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  • 60001. Öman, Niclas
    et al.
    Granström, My
    Äldre personers upplevelser av delirium: En litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 60002. Önnegren, Mattias
    et al.
    Brännström, Anton
    En undersökning av hushållens elkonsumtion i de nordiska länderna2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses an econometric approach to investigate the residential electricity consumption in the Nordic countries, both from a macroeconomic and a microeconomic perspective. The macroeconomic approach uses time series data (1980-2011) to investigate the relationship between residential electricity consumption and economic growth. The results show an inverted u-shaped curve for all the countries. The microeconomic approach uses panel data to identify which variables that have the biggest impact on residential electricity consumption. The results show that, number of household members and electrical space heating carry the most significance across the variables. The study concludes that the Nordic countries are on a path to lower electricity consumption implying lower costs and less environmental impact. It is plausible to think that the same results may hold in the rest of the world as they grow wealthier. We suggest a shift from electricity space heating towards other heating systems or improved insulation.

  • 60003. Önnemar, Tove
    Massmedias roll som opinionsbildare i en demokrati: en studie i möjligheten till rationella val i Norrbottens län2002Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 60004. Önnemar, Tove
    Vem är fienden - polisen eller demonstranterna?: en studie av två tidningars rapportering från Göteborg, sommaren 20012002Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 60005. Önnervall, Mikael
    Utveckling av golfklubba2007Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 60006. Önneskog, Sara
    Kan rekryterare undvika att påverkas av arbetssökandes utseende?: En experimentell studie2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 60007. Önneskog, Sara
    Utseendets betydelse vid rekrytering2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 60008. Öquist, David
    Industrial buying behavior: a case study of industrial customers of compression moulded goods2002Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid change and restructure, such as global competitiveness and alliances, in today's business environment clearly have influence on the industrial buying behavior. Although the structure and definition of industrial buying behavior remains constant, the content of buying is changing. The necessity for an industrial marketer to withstand the environments many surprises are to understand the environment in which he operates. This thesis deals with industrial buying behavior of compression moulded goods, and the aim is to provide a better understanding of the buying process, the dimensions and roles in the buying center for different buyclasses, and to point out the most important supplier selection criteria when buying compression moulded goods. In order to achieve the purpose of this research, a case study of the industrial customers Atlas Copco Tools AB and Ericsson AB was performed. The main source of empirical data was personal interviews at each company. The findings of this study indicate that the buying process may change depending on the purchase strategy. If the purchase strategy is outsourcing, some of the steps in the buying process is performed outside the buying organization. The buyclass, i.e. the "newness" of the purchase, also influence the buying process. If the purchase is of a completely new nature, the need for information is high and therefore the buying process is longer and more complex than it would have been in a straight rebuy. In a new purchase, the number of departments and individuals involved is higher. If the purchase focuses on design, the designing department is a strong influencer, and if the purchase is of standard character, most of the influence is executed by the purchasing department. If outsourcing is used, many of the deciders and influencers may be placed outside the buying organization. The study also shows that the criteria when selecting suppliers are depending on the sort of purchase. The more flexible buying process, the more important are criteria such as understanding and compliance, and if the process is strict and well structured, focus is set to prize, delivery and performance history. If the value of the purchase is high for the whole buying organization, the prize of the product purchased is less important.

  • 60009. Öquist, David
    The portrayal of Christ in "The Chronicles of Narnia" by C.S. Lewis: similarities and differences in comparison with the Bible2000Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay argues that the Lion Aslan in "The Chronicles of Narnia" by C.S. Lewis is a type of the biblical Christ. The first two chapters display Aslan as a type of 'Christ - The Creator' and 'Christ - The Redeemer'. The two last chapters show the similarities between Aslan and Christ, portrayed as: Son of God: Lord: King of kings: Captain of the Host: Lion of Judah: Justificator: Caller: Rewarder: Judge: Life Giver: Provider: Sanctificator: Victory Banner: Healer: Shepherd: Peace: and Omni-Present.

  • 60010. Öquist, Sissi
    Endosnacket2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 60011. Öqvist, Anders
    Avverkningsuppdrag: kommission eller nyttjanderätt2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 60012. Öqvist, Anders
    Ett demokratiskt experiment: ett utvecklingsarbete i gymnasieskolan med inriktning mot en demokratisk undervisning utifrån värdegrund, styrdokument och lagar i skolan2003Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 60013.
    Öqvist, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Aktivitetens betydelse för hur kön görs i skolämnet idrott och hälsa2010In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 52-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sluta hora med bollen, du är väl ingen tjej heller?! Platsen har visat sig ha en särskild betydelse för hur kön görs i skolan utifrån hur benämningar som hora och kärring används. Idrotten, med dess olika aktiviteter som erbjuds där, tycks vara den plats i skolmiljön där benämningarna används mest frekvent. Men man kan ställa sig frågan,har verkligen benämningar som hora och kärring betydelse när flickor och pojkar gör kön?

  • 60014.
    Öqvist, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Girls and boys interaction in school: how and when is sexualised language used?2005In: A Nordic dimension in education and research - myth or reality?: NFPF/NERA 33rd congress, 2005, p. 216-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the topic in my thesis: girls` and boys` interaction in school, focussing on their language use. An important starting point for the thesis is a pilot study, an interview with girls at an intermediate level. It shows that the girls interpret the boys to be setting up the agenda for their behaviour. My recent ethnographic study, however reveals a different scenario. A participant observation study in three different classes over a period of six weeks, shows that both girls and boys use a sexualised language. Boys use it in public addressing both girls and boys, mostly in situations where performance and competition are central. Girls use it mostly when addressing others girls in private rooms. These observations even show that when girls are together, they set up an agenda for themselves for their behaviour as well as for what kind of clothes and make-up to wear.

  • 60015.
    Öqvist, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Skolvardagens genusdramaturgi: en studie av hur femininiteter och maskuliniteter görs i år 5 med ett särskilt fokus på benämningar som hora och kärring2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study is to describe and analyse how pupils in 5th grade are doing femininities and masculinities in everyday school life. A particular focus is placed on how terms such as hora [‘whore'] and kärring [‘hag'] are used but also to some extent on how girls construct femininities in relation to one another through other linguistic and bodily actions. One theoretical point of departure of the study is the social constructionist perspective, in which gender is seen as something humans are doing and that individuals are active agents in this process. Raewyn Connell's theoretical framework is used. Connell argues that schools are both an institutional agent contributing to creating gender and an arena where young people stage, reinforce or renegotiate femininity and masculinity. One important point of departure of the theory is that there exist multiple femininities and masculinities that are constructed both within and between the genders in a hierarchical order. At the local level this can be studied through different kind of gender relations, which creates prevailing gender regimes. Connell thinks that these gender regimes most often vary and have different forms at the local level for example in different schools, but that they both tally with and deviate from society's overarching gender order. The empirical material of the thesis is based on an ethnographic method where field notes and participant observation were used as data collection method in three classes in the fifth form in three different schools in a medium-sized Swedish municipality. The pupils were 11-12 years old. The three schools are located in different housing areas in the centre of the municipality. One school is in a housing area that is inhabited by working-class families to a great extent and the other two schools are situated in middle-class areas.The principal result of the study shows that gender, femininities and masculinities are doing continuously in everyday school life. The place, the peer group and the activity are of great importance for how terms as "whore" and "hag" are used. In this process power and hierarchy are central components both between and within the genders. Unlike Connell, who thinks that gender regimes most often vary locally, this study shows similarities rather than differences among the three schools.

  • 60016.
    Öqvist, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Skolvardagens genusdramaturgi: skolans utmaning2009In: Genus i norrsken, ISSN 1654-7640, no 1, p. 3-6Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 60017.
    Öqvist, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Cervantes, Sara
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Teaching in preschool: heads of preschools governance throughout the systematic quality work2018In: Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, ISSN 2002-0317, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 38-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the heads of preschool govern teaching in practice through systematic quality work. In the new Swedish Education Act, which came into force on 1 July 2011, the mission of preschools changed because teaching was introduced as a new concept, and preschool teachers were now responsible for teaching. Swedish National Agency for Inspection report that there is a lack of how the concept of teaching is used in preschools. Heads of preschool are crucial for implementing teaching, and a valuable tool for their governing is the systematic quality work which they also are responsible for. This study collected data comprising 120 systematic quality reports from preschools in Sweden, and by text analysis, we explored how the heads of preschool used the concept of teaching. The results showed an absence of governance and management among the heads of preschool concerning teaching and when teaching is used, it was mainly according to the development of all staff competencies and to the concept of variation in teaching. This indicates that the heads of preschool govern the practice in a way that made preschool teachers responsible for teaching invisible.

  • 60018.
    Öqvist, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Högström, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Don’t Ask Me Why: Preschool Teachers’ Knowledge in Technology as a Determinant of Leadership Behavior2018In: Journal of Technology Education, ISSN 1045-1064, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 4-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Swedish preschool curriculum, technology education is emphasized as one of the most significant pedagogical areas. Particularly, the teacher’s role is emphasized: It is the preschool teacher’s responsibility to stimulate and challenge children’s interest in science and technology. Unfortunately, prior research indicates that preschool teachers feel uncertain about what technology is and the extent of their knowledge on the topic. Based on the path–goal theory, this article will explore how preschool teachers’ knowledge of technology influence how they act toward children in different learning activities. Using a qualitative research design, this study collected data comprising 15 interviews with preschool teachers. The result provide insights for how teachers limited knowledge in technology influence their leadership behavior toward children both in planned activities initiated by teachers and in unplanned activities initiated by children during free play. The core of how teachers’ knowledge in technology influences their leadership behavior in these two types of activities is their ability to deal with children’s why questions. The results also show that a compensatory approach becomes evident in teachers’ leadership behavior toward children in planned activities and that an avoidance approach is evident in unplanned activities. Our findings suggest that the development of a problem-solving approach in unplanned activities could enable teachers to create learning environments for children in which technology becomes something natural. Moreover, enhanced knowledge and understanding of technology will in turn make teachers better able to explain and clarify concepts and various technical phenomena.

  • 60019.
    Öqvist, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Malmström, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Barn och ungdomars attityder och inställningar till vidare utbildning: Identifiering av nyckelfaktorer för framtida kompetensförsörjning2014Report (Other academic)
  • 60020.
    Öqvist, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Malmström, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Modell för pedagogisk utveckling i Malmfälten: Lärares ledarskap i fokus2017Report (Other academic)
  • 60021.
    Öqvist, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Malmström, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Nyckelaktiviteter för pedagogisk utveckling i Malmfälten: Lärarens ledarskap i fokus2015Report (Other academic)
  • 60022.
    Öqvist, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Malmström, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Projekt: Attitydförändring och ökad motivation till vidareutbildning bland barn och ungdomar i Malmfälten - för långsiktig kompetensförsörjning!2013Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 60023.
    Öqvist, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Malmström, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Teachers’ leadership: A maker or breaker of students’ educational motivation2016In: School Leadership and Management, ISSN 1363-2434, E-ISSN 1364-2626, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 365-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teachers’ leadership plays a critical and central role in students’ educational motivations. This indicates that, in the school context, a teacher’s leadership can have both positive and negative impacts on students’ educational motivation and performance. This article explores these assumptions, building on the path-goal theory, more specifically the effects of teachers’ leadership from students’ perspectives. Using a qualitative research design, this study collected data comprising 35 interviews with children and young people in both primary and upper-secondary school. The results show that the degree of teachers’ developmental leadership greatly affects students’ educational motivation and school performance. Two contrasting teachers’ profiles were found: teachers with a high degree of developmental leadership and teachers with a low degree of developmental leadership. Our findings suggest that teachers with the profile of a high degree of developmental leadership create an environment that fosters educational motivation positively among students, facilitating students’ achievement of high performance levels and a sense of well-being about their studies. In contrast, we show that teachers with a low degree of developmental leadership create an environment that is nonconductive for educational motivation, performance or the welfare of schoolwork.

  • 60024.
    Öqvist, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Malmström, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    The role of teacher’s leadership and student’s self-efficacy for educational motivation2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 60025.
    Öqvist, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Malmström, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    What motivates students?: A study on effects of teacher leadership and students' self-efficacy2018In: International Journal of Leadership in Education, ISSN 1360-3124, E-ISSN 1464-5092, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 155-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Students’ educational motivation is significant for performance and achieving learning, but little is known about what fuels such motivation. Educational motivation is regarded as the drive and inner state that energise educational activities, facilitate learning and channel behaviour towards achieving educational goals. Educational motivation paves the way for students to learn and acquire the knowledge that is essential for successful study outcomes. This article aims to explore what determines students’ educational motivation. Building on the self-determination theory, we modelled the influence of teachers’ leadership and students’ self-efficacy on students’ educational motivation. We used survey data from a sample of upper secondary school students in Sweden; we received a total of 993 answers, equal to a response rate of 74%. The results show that students’ self-efficacy and teacher leadership are of extreme importance for students’ educational motivation, and that highly efficacious students lose most educational motivation when the teacher’s leadership is poor. The results thus support the importance of teachers’ leadership for encouraging student learning.

  • 60026. Öqvist, Frida
    Se mig! Jag pratar flera språk: En kvalitativ studie om modersmålsstöd i förskolan - inriktat på små orter2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to get increased knowledge about the work with multilingualism in small towns. With small towns is meant where the population is less than 10,000. To get this increased knowledge, five qualitative research interviews with working pre-school teachers were carried out. The study is based on Vygotskij’s sociocultural perspective; we learn from and with each other. The analysis of the interviews led to two major factors that contribute to a successful work with multilingualism in pre-school. One of them was named Knowledge, and the other one Consciousness and Engagement. The conclusions which the study gave are that First Language as a subject needs to get more space in the pre-school. Knowledge about the first language is important for the individual’s identity development and cultural belonging, but also for knowledge development in different subjects. Development in Swedish, but also in one’s second language is essential for the individual’s integration, social development in our society, and in a later stage, also for knowledge development in different subjects. An important prerequisite for a successful pre-school activity is that the children can develop their thinking and learning in their first language, simultaneously as they get the opportunity to develop the second language. A parallel language stimulation enables an effective language acquisition in both the first language and the second language, which also increases the knowledge development in other areas.

  • 60027.
    Öqvist, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Rustan, Agne
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Sugande ventilation vid eldriven hjullastning under jord1989Report (Other academic)
  • 60028.
    Öqvist, Mona
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Numerical simulations of mild wear using updated geometry with different step size approaches2001In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 249, no 1, p. 6-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wear of engineering components is often a critical factor influencing the product life. Prediction and simulation of wear is therefore an important matter in engineering. Numerical simulations of wear of a cylindrical steel roller oscillating against a steel plate are performed with a special version of the finite element program NIKE2D. The simulation was done in steps and the pressure and the sliding distance was recalculated as the surface geometry changed. The wear model used in the simulations is global. The global wear model gives an opportunity to predict the change in shape of the surfaces in a fast and efficient manner, it will however not incorporate information on how the wear occurs on molecular scale.Two different strategies in selecting the time step for the geometry update were used. In the first case a larger time step was used in the first wear steps and a smaller one in the final ones, and in the second a constant time step was used. To get information on the coefficient of friction an experiment was performed. This experiment was used to evaluate the simulation as well as give the proper input to the simulation. The simulated topography of the surfaces was compared with experimental results and the agreement was good. It can be concluded that allowing the time step to differ between the wear steps will speed up the wear simulation considerably. A large time step for the geometry update will cause some waviness of the cylindrical surface but when the smaller time steps have been used at the end of the computation this error will disappear.

  • 60029.
    Öqvist, Mona
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Numerical simulations of wear2000Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this licentiate thesis was to study the effect of tool wear for sheet metal forming tools and how the wear process can be simulated in an efficient manner. Three Papers are appended to this licentiate thesis. Paper A covers the influence of tool geometry in deep drawing. In paper B is the way of calculating with finite element analysis described. The wear of a steel cylinder oscillating against a steel plate was studied experimentally. The worn shape of the cylinder was then compared with a numerical simulation of the shape. Paper C shows how numerical simulations can be used to simulate wear of deep drawing tools. The wear of two different deep drawing tools has been investigated. The shape of the tools before and after wear have been compared as well as the stresses and strains in the formed cups.

  • 60030. Öqvist, Petra
    En jämförelse av det sakrättsliga skyddet i köplagen och konsumentköplagen: Hur uppnås det sakrättsliga skyddet för privatpersoner och vilka andra problem kan uppstå i privathandeln?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 60031.
    Öqvist, Rikard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics. Tyréns AB.
    Measurement and perception of sound insulation from 20 Hz between dwellings2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Population growth and urbanization are projected by the United Nations to add 2,5 billionpeople to the world’s urban population by 2050. We need to construct buildings in anunprecedented scale to meet global housing demand. Sustainable development is critical.Compared to traditional heavy constructions, lightweight wooden constructions are moreenvironmentally friendly and will play a key role in meeting future demands. However, thereare two major problems with lightweight constructions that need to be addressed: 1) Limitedlow frequency sound insulation and 2) Variations in sound insulation.Annoyance from walking sound tend to be higher in lightweight than in heavy constructionseven with the same measured sound insulation. The Swedish research program AkuLiteindicated that the correlation between measured sound insulation and annoyance wassignificantly improved by extending current evaluation methods from 50 Hz down to 20 Hz.Secondly, large variations in sound insulation between nominally identical lightweightconstructions are common, which leads to larger safety margins. By identifying and quantifyingunderlying causes, production costs can be minimized and the performance can be improved.The aim of the thesis is to develop a new evaluation method for impact sound insulation thatbetter correspond to rated annoyance, and to identify and control underlying causes forvariations in sound insulation. The thesis contains six papers.In Paper I and II, sound insulation measurements were carried out in a large number ofnominally identical rooms of two different industrially prefabricated lightweight woodenconstructions. The purpose was to assess and quantify the variations in impact and airbornesound insulation. In Paper I, 30 nominally identical apartments of a volume based system wasevaluated. The apartments on the highest floor achieved significantly better sound insulationdue to the extra weight on lower floors affecting the elastic connections between stories. InPaper II, 18 rooms of a cross-laminated timber system of plate elements were evaluated.Additionally, several potential parameters related to measurement uncertainty wereinvestigated.Paper III deals with measurement uncertainty. An empirical study of reverberation timemeasurements showed that current methods need to be improved, if sound insulationrequirements are to be extended to 20 Hz.Paper IV and V verified that the frequency range 20-50 Hz is important for walking soundannoyance, and that alternative frequency adaptation terms can improve the correlation betweenmeasured impact sound insulation and annoyance ratings. In Paper IV, the methodology was toperform extensive field measurements in apartment buildings of various construction types andto perform questionnaire surveys among the residents. In Paper V, the methodology was toevaluate annoyance based on binaural recordings of walking sound in a two-part listening test.In Paper VI, 70 measurements in a lightweight wooden system were evaluated to quantify thetotal variations in impact and airborne sound insulation from 20 and 50 Hz, respectively. It wasconcluded that the proposed metrics of impact sound insulation were primarily determined bythe impact sound level 20-40 Hz and that the measurement methods must be evaluatedthoroughly to avoid excessive safety margins.

    A new evaluation method for impact sound insulation from 25 Hz, that correspond to the ratedannoyance for both heavy and lightweight constructions is proposed. By using the proposedmethod and attending the specific causes for variations, the lightweight industry will be able todevelop improved multi-story dwellings with higher perceived acoustic quality.

  • 60032.
    Öqvist, Rikard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Variations in sound insulation in lightweight timber constructions2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate thesis deals with the topic of variations and uncertainties in building acoustic parameters for lightweight timber constructions. A higher safety margin to the legal requirements is needed to compensate for acoustical uncertainties, which leads to higher costs. Building costs can be reduced if the variations can be identified and controlled. The project was limited to industrially prefabricated timber frame based volumes and massive timber based plate elements. This thesis is based on the work reported in three papers (A, B and C). In paper A, the variations in impact and airborne sound insulation were assessed and quantified in 30 nominally identical volume built apartments in a four-storey building. Large variations were found and the underlying causes were investigated. A statistically significant difference between floor numbers was found as the highest floor achieved better sound insulation. This difference was assumed to be caused by the higher static load on lower floors affecting the elastic layer used to structurally connect the apartments. In paper B, three room volumes were followed and measured at different stages of completion throughout the construction process. The objective was to test if acoustical deviations in the field can be identified at earlier construction stages. An ISO tapping machine was used to excite the floors and the response was measured at 20 positions. The airborne and impact sound insulation were measured in the finished building. Deviations were found, but these could not be traced to earlier stages of completion. In Paper C, the variations in sound insulation of a cross-laminated timber (CLT) building system was investigated. The construction was based on prefabricated wall and floor plate elements which were mounted at the building site. A number of acoustical uncertainties related to the measurement procedure were also investigated. The measurement uncertainty was small in comparison to the total variations. The degree of prefabrication for the CLT system was lower compared to the volume system, which indicated a greater scope for poor workmanship. All papers indicate a higher sound insulation on the upper floors in a building. It is therefore important to carefully design the elastic layer between floor numbers. The measurement uncertainty has been continuously considered in this thesis. In order to properly identify and quantify variations, the measurement uncertainty should be minimised. Advantages and drawbacks with different measurement methods and directions for future research are discussed in the concluding chapters.

  • 60033.
    Öqvist, Rikard
    et al.
    Tyréns AB, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ljunggren, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Variations in sound insulation from 20 Hz in lightweight dwellings2018In: Noise Control Engineering Journal, ISSN 0736-2501, E-ISSN 2168-8710, Vol. 66, no 1, p. 56-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to quantify the total variations in impact and airborne sound insulation from 20 and 50 Hz, respectively, within a wood-based building system. Field measurements in 70 rooms have been statistically analyzed, in weighted metrics and in third octave bands. Since 1994, the Swedish building code permits wood-based high-rise multifamily dwellings. However, the low frequency sound insulation soon turned out to be insufficient, and complaints were more common in lightweight buildings compared to traditional heavy constructions. Therefore, in 1999, the extended frequency range 50–3150 Hz was introduced in the requirements, an action that mitigated the problem, but only to some extent. Consequently, the lightweight industry often aims one sound class (4 dB) higher than the minimum requirements to obtain satisfactory performance. The Swedish research program Aku20 (2014–2017) showed that the correlation between measured and perceived impact sound insulation in lightweight constructions was significantly improved, when even lower frequencies (20–50 Hz) were included. In this context, the variations of low frequency field measurements and corresponding safety margins need to be investigated.

  • 60034.
    Öqvist, Rikard
    et al.
    Tyréns AB, Umeå.
    Ljunggren, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Johnsson, Roger
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Listening test of walking noise from 20 Hz in dwellings2017In: INTER-NOISE 2017: 46th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Taming Noise and Moving Quiet, Institute of Noise Control Engineering , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Walking noise annoyance from the neighbor above tend to be higher in lightweight than in heavy constructions, even with exactly the same measured impact sound level. The Swedish research program AkuLite indicated that the correlation between measured impact sound insulation and annoyance was significantly improved by extending current ISO evaluation methods from 50 Hz down to 20 Hz. Consequently, there is a need to develop new metrics of impact sound insulation that better correspond to the perceived sound quality. The objective of this study was to verify whether frequencies between 20-50 Hz are important for walking noise annoyance and to evaluate which impact sound level metric that best correlates with walking noise annoyance. The methodology was to evaluate annoyance based on binaural recordings of walking noise in a two-part listening test. The stimuli were reproduced using a combination of headphones and subwoofer. Two living rooms were evaluated, one lightweight wooden construction and one heavy concrete construction. Both rooms achieved similar weighted impact sound level when evaluated from 50 Hz, but the rated annoyance differed significantly. The need to consider frequencies down to 20 Hz in lightweight constructions was verified. The best correlation between measured impact sound level and subjective response was achieved when the evaluation range was extended down to 20 or 25 Hz using a flat frequency weighting factor.

  • 60035.
    Öqvist, Rikard
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics. Tyréns AB.
    Ljunggren, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Johnsson, Roger
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Walking sound annoyance vs. impact sound insulation from 20 Hz2018In: Applied Acoustics, ISSN 0003-682X, E-ISSN 1872-910X, Vol. 135, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need to develop single number quantities (SNQ) of impact sound insulation that correlate better with walking sound annoyance. Previous research has indicated that impact sound insulation should be evaluated from 20 Hz in lightweight constructions, using modified spectrum adaptation terms. The purpose of our study was to verify whether frequencies between 20 and 50 Hz are important for perceived walking sound annoyance and to verify whether the proposed spectrum adaptation terms improve correlation with perceived walking sound annoyance. Binaural recordings of walking sound in one heavy and one lightweight construction were evaluated in a two-part listening test. The need to include frequencies from 20 Hz when evaluating lightweight constructions was verified. Both tested constructions achieved similar performance in terms of LnT,w and LnT,w + CI,50-2500, while a significant mismatch in the rated annoyance was observed. The correlation between SNQ and subjective response was considerably improved, when the impact sound insulation was evaluated from 20 or 25 Hz using a flat frequency-weighting factor.

  • 60036.
    Öqvist, Rikard
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Ljunggren, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Ågren, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    On the uncertainty of building acoustic measurements: Case study of a cross-laminated timber construction2012In: Applied Acoustics, ISSN 0003-682X, E-ISSN 1872-910X, Vol. 73, no 9, p. 904-912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    If variations and uncertainty in building acoustic measurements can be controlled, construction costs can potentially be reduced since the building will not have to be acoustically over-designed. Field measurements of impact and airborne sound insulation were carried out for an industrially prefabricated cross-laminated timber (CLT) system of plate elements. The results from 18 rooms, forming three groups with respect to size, were compared to a similar study dealing with a prefabricated Volume Based Building (VBB) system. Large variations were found at frequencies below 100 Hz which is crucial for the low frequency adaptation terms connected to the weighted sound insulation indices. The measurement uncertainty was investigated by analysing the repeatability, measurement direction and the time dependence of the sound source. The variations due to the measurement procedure were found to be small compared to the total variations. It was also indicated that the variations in sound insulation are smaller with a prefabricated system compared to on-site production, since less work is required at the building site

  • 60037. Öqvist, Rikard
    et al.
    Ljunggren, Fredrik
    Ågren, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    The growth of vibro-acoustical properties of volume based timber buildings during the construction phase2010In: Proceedings of 20th International Congress on Acoustics, ICA 2010: 23-27 August 2010, Sydney, Australia, Melbourne: Australian Acoustical Society , 2010, Vol. 4, p. 2700-2707Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variations in sound insulation are a problem for lightweight constructions, since it demands a high safety margin to the legal requirements on acoustical performance, if the variations are large. The building costs can be lowered if these variations can be characterised and identified. This paper describes an investigation of how the vibro-acoustical properties of nominally identical dwellings change during the construction phases. The objective is to find out whether acoustical deviations in the field can be traced to the earlier stages of construction. It also gives an indication of how the variations grow during the process. Throughout the investigation, all measurements were made on the same building elements. The building technique under study is a lightweight timber system consisting of industrially produced prefabricated volumes. Acceleration level measurements have been performed in the factory on building elements at different stages of completion; plates attached to beams, floor with gypsum board covering, the whole volume without floor parquet and the finished volume. An ISO tapping machine was used as excitation source and accelerometers were placed along the edges of the floors and across the surface. Field measurements were performed in the finished building. In addition to the analysis of acceleration level, airborne and impact sound insulation were measured in situ. Acoustical deviations were found for frequencies above 400 Hz, but these could not be traced back to the earlier construction stages.

  • 60038. Öqvist, Rikard
    et al.
    Ljunggren, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Ågren, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Variations in sound insulation in cross laminated timber housing construction2011In: Proceedings of Forum Acusticum: 27 June-01 July, Aalborg, Denmark, European Acoustics Association (EAA), 2011, p. 1649-1654Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    If variations and uncertainty in building acoustic measurements can be controlled, construction costs can potentially be reduced since the building will not have to be acoustically over-dimensioned. Field measurements of impact and airborne sound insulation were carried out for an industrially prefabricated cross-laminated timber (CLT) system of plate elements. The results from 18 rooms, forming three groups with respect to size, were compared to a similar study dealing with a volume based building system. Large variations were found at frequencies below 100 Hz which is crucial for the low frequency adaptation terms connected to the weighted sound insulation indices. The measurement uncertainty was controlled by analysing the repeatability, measurement direction and the time dependence of the sound source. The variations due to the measurement procedure were found to be small compared to the total variations. It was also indicated that the variations in sound insulation seem to decrease with the amount of workmanship required at the building site

  • 60039. Öqvist, Rikard
    et al.
    Ljunggren, Fredrik
    Ågren, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Variations in sound insulation in multi-storey lightweight timber constructions2009In: 38th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering 2009: INTER-NOISE 2009 ; Ottawa, Canada, 23 - 26 August 2009 / [ed] J. Stuart Bolton, Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2009, p. 315-323Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By using industrialized building, pre-installed modules can be delivered to the construction site where they are easily mounted. This method has many advantages compared to on-site manufacturing. In general, the variability of sound insulation is large in lightweight constructions. The reasons behind this variability are not known and therefore the construction is over-dimensioned to make sure the requirements are met. If the causes of this variability can be found and controlled, the production cost will be reduced and the sound quality improved. This is possible, since much of the construction takes place under controlled circumstances. Field measurements of 31 apartments in a four-storey building have been made. Both airborne and impact sound insulation were measured. The apartments on the highest floor achieved significantly better sound insulation. This is an indication that preload is a factor which contributes to high flanking transmission. The structural coupling between modules will therefore be studied in depth. This paper will present the results from the measurements and propose further research.

  • 60040. Öqvist, Rikard
    et al.
    Ljunggren, Fredrik
    Ågren, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Variations in sound insulation in nominally identical prefabricated lightweight timber constructions2010In: Building Acoustics, ISSN 1351-010X, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 91-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variations in sound insulation necessitate higher safety margins to the legal requirements, which results in higher production costs. Increased knowledge about variations leads to lowered costs and better sound quality. In-situ measurements of 30 nominally identical apartments of a lightweight timber construction were performed, to assess and quantify the variations in airborne sound reduction and impact sound pressure level. The construction is an industrially prefabricated system of complete volumes. Different sound insulation was found between floor numbers as the apartments on the highest floor achieved significantly better sound insulation. This difference was assumed to be due to the extra weight on lower floors affecting the elastic connections used to structurally connect the apartments. The variation between apartments on the same floor was therefore evaluated using the Root Mean Square Error, resulting in a standard deviation of 0,9 dB and 1,4 dB for the airborne and impact sound insulation, respectively. The measurement variance was subtracted from the total variance. The remaining, unexplainable, variation of 0,8 dB in airborne sound insulation can be attributed to workmanship.

  • 60041.
    Öqvist, Rikard
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Tunemalm, Lennart
    Tunemalm Akustik AB.
    Tunemalm, Björn
    Tunemalm Akustik AB.
    Studio Acusticum i Piteå - en mångsidig konserthall2008In: Bygg & Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, no 3, p. 43-46Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 60042. Öqvist, Rikard
    et al.
    Ågren, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Tunemalm, Björn
    Tunemalm Akustik AB.
    An objective investigation of the acoustics in three newly built concert halls2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the north of Sweden, three new concert halls have been built in the last few years. The three halls are; Studio Acusticum in Piteå (2007), Kulturens hus in Luleå (2007) and Norrlandsoperan in Umeå (2002). The Acoustics of the halls have been designed by Tunemalm Akustik. There are noticeable differences between the halls. Studio Acusticum is a multipurpose concert hall where the variable acoustics is realized by a height adjustable ceiling and absorbing curtains. Variable volume is an unusual solution, which permits good acoustics without many of the drawbacks normally associated with multipurpose halls. Kulturens hus is also a multipurpose hall, but here the variable acoustics is realized by variable absorption. The walls can be changed from reflective to absorptive by a system of motor driven panels. The acoustic properties of the ceiling can also be changed. To attain very short reverberation times, absorptive curtains can be lowered on the stage and side walls. Norrlandsoperan does not have any means of varying the acoustics during concerts. It is thus a "true" concert hall, built to fulfill the requirements of symphonic music. Good acoustics is thus achieved on the cost of versatility. During the winter of 07/08, a thorough investigation of the acoustics in these halls has been made. The investigation showed that each hall has its own distinct character, making them more or less suitable for different music. The measurements were made in accordance with ISO3382:1997, which describes the acoustic parameters used for objective concert hall evaluation. One of these parameters, Lateral Fraction (LF), was found to have reproducibility issues.

  • 60043. Öqvist, Rikard
    et al.
    Ågren, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Tunemalm, Björn
    Tunemalm Akustik AB.
    Studio Acusticum: a concert hall with variable volume2008In: Auditorium Acoustics 2008, St. Albans: Institute of Acoustics , 2008, Vol. 30, p. 158-162Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the town of Piteå in the north of Sweden a new multipurpose concert hall, Studio Acusticum, was inaugurated in 2007. The acoustics of the hall is designed by Tunemalm Akustik with some help from Luleå University of Technology. Since Piteå is a town with a strong tradition of using wood for buildings, the construction consists mostly of wood. Surface treatment of the wooden elements permits good reflective properties. What makes this hall special is that the variable acoustics is accomplished by a height adjustable ceiling which can be raised or lowered 5 m, thereby effectively changing the reverberation volume by 30 %. There are also absorptive curtains which can be lowered to achieve short reverberation times for electronically amplified music. When compared to other multipurpose halls, this solution provides good acoustics for all uses without the need to compromise. A change in volume affects the reverberation time equally on all frequencies which gives better results than added absorption. Also, measurements have shown that reverberation time and clarity are the only parameters that change when the ceiling is lowered. Loudness, Lateral fraction and IACC are not affected by the change in ceiling height. This paper will give a thorough presentation of Studio Acusticum and its acoustical properties.

  • 60044. Öqvist, Roger
    et al.
    Svanberg, Lennart
    Samverkan i projektplanering, med stöd från yrkesarbetarna2004Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 60045. Öqvist, Åsa
    Den svenska integrations- och migrationspolitiken: vart är vi på väg?2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 60046. Öqvist, Åsa
    Det kostsamma fraktflygplansbullret - en kostnad för vem?2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 60047.
    Öqwist, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Sensorer: marknadsinventering av sensorer/givare för gas (NO, NO2, CO), radon, temperatur, lufthastighet, differenstryck samt fordonslägeskontroll för användning i underjordsgruvor1991Report (Other academic)
  • 60048.
    Örberg, Håkan
    et al.
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Skoglund, Nils
    Umeå universitet.
    Grimm, Alejandro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Boström, Dan
    Umeå universitet.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Teknikutveckling för ökad etablering och nyttjande av rörflen: demonstrationsförsök i fullskala2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Resultaten visar att energigräset rörflen kan utgöra ett kompletterande bränsle till det skogsbränsle och den torv som idag används i svenska värme- och kraftvärmeanläggningar. En inblandning av rörflen med ca 10 % på energibasis i en bränslemix som för övrigt består av 10-20 % carextorv och 70-80 % träbränsle har i demonstrationsförsök visat goda resultat. Denna bränslemix har vid fullskaliga förbränningsförsök i fluidiserande bädd (Hedensbyn,CFB 98 MW) under sammanlagt 4 dygn inte gett upphov till störningar eller negativa effekter på utrustning eller ökade utsläpp i rökgaserna i form av partiklar eller gasformiga emissioner. Vid simulerade påverkan på överhettare i form av kylda sonder har även konstaterats att beläggningstillväxten varit oförändrad och ej givit upphov till ökad korrosion. Inblandning i bränslemixen har skett med hackad rörflen (40-50 mm) i torvdelen för att en jämn inblandning kunde åstadkommas. Rörflensmaterialet har levererats i samband med skörden så att det hackats direkt på fältet med exakthack kopplad till vagn eller med containerhantering. Vid leverans under vår och försommar har rörflenen hållit mycket låg fukthalt med ett medel på 11,3 % fukt. Jämförande studier har gjorts med system där rörflen vid skörden under vår pressats till storbalar för vidare transport till terminal eller gårdscentrum. Detta system har visat sig mindre effektivt jämfört med direkthackning på fältet och transport av hackat material till värmeverk. En fördel med storbalssystemet är dock att det möjliggör mer kostnadseffektiv lagring utan att t.ex. fukthalten höjs under lagringstiden. Även vägtransport från terminal eller gårdscentrum till värmeverk har visat sig mer effektivt med storbalar jämfört med hackat material. Vid lastning av stora fyrkantsbalar (90x120x220 cm) på lastbil med släp uppnåddes i stort sett dubbla lastvikten jämfört med hackad rörflen (20,9 ton jmf. m. 11,0 ton). För de något mindre anläggningarna av typen rosterpannor som provats (0,6 och 4 MW) har den briketterade formen av rörflen använts för att uppnå en jämn och koncentrerad bränslematning. Även här har en blandning av rörflen och torv visat sig användbar och speciellt för rörflen med låg askhalt har torvinblandning på 15 vikts-% av gett minskad tendens till sintring av askan. Rörflen med hög askhalt (utan torvinblandning) har kunnat sameldas med träbränsle utan risk för sintrad aska i dessa anläggningar. Tillverkningen av briketter för försöken, sammanlagt ca 35 ton, varav hälften med inblandning av torv har genomförts utan störningar och med bra kvalité på briketterna.

  • 60049. Örberg, Maja
    Innovative in situ remediation techniques in the Netherlands: opportunities and barriers to application in Sweden2007Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    After more than ten years of intensified activity within the field of remediation of contaminated sites, the most commonly applied remedial solution in Sweden is excavation. Today there are few alternative solutions available in Sweden, which results in high price levels and few opportunities to select techniques with respect to least negative environmental impact. Whereas alternative remediation techniques are developed in other countries, the application is limited in Sweden. The Netherlands are considered to be one of the leading countries within the field of soil and groundwater remediation. The aim of the thesis is to identify new in situ remediation techniques in the Netherlands that could be suitable to apply in Sweden. The aim is also to identify the most important opportunities and barriers to new in situ techniques in Sweden. The report focuses on techniques suitable for remediation of sites contaminated with petroleum- and chlorinated hydrocarbons. The research is based on literature studies and interviews with key persons. A case study of five Swedish and six Dutch in situ remediation projects was carried out. Finally, an investigation on the experiences of persons active within remediation branch in Sweden was carried out with means of a questionnaire. In general there is in the Netherlands a wider range of different remediation techniques available which can be applied in practice. The in situ techniques identified in this report, with no previous known application in Sweden, are: co-solvent or surfactant flushing, LINER, six- phase heating, electro bio reclamation, electro kinetic bio screens, in situ chemical oxidation with C-sparge and perozone. None of the techniques can be excluded to be suitable to apply in Sweden with respect to environmental criteria such as soil structure, since the environment is unique at each specific site. The variation of the site- specific environment is great between different sites in Sweden. All the techniques have, at appropriate environmental conditions, the potential to reduce the pollution level to correspond acceptable risk levels in Sweden. Many of the new techniques that are regularly used in the Netherlands are known in Sweden, but not applied in practice. In this report differences between Sweden and the Netherlands are identified that can may explain why Sweden apply less innovative in situ techniques. Factors that do not differ between Sweden and the Netherlands are apart from type of contamination, the applied remediation goals, costs and time aspects. Factors that might differ between Sweden and the Netherlands are the soil structure, climate and the costs of in situ techniques compared to other techniques. Factors that do differ between Sweden and the Netherlands are the involvement of contractors in making the remediation plan, the overall strategy of a remediation, the remediation policy, the experience and available guidance of performing different in situ techniques. Demonstrations of new in situ techniques in Swedish environments would the best and most important opportunity to increase the experience and stimulate implementation of new in situ techniques in practice.

  • 60050. Örebrand, Lisa
    Lyssna - sjung - skriv: En studie om hur lärare kan använda musik i arbetet med läs-, skriv- och språkutveckling i årskurs ett och två2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to investigate what teachers in class and music in the first two years ofelementary school thinks about using music working with reading, writing and language developmentof their pupils. Four teachers have been interviewed, two of them are class teachers and two of themare teaching music. Three observations have also been made in the classes of these teachers. Theresult shows that none of the teachers had any theoretical knowledge about the subject althoughsome of them where teaching in ways that combine music and language. The combination has beensorted under following headlines: learningstyles, integration of subjects, the expanded concept oflanguage, discrimination of sounds and syllables. The teachers didn’t have very much knowledgeabout learningstyles but they claimed to use as many ways of learning as possible. Most of theteachers wanted to work with integration of subjects when it helps the pupils to get a bigger picture.Integrate of subjects also create more networks in the brain and make the knowledge last longer.The music teachers use the expanded concept of music when their pupils are expressing the musicwith words, pictures or dances. All teachers work with discrimination of sounds when they help thepupils to listen carefully. Three teachers use syllables in their teaching. It is an important part inmusic as in language. The syllable is the rhythm of the language and it helps the pupils to pronouncea word neatly.

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