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  • 801. Ahonen, Arto
    et al.
    Alerby, EvaLuleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.Johansen, Ole MartinRajala, RaimoRyzhkova, InnaSohlman, EiriVillanen, Heli
    Crystals of schoolchildren's well-being: cross-border training material for promoting psychosocial well-being through school education2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Crystals of Schoolchildren's Well-Being is an investigative experiment carried out in four countries, involving a topic that is very much of this time, and very global. Children's behaviour at home, at school and in the immediate community says a great deal about the environment, sphere of life and world the children are living in. Despite economic, social, cultural and ethnic differences between countries, the ability of children to cope in the societies of the future is crystallised into a question about the present quality of life, the psychosocial well-being the natural and developed living environment should be able to provide. Health and well-being are supported in a safe and caring school environment free of bullying. At their best, the schools, parents and nearby communities offer a growth environment in which the children's psychosocial health and well-being are the focus of at¬tention. Teachers and educators are more and more conscious of the ways in which they can foster a child's health and development by applying teaching methods related to social interaction and health promotion as well as by utilising the opportunities provided by art and culture in teaching. This book examines the theme by offering both carefully reflected knowledge and practical examples of applications with which psychosocial well-being is being produced in schoolwork. The book is meant for teachers, planners and decision makers who are interested in developing growth environments that support psychosocial well-being as well as cross-cultural co-operation.

  • 802. Ahrengart, Sophie
    Assessment of Stability of Slopes Subject to Blasting Vibrations at Savage River Mine: Evaluation of Blast Design with Focus on Wall Control2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is a very strong focus on achieving high levels of control over fragmentation, wall stability and environmental impacts in modern mines. Many factors influence the stability in hard rock metal mines and the economic pressure has driven the production at Savage River Mine to have steep walls. Mining at Savage River Mine has always been challenging from a geotechnical perspective due to highly sheared nature of the orebody and surrounding rocks. There has been a real need in the last few years to develop system that can allow safe mining system for high walls. This project was conducted both at Monash University civil engineering department and Savage River Mine of Grange Resources Limited, during a limited time of 20 weeks. The main object was to assess the dynamic effects of blasting in the eastern wall at Savage River Mine. To minimise blasting damage to eastern wall, an optimal drill and blast design was developed by evaluating the PPV and dominating frequencies for the site-specific rock mass, 70 metres away from the blast. The eastern wall is located in the North Pit which has reached a depth of 330 metres today. The current design for the cut backs at Savage River Mine in the east wall is a double bench geometry consisting of two 15-metre high benches and a 30 metre pre-split with a 90° batter. Grange Resources use electronic detonators, the delay time is 54 ms inter-hole, 99 ms inter-row. To provide an accurate prediction model a series of vibration tests for eastern wall were carried out in 2011. By using linear regression techniques and the scaled distance method, a site vibration equation was developed to predict the PPV. A full-scale single-hole trim shot was then tested in November 2014 to collect a trace. A linear super-positioning model was used to analyse the trace from the trial. The raw data of the collected trace from the seed wave was plotted in Excel to generate three waveforms; transverse, vertical and longitudinal. A new optimal timing was analysed from the linear super-positioning model. When the design with an optimized delay time was determined, two new trials were made on the east wall in North Pit. at the same cut-back as the single-hole trim test shot. The new delay time was 31 ms inter-hole, 52 ms inter-row and PPV for the new timing reduced 60% at a distance 70 metres away.

  • 803. Ahrenstedt, Karolina
    et al.
    Nyström, Andreas
    A linear lever concept: designed for an ergonomic usage2007Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Kalmar Industries is a worldwide company with over 100 years of experience in lifting and transporting heavy loads with heavy lift trucks. The company intends to strengthen their leading position worldwide with a new generation of ergonomic and user friendly cabins. A central part in the cabin is the linear lever module that controls the aggregate. Linear levers can either be hydraulic or electrical, only the electrical system will be applied in the new design. Today’s electrical levers are not appreciated as much as the hydraulic levers because of the lack of “feeling” during use. The aim of this thesis work was to create design guidelines for Kalmar Industries and generate a module design with electrical levers that will satisfy the users’ expectations. Design guidelines for the linear lever module were created based on cognitive and physical ergonomic theories. A semi structured interview and observations were carried out and analyzed. Four concepts were generated based on the guidelines, user wishes and product restrictions. Two evaluations were performed and a final concept was generated. The final concept focuses on a comfortable and reliable use where the primary functions have a central position. A physical prototype evaluated by users or a computer aided ergonomic simulation is recommended as next steps in the development process. The final concept design stands up for Kalmar Industries demands and their user expectations: in situations where user opinions varied design guidelines were helpful. Its design is innovative and invites the operator to a comfortable day at work.

  • 804. Ahrner, Stefan E M
    Revisorers väsentlighetsbedömning av kvantitativa fel i årsredovisningen: en exploratorisk undersökning2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 805.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Analysis of multiple solutions in bifurcation diagrams to avoid unexpected dynamics2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In mechanical applications it is essential that unexpected dynamics are avoided. The industry wants to build reliable machines that are not sensitive to initial conditions. Therefore, a simple method has been developed to extract all sets of stable bifurcation diagrams. The method gives a designer a good overview of possible dynamics and thereby the possibility to select a safe operating region. The method is described and demonstrated with a rub-impact rotor. The practical usage of this method is to help the designer to determine if parameter ranges exist where coexistent solutions will appear. Thereby one can design the system to work in parameter ranges where only one acceptable solution exists.

  • 806.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Dynamics of some vibro-impacting systems with amplitude constraints1995Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns the dynamics of some vibro-impacting systems with fixed or moving amplitude constraints. It is based on and includes five papers, marked A to E. Simple models of three different vibro-impacting systems with applications in the fields of impact hammers, granular flow and disk brakes in vehicles are analysed. A 2-DOF (two-degree-of-freedom) model of a threshold-limited impact hammer is studied (Paper A). The stability of a class of periodic motions is analysed. For some parameter values these periodic motions are found to be qualitatively similar to the ones observed for a corresponding 1-DOF system. At other parameter combinations, however, new kinds of periodic or chaotic motions can be observed. For low damping, phenomena resembling antiresonance for linear systems can also be observed. Granular shear flows show a transitional behaviour in the rapid flow regime as the shear speed or the concentration of the grains is varied. The motion can, for example, change from smooth and orderly to erratic and turbulent. Some aspects of this transitional behaviour in granular shear flow are studied numerically, analytically and experimentally (Papers B, C and D). Simple vibro-impacting models are suggested to get some analytical insight into the dynamics of shear layers. Results from a 1-DOF model show that for high forcing frequencies, which correspond to high shear speeds, periodic as well as chaotic motions can exist, whereas, for low forcing frequencies the vibrations are completely damped out to a stationary state (Paper B). Stability of this stationary state is studied analytically (Paper C), and experimentally (Paper D), where the motions of granular particles in a transparent shear cell are followed by using video techniques. For low shear speeds a single shear layer adjacent to the bottom boundary of the shear cell is observed. As the shear speed is increased, a transition to a random like state involving many layers is found to occur. In order to understand the phenomenon of squeal in disk brakes, a 3-DOF model is suggested to simulate the dynamics of a brake pad. The region of contact between the brake pad and the disk is described by using a coefficient of friction and distributed stiffness. The brake pad is allowed to have adjustable support locations and possibilities of impacts with its surroundings. The equilibrium state of the pad is determined by using a static analysis. The assumption is that the instability of this stationary state is a possible explanation of squeal, therefore, the stability is analysed in detail. Examples of different kinds of pad motions are presented. A rich variety of motions are found to exist including periodic, seemingly chaotic, stationary behaviour in slip, vibrations with full contact with the disk, stick-slip and impacts.

  • 807.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Multiple solutions in a rub-impact Jeffcott rotor2004In: Extended abstracts, proceedings: 10th international symposium on transport phenomena and dynamics of rotating machinery / [ed] Dieter Bohn, Aachen: Inst. of steam and gas turbines, RWTH , 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 808.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Multiple solutions in an amplitude limited Jeffcott rotor including rubbing and stick-slip effect2005In: Proceedings ASME 2005 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference: DETC 2005, American Society of Mechanical Engineers , 2005, p. 1091-1096Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The non-linear behaviour of rub-impact rotors have been studied in several papers. In such systems rich dynamics have been found together with the coexistence of solutions within some specific parameter ranges. In this paper an attempt is made to find all stable solutions for an amplitude limited Jeffcott rotor including rubbing and stick-slip effect. The recently suggested "multi bifurcation diagram method" is used to find and extract stable sets of bifurcation diagrams. A system is chosen where the linear stationary amplitude only exceeds the clearance in a narrow region near the natural frequency. Therefore large regions in frequency are expected to have only the linear stationary response. The results show that it is only for very low frequencies that one single solution exists. Even though periodic motions are dominant, there exist large ranges in frequency with quasi-periodic or chaotic motions. For the studied cases, three coexisting stable solutions are most common. In one case as many as four stable solutions was found to coexist. For rotors with large clearances (no impacts necessary) it is still possible to find several coexisting motions. For all cases the stick motion is the most severe one with large amplitudes and high backward whirl frequencies. In real situations the consequence of this stick motion is machine failure. These high amplitude motions were found to be stable over large frequency ranges. From the stability analysis it was found that this rolling motion can be avoided by low spin speed, low contact stiffness, low coefficient of friction, small ratio of disc radius/clearance or high damping ratio. In a design situation the parameters are seldom known with high accuracy. Therefore, it is of interest to know all solutions for parameter intervals. The multi-bifurcation diagram can be used in such situations to design a robust machine or at least be prepared for unwanted dynamics.

  • 809.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Review of Mechanical Vibrations by S.S. Rao2007In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part C, journal of mechanical engineering science, ISSN 0954-4062, E-ISSN 2041-2983, Vol. 221, no 1, p. 135-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 810.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Rotor dynamical analysis of failure due to rotor-stator contact in an overhung rotor2006In: Proceedings - 7th International Conference on Rotor Dynamics: September 25 - 28, 2006, Vienna, Austria / [ed] H. Springer; H. Ecker, Vienna: Institute of Mechanics and Mechatronics, Vienna University of Technology , 2006, article id 264Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two new 1MW fans in a remote gas cleaning plant have failed within 12 days of operation. Due to high costs a rapid repair and modification was performed without any deeper investigation or measurements. Since the driving frequency was far below the critical speed, a theory was that contact between rotating and stationary part was the reason for failure. In this paper the rotor dynamics is studied by an amplitude limited 4DOF overhung rotor. Simulations indicate that in addition to the ordinary unbalance response there can exist a high amplitude rolling contact mode between the disc and the stationary parts. By analysis of basin of attraction it is concluded that contact is a possible cause for the failure if the damping ratio is low, coefficient of friction is high and the rotor is eccentrically positioned relative to the stator. Measurements on the system are however necessary before a satisfying explanation can be given.

  • 811.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Two vibroimpacting systems with amplitude constraints1992Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 812.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Gupta, R.B.
    Periodic and chaotic behaviour of a threshold-limited two-degree-of-freedom system1993In: Journal of Sound and Vibration, ISSN 0022-460X, E-ISSN 1095-8568, Vol. 165, no 2, p. 305-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A two-degree-of-freedom impact oscillator with proportional damping is considered. The maximum displacement of one of the masses is limited to a threshold value by a rigid wall, which gives rise to a non-linearity in the system. Impacts between the mass and the wall are described by a coefficient of restitution. The behaviour of the system is rich and includes features like period doublings, period havings, jumps, chaos, etc. Periodic motions of the system are studied by analytical methods. The influence of system parameters such as damping, coefficient of restitution, distribution of masses and clearance, etc., is studied for some extreme values of these parameters. The stability of a class of periodic motions is investigated. Parameter ranges which result in stable periodic multiple impacts are identified. Application of the results to the design of impact tools is discussed.

  • 813.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Gustavsson, Rolf K.
    Vattenfall, VRD.
    Lundström, Niklas L. P.
    Umeå university.
    Karlsson, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Calleecharan, Yogeshwarsing
    Nässelqvist, Mattias
    Karlberg, Magnus
    Lundin, Urban
    Uppsala University.
    Developments in rotor dynamical modeling of hydropower units2009In: Proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium on Emerging Trends in Rotor Dynamics: held in New Delhi, India, March 23 - March 26, 2009 / [ed] Kshitij Gupta, Dordrecht: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 814.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Lindkvist, Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Dynamics of a rubbing Jeffcott rotor with three blades2011In: Chaos Theory: Modeling, Simulation and Applications: Selected Papers from the 3rd Chaotic Modeling and Simulation International Conference (CHAOS2010) / [ed] Christos H. Skiadas; Ioannis Dimotikalis; Charilaos Skiadas, Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co Pte Ltd , 2011, Vol. Part II. Invited and Contributed Papers, p. 97-104Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 815.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Lundström, Niklas L. P.
    Umeå university.
    Complex dynamic responses due to deviations of generator shape2009In: 10th Conference on Dynamical Systems - Theory and Applications: DSTA-2009, December 7-10, Łódź, Poland, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier measurements in large synchronous generators indicate the existence of complex whirling motion, and also deviations of shape in both the rotor and the stator. These non-symmetric geometries produce an attraction force between the rotor and the stator, called Unbalanced Magnetic Pull (UMP). The target of this paper is to analyse responses due to certain deviations of shape in the rotor and the stator. In particular, the perturbation on the rotor is considered to be of oval character, and the perturbations of the stator are considered triangular and eccentric. It is concluded that harmful conditions can occur due to high amplitudes especially when the whirling of the rotor changes from forward to backward. During maintenance of hydro power generators the shapes of the rotor and stator are frequently measured. The results from this paper can be used to evaluate such measurements and to explain the existence of complex whirling motion.

  • 816.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Shen, Hayley
    Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY.
    Onset of transition for cohesive and viscous granular flows1998In: Journal of engineering mechanics, ISSN 0733-9399, E-ISSN 1943-7889, Vol. 124, no 10, p. 1073-1079Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A theory for determining the onset of rapid flow or termination of quasi-static flow in a cohesive granular material mixed in a viscous interstitial fluid is presented. This theory is based on a one-dimensional model introduced in an earlier paper. Linear stability analysis is used to find the combination of material properties and flow rate for which a quasi-static flow becomes unstable, indicating the onset of rapid flow. This theory yields a quantitative criterion to select appropriate constitutive laws for viscous and cohesive granular material. This criterion is a linear approximation of the theoretical result. While it provides the critical condition for quasi-static flow to terminate, it does not give the transitional constitutive law before a rapid flow is fully developed, for which a second power law dependence on the strain rate applies. Nonetheless, the analysis and modeling effort presented in this work are necessary first steps toward a general quantification of how granular materials, with identical physical composition, can behave in drastically different ways.

  • 817.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Shen, Hayley H.
    Gupta, Ram B.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Experimental and numerical studies of shear layers in granular shear cell1996In: Journal of engineering mechanics, ISSN 0733-9399, E-ISSN 1943-7889, Vol. 122, no 3, p. 187-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The stability of a shear layer inside a granular material in a gravity field is studied experimentally and numerically. A shear cell is built of transparent acrylic to visualize the motion of the granular material. This shear cell consists of two concentric cylinders containing layers of uniform spheres in the annular space between the cylinders. The shearing motion of the spheres is produced by rotating the bottom boundary of the cell. Friction of the cylinder walls resists the shear motion, thus creating a single shear layer adjacent to the bottom boundary, while the rest of the layers above move with constant speed as a solid body. As the rotation speed of the bottom boundary increases, two layers adjacent to the bottom boundary begin to shear. This shearing zone quickly thickens and dilates as the rotational speed increases. The transition of this shear motion from a single layer to many layers of shearing is studied by video recording. The initiation of this transition is observed to depend on the material properties and the number of layers overlaying the shear layer. A one-dimensional numerical model is constructed to bring insight into this transitional phenomenon.

  • 818.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Shen, Hayley H.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Clarkson university.
    Gupta, Ram B.
    Division of Solid Mechanics, School of Engineering, Uppsala University.
    Stability and bifurcations of a stationary state for an impact oscillator1994In: Chaos, ISSN 1054-1500, E-ISSN 1089-7682, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 621-630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The motion of a vibroimpacting one-degree-of-freedom model is analyzed. This model is motivated by the behavior of a shearing granular material, in which a transitional phenomenon is observed as the concentration of the grains decreases. This transition changes the motion of a granular assembly from an orderly shearing between two blocks sandwiching a single layer of grains to a chaotic shear flow of the whole granular mass. The model consists of a mass-spring-dashpot assembly that bounces between two rigid walls. The walls are prescribed to move harmonically in opposite phases. For low wall frequencies or small amplitudes, the motion of the mass is damped out, and it approaches a stationary state with zero velocity and displacement. In this paper, the stability of such a state and the transition into chaos are analyzed. It is shown that the state is always changed into a saddle point after a bifurcation. For some parameter combinations, horseshoe-like structures can be observed in the Poincare sections. Analyzing the stable and unstable manifolds of the saddle point, transversal homoclinic points are found to exist for some of these parameter combinations

  • 819.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Shen, H.H.
    Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY.
    Gupta, R.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Babic, M.
    University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN.
    A model for the transitional behavior of simple shear flows of disks1992In: Studies in Applied Mechanics, ISSN 0922-5382, Vol. 31, p. 301-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A simple one-dimensional model is suggested to simulate some aspects of the dynamics of granular shear flows. The model consists of a viscoelastic packet bouncing between two harmonically oscillating walls. The amplitude and frequency of the wall motion are related to the concentration and shear rate respectively. The dynamics of the system is studied and it is shown that periodic as well as chaotic motions are possible for different parameters and initial conditions. Results are presented in the form of time histories, power spectral densities, phase diagrams, Poincaré maps and bifurcation diagrams. Some of the characteristics present in the two-dimensional granular shear flows are present in this simple model. It is promising that such analysis can provide better understanding of the transitional behavior of the constitutive relation between the rapid shear and the quasi-static flows.

  • 820.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Shen, H.H.
    Gupta, R.B.
    Babic, M.
    One-dimensional model for the transition from periodic to chaotic motions in granular shear flows1993In: Mechanics of materials (Print), ISSN 0167-6636, E-ISSN 1872-7743, Vol. 16, no 1-2, p. 153-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A simple one-dimensional mechanical model to simulate some aspects of the dynamics of granular flow is suggested. The model consists of a visco-elastic packet bouncing between two oscillating walls. The motion of the walls is prescribed to be harmonic. The amplitude and frequency of the wall motion are related to the concentration and shear rate, respectively. The dynamics of the system is studied for various parameter combinations and it is shown that periodic as well as chaotic motions are possible for different parameters and initial conditions. Results are presented in the form of time histories, power spectral densities, phase diagrams, Poincare plots and bifurcation diagrams. This simple one-dimensional model presents many features that are analogous to those observed in the two-dimensional simple shear flow of disks.

  • 821. Aidanpää, Maria
    et al.
    Bergstedt, Johanna
    Kassaflödesanalyser: en jämförelse mellan årsredovisningar1999Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 822. Aidanpää, Victoria
    et al.
    Björnström, Anders
    Kvalitetssäkring av starttillstånd2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 823. Aidanpää, Viktoria
    et al.
    Knippenberg, Julia
    Upplevelser av att vara döende: En litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 824. Aidantausta, Peter
    et al.
    Tillstam, Håkan
    Matematikspråket: hur bygger man broar mellan det vardagliga matematikspråket och det formella matematikspråket?2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 825.
    Aiello, R.
    et al.
    University of Calabria.
    Artioli, G.
    University of Milan.
    Carotenuto, L.
    MARS Center, Naples.
    Colella, C.
    University of Naples.
    Norby, P.
    University of Oslo.
    Sterte, Johan
    Zeolite synthesis in microgravity2005In: Topical teams in life & physical sciences: towards new research applications, Noordwijk, Netherlands: ESTEC , 2005, p. 78-85Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The results of activities performed by the members of the Topical Team on 'Zeolites synthesis in microgravity' are discussed. A method was developed using a two-temperature synthesis procedure to distinguish between the nucleation and growth phase of the crystallization. The experiments have investigated the possibility of suppressing secondary nucleation by imposing a temperature gradient. Optical thickness of the solution has been monitored by interferometry. The Team, on the basis of findings, has elaborated a research program on zeolite film deposition that includes microgravity experimentation.

  • 826.
    Aiglsperger, Thomas
    et al.
    Department of Crystallography, Mineralogy, and Ore Deposits, University of Barcelona.
    Proenza, Joaquín A.
    Departament de Cristal·lografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Universitat de Barcelona.
    Font-Bardia, Mercé
    Departament de Mineralogia, Petrologia i Geologia Aplicada, Universitat de Barcelona .
    Baurier-Aymat, Sandra
    Departament de Mineralogia, Petrologia i Geologia Aplicada, Universitat de Barcelona .
    Galí, Salvador
    Departament de Mineralogia, Petrologia i Geologia Aplicada, Universitat de Barcelona .
    Lewis, John F.
    Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, George Washington University, .
    Longo, Francisco
    Faculty of Engineering, Universidad Católica Tecnológica del Cibao (UCATECI), La Vega.
    Supergene neoformation of Pt-Ir-Fe-Ni alloys: multistage grains explain nugget formation in Ni-laterites2016In: Mineralium Deposita, ISSN 0026-4598, E-ISSN 1432-1866, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ni-laterites from the Dominican Republic host rare but extremely platinum-group element (PGE)-rich chromitites (up to 17.5 ppm) without economic significance. These chromitites occur either included in saprolite (beneath the Mg discontinuity) or as ‘floating chromitites’ within limonite (above the Mg discontinuity). Both chromitite types have similar iridium-group PGE (IPGE)-enriched chondrite normalized patterns; however, chromitites included in limonite show a pronounced positive Pt anomaly. Investigation of heavy mineral concentrates, obtained via hydroseparation techniques, led to the discovery of multistage PGE grains: (i) Os-Ru-Fe-(Ir) grains of porous appearance are overgrown by (ii) Ni-Fe-Ir and Ir-Fe-Ni-(Pt) phases which are overgrown by (iii) Pt-Ir-Fe-Ni mineral phases. Whereas Ir-dominated overgrowths prevail in chromitites from the saprolite, Pt-dominated overgrowths are observed within floating chromitites. The following formation model for multistage PGE grains is discussed: (i) hypogene platinum-group minerals (PGM) (e.g. laurite) are transformed to secondary PGM by desulphurization during serpentinization; (ii) at the stages of serpentinization and/or at the early stages of lateritization, Ir is mobilized and recrystallizes on porous surfaces of secondary PGM (serving as a natural catalyst) and (iii) at the late stages of lateritization, biogenic mediated neoformation (and accumulation) of Pt-Ir-Fe-Ni nanoparticles occurs. The evidence presented in this work demonstrates that in situ growth of Pt-Ir-Fe-Ni alloy nuggets of isometric symmetry is possible within Ni-laterites from the Dominican Republic.

  • 827.
    Aiglsperger, Thomas
    et al.
    Department of Crystallography, Mineralogy, and Ore Deposits, University of Barcelona.
    Proenza, Joaquín A.
    Departament de Cristal·lografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Universitat de Barcelona.
    Galí, Salvador
    Departament de Mineralogia, Petrologia i Geologia Aplicada, Universitat de Barcelona .
    Rius, Jordi
    Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona, CSIC, Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.
    Longo, Francisco
    Falcondo Glencore, Santo Domingo .
    Domènech, Cristina
    Departament de Mineralogia, Petrologia i Geologia Aplicada, Facultat de Ciències de la Terra, Universitat de Barcelona (UB).
    The supergene origin of ruthenian hexaferrum in Ni-laterites2017In: Terra Nova, ISSN 0954-4879, E-ISSN 1365-3121, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 106-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For two decades, the nature of Fe‐rich, oxygen‐bearing, Ru–Os compounds found in the supergene environment has been debated. Ru–Os–Fe‐oxides and nano‐intergrowths of ruthenium with magnetite have been proposed. We applied FE‐SEM, EMPA, μ‐Raman spectroscopy and synchrotron tts‐μXRD to Ru–Os–Fe compounds recovered from Ni‐laterites from the Dominican Republic. The results demonstrate that a significant portion of Fe exists in a common structure with the Ru–Os alloy, that is, ruthenian hexaferrum. This mineral occurs both as nanoparticles and as micrometric patches within a matrix of Fe‐oxide(s). Our data suggest that supergene ruthenian hexaferrum with a (Ru0.4(Os,Ir)0.1Fe0.5)Ʃ1.0 stoichiometry represents the most advanced weathering product of primary laurite within Ni‐laterites from the Dominican Republic.

  • 828.
    Aiglsperger, Thomas
    et al.
    Departament de Cristal·lografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Universitat de Barcelona .
    Proenza, Joaquín A.
    Departament de Cristal·lografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Universitat de Barcelona .
    Lewis, John F.
    Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, George Washington University, .
    Labrador, Manuel
    Departament de Cristal·lografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Universitat de Barcelona.
    Svojtka, Martin
    Institute of Geology, Academy of Sciences.
    Rojas-Purón, Arturo
    Departamento de Geología, Instituto Superior Minero Metalúrgico de Moa.
    Longo, Francisco
    Falcondo Glencore Nickel.
    Ďurišová, Jana
    Institute of Geology, Academy of Sciences.
    Critical metals (REE, Sc, PGE) in Ni laterites from Cuba and the Dominican Republic2016In: Ore Geology Reviews, ISSN 0169-1368, E-ISSN 1872-7360, Vol. 73, p. 127-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ni laterites are considered worthy targets for critical metals (CM) exploration as Rare Earth Elements (REE), Sc and platinum group elements (PGE) can be concentrated during weathering as a result of residual and secondary enrichment. In this contribution geochemical and mineralogical data of CM from two different nickel laterite types (i) from the Moa Bay mining area in Cuba (oxide type) and (ii) from the Falcondo mining area in the Dominican Republic (hydrous Mg silicate type) are presented. Emphasis is given on examining their potential to accumulate CM and on processes involved. Results show that CM are concentrated towards the surface in specific zones: (i) REE in clay minerals rich horizons and within zones composed of secondary Mn oxide(s), (ii) Sc within zones rich in secondary Fe and Mn bearing oxide(s) and (iii) PGE in zones with high concentrations of residual chromian spinel and secondary Fe and Mn bearing oxide(s) at upper levels of the Ni laterite profiles. Concentration factors involve (i) residual enrichment by intense weathering, (ii) mobilization of CM during changing Eh and pH conditions with subsequent reprecipitation at favourable geochemical barriers and (iii) interactions between biosphere and limonitic soils at highest levels of the profile (critical zone) with involved neoformation processes. Total contents of CM in both Ni laterite types are low when compared with conventional CM ore deposits but are of economic significance as CM have to be seen as cost inexpensive by-products during the Ni (+ Co) production. Innovative extraction methods currently under development are believed to boost the significance of Ni laterites as future unconventional CM ore deposits.

  • 829.
    Aiglsperger, Thomas
    et al.
    Department of Crystallography, Mineralogy, and Ore Deposits, University of Barcelona.
    Proenza, Joaquín A.
    Departament de Cristal·lografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Universitat de Barcelona.
    Longo, Francisco
    Falcondo Glencore, Santo Domingo .
    Font-Bardia, Mercé
    Departament de Mineralogia, Petrologia i Geologia Aplicada, Universitat de Barcelona .
    Galí, Salvador
    Departament de Mineralogia, Petrologia i Geologia Aplicada, Universitat de Barcelona .
    Roqué, Josep
    Departament de Mineralogia, Petrologia i Geologia Aplicada, Facultat de Ciències de la Terra, Universitat de Barcelona.
    Baurier-Aymat, Sandra
    Departament de Mineralogia, Petrologia i Geologia Aplicada, Universitat de Barcelona .
    Fibrous Platinum-Group Minerals in “Floating Chromitites” from the Loma Larga Ni-Laterite Deposit, Dominican Republic2016In: Minerals, ISSN 2075-163X, E-ISSN 2075-163X, Vol. 6, no 4, article id 126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution reports on the observation of enigmatic fibrous platinum-group minerals (PGM) found within a chromitite body included in limonite (“floating chromitite”) from Ni-laterites in the Dominican Republic. Fibrous PGM have a Ru-Os-Ir-Fe dominated composition and are characterized by fibrous textures explained by grain-forming fibers which are significantly longer (1–5 _m) than they are wide (~100 nm). Back-scattered electron (BSE) images suggest that these nanofibers are platinum-group elements (PGE)-bearing and form <5 _m thick layers of bundles which are oriented orthogonal to grains’ surfaces. Trace amounts of Si are most likely associated with PGE-bearing nanofibers. One characteristic fibrous PGM was studied in detail: XRD analyses point to ruthenian hexaferrum. However, the unpolished fibrous PGM shows numerous complex textures on its surface which are suggestive for neoformation processes: (i) features suggesting growth of PGE-bearing nanofibers; (ii) occurrence of PGM nanoparticles within film material (biofilm?) associated with PGE-bearing nanofibers; (iii) a Si-rich and crater-like texture hosting PGM nanoparticles and an Ir-rich accumulation of irregular shape; (iv) complex PGM nanoparticles with ragged morphologies, resembling sponge spicules and (v) oval forms (<1 _m in diameter) with included PGM nanoparticles, similar to those observed in experiments with PGE-reducing bacteria. Fibrous PGM found in the limonite may have formed due to supergene (bio-)weathering of fibrous Mg-silicates which were incorporated into desulphurized laurite during stages of serpentinization.

  • 830.
    Aiglsperger, Thomas
    et al.
    Departament de Cristal·lografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Universitat de Barcelona, .
    Proenza, Joaquín A.
    Departament de Cristal·lografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Universitat de Barcelona.
    Zaccarini, Frederica
    Department of Applied Geological Sciences and Geophysics, University of Leoben.
    Lewis, John F.
    Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, George Washington University, .
    Garuti, Giorgio
    Department of Applied Geosciences and Geophysics, University of Leoben.
    Labrador, Manuel
    Departament de Cristal·lografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Universitat de Barcelona, .
    Longo, Francisco
    Falcondo Glencore, Santo Domingo .
    Platinum group minerals (PGM) in the Falcondo Ni-laterite deposit, Loma Caribe peridotite (Dominican Republic)2015In: Mineralium Deposita, ISSN 0026-4598, E-ISSN 1432-1866, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 105-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two Ni-laterite profiles from the Loma Caribe peridotite (Dominican Republic) have been investigated for their platinum group element (PGE) geochemistry and mineralogy. One profile (Loma Peguera) is characterized by PGE-enriched (up to 3.5 ppm total PGE) chromitite bodies incorporated within the saprolite, whereas the second profile is chromitite-free (Loma Caribe). Total PGE contents of both profiles slightly increase from parent rocks (36 and 30 ppb, respectively) to saprolite (∼50 ppb) and reach highest levels within the limonite zone (640 and 264 ppb, respectively). Chondrite-normalized PGE patterns of saprolite and limonite reveal rather flat shapes with positive peaks of Ru and Pd. Three types of platinum group minerals (PGM) were found by using an innovative hydroseparation technique: (i) primary PGM inclusions in fresh Cr-spinel (laurite and bowieite), (ii) secondary PGM (e.g., Ru-Fe-Os-Ir compounds) from weathering of preexisting PGM (e.g., serpentinization and/or laterization), and (iii) PGM precipitated after PGE mobilization within the laterite (neoformation). Our results provide evidence that (i) PGM occurrence and PGE enrichment in the laterite profiles is independent of chromitite incorporation; (ii) PGE enrichment is residual on the profile scale; and (iii) PGE are mobile on a local scale leading to in situ growth of PGM within limonite, probably by bioreduction and/or electrochemical metal accretion.

  • 831. Aikio, Helena
    et al.
    Wilmarsgård, Ylva
    Sjuksköterskans upplevelse av att möta närstående som befinner sig i sorg2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 832. Aili Törmä, Helena
    et al.
    Ryhn, Victor
    Metodutveckling för modularisering av stombaserade delsystem2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the building industry today each projects is individually separated from another and almost no information is reused between them. By dividing a building into different modules it is possibly that for each module make the design process more effective and reuse experience from previously made projects. For a modulized product family configurators are usually used. This master thesis focuses on identifying a method to develop configurators and examine the applicability of the method for structural subsystems. A case study has been conducted to test the method and has been limited to only examine the subsystem non-piled concrete foundation. In order to design the main features of the method, interviews were held with people who have practical experience for creating configurators in the construction industry. The four steps that were identified for the method are Identification of variance, Calculation procedure, Parameterization and Configuration. The steps should be implemented in the described order, since each step is based on the results from the previous steps. In the first step, Identification of variance, variance of the object was investigated by collecting product information for the studied object from existing drawing documents. The information was compiled and analyzed to be able to use the most relevant to the following steps. The second step, Calculation procedure, was based on gathering information about the necessary controls and the equations which will fulfill the traditional design process of the studied object. The information was retrieved from the norms and standards as well as information from the previous step that contributed to the design was used. The third step, Parameterization, was the hardest step to go through because it involved reversing the traditional design process. Instead of calculating if the object meets all of the conditions, the parameterized equations are designed to meet all of the conditions. It was also important that the controls were calculated in a specific order to be able to calculate the sought parameters step by step. In the fourth step, Configuration, a model was created of the components that the object consisted of. The parameterized equations were connected to the model to be able to control the design of the model with the results from the equations. The design process was automated by controlling the design of the model with the parameterized equations. The conclusions are that the method can be used to configure structural subsystems and also further develop existing configurators. It is partly the decoupled interfaces between the modules that affect that the results of the case study can be generalized for all structural subsystems, and partly the product architecture of two study levels. The completed case study shows that the method needs to be completed by the analysis of the results. It is necessary to introduce practical engineering experience to specific occasions, since all the necessary knowledge is not found in norms and standards. How that integration can be done has not been considered, but the identification was made of when the knowledge was needed. It is important that there is an awareness about the objects product architecture in the use of the method, because it will contribute to determine the ability to create a configurator and how advanced the process will be.

  • 833. Aimi, H.
    et al.
    Matsumoto, Y.
    Department of Biomaterial Sciences, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo.
    Meshitsuka, G,
    Department of Biomaterial Sciences, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo.
    Endwise type lignin present as small lignin fragments linked to carbohydrate2005In: Chemistry and performance of composites containing wood and natural plant fibres: pre-symposium [of] 59th APPITA annual conference and exhibition, incorporating 13th ISWFPC, International Symposium on Wood, Fibre and Pulping Chemistry : Rotorua, New Zealand, 12 - 13 May 2005 ; proceedings, Carlton, VIC: Appita , 2005, p. 427-430Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The content of glyceraldehyde-2-aryl ether type structure in water soluble LCC fractions, which was obtained from Japanese cedar and birch residual wood meal after MWL isolation, was determined by the use of ozonation method. Quite high amount of glyceraldehyde-2-aryl ether type structure was found in water soluble LCC fractions of both species, which was about 3-5 times higher than that of other fractions. This result as well as the high content of β-1 structure in these fractions shown in our previous papers suggest that lignin in these fractions has characteristics as endwise type lignin, because abundance of both of these structures are typical for this type of lignin. These results are in good accordance with the generally accepted hypothesis that glyceraldehyde-2-aryl ether type structure and β-1 structure are generated at the same time by radical coupling reaction. It was also indicated that these two structures are present very close to each other in lignin

  • 834.
    Aires, Filipe
    et al.
    LERMA, Observatoire de ParisFrance EstellusParis, France.
    Prigent, Catherine
    LERMA, Observatoire de ParisFrance EstellusParis, France.
    Buehler, Stefan A.
    Universität HamburgGermany.
    Eriksson, Patrick
    Chalmers University of TechnologySweden.
    Milz, Mathias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Crewell, Susanne
    Cologne UniversityGermany.
    Towards more realistic hypotheses for the information content analysis of cloudy/precipitating situations: Application to an hyper‐spectral instrument in the microwaves2019In: Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, ISSN 0035-9009, E-ISSN 1477-870X, Vol. 145, no 718, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information Content (IC) analysis can be used before an instrument is built to estimate its retrieval uncertainties and analyse their sensitivity to several factors. It is a very useful method to define/optimise satellite instruments. IC has shown its potential to compare instrument concepts in the infrared or the microwaves. IC is based on some hypotheses such as the the gaussian character of the Radiative Transfer (RT) and instrument errors, the first guess errors (Gaussian character, std and correlation structure), or the linearisation of the RT around a first guess. These hypotheses are easier to define for simple atmospheric situations. However, even in the clear‐sky case, their complexity has never ceased to increase towards more realism, to optimise the assimilation of satellite measurements in the Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) systems. In the cloudy/precipitating case, these hypotheses are even more difficult to define in a realistic way as many factors are still very difficult to quantify. In this study, several tools are introduced to specify more realistic IC hypotheses than the current practice. We focus on the microwave observations as this is more pertinent for clouds and precipitation. Although not perfect, the proposed solutions are a new step towards more realistic IC assumptions of cloudy/precipitating scenes. A state‐dependence of the RT errors is introduced, the first guess errors have a more complex vertical structure, the IC is performed simultaneously on all the hydrometeors to take into account the contamination effect of the RT input uncertainties, and the IC is performed on a diversified set of cloudy/precipitating scenes with well‐defined hydrometeor assumptions. The method presented in this study is illustrated using the HYperspectral Microwave Sensor (HYMS) instrument concept with channels between 6.9 and 874 GHz (millimeter and sub‐millimeter regions). HYMS is considered as a potential next generation microwave sounder.

  • 835.
    Aires, Filipe
    et al.
    Estellus, Paris.
    Prigent, Catherine
    Estellus, Paris.
    Orlandi, Emiliano
    Cologne university.
    Milz, Mathias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Eriksson, Patrick
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Crewell, Susanne
    Cologne university.
    Lin, Chung-Chi
    ESA, ESTEC.
    Kangas, Ville
    ESA, ESTEC.
    Microwave hyperspectral measurements for temperature and humidity atmospheric profiling from satellite: The clear-sky case2015In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, ISSN 2169-897X, E-ISSN 2169-8996, Vol. 120, no 21, p. 11334-11351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the benefits of a satellite HYper-spectral Microwave Sensor (HYMS) for the retrieval of atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles, in the context of Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP). In the infrared, hyper-spectral instruments have already improved the accuracy of NWP forecasts. Microwave instruments so far only provide observations for a limited number of carefully selected channels. An information content analysis is conducted here to assess the impact of hyper-spectral microwave measurements on the retrieval of temperature and water vapor profiles under clear-sky conditions. It uses radiative transfer simulations over a large variety of atmospheric situations. It accounts for realistic observation (instrument and radiative transfer) noise and for a priori information assumptions compatible with NWP practices. The estimated retrieval performance of the HYMS instrument is compared to those of the microwave instruments to be deployed on board the future generation of European operational meteorological satellites (MetOp-SG). The results confirm the positive impact of a HYMS instrument on the atmospheric profiling capabilities compared to MetOp-SG. Temperature retrieval uncertainty, compared to a priori information, is reduced by 2 to 10%, depending on the atmospheric height, and improvement rates are much higher than what will be obtained with MetOp-SG. For humidity sounding these improvements can reach 30%, a significant benefit as compared to MetOp-SG results especially below 250 hPa. The results are not very sensitive to the instrument noise, under our assumptions. The main impact provided by the hyper-spectral information originates from the higher resolution in the O2 band around 60 GHz. The results are presented over ocean at nadir but similar conclusions are obtained for other incidence angles and over land

  • 836. Airijoki, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    Hulth, Karin
    Upplevelsen av att leva med kronisk obstruktiv lungsjukdom: en litteraturstudie2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 837. Airijoki, Stina
    Mellankommunal planering: att samverka över gränser2003Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 838. Aitahmed-Ali, Hassna
    Flotation av tellur- och vismutmineral2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 839.
    Aitken, Leanne M.
    et al.
    School of Nursing & Midwifery & NHMRC Centre of Research Excellence in Nursing (NCREN), Centre for Health Practice Innovation, Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University.
    Castillo, Maria I.
    School of Nursing & Midwifery & NHMRC Centre of Research Excellence in Nursing (NCREN), Centre for Health Practice Innovation, Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University.
    Ullman, Amanda
    School of Nursing & Midwifery & NHMRC Centre of Research Excellence in Nursing (NCREN), Centre for Health Practice Innovation, Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University.
    Engström, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing Care.
    Cunningham, Kathryn
    Population Health Sciences, Medical Research Institute, University of Dundee.
    Rattray, Janice
    Population Health Sciences, Medical Research Institute, University of Dundee.
    What is the relationship between elements of ICU treatment and memories after discharge in adult ICU survivors?2016In: Australian Critical Care, ISSN 1036-7314, E-ISSN 1878-1721, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 5-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectivesPatients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) often experience distressing memories during recovery that have been associated with poor psychological and cognitive outcomes. The aim of this literature review was to synthesise the literature reporting on relationships between elements of ICU treatment and memories after discharge in adult ICU survivors.Review method usedIntegrative review methods were used to systematically search, select, extract, appraise and summarise current knowledge from the available research and identify gaps in the literature.Data sourcesThe following electronic databases were systematically searched: PubMed, Ovid EMBASE, EBSCOhost CINAHL, PsycINFO and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Additional studies were identified through searches of bibliographies. Original quantitative research articles written in English that were published in peer-review journals were included.Review methodsData extracted from studies included authors, study aims, population, sample size and characteristics, methods, ICU treatments, ICU memory definitions, data collection strategies and findings. Study quality assessment was based on elements of the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme using the checklists developed for randomised controlled trials and cohort studies.ResultsFourteen articles containing data from 13 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. The relatively limited evidence about the association between elements of ICU treatment and memories after ICU discharge suggest that deep sedation, corticoids and administration of glucose 50% due to hypoglycaemia contribute to the development of delusional memories and amnesia of ICU stay.ConclusionsThe body of literature on the relationship between elements of ICU treatment and memories after ICU discharge is small and at its early stages. Larger studies using rigorous study design are needed in order to evaluate the effects of different elements of ICU treatment on the development of memories of the ICU during recovery.

  • 840.
    Aitomäki, Yvonne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Online fibre property measurements: foundations for a method based on ultrasound attenuation2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents the foundations of a method for estimating fibre properties of pulp suitable for online application in the pulp and paper industry. In the pulp and paper industry, increased efficiency and greater paper quality control are two of the industry's main objectives. It is proposed that online fibre property measurements are a means of achieving progress in both of these objectives. Optical based systems that provide valuable geometric data on the fibres and other pulp characteristics are commercially available. However, measurements of the elastic properties of the fibres are not currently implemented using these systems. To fill this gap an ultrasound based system for measuring the elastic properties of the wood fibres in pulp is proposed. Ultrasound propagation depends on the elastic properties of a solid. Hence attenuation measurements from suspensions of fibres depend on their elastic properties. The method is based on solving the inverse problem where the output is known and the objective is to establish the inputs. In this case, attenuation is measured and a model of attenuation based on ultrasound scattering is developed. A search algorithm is used for finding elastic properties that minimize the error between the model and measured attenuation. The results of the search are estimates of the elastic properties of the fibres in suspension. The results show resonance peaks in the attenuation, in the frequency region tested, for fibres with radii of the order of 10 microns. These peaks are found in both the measured and modelled attenuation spectra. Further investigation of these resonances suggests that they are due to modes of vibration in the fibre where the fibre modelled as an infinitely long cylinder. These resonances are shown to aid in the identification of the elastic properties. The attenuation is found to depend heavily on the geometry of the fibres. Hence fibre geometry, which can be obtained from online optical fibre measurement system, provides the key to extracting the elastic properties from the attenuation signal. Studies are also carried out on the effect of viscosity on attenuation as well as the differences in attenuation between hollow and solid synthetic fibres in suspensions. The measurement method is also applied to hardwood and softwood Kraft pulps. The results of these studies show that using the model derived in the thesis and attenuation measurements, estimates of the elastic properties can be obtained. The elastic property estimates for synthetic fibres agree well with values from other methods. The elastic property estimates for pulps require further validation due to the difficulty in comparing between different testing methods and different types of pulp. The conclusions, based on the work so far and under three realisable conditions, are that the shear modulus and the transverse Young's modulus of pulp fibres can be measured. Once these conditions are met a system based on this method can be implemented. By doing this the industry would benefit from the increase in paper quality control and energy saving such system could provide.

  • 841.
    Aitomäki, Yvonne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Towards a measurement of paper pulp quality: ultrasonic spectroscopy of fibre suspensions2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For the paper and pulp industry in Sweden and Finland to remain competitive against countries with lower overheads, they have to constantly strive to improve the quality and the efficiency of the manufacturing processes. One of the ways of doing this is to introduce sensors that will provide valuable online feedback on the characteristics of the pulp so that adjustments can be made to optimise the manufacturing process. The measurement method proposed in this thesis is based on ultrasound, since it is rapid, inexpensive, non-destructive and non-intrusive. Thus could be done online. Since ultrasound propagation and attenuation depends on the material properties through which is propagates, it has the potential to provide measurements of material properties such as pulp fibre density and elasticity. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the possibility of using ultrasound to measure pulp fibre material properties. The idea is to solve the inverse problem of estimating these properties from attenuation measurements and to establish the degree of accuracy to which this can be done. Firstly a model is developed and is tested with synthetic fibres to establish is validity. It is then used to solve the inverse problem of estimating material properties from attenuation measurements, again with synthetic fibres, to test the accuracy to which these properties can be estimated. Resonance peaks in the frequency response of the attenuation were found. On closer investigation it was established that the location of these peaks in the frequency domain is sensitive to the diameter of the fibres and their material properties. If the diameter is known, these peaks improve the accuracy of the estimation process. The results of the estimation process for synthetic fibre suspensions show values for the shear modulus are within known ranges but the estimation of Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus is poor. Improving the model or the estimation procedure may lead to better results. For the method as it is to have application in the paper and pulp industry there are certain conditions that need to be fulfilled. These are that we find peaks in the frequency response of the attenuation in pulp, know the diameter distribution of the fibres and the hollow nature of the fibres does not significantly alter the results. We can then, potentially, be able to establish the shear modulus of the pulp fibres. If the shear modulus is a factor in paper quality, we may be close to an online measurement of paper pulp quality using ultrasonic spectroscopy. Improving the model may allow us to estimate further properties and take into account the fibres being hollow. The thesis consists of two parts. The first part includes an overview of the pulp and paper industry and current testing methods, background theory on which the model is based and an overview of the model that is used in predicting ultrasound attenuation. There then follows a summary of the work done, some addition points are raised in the discussion before drawing conclusions. Finally we discuss what needs to be done to take this further. The second part contains a collection of four papers describing the research.

  • 842.
    Aitomäki, Yvonne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Allard, Christina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lin, Janet
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Sandström, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    LTU Teaching guide to e-learning: how to clear the mist of teaching through the cloud2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 843.
    Aitomäki, Yvonne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Berglund, Linn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Noël, Maxime
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Linder, Tomas
    Löfqvist, Torbjörn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Oksman, Kristiina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Light scattering in cellulose nanofibre suspensions: Model and experiments2016In: Computers in Chemistry Proceeding from ACS National Meeting San Diego: Proceeding from ACS National Meeting San Diego, American Chemical Society (ACS), 2016, p. 122-, article id CELL 235Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Here light scattering theory is used to assess the size distribution in a suspension of cellulose as it is fibrillated from micro-scaled to nano-scaled fibres. A model based on Monte carlo simulations of the scattering of photons by different sizes of cellulose fibres was used to predict the UV-IF spectrum of the suspensions. Bleached cellulose hardwood pulp was tested and compared to the visually transparent tempo-oxidised hardwood cellulose nanofibres (CNF) suspension. The theoretical results show that different diameter size classes exhibit very different scattering patterns. These classes could be identified in the experimental results and used to establish the size class dominating the suspension. A comparison to AFM/microscope size distribution was made and the results indicated that using the UV-IF light scattering spectrum maybe more reliable that size distribution measurement using AFM and microscopy on dried CNF samples. The UV-IF spectrum measurement combined with the theoretical prediction can be used even at this initial stage of development of this model to assess the degree of fibrillation when processing CNF.

  • 844.
    Aitomäki, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swerea SICOMP AB, Box 271, 941 26, Piteå.
    Hagström, Bengt
    SWEREA IVF AB.
    Långström, Runar
    Swerea SICOMP AB, Box 271, 941 26, Piteå.
    Fernberg, Patrik
    Swerea SICOMP AB, Box 271, 941 26, Piteå.
    Novel reactive bicomponent fibres: Material in composite manufacturing2012In: Journal of Nanostructured Polymers and Nanocomposites, ISSN 1790-4439, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 5-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hypotheses that reactive uncured, thermoset bicomponent fibres can be prepared and mixed with reinforcing fi- bres and ultimately used in preparation o f a composite was tested and is described. I t is thought that such fibres have the two potential advantages: ( 1) to enable manufacturing with pai1icle doped resins e.g. nanocomposites which add functionality to composites and (2) increased efficiency ofstructural composite manufacturing by increasing the level of automation. The structure of the thermoset fibres comprises of a sheath of thermoplastic and a core of uncured the1moset resin. Once manufactured, the fibres were wound with a reinforced fibre onto a plate, consolidated and cured. The resulting composite was examined and compared to other composites made with the same manufacturing method from commercially available materials. The results show that a laminate can be produced using these reactive bicomponent fibres. The resin system successfully impregnates the reinforcing carbon fibres and that the thermoplas- tic separates from the epoxy resin system during consolidation. In comparison to reference material, the bicomponentlaminate shows promising characteristics. However, the processes developed are currently on a lab-scale and consid- erable improvement of various bicomponent fibre properties, such as the strength, are required before the technology can be used on a larger scale

  • 845.
    Aitomäki, Yvonne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Swerea SICOMP AB, Box 271, SE-941 26 Piteå.
    Hagström, Bengt
    werea IVF AB.
    Långström, Runar
    Swerea SICOMP AB, Box 271, SE-941 26 Piteå.
    Fernberg, Patrik
    Swerea SICOMP AB, Box 271, SE-941 26 Piteå.
    Novel reactive bicomponent fibres: Material in composite manufacturing2012In: Journal of Nanostructured Polymers and Nanocomposites, ISSN 1790-4439, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 5-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hypotheses that reactive uncured, thermoset bicomponent fibres can be prepared and mixed with reinforcing fibres and ultimately used in preparation of a composite was tested and is described. It is thought that such fibres have the two potential advantages: (1) to enable manufacturing with particle doped resins e.g. nanocomposites which add functionality to composites and (2) increased efficiency of structural composite manufacturing by increasing the level of automation. The structure of the thermoset fibres comprises of a sheath of thermoplastic and a core of uncured thermoset resin. Once manufactured, the fibres were wound with a reinforced fibre onto a plate, consolidated and cured. The resulting composite was examined and compared to other composites made with the same manufacturing method from commercially available materials. The results show that a laminate can be produced using these reactive bicomponent fibres. The resin system successfully impregnates the reinforcing carbon fibres and that the thermoplastic separates from the epoxy resin system during consolidation. In comparison to reference material, the bicomponent laminate shows promising characteristics. However, the processes developed are currently on a lab-scale and considerable improvement of various bicomponent fibre properties, such as the strength, are required before the technology can be used on a larger scale.

  • 846.
    Aitomäki, Yvonne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Jonoobi, Mehdi
    Mathew, Aji P.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Oksman, Kristiina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Impregnation of cellulose nanofibre networks with a thermoplastic polymer2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The emphasis of this study have been to study if impregnation of cellulose nanofibre networks can be made using a thermoplastic polymer as a matrix and to estimate the reinforcing efficiency of the cellulose nanofibres in this composite. A nanofibre network with higher porosity that water-dried nanofibre network was prepared from a cellulose waste byproduct (sludge). This was impregnated using a diluted solution of cellulose acetate butyrate polymer to produce a 60 wt. % CNF/CAB composite. This composite was characterized using microscopy and mechanical testing. High porosity is seen in the SEM images of the acetone-dried fibre network and SEM and film transparency was used to qualitatively assess the impregnation of the network. A significant improvement in the visible light transmittance was observed for the nanocomposite film compared to the nanofibre network as a result of the impregnation. The reinforcing efficiency was calculated based on a model of the nanocomposite and compared to other nanocomposites in the literature. The efficiency factor takes into account the volume fraction and the stiffness of the matrix. This showed that this CNF/CAB combination is similar in efficiency to CNF/PLA nanocomposites and more efficient that nanocomposites using when using stiffer matrices. It was also more efficient CNF nanocomposites based on Chitosan, which has the same stiffness. It is still however not as efficient as traditional glass polymer composites due to the random orientation of the fibres nor nanocomposites with very soft matrices due to the dominating network effect of the CNF in such composites. In conclusion, CAB impregnated cellulose nanofibre networks are promising biocomposite materials that could be used in applications where transparency and good mechanical properties are of interest. The key elements in the impregnation process of the nanocomposites were the use of a porous networks and a low viscosity thermoplastic resin solution.

  • 847. Aitomäki, Yvonne
    et al.
    Löfqvist, Torbjörn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Estimating suspended fibre material properties by modelling ultrasound attenuation2006In: Mathematical Modeling of Wave Phenomena: conference on mathematical modeling of wave phenomea, Växjö, Sweden, 14 - 19 August 2005 / [ed] Börje Nilsson; Louis Fishman, Melville, NY: American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2006, p. 250-259Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An analytical model for use in the inverse problem of estimating material properties of suspended fibres from ultrasonic attenuation has been developed. The ultrasound attenuation is derived theoretically from the energy losses arising when a plane wave is scattered and absorbed off an infinitely long, isotropic, viscoelastic cylinder. By neglecting thermal considerations and assuming low viscosity in the suspending fluid, we can make additional assumptions that provide us with a tractable set of equations that can be solved analytically. The model can then be to used in inverse methods of estimating material properties. We verify the model with experimentally obtained values of attenuation for saturated Nylon fibres. The experimental results from Nylon fibres show local peaks in the attenuation which are thought to be due to the resonant absorption at the eigenfrequencies of the fibres. The results of the experiments show that the model is sufficiently sensitive to detect differences in different types of Nylon. Applications for suspended fibre characterization can be found in the paper manufacturing industry.

  • 848. Aitomäki, Yvonne
    et al.
    Löfqvist, Torbjörn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Material property estimates from ultrasound attenuation in fibre suspensions2009In: Ultrasonics, ISSN 0041-624X, E-ISSN 1874-9968, Vol. 49, no 4-5, p. 432-437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An investigation of a new method for measuring fibre material properties from ultrasonic attenuation in a dilute suspension of synthetic fibres of uniform geometry is presented. The method is based on inversely solving an ultrasound scattering and absorption model of suspended fibres in water for the material properties of the fibres. Experimental results were obtained from three suspensions of nylon 66 fibres each with different fibre diameters. A forward solution to the model with reference material values is compared to experimental data to verify the model's behaviour. Estimates of the shear and Young's modulus, the compressional wave velocity, Poisson's ratio and loss tangent from nylon 66 fibres are compared to data available from other sources. Experimental data confirms that the model successfully predicts that the resonance features in the frequency response of the attenuation are a function of diameter. Consistent estimated values for the compressional wave velocity and the Poisson's ratio were found to be difficult to obtain but in combination gave values of shear modulus within previously reported values and with low sensitivity to noise. Young's modulus was underestimated by 54% but was consistent and had low sensitivity to noise. The underestimation is believed to be caused by the assumption of isotropic material used in the model. Additional tests on isotropic fibre would confirm this. Further analysis of the model sensitivity and the reasons for the resonance features are required.

  • 849.
    Aitomäki, Yvonne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Löfqvist, Torbjörn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Sounding Out Paper Pulp: Ultrasound Spectroscopy of Dilute Viscoelastic Fibre Suspensions Acoustics and Ultrasonics2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A model of attenuation of ultrasound in fibre suspensions is compared to a model of backscattering pressure from submersed cylinders subjected to a sound wave. This analysis is carried out in the region where the wavelength is of the same order as that of the diameter of the fibre. In addition we assume the cylinder scatterer to have no intrinsic attenuation and the longitudinal axis of the scatterer is assumed to be perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the incident wave. Peaks in the frequency response of both the backscattering pressure, expressed in the form of a form function, and the attenuation are shown to correspond. Similarities between the models are discussed. Since the peaks in the form function are due to resonance of the cylinder, we infer that the peaks in the attenuation are also due to resonance. The exact nature of the waves causing the resonance are still unclear however the first resonance peaks are related to the shear wave and hence the shear modulus of the material. The aim is to use the attenuation model for solving the inverse problem of calculating paper pulp material properties from attenuation measurements. The implications of these findings for paper pulp property estimation is that the supporting fluid could, if possible, be matched to density of that of pulp fibres and that the estimation of material properties should be improved by selecting a frequency range that in the region of the first resonance peaks.

  • 850.
    Aitomäki, Yvonne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Löfqvist, Torbjörn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Estimating material properties of solid and hollow fibers in suspension using ultrasonic attenuation2013In: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, ISSN 0885-3010, E-ISSN 1525-8955, Vol. 60, no 7, p. 1424-1434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimates of the material properties of hollow fibers suspended in a fluid using ultrasound measurements and a simple, computationally efficient analytical model are made. The industrial application is to evaluate the properties of wood fibers in paper pulp. The necessity of using a layered cylindrical model (LCM) as opposed to a solid cylindrical model (SCM) for modeling ultrasound attenuation in a suspension of hollow fibers is evaluated. The two models are described and used to solve the inverse problem of estimating material properties from attenuation in suspensions of solid and hollow polyester fibers. The results show that the measured attenuation of hollow fibers differs from that of solid fibers. Elastic properties estimates using LCM with hollow-fiber suspension measurements are similar to those using SCM with solid-fiber suspension measurements and compare well to block polyester values for elastic moduli. However, using the SCM with the hollow-fiber suspension did not produce realistic estimations. In conclusion, the LCM gives reasonable estimations of hollow fiber properties and the SCM is not sufficiently complex to model hollow fibers. The results also indicate that the use of a distributed radius in the model is important in estimating material properties from fiber suspensions.

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