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  • 901.
    Wei, Wei
    et al.
    Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.
    Chen, Tingjie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.
    Miu, Min
    Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.
    Xie, Yongqun
    Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.
    Wang, Alice
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Optimized Pretreatment of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) Phloem Insulation Cotton2016In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 2583-2596Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using response surface methodology, the pretreatment conditions of kenaf fibers were optimized to improve the tensile strength of kenaf phloem insulation cotton (KPIC). The effects and interactions of three parameters—sodium hydrate concentration (X1), soaking time (X2), and beating time (X3)—on the tensile strength of the kenaf fibers were investigated. The chemical structure of the specimens was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Sodium hydrate concentration had the greatest effect on kenaf fibers. The maximum tensile strength of 117.6 N resulted from a sodium hydrate concentration of 4%, soaking time of 50 h, and beating time of 12 min. As shown by FTIR and XRD, optimized pretreatment generated surface functional groups and increased the tensile strength of fibers. In conclusion, the pretreatment of kenaf fiber significantly improves the tensile strength of KPIC and also improves the retention rate of the chemicals used during the preparation of KPIC.

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  • 902.
    Westman, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Pompe, R
    Svenska Silikatforskningsinstitutet.
    Sätt vid framställning av kiselnitrid-zirkoniumoxidbaserade kompositmaterial1985Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 903.
    Westman, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Wei, L.-Y
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    TEM study of the interface between HIPed silicon nitride and encapsulation borosilicate glass2000In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 35, no 11, p. 2847-2854Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A transmission electron microscope study has been made of a silicon nitride component with 6 w/o yttrium oxide as a sintering aid hot isostatically pressed (HIP) with an encapsulation glass of borosilicate. The TEM study concentrated on the interface region between ceramic and glass. Two different types of hexagonal boron nitride were formed near the interface. One, with a textured structure, seemed to nucleate heterogeneously on the surfaces of silicon oxynitride grains. The (001) planes of the crystals extended outwards, giving a thickness of approximately 0.5 microns. The other type formed as hexagonally shaped grains separate from the first type and appeared to have grown as several segments in different directions around a nucleus. In each segment BN layers are parallel to each other and perpendicular to their common [001]BM direction. This second type of BN crystal was also detected a little further from the surface within the silicon nitride. The volume fraction of additive glassy phase tended to be lower in this surface region than in the bulk. Possible mechanisms of prevention of encapsulation glass penetration into the porous ceramic component during HIP were discussed

  • 904.
    Westman, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Wei, L.-Y.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Barre, F.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Preparation for TEM of layered samples with fragile microstructure and weak layer interface1999In: Microscopy research and technique (Print), ISSN 1059-910X, E-ISSN 1097-0029, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 198-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this work was to prepare for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) a layered structure of materials with fragile microstructure. The samples consisted of two layers of different materials, silicon nitride and borosilicate glass, loosely bonded together. The low strength of the sample resulted in fragmentation during more conventional preparation. However, it was possible to prepare the fragments by mounting them in a titanium specimen carrier with aluminium strips as support. After grinding and polishing, a technique of low-angle ion milling was used to obtain electron beam transparent areas at the nitride/glass interface.

  • 905.
    Wiberg, P.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Morén, Tom
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Moisture flux determination in wood during drying above fibre saturation point using CT-scanning and digital image processing1999In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 137-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Moisture flux in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Birch (Betula pubescens) was measured above fibre saturation point (FSP) using a computer tomography (CT) scanner and digital image processing. A test volume was selected in the interior part of the samples and the density changes were determined every 10 minutes. Two different drying schedules were used, which had two periods seperated by a climate step. Schedule I was conducted with constant dry bulb temperature and schedule II with constant wet bulb temperature. The climate in the first period, A, was equivalent to 16% equilibrium moisture content (EMC) and period B, 8% EMC. Tests with schedule I were run at 50 °C, 60 °C, 70 °C and 80 °C (dry bulb temperature) and with schedule II also at 50 °C, 60 °C, 70 °C and 80 °C (wet bulb temperature). The results showed that there was no difference between the moisture flux during period A from the test volume for the different species. Between the different temperatures no significant differences of the rate of density changes in the test volumes for the different species were found. Spruce reacted more slowly than pine and birch on the external climate step, but after a while the flux rate was equal to that for pine. Birch had a slightly lower flux, about 60% of the rate for pine and spruce in period B. The wood rays in softwood are probably the most important flow path. The different shape and size of the pits between the tracheids and the rays in pine and spruce may be one explanation why spruce reacted more slowly than pine.A receding front was also observed and, by image processing, the distance from the surface and the receding front were determined. The receding front was defined at a fixed density level, approx. 30 kg/m3 above FSP and it was assumed that the evaporation occurs at approximately the position of the receding front. The receding front took the position at 0.5-1 mm below the surface just after the beginning of the drying process. For pine and birch the distance from the surface to the front increased slowly, even after the climate step, but for spruce the distance to the front instantly increased to a new position. Spruce lost its liquid water at the edges first and after a few hours the distance to the front stabilized. At approximately 60% moisture content (MC) the liquid water continuity broke down and the drying entered the irreducible saturation phase. This transition phase is in between a heat transfer controlled phase of drying when liquid water moves with low resistance to an evaporation front and a diffusion-controlled phase below FSP.

  • 906. Wiberg, P.
    et al.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Morén, Tom
    Heat and mass transfer during sapwood drying above the fibre saturation point2000In: Drying Technology, ISSN 0737-3937, E-ISSN 1532-2300, Vol. 18, no 8, p. 1647-1664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pine sapwood was dried in an air convection kiln at temperatures between 60-80 °C. Temperature and weight measurements were used to calculate the position of the evaporation front beneath the surface. It was assumed that the drying during a first regime is controlled by the heat transfer to the evaporation front until irreducible saturation occurs. Comparisons were made with CT-scanned density pictures of the dry shell formation during initial stages of drying of boards. The results indicate a receding evaporation front behaviour for sapwood above approximately 40-50% MC when the moisture flux is heat transfer controlled. After that we finally reach a period where bound water diffusion is assumed to control the drying rate. The heat transfer from the circulating air to the evaporation front controls the migration flux. In many industrial kilns the heating coils therefore have too small heat transfer rates for batches of thin boards and boards with high sapwood content.

  • 907.
    Wu, Zhenzeng
    et al.
    Department of Material Engineering , Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, 350002, Fuzhou, Fujian.
    Chen, Tingjie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Huang, Daobang
    D epartment of Material Engineering , Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, 350002, Fuzhou, Fujian.
    Wang, Wei
    D epartment of Material Engineering , Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, 350002, Fuzhou, Fujian.
    Xie, Yongqun
    D epartment of Material Engineering , Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, 350002, Fuzhou, Fujian.
    Wan, Hui
    Department of Forest Products, Mississippi State University, P. O. Box 9800, Starkville, MS 39759 - 9820 USA.
    Wang, Xiaodong (Alice)
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Effect of PVDC on the Fire Performance of Ultra-Low Density Fiberboards (ULDFs)2016In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 8653-8663Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly vinylidene chloride-vinyl chloride emulsions (PVDC) were added as a substitute for chlorinated paraffin (CP) in the preparation of ultra-low density fiberboards (ULDFs). The micromorphology and fire performance of ULDFs were investigated using a scanning electron microscope, limiting oxygen index instrument, and cone calorimeter. The results showed that PVDC specimens were coated with a regularly smooth film, while the distribution of CP inside CP specimens was uneven. The limiting oxygen index increased with the dosage of PVDC, then reached a plateau at 50 mL and 28%, slightly higher than CP specimens (27.3%). The peak of heat release rate, mean heat release rate, mean CO, and total smoke release of PVDC specimens was reduced 43.3%, 13.5%, 38.5%, and 51.5% lower than respective CP specimens, and with nearly the same total heat release (only 0.04 MJ/m2 higher). Thus, PVDC exhibited excellent heat-reducing and smoke-suppressing properties and could replace CP in ULDFs. 

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  • 908.
    Wu, Zhenzeng
    et al.
    Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.
    Chen, Tingjie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Niu, Min
    Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.
    Cai, Lili
    Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.
    Xie, Yongqun
    Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.
    Wang, Alice
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Effect of Boron-Zinc-Aluminum-Silicium Compounds on the Fire Performance of Ultra-Low Density Fiberboards2016In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 5050-5063Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    B-Zn-Si-Al compounds are modified Si-Al compounds made of sodium silicate, zinc sulfate, borax, and aluminum sulfate. They act as a fire retardant during the preparation of ultra-low density fiberboards (ULDFs). An orthogonal experiment was used to optimize the contents of the four compounds according to the limiting oxygen index. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was employed to preliminarily analyze the chemical structure of the compounds. Additionally, a cone calorimeter was used to assess the fire performance of the ULDFs. The results suggested that the optimized solution was made of 27.0 mL of sodium silicate solution, 27.0 mL of aluminum sulfate solution, 3.0 g of zinc sulfate, and 6.5 g of borax, resulting in an oxygen index of 29.5%. The bond Al-O-B was detected at 1397 and 796 cm-1. The Si-O-Zn bonds were detected at 867 cm-1. The heat release rate, total heat release, and total smoke release decreased and the mass residual ratio increased in the sample using the optimal conditions from the orthogonal array design. It was concluded that B-Zn- Si-Al compounds effectively protect fibers from fire.

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  • 909.
    Wu, Zhenzeng
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Huang, Daobang
    Department of Material Science and Engineering, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou.
    Wang, Wei
    Department of Material Science and Engineering, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou.
    Chen, Tingjie
    Department of Material Engineering, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, Fujian.
    Lin, Ming
    College of Material Engineering, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University.
    Xie, Yongqun
    College of Material Engineering, Fujian Agricultural and Forestry Universit.
    Niu, Min
    Department of Material Engineering, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, Fujian.
    Wang, Alice
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Optimization for fire performance of ultra-low density fiberboards using response surface methodology2017In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 3790-3800Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The optimization of the process conditions for fire retardant ultra-low density fiberboards (ULDFs) was investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Three parameters, namely those of Borax-Zinc-Silicate-Aluminum (B-Zn-Si-Al), chlorinated paraffin (CP), and chloride-vinyl chloride emulsions (PVDC) were chosen as variables. The considerably high R2 value (99.98%) indicated the statistical significance of the model. The optimal process conditions for the limiting oxygen index (LOI) were determined by analyzing the response surface's three-dimensional surface plot and contour plot, and by solving the regression model equation with Design Expert software. The Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to optimize the process conditions, which showed that the most favorable dosages of B-Zn-Si-Al, CP, and PVDC were 800 mL, 46.47 mL, and 35.64 g, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, the maximum LOI was 48.4.

  • 910.
    Xie, Lan
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Central South University of Forestry and Technology.
    He, Guojing
    Department of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Central South University of Forestry and Technology.
    Wang, Alice
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Per Johan
    Division of Structural Mechanics, Department of Building Sciences, Lund University.
    Crocetti, Roberto
    Division of Structural Mechanics, Lund University.
    Chen, Liping
    Hunan Huagang Planning and Design Research Institute Co.
    Li, Li
    Department of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Central South University of Forestry and Technology.
    Xie, Wenhui
    Department of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Central South University of Forestry and Technology.
    Shear Capacity of Stud-Groove Connector in Glulamconcrete Composite Structure2017In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 4690-4706Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    timber-concrete composite structure (TCC) is economically and environmentally friendly. One of the key design points of this kind of structure is to ensure the reliability of the shear connectors. The objective of this paper is to study the mechanical property of stud-groove-type connectors and to provide shear capacity equations for stud-groove connectors in timber-concrete composite structures. Based on the Johansen Yield Theory (European Yield Model), some mechanical models and capacity equations for stud-groove-type connectors in timber-concrete structures were studied. Push-out specimens with different parameters (stud diameter, stud length, groove width, and groove depth) were tested to obtain the shear capacity and slip modulus. The experimental strengths were used to validate equations given in the paper. The shear capacity and slip modulus of stud-groove-type connectors was in direct proportion to the diameter of studs and the dimension of the groove. Comparison between the theoretical and the experimental shear strength results showed reasonable agreement. The highlight of this study on shear capacity equations could significantly reduce the push-out tests before investigating the other properties of TCC

  • 911.
    Xiong, S.
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterial and Technology, Umeå, Sweden.
    Martín, C.
    Umeå University, Department of Chemistry, Umeå, Sweden.
    Eilertsen, L.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterial and Technology, Umeå, Sweden. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Umeå Plant Science Center, Umeå, Sweden.
    Wei, M.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterial and Technology, Umeå, Sweden. Guangxi University, College of Agronomy, Nanning, China.
    Myronycheva, Olena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterial and Technology, Umeå, Sweden.
    Larsson, S.H.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterial and Technology, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lestander, T.A.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterial and Technology, Umeå, Sweden.
    Atterhem, L.
    Biosteam AB, Burträsk, Sweden.
    Jönsson, L.J.
    Umeå University, Department of Chemistry, Umeå, Sweden.
    Energy-efficient substrate pasteurisation for combined production of shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) and bioethanol2019In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 274, p. 65-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hot-air (75 -100°C) pasteurisation (HAP) of birch-wood-based substrate was compared to conventional autoclaving (steam at 121 °C) with regard to shiitake growth and yield, chemical composition of heat-pretreated material and spent mushroom substrate (SMS), enzymatic digestibility of glucan in SMS, and theoretical bioethanol yield. Compared to autoclaving, HAP resulted in faster mycelial growth, earlier fructification, and higher or comparable fruit-body yield. The heat pretreatment methods did not differ regarding the fractions of carbohydrate and lignin in pretreated material and SMS, but HAP typically resulted in lower fractions of extractives. Shiitake cultivation, which reduced the mass fraction of lignin to less than half of the initial without having any major impact on the mass fraction of glucan, enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of glucan about four-fold. The choice of heating method did not affect enzymatic digestibility. Thus, HAP could substitute autoclaving and facilitate combined shiitake mushroom and bioethanol production.

  • 912. Yang, Qian
    et al.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Ahmed, Sheikh Ali
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Morén, Tom
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Dimensional stability and water repellency of european aspen improved by oxidized carbohydrates2013In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 487-498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small samples from European aspen (Populus tremula L.) were impregnated with carbohydrates oxidized by Fenton’s reagent using water in a vacuum, followed by heating in an oven at 103°C. An antiswelling efficiency (ASE) of around 45% for wood treated with oxidized glucose and 35% for wood treated with oxidized sucrose was obtained. Samples treated with oxidized carbohydrates gave water repellent effectiveness (WRE) values over 35%. The decrease in cell wall thickness during impregnation was about 18% less in the presence of oxidized glucose than samples only treated with Fenton’s reagent. An ASE of 20% for the wood samples that had been treated with oxidized glucose was obtained after 7 days of soaking in water. The reasons for the improvement in dimensional stability are discussed in this work.

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  • 913.
    Yoon, Kukjin
    et al.
    Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba.
    Takahashi, Shiho
    Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki.
    Nge, Thi Thi
    Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Forestry and Forest Products Laboratory, Tsukuba, Ibaraki.
    Nakagawa-izumi, Akiko
    Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba.
    Ohi, Hiroshi
    Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba.
    Uraki, Yasumitsu
    Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo.
    Yamada, Tatsuhiko
    Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki.
    Thermal Melting of Lignin Derivates Prepared from Dried Black Liquor Powder of Softwood Soda-AQ Cooking and Polyehylene Glycol2015In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 912-921Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 914.
    Zhaolong, Zhu
    et al.
    College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing.
    Buck, Dietrich
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Ekevad, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Marklund, Birger
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Guo, Xiaolei
    College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing.
    Cao, Pingxiang
    College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing.
    Zhu, Nanfeng
    College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing.
    Cutting forces and chip formation revisited based on orthogonal cutting of Scots pine2018In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 73, no 2, p. 131-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to understandbetter the cutting forces and chip formation of Scots pine(Pinus sylvestris L.) with different moisture contents (MCs)and machined in different cutting directions. To thatend, an orthogonal cutting experiment was designed,in which Scots pine was intermittently machined usinga tungsten carbide tool to produce chips. The cuttingforces were measured and the chip shapes were quantitativelydescribed. Four conclusions can be drawn: (1)with increasing MC, the average cutting forces initiallydecreased and then stabilized, while the angle betweenthe direction of the main and the resultant force continuouslydecreased. (2) The average cutting forces in the 90°–0° cutting direction were lower than the same forces inthe 90°–90° cutting direction. (3) During machining, thedynamic cutting forces fluctuated less in the 90°–0° case.However, the dynamic feeding forces showed a decreasingtrend in both the 90°–0° and the 90°–90° cases. (4) Theprocess applied produced granule chips and flow chips,while less curly flow chips with a higher radius of curvaturewere more easily produced from samples with highMCs in the 90°–0° cutting direction.

  • 915.
    Zhaolong, Zhu
    et al.
    College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing.
    Buck, Dietrich
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Guo, Xiaolei
    College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University.
    Pingxiang, Cao
    College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University.
    Ekevad, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Machinability of stone-plastic materials during diamond planing2019In: Applied Sciences: APPS, ISSN 1454-5101, E-ISSN 1454-5101, Vol. 9, no 7, article id 1373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigated the machinability of a stone–plastic composite (SPC) via orthogonal cutting with diamond cutters. The objective was to determine the effect of cutting depth on its machinability, including cutting forces, heat, chip formation, and cutting quality. Increased cutting depth promoted an increase in both frictional and normal forces, and also had a strong influence on the change in normal force. The cutting temperatures of chips and tool edges showed an increasing trend as cutting depth increased. However, the cutting heat was primarily absorbed by chips, with the balance accumulating in the cutting edge. During chip formation, the highest von Mises strain was mainly found in SPC ahead of the cutting edge, and the SPC to be removed partially passed its elastic limit, eventually forming chips with different shapes. Furthermore, the average surface roughness and the mean peak-to-valley height of machined surfaces all positively correlated to an increase in cutting depth. Finally, with an increase in cutting depth, the chip shape changed from tubular, to ribbon, to arc, to segmental, and finally, to helical chips. This evolution in chip shape reduced the fluctuation in cutting force, improving cutting stability and cutting quality.

  • 916.
    Zhu, Z.
    et al.
    College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, China.
    Cao, P.
    College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, China.
    Guo, X.
    College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, China.
    Qiu, X.
    College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, China.
    Xie, S.
    College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, China.
    Ekevad, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Cutting performance of cemented carbide cutting tool in turning high‐density fiberboard2018In: Materialwissenschaft und Werkstofftechnik, ISSN 0933-5137, E-ISSN 1521-4052, Vol. 49, no 12, p. 1476-1484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to provide a scientific and reliable guidance for wood processing industry, the effects of cutting parameters on cutting forces, cutting temperature and tool wear were studied when turning high‐density fiberboard by use of cemented‐carbide cutting tools. The results showed that cutting forces (normal force and radial force) and cutting temperature are not affected by the cutting parameters in the same way: cutting forces decrease with increasing spindle speed, whereas cutting temperature increase with an increase of the spindle speed. However, there is a positive relation for cutting forces and temperature, to the feed per turn when cutting. The wear of the cemented‐carbide cutting tool is shown by two mechanisms: Mainly adhesive wear but also abrasive wear, showed by loss of carbide‐grains and by cracking and chipping, respectively. This study also indicated that higher‐speed cutting is beneficial for wood‐processing; evident by reduced energy for cutting and higher efficiency in production.

  • 917.
    Zhu, Zhaolong
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Nanjing Forestry University, Coll Mat Sci & Engn, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.
    Buck, Dietrich
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Guo, Xiaolei
    Nanjing Forestry University, Coll Mat Sci & Engn, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.
    Ekevad, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Cao, Pingxiang
    Nanjing Forestry University, Coll Mat Sci & Engn, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.
    Effect of Cutting Speed on Machinability of Stone–Plastic Composite Material2019In: Science of Advanced Materials, ISSN 1947-2935, E-ISSN 1947-2943, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 884-892Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research examined the orthogonal cutting of stone–plastic composite with diamond cutting tools. The objective was to quantify features relating to machinability, including cutting forces, cutting heat, chip formation, and machining quality with respect to cutting speed. The conclusions are as follows. An increased cutting speed promotes a decrease in the resulting force, causes cutting temperature to increase, makes the cutting processes more stable, and reduces the surface roughness. Chip-breaking length increases with an increase in cutting speed, and chip morphology changes from particle, to curve, to helical, and finally, to flow chips. Overall, a higher cutting speed is more suitable for machining stone–plastic composite materials: it not only increases the stability of cutting process, but also improves the final product of stone–plastic composite by promoting production of a smoother surface.

  • 918.
    Zhu, Zhaolong
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.
    Buck, Dietrich
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Guo, Xiaolei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.
    Ekevad, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Cao, Pingxiang
    College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.
    Performance of stone-plastic composites with different mix ratios during orthogonal cutting2019In: Materials Express, ISSN 2158-5849, Vol. 9, no 7, p. 749-756Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aimed to increase understanding of the machinability of stone-plastic materials with different mix ratios subjected to diamond planing. To that end, orthogonal cutting was carried out. Different stone-plastic materials were machined by diamond cutting tools to produce chips. Based on the results, four conclusions are drawn: (1) Among stone-plastic materials with decreasing polyvinyl chloride content ratio, the maximum cutting forces and fluctuation of dynamic forces show decreasing trends, and cutting stability increases. (2) The temperature of chips is slightly higher than that of tool edges; the cutting heat generated during machining is mainly absorbed by the chips of removed material and, to a lesser extent, stored in the tool edge. The type of stone-plastic material has a great effect on the changes in the temperatures of chip and tool edge. (3) With a decrease in polyvinyl chloride content, the chip shapes evolve from crack, to arc, and eventually to elemental chips. (4) The cutting quality of the machined surface improves with a decrease in the polyvinyl chloride content ratio of the stone-plastic materials.

  • 919.
    Zhu, Zhaolong
    et al.
    College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.
    Buck, Dietrich
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Guo, Xiaolei
    College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.
    Ekevad, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Pingxiang, Cao
    College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.
    Wu, Zhenzeng
    Department of Material Engineering, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fujian, China.
    Machinability investigation in turning of high density fiberboard2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 9, p. 1-13, article id e0203838Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of experiments were conducted to assess the machinability of high density fiberboardusing cemented carbide cutting tools. The objective of this work was to investigate theinfluence of two cutting parameters, spindle speed and feed per turn, on cutting forces, chipformation and cutting quality. The results are as follows: cutting forces and chip-breakinglength decrease with increasing spindle speed and decreasing feed per turn. In contrast,surface roughness increases with decrease of spindle speed and increase in feed perturn. Chips were divided into four categories based on their shape: dust, particle, splinter,and semicontinuous chips. Chip-breaking length had a similar tendency to the varianceof cutting forces with respect to average roughness and mean peak-to-valley height: anincrease in the variance of cutting forces resulted in increased average roughness andmean peak-to-valley height. Thus, high cutting speed and low feed rate are parameters suitablefor high-quality HDF processing and will improve not only machining quality, but productionefficiency.

  • 920.
    Zhu, Zhaolong
    et al.
    Nanjing Forestry University.
    Guo, Xiaolei
    Nanjing Forestry University.
    Ekevad, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Cao, Pingxiang
    Nanjing Forestry University.
    Na, Bin
    Nanjing Forestry University.
    Zhu, Nanfeng
    Nanjing Forestry University.
    The Effects of Cutting Parameters and Tool Geometry on Cutting Forces and Tool Wear in Milling High-density Fiberboard with Ceramic Tools2017In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015, Vol. 91, no 9-12, p. 4033-4041Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the effects of cutting parametersand tool geometry on cutting forces and tool wear whenup-milling high-density fiberboard with alumina ceramiccutting tools were investigated. Under the condition ofthe same feed per tooth, average chip thickness, andclearance angle, the results shown are as follows: first,the tangential forces Ft and normal forces Fr at lowspeedcutting were higher than those at high-speed cutting,but increased slowly with the increase of cuttinglength and rake angle decrease. Second, increased cuttingspeed and decreased rake angle had a great effecton rake face wear. Third, the wear patterns of tool wearwere rake wear and flank wear, which included pull-outof grain, flaking, and chipping. The wear mechanismswere adhesive wear and abrasive wear. Finally, at lowspeedcutting, the cutting tools with bigger rake anglecan be selected to reduce the energy consumption ofmachine tools. The tools with smaller rake angle canbe used for high-speed cutting to improve tool lifeand productivity of processing.

  • 921.
    Zhu, Zhaolong
    et al.
    Nanjing Forestry University, Faculty of Material Science and Engineering.
    Guo, Xiaolei
    Nanjing Forestry University, Faculty of Material Science and Engineering.
    Na, Bin
    Nanjing Forestry University, Faculty of Material Science and Engineering.
    Liang, Xingyu
    Nanjing Forestry University, Faculty of Material Science and Engineering.
    Ekevad, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Ji, Futang
    Shanghai Vohringer Wood Product Co., Ltd.
    Research on cutting performance of ceramic cutting tools in milling high density fiberboard2017In: Wood research, ISSN 1336-4561, Vol. 62, no 1, p. 125-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of cutting parameters and tool parameters on cutting forces and tool wear wereinvestigated in high density fiberboard (HDF) peripheral up-milling using toughened ceramiccutting tools. The results showed that whether at low speed cutting or high speed cutting, thetangential forces Ft and normal forces Fr increased slowly with the increase of cutting length. Thetangential forces Ft and normal forces Fr at low speed cutting were higher than that at high speedcutting. The tangential forces Ft and normal forces Fr decreased with the decrease of wedge anglein the same rake angle. Then, the effect of high cutting speed on the flank wear was greater thanthat at low cutting speed. The bigger wedge angle tools led to the serious flank wear. The mainwear pattern in milling HDF consisted of pull-out of the grain, flaking, chipping and cracking,the main wear mechanism were adhesive and abrasive wear

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  • 922.
    Öhman, Micael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Correspondences between manually estimated compression wood in Norway spruce and the warp of the sawn timber1999In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 57, no 5, p. 391-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compression wood is regarded as a serious defect which affects the warp and machinability of sawn timber. To handle these problems, different regulations have been developed regarding grading of sawlogs and of sawn timber. This study is an attempt to clarify the relation between the amount of visible compression wood in Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) and the warping of the sawn timber in terms of bow, spring and twist as well as further deformation after ripping of the dried products. The amount of compression wood was defined and measured on logs according to the methods of the Swedish Timber Measurement Council (Regulations for measuring of round wood) and on the sawn timber according to the Nordic Timber. The impact of two different drying schedules was also investigated. The study shows that visible compression wood in both the butt end of the log and within the sawn timber was a rather poor indicator of the warp of the dried sawn timber. In no comparison did the correlation coefficient, r, exceed 0.3. In contrast to this, the correlation between the amount of compression wood and the warp of secondary products was fair, r = 0.79. This means that it should be possible to identify sawn timber less suitable for secondary processing by the amount of compression wood. The corresponding correlation between compression wood in the butt end of the log and the warp of the secondary products was r = 0.46. No significant differences could be shown in the degree of warp, as related to compression wood, between sawn timber or secondary products, dried at a wet-bulb temperature of 55 °C/117 h, LT-schedule, and a dry-bulb temperature of 110 °C/24 h, HT-schedule, respectively.

  • 923.
    Öhman, Micael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Grade prediction of Pinus sylvestris logs with the aid of a radiograph image log1998In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 13, p. 83-89Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 924.
    Öhman, Micael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Methods for avoiding the negative effects of compression wood2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study of how the selection of raw material and sawing methods affects the magnitude of bow, spring and twist as well as the yield of accepted wall studs when graded with respect to straightness. The focus was on the relation between compression wood in butt logs of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) and the straightness of wall studs, in order to improve the sawmills ability to satisfy the customer demands by straighter sawn products. The following aspects of compression wood in the production process were examined:

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  • 925.
    Öhman, Micael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Modelling compression wood in sawn timber of Scot pine and Norway spruce1999In: Connection between silviculture and wood quality through modelling approaches and simulation softwares: third workshop : La Londe-Les-Maures, France, 1999 : proceedings / [ed] Gérard Nepveu, Nancy: INRA Editions, 1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 926.
    Öhman, Micael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Plank grade indicators in radiograph images of Scots pine logs1999In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 57, no 5, p. 359-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is possible today to detect the internal structure of a log by using X-ray scanning technology. By visual inspection of a longitudinal radiograph image (LRI) of a log, it is possible to manually predict the coming grade of the centre planks. The objective of this study was to identify the features of Scots pine logs visible in the LRI's that were of importance in a manual grading process. The identification of useful features was determined by a survey among respondents connected to the wood and sawmill industry. The test logs originate from the Swedish stem bank and the evaluation of the results was based on the statistical method of partial least square regression (PLS). This study shows that useful indicators of the true grade of the centre planks were the knots and knot-related features as well as the butt swell and the heart wood fraction of the log.

  • 927.
    Öhman, Micael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Prediction of the properties of sawn timber by visual inspection of sawlogs1998Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 928.
    Öhman, Micael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    The measurement of compression wood and other wood features and the prediction of their impact on wood products2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood is a complex and highly variable biological material formed to give the tree best possible conditions for sustaining life. Thus every piece of wood is possessed of unique qualities. The great challenge in the process of manufacturing wood products has always been to select pieces of wood with properties that fulfil requirements for the product. The importance of selecting the right piece of wood will increase along with demands from customers for products with specific properties, such as moisture content, warp, strength, biological and aesthetic features. In order to supply customers with the products they request, a considerably improved selection of the raw material is needed. The earlier an accurate selection can be done, the better. To improve this selection or pregrading process, knowledge of the relationships between different features and different aspects of quality, as well as methods for measuring external and internal features, must be developed. The main objective of this work was to contribute to improved predictability of the quality of dried sawn products using the features both of logs and of sawn green products as input. This work was divided into two parts: Part one focused on the possibility of learning how to predict the quality grades of centre planks by manually inspecting longitudinal radiograph images (LRI) that depict the density variation within a log. In a survey respondents were interviewed regarding their interpretations of the density related features visible in the LRIs of Scots pine logs (Pinus silvestris L). The purpose was to be able to use these interpretations in predicting the final quality of planks sawn from the logs. The LRIs were reconstructed with the aid of an X-ray CT scanner. Part two focused on the relationship between compression wood (CW) in foremost butt logs of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) and the warp of the sawn products, on how to detect CW and on how to predict warp. The logs used in the study were chosen among logs delivered to and sawn at commercial sawmills located in the northern part of Sweden in order to assure that conditions in the study match those extant in commercial sawmills. The most important findings in this thesis are: Longitudinal radiograph images of the density variation within a log can be a powerful aid in manual grading of logs with respect to the quality of the resulting sawn products. The shape of the sawn, but not dried, centre planks is an indicator of both the amount and distribution of compression wood. Basing the cutting of planks on their shapes while still green can considerably increase the total length of acceptably straight dried products. This improvement is achieved through the elimination of compression wood.

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  • 929.
    Öhman, Micael
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Ekevad, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Grubii, Victor
    Remoistering of the wood before planing: a method for improved quality2015In: Proceedings of the 22nd International Wood Machining Seminar / [ed] Roger Hernández; Claudia B. Cáceres, Quebec city, Kanada: Universite Laval , 2015, p. 245-251, article id 5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is beneficial if the machining of wooden products is done at a moisture content equal to the climate the product is meant to be used in. For indoor products in central heated houses such moisture content is about 5-10%. For planing this is often a too low moisture content showing an increased risk of poor surface quality due to severe torn grain. Contrary to this too high moisture content will result in a fuzzy grain surface and problems with swelling and shrinkage of the product. The roughness of a machined wooden surface is affected by a number of different parameters like cutting tool geometry, machine settings and wood structure. The latter is the hardest to control since the surface quality is a result of the local combination of density, grain direction and moisture content. The larger the variation in wood features the more difficult it is to find a combination of tools and machine settings that will give a high surface quality.This study showed that by wetting the surface before machining, in this case planing, the average surface quality could be increased. No time dependences could be shown, wetting short before planing did show as good improvements as wetting treatment for 30 minutes or more.The study was based on a total of 120 test surfaces of Scots pine (Pinus silvestris L.). In order to maximize the variation in grain angle and density variations the test surfaces contained both clear wood as well as green knots.

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  • 930.
    Öhman, Micael
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Grubii, Victor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Ekevad, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Moistening of the wood surface before planing for improved surface quality2016In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 156-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The roughness of a machined wooden surface is affected by a number of factors such as cutting tool geometry, machine settings and wood structure. The influence of wood structure on wood surface quality is difficult to control since the surface roughness is dependent on the local combination of density, grain direction and moisture content (MC). The greater the variation in wood features, the more difficult it is to find a combination of tools and machine settings that will give a high surface quality. The purpose was to study the impact of a surface wetting treatment before planing in order to reduce torn grain in the wood surface near knots in sawn timber of low MC. The study was based on a total of 120 specimens of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). To maximize the variation in grain orientation and density, the specimens contained both clear wood and knots. The results showed that when the surface was moistened before planing, chipped and torn grain in areas of deviating grain close to knots decreased. The response to wetting was rapid, wetting less than 30 s before planing gave as good an improvement as treatment time of 30 min or more.

  • 931.
    Öhman, Micael
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Nyström, Jan
    Measurement of green plank shape for prediction and elimination of compression wood2002In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 377-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to predict the amount and the distribution of compression wood (CW) within a Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] plank based on green plank curvature. The findings indicated a possibility of predicting the longitudinal distribution of CW from the green plank curvature. Areas free from CW showed a typical concave shape in relation to the centre of the log, while CW was present when a convex shape was shown. The larger the magnitude of convex curvature, the higher the concentrations of CW that could be found, and a larger fraction of dried planks was rejected due to excessive warp. This study also determined what information can be used to eliminate areas of high concentrations of CW by cutting and how cutting affects the grading results with respect to warp. Over 50% of the plank length showing a high concentration of CW (> 30% of the cross-cut volume) was successfully cut off. Cutting strategies based on predicted CW concentrations resulted in a 10-40% increase in accepted plank length.

  • 932.
    Öhman, Micael
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Nyström, Jan
    Modelling distribution and amount of compression wood by the shape of the green bow within planks of Norway spruce2003In: IWSS 5: Proceedings / Fifth International conference om image processing and scanning of wood, March 23 to 26, 2003, Bad Waltersdorf, Austria, Europe, Joanneum research , 2003, p. 13-24Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 933.
    Sandberg, Dick (Editor)
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Vaziri, Mojgan (Editor)
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Final Cost Action FP0904 Conference: “Recent Advances in the Field of TH and THM Wood Treatment” : May 19-21, 2014, Skellefteå, Sweden : book of abstracts2014Report (Refereed)
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