning and Fault Location, Isolation and Supply Restoration (FLISR) are important functions of power distribution automation systems. We model these functions as a combinatorial optimization graph problem called the Capacitated Spanning Forest Problem (CSF), defined as the problem of creating a spanning forest with a capacity constraint on each tree bounding its total weight. We present an algorithm based on a Hill Climbing heuristic for the solution of CSF that can be used to solve network planning and supply restoration scenarios on large graphs representing smart grids.

  • 66.
    de Silva, D.
    et al.
    Research Centre for Data Analytics and Cognition, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Australia.
    Pang, Z.
    ABB Corporate Research, Västeras, Sweden.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Guest Editorial: Special Section on Developments in Artificial Intelligence for Industrial Informatics2019Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 15, nr 6, s. 3690-3692Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The emergence of artificial intelligence (AI), empowered by robust computing infrastructure and abundance of data, maintains potential for radical transformation of human society, essentially a third phase in evolution. Numerous research endeavor, policy development, and thought-leadership are presently in progress aimed at discovering data-driven intelligent decision-making solutions for smart cities, smart grids, smart homes, and informed citizens as well as addressing potential risks posed by AI workplace automation. Joining this broad effort, this Special Section contributes six research articles that consolidate recent developments in AI for industrial informatics.

  • 67.
    Degefa, Merkebu Z.
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Alahäivälä, Antti
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Kilkki, Olli
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Humayun, Muhammad
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Seilonen, Ilkka
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Lehtonen, Matti
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    MAS-Based Modeling of Active Distribution Network: The Simulation of Emerging Behaviors2016Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, ISSN 1949-3053, E-ISSN 1949-3061, Vol. 7, nr 6, s. 2615-2623Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Agent-based modeling of active distribution network helps to understand the dynamics and to design the control strategies for overall system efficiency. There is, however, a lack of generic and multipurpose agent definitions in existing studies. In this paper, a multi-agent system-based modeling of an active distribution network is presented using cooperative agents. A method to solve a network-wise objective of state estimation is explained with the proposed model. The network component agents are defined to be cooperative to meet the overall objectives and greedy to fulfil individual objectives such as energy cost minimization. A token-ring protocol is deployed for the agent communication among themselves, as well as with market and network operator agents. Furthermore, a MATLAB/Simulink model of active distribution network is used to simulate the emerging stochastic loading scenario, while the autonomous prosumer agents optimize their total energy cost responding to market price variations.

  • 68.
    Demin, Evgenii
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    University of Auckland, Penza State University, Department of Computer Science, University of Penza, Computer Science Department, Penza State University, Penza.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Automation services orchestration with function blocks: Web-service implementation and performance evaluation2016Ingår i: Service Orientation in Holonic and Multi-Agent Manufacturing: [International Workshop on Service Orientation in Holonic and Multi-agent Manufacturing, SOHOMA 2015, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 5-6 November 2015 / [ed] Theodor Borangiu ; Damien Trentesaux; André Thomas; Duncan McFarlane, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2016, s. 213-221Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents service-oriented implementation of distributed automation systems and the results of a practical performance measurement of Web-services deployed on different platforms. In the experiments we used a technique that allows one to separate the characteristics of the Web-service, such as the delays introduced by the medium of communication. It is shown that the technology development and deployment of Web-services significantly affect their performance

  • 69.
    Demin, Evgenii
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Dubinin, Victor
    Computer Science Department, Penza State University, Penza.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    IEC 61499 distributed control enhanced with cloud-based web-services2015Ingår i: 2015 IEEE 10th Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA): Auckland, 15-17 June 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, s. 972-977, artikel-id 7334249Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a framework for employing cloud- deployable web services in the design of distributed control systems in industrial automation. The paper demonstrates how a part of the control logic can be developed as a web service and deployed in the cloud to improve reusability and flexibility. In order to demonstrate the use of the framework we consider an example of Pick-and-Place Manipulator, which was originally designed as IEC 61499 function block application with a distributed control consisting of a high level and a low-level control logic. Firstly the high level control and its functionality is converted to a web services and deployed to a cloud. Secondly the application is modified such that the low level control interacts with these newly developed web services. The paper also presents an interface between low level control and web service using dynamic linked library that bridges communication between the two components It concludes with the simulation results of the of Pick-and-Place Manipulator implemented using the proposed framework.

  • 70.
    Deng, Yinbai
    et al.
    University of Auckland.
    Sorouri, Majid
    University of Auckland.
    Pang, Cheng
    University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    A distributed automation architecture enabling simulation-in-the-loop of energy-efficient buildings2013Ingår i: 15th International Conference on Computer Modelling and Simulation (UKSim 2013): Cambridge, United Kingdom, 10 - 12 April 2013 ; [proceedings], Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013, s. 542-547Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel framework for designing and simulating the decentralized control of Building Management Systems (BMSs) based on the concept of virtual smart meters. The proposed approach uses simulation in realtime to allow building managers and users to have a thorough perception of the power consumption, which establishes the basis of Demand Side Management for energy-efficient buildings. It will be demonstrated that predefined power usage scenarios can be simulated in the closed-loop model and the results can be intuitively analyzed. More importantly, the decentralized control logics of the BMS subsystems can be developed independently from the deployment configurations

  • 71.
    Derhamy, Hasan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Drozdov, Dmitrii
    Computer Science Department, Penza State University, Penza.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    van Deventer, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Orchestration of Arrowhead services using IEC 61499: Distributed Automation Case Study2016Ingår i: Proceedings of 2016 IEEE 20th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2016), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016, artikel-id 7733650Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel approach to automationof flexible manufacturing systems with mechatronic intelligenceand distributed control. The mechatronic intelligence layer isimplemented using a combination of wireless sensor/actuatornetworks with service-oriented architecture, where services arelocated at the device level, as well as in local and global Cloudsfollowing the Arrowhead framework.The machine/floor level coordination is implemented using thedistributed automation architecture of IEC 61499, which is alsoused as a graphical tool for orchestration of services.The paper discusses the enablers developed in-order to combineIEC 61499 and Arrowhead and the use is illustrated ona laboratory scale flexible factory example. By integration ofIndustrial IoT with IEC 61499, we envision that large gains interms of engineering effort and system operation performancecan be made.

  • 72.
    Diavidescu, George
    et al.
    IMT School for Advanced Studies Lucca.
    Stürzle, Thomas
    IRIDIA, CODE, Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Network planning in smart grids via a local search heuristic for spanning forest problems2017Ingår i: 2017 IEEE 26th International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE), Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 1212-1218, artikel-id 8001418Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart grids are automated, distributed energy exchange networks that, in contrast to traditional electricity grids, feature reconfigurable network topologies. Network planning is an essential function of smart grids that connects customers to energy sources using available physical links in the network. We model this as the problem of creating a spanning forest with a capacity constraint on each tree bounding its total weight. Each tree of the forest corresponds to a set of customers, rooted at a source. We call this the Capacitated Spanning Forest (CSF) problem. CSF is NP-complete even on unweighted graphs with two sources. We present a solution to this problem using a Local Search heuristic and demonstrate its performance on square grids and on a real-world sample grid topology.

  • 73.
    Drozdov, Dmitrii
    et al.
    Penza State University.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    Penza State University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Speculative computation in IEC 61499 function blocks execution: Modeling and simulation2017Ingår i: IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 748-755, artikel-id 7819259Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a speculative computation method for IEC 61499 function block (FB) systems is proposed to increase the level of parallelism when executing the FB system and thus to increase system's performance and to reduce response time on input events. Data and control dependencies in FB systems are recognized and defined as a basis for organizing speculative execution of FB algorithms. A simulation model of FB systems with speculative execution based on timed stochastic Petri nets is considered. In addition, the paper discusses the results of simulation experiments conducted in CPN Tools

  • 74.
    Drozdov, Dmitrii
    et al.
    Penza State University.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    Penza State University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Penza State University.
    Formal verification of cyber-physical automation systems modelled with timed block diagrams2016Ingår i: IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, ISIE 2016, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, s. 316-321, artikel-id 7744910Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a new modelling approach is presented to be used for formal-verification of block-diagram executable specifications of distributed industrial cyber-physical systems following the IEC 61499 standard. The approach allows usage of timers and arithmetic operations in the controller code. SMV model-checker is used as the target tool. The function block modelswith multiple communicating plant-controller closed-loops are transformed to the SMV modelling language using a dedicated model-generator tool. The paper first deals with SMV modelling of the IEC 61499 specific timer function block types. In particular, modelling of hierarchical function block systems with timers located at different levels of hierarchy is addressed. The paper then presents plant abstraction techniques so that the complexity of cyber-physical systems models is reduced. The abstraction uses discrete-timed state machine model implemented in UPPAAL. Delays in the plant model are interpreted as model time constraints. The approach is illustrated with an example of formal verification of a modular mechatronic automated system. The achieved results extend the abilities in validation of real cyber-physical automation systems. The paper also demonstrates how this result helps in counterexample guided simulation in Ciros 3D simulation environment, which improves practical usability of formal verification

  • 75.
    Drozdov, Dmitrii
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    Penza State University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Aalto University, Helsinki.
    Towards formal verification for cyber-physically agnostic software: A case study2017Ingår i: Proceedings IECON 2017: 43rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 5509-5514Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-physical agnosticism (CPA) is a property of software in cyber-physical systems (CPS) to withstand various disturbances and keep maintaining the required behaviour of the physical process. With the increased research on the use of internet of things (IoT) in industrial automation (IoT-A), there is a need for robust distributed automation control systems that can take into account some overheads of using wireless devices in such an IoT setup. For example, data transfer delays between wireless sensors and the controller might result in the controller acting on a stale sensor value. In this paper, we present an approach of using time-aware computations to let the controller to assess quality of the input data and formal verification as a method to check the CPA property of the IoT-A applications. The paper specifically considers IEC 61499 standard for implementation of distributed IoT-A application. Ptolemy II PTIDES inspired time stamped event semantics is used in the application to keep track of the origin of different events. Timed automata are used to model the plant. The IEC 61499 application together with abstract plant model is then converted to SMV language and NuSMV model checker is used for formal verification. The paper presents a case study of an elevator example to demonstrate the proposed approach. A random delay is used to model the communication delay in the wireless network. It is shown that if the communication delay was not accounted for, then the elevator would stop in-between the floors and open the doors that is considered unsafe. The paper then shows how time-aware computation is used to make sure that the elevator always follows safe behaviour.

  • 76.
    Drozdov, Dmitrii
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Formal Modelling of Distributed Automation CPS with CP-Agnostic Software2017Ingår i: Service Orientation in Holonic and Multi-Agent Manufacturing: Proceedings of SOHOMA 2016 / [ed] Theodor Borangiu, Damien Trentesaux, André Thomas, Paulo Leitão, José Barata Oliveira, Springer International Publishing , 2017, s. 35-46Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces the application of formal modelling to cyber-physical systems for the purpose of formal verification of cyber-physical agnosticism properties of decentralised automation software. Service-oriented cyber-physical systems are modelled using the IEC 61499 function block architecture. Then, the IEC 61499 model is represented in terms of SMV formal language, which is verified using the nuXmv model checker. The timestamped events mechanism is implemented in IEC 61499 using the existing syntax of the standard. The impact of jitter on the behaviour of physical system is demonstrated in both simulation within IEC 61499 execution environment and in counter-examples extracted from nuXmv. The methodology presented in this paper creates the premise for automatic verification of the cyber-physical agnosticism of systems

  • 77.
    Drozdov, Dmitrii
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Zhabelova, Gulnara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Formal verification of protection functions for power distribution networks2018Ingår i: IECON 2018: 44th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 78.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    et al.
    Penza State University.
    Senokosov, Ilya
    Penza State University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Auto-Generation of Distributed Automation Software Based on Formal Product Line Specification2017Ingår i: Industrial Applications of Holonic and Multi-Agent Systems: 8th International Conference, HoloMAS 2017, Lyon, France, August 28–30, 2017, Proceedings / [ed] Vladimír Mařík, Wolfgang Wahlster, Thomas Strasser, Petr Kadera, Springer, 2017, s. 80-91Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we demonstrate how some features of product lines related to the product assembly plan can be modelled in a formal way using finite state machines. Then we introduce a method for automatic generation of automation software that is empowering the production systems to produce the required range of products based on availability of components. We illustrate the concept on a very simple example, where products are limited to ordered tuples of components. The products can have different complexity which is reflected in the variable number of elements in the tuples. Benefits of automatic generation include reduced implementation cycle, along with assurance in abilities of manufacturing lines to produce exactly specified product descriptions.

  • 79.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    et al.
    Department of Computer Engineering, University of Penza.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    On definition of a formal model for IEC 61499 function blocks2008Ingår i: EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems, ISSN 1687-3955, E-ISSN 1687-3963, Vol. 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Formal model of IEC 61499 syntax and its unambiguous execution semantics are important for adoption of this international standard in industry. This paper proposes some elements of such a model. Elements of IEC 61499 architecture are defined in a formal way following set theory notation. Based on this description, formal semantics of IEC 61499 can be defined. An example is shown in this paper for execution of basic function blocks. The paper also provides a solution for flattening hierarchical function block networks

  • 80.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    et al.
    Computer Science Department, Penza State University, Penza.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Refactoring of execution control charts in basic function blocks of the IEC 61499 standard2009Ingår i: Elsevier IFAC Publications / IFAC Proceedings series, ISSN 1474-6670, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 193-198Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with refactoring of execution control charts of IEC 61499 basic function blocks as a means to improve the engineering support potential of the standard in development of industrial control applications. The main purpose of the refactoring is removal of arcs without event inputs and getting rid of potential deadlock states. The ECC refactoring is implemented as a set of graph transformation rules. A prototype has been implemented using the AGG software tool

  • 81.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    et al.
    Penza State University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Hanisch, Hans Michael
    Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenherg.
    Modelling and verification of IEC 61499 applications using prolog2006Ingår i: 2006 IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation: Prague, Czech Republic, September 20 - 22, 2006, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2006, s. 774-781Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new approach to modelling and verification of function block applications of the IEC 61499 standard. The approach uses the language of logic programming Prolog to represent a model of function block network and to verify its properties. The class of properties that can be checked is extended to more substantial queries providing in return not only "yes" or "no", but also the parameters explaining the reasons. The models essentially use the topological properties of the function block network and allow data of arbitrary types (not only Boolean) be used in the queries

  • 82.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    et al.
    University of Auckland, Penza State University, Department of Computer Science, University of Penza, Computer Science Department, Penza State University, Penza.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Hanisch, Hans Michael
    Institute of Information Sciences, Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Engineering Sciences, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Institute for Automation Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg.
    Synthesis of Safety Controllers for Distributed Automation Systems on the Basis of Reverse Safe Net Condition/Event Systems2015Ingår i: IEEE TrustCom-BigDataSE-ISPA 2015: Helsinki, 20-22 Aug. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, s. 287-292, artikel-id 7345662Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ensuring safe operation is one of the basic requirements of the design of discrete event systems (DES), for example, discrete industrial automation systems. The most elegant approach to solve this problem is the synthesis of the safety controller on the basis of a sound theory. The current research for safety controller synthesis is performed using the description of plant and forbidden behavior, but the problem of adjusting the behavior of the existing control systems is not considered. In this paper, we propose a method of synthesis of adaptive safety controller models for distributed control systems based on reverse safe Net Condition/Event Systems (RsNCES), allowing to generate prohibiting rules to prevent the movement of closed loop systems to forbidden states. The method is based on backward search in the state space of the model. The method is illustrated by means of an example of a simple mechatronic system

  • 83.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    et al.
    Penza State University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Pfeiffer, Thomas
    Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenherg.
    Engineering of validatable automation systems based on an extension of UML combined with function blocks of IEC 614992005Ingår i: 2005 3rd IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics: (INDIN) ; 10 - 12 August 2005, Perth, Australia, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2005, s. 3996-4001Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper suggests a comprehensive engineering framework for software design for component-based distributed industrial automation based on the combination of UML. with the function block concept of the newly emerging international standard IEC61499. Four UML diagram types have been used, namely: class, sequence, cooperation and state-chart diagrams. The UML design is transformed then to the executable function block specification following the IEC61499.

  • 84.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    et al.
    University of Auckland, Penza State University, Department of Computer Science, University of Penza, Computer Science Department, Penza State University, Penza.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Shalyto, Anatoly
    ITMO University.
    Formal modeling and verification of IEC 61499 function blocks on the basis of transition systems2016Ingår i: 2016 International Siberian Conference on Control and Communications (SIBCON): Moscow, Russia, 12-14 May 2016, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016, artikel-id 749170Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The IEC 61499 standard has become one of the key approaches to building distributed component-based control systems in industrial automation. The problem of adoption of this standard in industrial practice is often associated with incompletely defined semantics of functional blocks (FB), which are main design artifacts of the standard. In this paper we propose formal (operational) semantics of IEC 61499 FB using transition systems (by example of FB systems operating in accordance with the cyclic execution model). The proposed FB operational semantics is most convenient for the formal verification of FB systems on the basis of model checking as it describes the direct transitions between states. A limitation of this approach is the need to map hierarchical FB systems to flat models. The technique of code generation used for transforming FB transition systems to SMV models is briefly discussed followed by a simple case study.

  • 85.
    Dubinin, Victor
    et al.
    Penza State University, Penza, Russian Federation.
    Voinov, Artem
    Penza State University, Penza, Russian Federation.
    Senokosov, Ilya
    Penza State University, Penza, Russian Federation.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Implementation of distributed semaphores in IEC 61499 with consensus protocols2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An approach is proposed for the implementation of distributed semaphores in the IEC 61499 architecture on the basis of protocols for solving consensus in a network of unreliable processes that allows developing function blockbased control applications with complex types of interactions using the resources sharing. The models of distributed semaphores (in the form of coloured Petri nets) based on Paxos and Raft protocols for solving consensus are developed, simulation experiments are performed in the CPN Tools, comparative analysis and recommendations are given.

  • 86.
    Dubinin, Victor
    et al.
    University of Penza.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Towards a Formal Semantic Model of IEC 61499 Function Blocks2006Ingår i: 2006 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics: INDIN'06, 16-18 August, 2006, Grand Copthorne Waterfront Hotel, Singapore., Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2006, s. 6-11Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a formal model of IEC 61499 function blocks and systems. The model is intended to be used in description of formal semantic model of function blocks' execution. The paper outlines a number of challenges for function blocks that are supposed to be answered by the proposed model

  • 87.
    Dubinin, Victor
    et al.
    Computer Science Department, Penza State University, Penza.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Automatic Generation of Automation Applications Based on Ontology Transformations2014Ingår i: Proceedings of 2014 IEEE 19th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2014): Barcelona, Spain, 16-19 Sept. 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, s. 1-4, artikel-id 7005293Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper an ontology driven approach to the design of control systems, in particular, control applications of IEC 61499 standard is proposed. The source ontology is an ontological description of control object (plant) while the target ontology is an ontological description of a control system implemented using an appropriate programming language. For the ontologies transformation an extension of SWRL (called eSWRL) is informally introduced. Interpretation of eSWRL constructs is implemented using Prolog language. An example of transformation of the ontological description of a baggage handling system to the ontological description of a control application based on IEC 61499 function blocks (FB) is in detail considered. The corresponding transformation rules have been developed in the context of this example.

  • 88.
    Dubinin, Viktor
    et al.
    University of Penza.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Towards a formal semantic model of IEC 61499 function blocks2007Ingår i: 2006 4th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics: Singapore, 16 - 18 August 2006, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2007, s. 6-11Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a formal model of IEC 61499 function blocks and systems. The model is intended to be used in description of formal semantic model of function blocks, execution. The paper outlines a number of challenges for function blocks that are supposed to be answered by the proposed model.

  • 89.
    Dubinin, V.N.
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, University of Penza.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Semantics-robust design patterns for IEC 614992012Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 279-290Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The international standard IEC 61499 for the design of distributed industrial control systems defines an abstract model of function blocks (FB) which allows many different semantic interpretations. As a consequence, in addition, so-called execution models were proposed to specify the execution order of FBs. The variety of models leads to the incompatibility of tools and hinders the portability of automation software. To achieve a degree of execution model independence, in this paper, design patterns are suggested that make FB systems-robust to changes of execution semantics. A semantic-robust pattern is defined for a particular source execution model. The patterns themselves are implemented by means of the FB apparatus and therefore are fairly universal. The patterns can be defined and implemented using the FB transformations expressed in terms of Attributed Graph Grammars.

  • 90.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    STRI AB.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Virtual Power Plant for Grid Services using IEC 618502016Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 437-447Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper assesses the communication, information and functional requirements of Virtual Power Plants (VPPs). A conceptual formulation of the interoperability requirements is presented as well as a comparative study of their fulfillment by state-of-the-art communication techniques. VPP requirements are then mapped against services and information models of IEC 61850 and CIM power utility automation standards. Proposals are given for extensions of the IEC 61850 standard to enhance the interaction between VPP controller and the distributed energy resources. Finally the methodology and concepts are applied to a specific VPP consisting of hydro and wind plants, solar PV and storage facilities. Several applications to provide grid services from the proposed VPP in an existing 50 kV grid are covered. The implementation of the VPP communication and control architecture in the SCADA of demonstration plant is also presented.

  • 91.
    Galkin, Nikolay
    et al.
    Southern Federal University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Aalto University, Helsinki.
    SmartGrid technologies for flexible production: Initial explorations and laboratory case study2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we investigate the problem of flexible energy management in future reconfigurable factories and propose some Smart-Grid solutions required to use volatile renewable energy resources for its energy supply. Modular architecture of the factory is assumed, where the modules are autonomous also in terms of their energy supply. OPAL-RT simulations are conducted and prototype power electronics solution for rectifier and inverter are presented.

  • 92.
    Giovanelli, Christian
    et al.
    School of Electrical Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Kikki, Olli
    School of Electrical Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Alahäivälä, Antti
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Seilonen, Ilkka
    School of Electrical Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Lehtonen, Matti
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    A distributed ICT architecture for continuous frequency control2017Ingår i: SMARTGREENS 2017: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Smart Cities and Green ICT Systems 2017 / [ed] Klein C.,Helfert M.,Donnellan B., Setúbal, 2017, s. 135-142Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The active participation of consumers in frequency control can mitigate the negative effects of variable renewable generation in a power system. This study aims at designing a distributed information and communication technology architecture for automated demand response. The distributed architecture enables a set of consumers to perform frequency control while being coordinated by an aggregator. Moreover, decision-making algorithms are designed to enable the demand response to participate in frequency control and to provide required reserves. An asynchronous message-oridented middleware is utilized to interface the consumers with the aggregator. In addition, the communication logic between the actors is defined. The distributed architecture is then evaluated through the implementation of a prototype application. Simulated results show that the designed architecture can be utilized for frequency control in automated demand response.

  • 93.
    Giovanelli, Christian
    et al.
    School of Electrical Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Kikki, Olli
    School of Electrical Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Seilonen, Ilkka
    School of Electrical Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Distributed ICT architecture and an application for optimized automated demand response2017Ingår i: IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference Europe: ISGT Europe 2016,  Ljubljana, Slovenia,  9-12 October 2016, Piscataway, NJ, 2017, Vol. F126485, artikel-id 7856329Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a design of a distributed architecture and an application for automated demand response, in which one electricity aggregator cooperates with a group of consumers. The distributed architecture utilizes an asynchronous message oriented middleware to integrate the defined components. The application adopts a distributed demand response optimization algorithm for the validation of the presented architecture. The algorithm aims to optimize the charging schedule of the consumers' energy storage devices in order to minimize the energy acquisition cost while maintaining a level of elasticity in the schedules. By means of simulations, it is validated that the distributed architecture is capable of performing optimized automated demand response

  • 94.
    Giovanelli, Christian
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Kikki, Olli
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Sierla, Seppo A.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Seilonen, Ilkka
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Task Allocation Algorithm for Energy Resources Providing Frequency Containment Reserves2019Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 15, nr 2, s. 677-688Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The uncertainty caused by the variability in renewable energy production requires the engagement of consumer-side energy production and consumption to provide sufficient flexibility and reliability for the power grid. This study presents an algorithm for allocating tasks to distributed energy resources allowing consumers to provide flexibility for frequency containment reserves. The task allocation algorithm aims at supporting the plug and play of energy resources, and it avoids the need for hard real-time messages during the coordination of the resources. The algorithm combines a novel control strategy with an information and communication technology architecture. The main decision logic of the algorithm is defined together with the distributed control logic. A prototype implementation of the overall system for frequency control is used to evaluate the performance of the algorithm. The simulation results show that the algorithm achieves the specified objectives, and has advantages compared to the state of the art solution.

  • 95.
    Giovanelli, Christian
    et al.
    School of Electrical Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Kikki, Olli
    School of Electrical Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Sierla, Seppo A.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Seilonen, Ilkka
    School of Electrical Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Towards a task allocation algorithm for frequency containment reserves2017Ingår i: Proceedings: 2017 IEEE 15th International Conference on Industrial Informatics, INDIN 2017, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 765-768, artikel-id 8104868Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The negative effects of variable renewable generation in the power systems requires the engagement of the demand-side. In fact, consumers-owned energy resources can be engaged to provide the flexibility to the power grid, thus increasing its reliability. This study presents an algorithm for allocating tasks to distributed consumer owned energy resources, to enable consumers to participate in the automated demand response for frequency control by providing reserves for the frequency containment reserves market. The task allocation algorithm is specified as a set of procedures enabling the coordination of energy resources. In addition, a prototype implementation of the automated demand response system is utilized to evaluate the performance of the task allocation algorithm through simulations. The simulation results shows that the designed algorithm achieves the specified objectives, and fulfills the requirements specified by the transmission system operator for the participation in the provision of frequency containment reserves

  • 96.
    Giovanelli, Christian
    et al.
    School of Electrical Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Liu, Xin
    Artificial Intelligence Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo.
    Sierla, Seppo A.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, School of Electrical Engineering Aalto University.
    Ichise, Ryutaro
    National Institute of Informatics, Tokyo.
    Towards an aggregator that exploits big data to bid on frequency containment reserve market2017Ingår i: Proceedings IECON 2017: 43rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 7514-7519Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased penetration of distributed and volatile renewable generation requires the demand-side to be actively involved in energy balancing operations. This paper proposes a solution in which big data and machine learning methods are employed to enhance the capabilities of a Virtual Power Plant to participate and intelligently bid into a demand response energy market. The energy market being investigated consists of the frequency containment reserve market. First, we define the core decision-making required to overcome the uncertainties in the frequency containment reserve market participation for a Virtual Power Plant. Then, we focus on forecasting the frequency containment reserve prices for the day-ahead. We analyze the price data, and identify and collect the relevant features for the prediction of the prices. In addition, we select several regression analysis methods to be utilized for the prediction. Finally, we evaluate the performance of the implemented methods by executing several experiments, and compare the the performance with the performance of a state of the art autoregression method.

  • 97.
    Giovanelli, Christian
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Sierla, Seppo
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Ryutaro, Ichise
    National Institute of Informatics, Tokyo .
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Exploiting Artificial Neural Networks for the Prediction of Ancillary Energy Market Prices2018Ingår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 115, nr 7, artikel-id 1906Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The increase of distributed energy resources in the smart grid calls for new ways to profitably exploit these resources, which can participate in day-ahead ancillary energy markets by providing flexibility. Higher profits are available for resource owners that are able to anticipate price peaks and hours of low prices or zero prices, as well as to control the resource in such a way that exploits the price fluctuations. Thus, this study presents a solution in which artificial neural networks are exploited to predict the day-ahead ancillary energy market prices. The study employs the frequency containment reserve for the normal operations market as a case study and presents the methodology utilized for the prediction of the case study ancillary market prices. The relevant data sources for predicting the market prices are identified, then the frequency containment reserve market prices are analyzed and compared with the spot market prices. In addition, the methodology describes the choices behind the definition of the model validation method and the performance evaluation coefficient utilized in the study. Moreover, the empirical processes for designing an artificial neural network model are presented. The performance of the artificial neural network model is evaluated in detail by means of several experiments, showing robustness and adaptiveness to the fast-changing price behaviors. Finally, the developed artificial neural network model is shown to have better performance than two state of the art models, support vector regression and ARIMA, respectively

  • 98.
    Gröhn, Laura
    et al.
    School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Metsälä, Samuli
    School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Nyholm, Magnus
    School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Saikko, Lauri
    School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Väänänen, Eero
    School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Gulzar, Kashif
    School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Manufacturing System Upgrade with Wireless and Distributed Automation2017Ingår i: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 11, s. 1012-1018Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a case study of developing a distributed factory automation system model upgrade with decentralized control deployed on a network of six programmable automation controllers communicating wirelessly. The goal is to develop a distributed system which is flexible enough, and easier to reconfigure with on-the-fly online software updates in a smart factory automation environment. Our approach benefits mainly production industries which require a robust and modular software design requiring less effort for their production line. The developed solution aims at flexibility, re-configurability, ease of maintenance and reduced downtime costs.

  • 99.
    Guellouz, Safa
    et al.
    School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Jinan University, Zhuhai 519070, China;Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany;Tunisia Polytechnic School, Tunis 1080, Tunisia;LISI Lab, INSAT, University of Carthage, Tunis 1080, Tunisia.
    Benzina, Adel
    LISI Lab, INSAT, University of Carthage, Tunis 1080, Tunisia;Higher Institute of Documentation, Manouba University, Manouba 2010, Tunisia.
    Khalgui, Mohamed
    School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Jinan University, Zhuhai 519070, China;National Institute of Applied Sciences and Technology, University of Carthage, Tunis 1080, Tunisia.
    Frey, Georg
    Chair of Automation and Energy Systems, Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Li, Zhiwu
    nstitute of Systems Engineering, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macau 999078, China;School of Electro-Mechanical Engineering, Xidian University, Xi'an 710071, China.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Designing Efficient Reconfigurable Control Systems Using IEC61499 and Symbolic Model Checking2019Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, ISSN 1545-5955, E-ISSN 1558-3783, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 1110-1124Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    IEC 61499 provides a standardized approach for the development of distributed control systems. The standard introduces a component architecture, based on function blocks that are event-triggered components processing data and signals. However, it gives only limited support for the design of reconfigurable architectures. In particular, handling of several reconfiguration scenarios is quite heavy on this level since a scenario changes the execution model of the system due to requirements. To this end, a new IEC 61499-based model named reconfigurable function blocks (RFBs) is proposed. An RFB processes the reconfiguration events and switches directly to the suitable configuration using a hierarchical state machine model. The latter represents the reconfiguration model which reacts on changes in the environment in order to find an adequate reconfiguration scenario to be executed. Each scenario presents a particular sequence of algorithms, encapsulated in another execution control chart slave which represents the control model of an RFB. This hierarchy simplifies the design and separates the reconfiguration logic from control models. To verify its correctness and alleviate its state space explosion problem in model checking, this paper translates an RFB system automatically into a generalized model of reconfigurable timed net condition/event systems (GR-TNCES), a Petri net class that preserves the semantics of an RFB system. In this paper, along with verification of deterministic properties, we also propose to quantify and analyze some probabilistic properties. As a case study, we consider a smart-grid system, interpreting permanent faults in it as reconfiguration events, and we characterize them with the expected occurrence probability and the corresponding repair time. A tool chain ZiZo is developed to support the proposed approach.

  • 100.
    Gulzar, Kashif
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Ruusu, Reino
    VTT Technical Research Center of Finland Ltd, Espoo, Finland.
    Sierla, Seppo
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Karhela, Tommi
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Automatic Generation of a Lifecycle Analysis Model from a First Principles Industrial Process Simulation Model2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Model driven development of industrial process control systems has received extensive interest from the industrial informatics community. Another area of active interest has been the use of simulation of industrial processes in conjunction with control system design. However, the importance of sustainable development and environmental footprints are becoming increasingly important for the process industry, and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is the established technique for this purpose. LCA is currently being performed manually by a corps of engineers unaware of recent developments in industrial informatics. Thus LCA is a cumbersome process that cannot be integrated into a model driven development philosophy. This can significantly undermine the benefits from model driven development, since the outcome of LCA may result in significant change requests to the process design and consequently to the control system design. These problems could be overcome, if LCA could be brought under the scope of model driven development. This requires that the LCA model could be generated automatically into the LCA tool. This is feasible, since process designers ofter develop a first principles process simulation model that has the required information. This paper presents a methodology for automatic LCA model generation from a first-principles simulation model.

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