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  • 1.
    Andersson, Karl
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Project: PERvasive Computing and COMmunications for sustainable development2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Baumgarten, Matthias
    et al.
    University of Ulster.
    Guldenring, Daniel
    University of Ulster.
    Nugent, Chris
    University of Ulster.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Embedding self-awareness into objects of daily life: the smart kettle2010In: 6th International Conference on Intelligent Environments: IE 2010 : Kuala Lumpur; 19 July 2010 - 21 July 2010, Los Alamitos, Calif, 2010, p. 34-39Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligent Environments on varying scales and for different purposes are slowly becoming a reality. In the near future, global smart world infrastructures will become a commodity that will support various activities of daily life at different degrees of realism. Such infrastructures have the potential to offer dedicated, context- and situation-aware information and services by simultaneously providing the next-generation of data collection, execution and service provisioning layers. One key aspect of this vision is the correct monitoring and understanding of how people interact with their environment; how they can actually benefit from the added intelligence; and finally how future services can be improved or better personalized to enhance human environment interaction as a whole. This level of intelligence is of particular relevance in the health and social care domain where person-centric services can be deployed to assist or even enable a person in performing activities of daily living. This paper discusses the concept of embedded self-aware profiles for smart devices that can be used to gain a deeper contextual understanding of their use and also discusses the emergence of a general model of Ambient Intelligence that is based on the collective existence and behavior of such smart devices. Although generic in principle, the proposed concepts have been exemplified by a distinct use case, namely a smart kettle.

  • 3.
    Beattie, Mark
    et al.
    Computer Science Research Institute and School of Computing and Mathematics, University of Ulster.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Nugent, Chris D.
    University of Ulster. School of Computing and Mathematics, University of Ulster, Computer Science Research Institute, University of Ulster.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Cleland, Ian
    University of Ulster. School of Computing and Mathematics.
    Lee, Sungyoung
    Ubiquitous Computing Laboratory, Kyung Hee University, Seocheon-dong, Giheung-gu.
    A Collaborative Patient-Carer Interface for Generating Home Based Rules for Self-Management2015In: Smart Homes and Health Telematics: 12th International Conference, ICOST 2014, Denver, CO, USA, June 25-27, 2014, Revised Papers / [ed] Cathy Bodine; Sumi Helal; Tao Gu; Mounir Mokhtari, New York: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2015, p. 93-102Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The wide spread prevalence of mobile devices, the decreasing costs of sensor technologies and increased levels of computational power have all lead to a new era in assistive technologies to support persons with Alzheimer’s disease. There is, however, still a requirement to improve the manner in which the technology is integrated into current approaches of care management. One of the key issues relating to this challenge is in providing solutions which can be managed by non-technically orientated healthcare professionals. Within the current work efforts have been made to develop and evaluate new tools with the ability to specify, in a non-technical manner, how the technology within the home environment should be monitored and under which conditions an alarm should be raised. The work has been conducted within the remit of a collaborative patient-carer system to support self-management for dementia. A visual interface has been developed and tested with 10 healthcare professionals. Results following a post evaluation of system usability have been presented and discussed.

  • 4.
    Candefjord, Stefan
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Murayama, Yoshinobu
    College of Engineering, Nihon University.
    Nyberg, Morgan
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Ramser, Kerstin
    Ljungberg, Börje
    Umeå University, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Science, Urology and Andrology.
    Bergh, Anders
    Department of Medical Biosciences Pathology, Umeå University.
    Lindahl, Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Combining scanning haptic microscopy and fibre optic Raman spectroscopy for tissue characterisation2012In: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology, ISSN 0309-1902, E-ISSN 1464-522X, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 319-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tactile resonance method (TRM) and Raman spectroscopy (RS) are promising for tissue characterisation in vivo. Our goal is to combine these techniques into one instrument, to use TRM for swift scanning, and RS for increasing the diagnostic power. The aim of this study was to determine the classification accuracy, using support vector machines, for measurements on porcine tissue and also produce preliminary data on human prostate tissue. This was done by developing a new experimental setup combining micro-scale TRM — scanning haptic microscopy (SHM) — for assessing stiffness on a micro-scale, with fibre optic RS measurements for assessing biochemical content. We compared the accuracy for using SHM alone versus SHM combined with RS, for different degrees of tissue homogeneity. The cross-validation classification accuracy for healthy porcine tissue types using SHM alone was 65–81%, and when RS was added it was increased to 81–87%. The accuracy for healthy and cancerous human tissue was 67–70% when only SHM was used, and increased to 72–77% for the combined measurements. This shows that the potential for swift and accurate classification of healthy and cancerous prostate tissue is high. This is promising for developing a tool for probing the surgical margins during prostate cancer surgery.

  • 5.
    Cleland, I.
    et al.
    School of Computing, Ulster University, Co. Antrim, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom.
    Donnelly, M.P.
    School of Computing, Ulster University, Co. Antrim, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom.
    Nugent, C.D:
    School of Computing, Ulster University, Co. Antrim, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Espinilla, M.
    Department of Computer Science, University of Jaen, Jaen, Spain.
    Garcia-Constantino, M.
    School of Computing, Ulster University, Co. Antrim, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom.
    Collection of a Diverse, Realistic and Annotated Dataset for Wearable Activity Recognition2018In: 2018 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops, PerCom Workshops 2018, IEEE, 2018, p. 555-560, article id 8480322Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the opportunities and challenges associated with the collection of a large scale, diverse dataset for Activity Recognition. The dataset was collected by 141 undergraduate students, in a controlled environment. Students collected triaxial accelerometer data from a wearable accelerometer whilst each carrying out 3 of the 18 investigated activities, categorized into 6 scenarios of daily living. This data was subsequently labelled, anonymized and uploaded to a shared repository. This paper presents an analysis of data quality, through outlier detection and assesses the suitability of the dataset for the creation and validation of Activity Recognition models. This is achieved through the application of a range of common data driven machine learning approaches. Finally, the paper describes challenges identified during the data collection process and discusses how these could be addressed. Issues surrounding data quality, in particular, identifying and addressing poor calibration of the data were identified. Results highlight the potential of harnessing these diverse data for Activity Recognition. Based on a comparison of six classification approaches, a Random Forest provided the best classification (F-measure: 0.88). In future data collection cycles, participants will be encouraged to collect a set of 'common' activities, to support generation of a larger homogeneous dataset. Future work will seek to refine the methodology further and to evaluate model on new unseen data.

  • 6.
    Cleland, Ian
    et al.
    University of Ulster. School of Computing and Mathematics.
    Kikhia, Basel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Nugent, Chris
    University of Ulster. School of Computing and Mathematics.
    Boytsov, Andrey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    McClean, Sally
    Computing and Information Engineering, University of Ulster.
    Finlay, Dewar
    University of Ulster. School of Computing and Mathematics.
    Optimal Placement of Accelerometers for the Detection of Everyday Activities2013In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 13, no 7, p. 9183-9200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes an investigation to determine the optimal placement of accelerometers for the purpose of detecting a range of everyday activities. The paper investigates the effect of combining data from accelerometers placed at various bodily locations on the accuracy of activity detection. Eight healthy males participated within the study. Data were collected from six wireless tri-axial accelerometers placed at the chest, wrist, lower back, hip, thigh and foot. Activities included walking, running on a motorized treadmill, sitting, lying, standing and walking up and down stairs. The Support Vector Machine provided the most accurate detection of activities of all the machine learning algorithms investigated. Although data from all locations provided similar levels of accuracy, the hip was the best single location to record data for activity detection using a Support Vector Machine, providing small but significantly better accuracy than the other investigated locations. Increasing the number of sensing locations from one to two or more statistically increased the accuracy of classification. There was no significant difference in accuracy when using two or more sensors. It was noted, however, that the difference in activity detection using single or multiple accelerometers may be more pronounced when trying to detect finer grain activities. Future work shall therefore investigate the effects of accelerometer placement on a larger range of these activities

  • 7.
    Cruciani, Federico
    et al.
    Ulster University.
    Cleland, Ian
    Ulster University.
    Nugent, Chris
    Ulster University.
    McCullagh, Paul
    Ulster University.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Personalized Online Training for Physical Activity monitoring using weak labels2018In: 2018 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PerCom Workshops), IEEE, 2018, p. 567-572Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of smartphones for activity recognition is becoming common practice. Most approaches use a single pretrained classifier to recognize activities for all users. Research studies, however, have highlighted how a personalized trained classifier could provide better accuracy. Data labeling for ground truth generation, however, is a time-consuming process. The challenge is further exacerbated when opting for a personalized approach that requires user specific datasets to be labeled, making conventional supervised approaches unfeasible. In this work, we present early results on the investigation into a weakly supervised approach for online personalized activity recognition. This paper describes: (i) a heuristic to generate weak labels used for personalized training, (ii) a comparison of accuracy obtained using a weakly supervised classifier against a conventional ground truth trained classifier. Preliminary results show an overall accuracy of 87% of a fully supervised approach against a 74% with the proposed weakly supervised approach.

  • 8.
    Cruciani, Frederico
    et al.
    Computer Science Research Institute, Ulster University, Newtownabbey BT370QB, UK.
    Cleland, Ian
    Computer Science Research Institute, Ulster University, Newtownabbey BT370QB, UK.
    Nugent, Chris
    Computer Science Research Institute, Ulster University, Newtownabbey BT370QB, UK.
    McCullagh, Paul
    Computer Science Research Institute, Ulster University, Newtownabbey BT370QB, UK.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Automatic annotation for human activity recognition in free living using a smartphone2018In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 18, no 7, article id 2203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data annotation is a time-consuming process posing major limitations to the development of Human Activity Recognition (HAR) systems. The availability of a large amount of labeled data is required for supervised Machine Learning (ML) approaches, especially in the case of online and personalized approaches requiring user specific datasets to be labeled. The availability of such datasets has the potential to help address common problems of smartphone-based HAR, such as inter-person variability. In this work, we present (i) an automatic labeling method facilitating the collection of labeled datasets in free-living conditions using the smartphone, and (ii) we investigate the robustness of common supervised classification approaches under instances of noisy data. We evaluated the results with a dataset consisting of 38 days of manually labeled data collected in free living. The comparison between the manually and the automatically labeled ground truth demonstrated that it was possible to obtain labels automatically with an 80–85% average precision rate. Results obtained also show how a supervised approach trained using automatically generated labels achieved an 84% f-score (using Neural Networks and Random Forests); however, results also demonstrated how the presence of label noise could lower the f-score up to 64–74% depending on the classification approach (Nearest Centroid and Multi-Class Support Vector Machine).

  • 9. Drugge, Mikael
    et al.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Parnes, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Wearable systems in nursing home care: prototyping experience2006In: IEEE pervasive computing, ISSN 1536-1268, E-ISSN 1558-2590, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 86-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of a wearable prototype systems after studies conducted in a nursing home care is discussed. The specific problems encountered by medical workers at nursing homes includes communication, information dissemination, access to patient charts and organizational issues. The failure of which may cause stress, discomfort, and dissatisfaction among caretakers and patients as well as possible detrimental health consequences for patients. A Wizard of Oz experiments was used to retrieve information, process interrupting phone calls, to simplify communication with others, and to minimize the interaction needed with the wearable computer.

  • 10. Drugge, Mikael
    et al.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Parnes, Peter
    Relieving the medical workers' daily work through wearable and pervasive computing2005In: ICE2005: the 11th International Conference on Concurrent Enterprising : integrated engineering of products, services and organisations, Munich, Germany 20-22 June 2005, Nottingham: Centre for concurrent enterprising, University of Nottongham , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We intend to relieve the daily work at care-centers, allowing medical workers to focus on the patients and their needs. This goal can be achieved by employing technology that automate and simplify tasks previously requiring tedious interventions, giving more time for the important human to human interaction. For any technology to become accepted by the medical workers, we must ensure that it is highly natural and unobtrusive, without interfering with their caregiving. By studying the medical workers’ daily work, we can draw conclusions on what problems they encounter, allowing us to develop prototypes which can be deployed and used at the care-centers. In doing this, we can proceed to study the acceptance and usability of our proposed solution, and see whether and how it solves the problem. In this position paper, we present our current and future research in wearable and pervasive health-care.

  • 11.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Context-sharing and mediated communication for smart environments2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The deployment of pervasive computing technology and services has enabled the creation of smart environments which assist people in their daily activities. However, the deployment of technology and services into these smart environments has been obstructed due to many factors, most notably from the lack of proper models, rules and services. This thesis presents novel solutions for context-sharing intended to make utilisation of smart environments less complex and more cost efficient. It also presents solutions for mediated communication services which uses the power of smart environments to improve quality, flexibility and usability. The proposed solutions have all been evaluated through implementation and testing of proof-of-concept prototypes. Smart environments can provide a range of different services, such as giving warnings or reminders. Nevertheless, creation and personalisation of services can be complex and time consuming tasks, which promotes the creation of a common approach for tackling the heterogeneous nature of services and data. This thesis proposes such a common approach in the form of the openHome Suite which handles data collection, data analysis, and decision support for smart environments using XML. HomeML and HomeRuleML, two core components of the openHome Suite, supports sharing of context and rules with other research organizations and developers. It simplifies deployment through the creation of models which can be reused between smart environments. Tools for mediated communication are common in many smart environments. This thesis proposes how to utilise the smart environment to improve multimedia communication. A smart environment enables a user to transfer media content between devices for better quality, cost, and privacy. This thesis proposes context-aware communication and demonstrates how this can be established automatically by using the developed HomeRuleML approach, an approach which enables the representation and exchange of decision support rules. The study of context-aware communication and automatic establishment of communication has resulted in a new concept for communication called "dynamic groups" which is a simple and powerful group communication service. The concept has been proven through the development and evaluation of a prototype for mobile devices using near field communication. The research solutions presented in this thesis have been evaluated in the area of remote healthcare, for which simpler deployment of services into smart environments and better communication possibilities for patients becomes possible. This has the potential knock-on effect of decreased healthcare costs and improved support for the daily activities to improve a patient's wellbeing. Overall the work is done with an overarching aim for smart environments to help people stay out of hospitals in favour of living a richer life in their own homes.

  • 12.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Dynamic groups - context-aware group communication2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As more and more people choose to live at home as they grow older the need for supportive environments increases. One of the identified needs is social interaction which can keep elders from becoming lonely and isolated. This need can be addressed by technology, but it has to be simple and intuitive to use, as the users may lack computer experience. The dynamic groups model is an attempt to solve this problem and provide users with context-aware group communication tools. A dynamic group model defines "group communication where the participants can be invited based on context and social networks in both physical and virtual settings". This model has similarities to existing communication solutions but dynamic groups offer new functionality such as automatic group formation based on predefined rules. This means a user could automatically be connected to a video-conference meeting with family members while eating breakfast, or be connected to healthcare personnel in the event of an accident.Dynamic groups utilize open standards for both context storage and decision support rules. This means it integrates into smart-environments and work together with other activity support services to provide better functionality. Furthermore it means that decision support rules can be tested and then shared with others for simple deployment. Setting up dynamic groups is then a matter of choosing between available rules, or creating new rules, which suit the user's needs. A user could for instance select rules like "breakfast with the family" or "notify healthcare personnel upon accidents". Furthermore, dynamic groups can be formed between co-located people in a simple manner. Through the user of for example Near Field Communication a group can be formed by reading a small tag. This could be quite useful for nurses who come to visit and wish to follow up on the house-call, or for the patient to help remember visitors, or even to talk to the visitors after they left. Dynamic groups make virtual social interaction simple and users are assisted in maintaining their social network through context-awareness and decision support rules.

  • 13.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Improving everyday experiences using awareness and rich communication2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate thesis presents ubiquitous systems for human communication and awareness from the perspectives of improving our everyday life experiences and relieving our scarcest resource, ourselves. The thesis also presents different methods of designing such systems with the user needs in focus. The goal of this work is to construct systems which support the user with context-based information and functionality that simplifies the user's tasks. The applied nature of this thesis is indicated by the three prototypes, which has been developed and evaluated. The first prototype provided spectators of sport-events with added information about the contestants and hence improved the experience of the event. The second prototype supported nurses in elderly care with their tasks by making organization and information gathering less time consuming and thus leaving more time for talking to the patients. Finally, the third prototype realized a system for ubiquitous human communication. The third prototype utilizes an algorithm for selecting and using media resources in the environment. This algorithm decouples several difficult problems and can be used to combine leading research in different areas of awareness together to create accurate resource selection. The motivation for creating prototypes has been to get experience from using systems which empower users and to find methods for satisfying user needs. Involving users early in the design process can help satisfy user needs. Hence, it is important to find methods and strategies for involving users, especially as not everyone can see the opportunities a new technology has to offer. In this thesis four methods and strategies are described and tested. These are paper prototypes, wizard of oz studies, questionnaires and real prototypes which were developed and then evaluated. These methods are compared and some of the findings are being discussed in this thesis. The evaluation of the prototypes and the user-studies show that it is possible to improve everyday life experiences using a combination of ubiquitous, pervasive, wearable and context-aware computing. A majority of all the users who answered the questionnaire for the first prototype answered that the system improved their experience of the sport event. The nurses who used the second prototype were positively surprised over how the technology could save both time and create a better group awareness. Most of the users who participated in the user-study for the third prototype were positive to using a mix of media resources to get richer communication, they were also in favour of using resources in the environment to save money and improve quality. The main results in this thesis are valuable insights into user opinions of ubiquitous systems, methods for involving users in the design process, and several design rules which can serve as a guideline for designing future ubiquitous systems.

  • 14.
    Hallberg, Josef
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Backlund-Norberg, Mia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Kristiansson, Johan
    Ericsson Research AB.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Nugent, Chris
    University of Ulster.
    Creating dynamic groups using context-awareness2007In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia: December 12 - 14, 2007, Oulu, Finland / [ed] Timo Ojala, Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2007, p. 42-49Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the conceptual communication model of dynamic groups, that dynamically utilizes three traditional communication metaphors through the use of context-based information. Dynamic groups makes creation, management and usage of groups easy. It enables social network structures to be maintained in both virtual and face-to-face settings as well as in the combination thereof. This article defines the dynamic management of advanced contact lists which can include presence and status information, a/synchronous multimedia communication tools, and methods for structuring social networks. It also contains an initial evaluation and a proposed architecture for technical realisation.

  • 15.
    Hallberg, Josef
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Backlund-Norberg, Mia
    Synnes, Kåre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Nugent, Chris
    Computer Science Research Institute, University of Ulster.
    Profile management for dynamic groups2009In: Intelligent Patient Management, Berlin: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2009, p. 297-313Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing need in supporting social networking for groups who often become isolated, such as elders living at home. In a social network people with similar diseases and ailments can find each other and share information to improve their understanding of their illness. Group communication tools can help maintain a virtual social network and provide a base for information retrieval. Nevertheless, they often lack the strengths of the social networking tools and vice versa. Within this work we have developed a new concept called dynamic groups. Dynamic groups make creation, management, and usage of groups for communication and social networking easy. Nevetheless, for this to work the profile management system is required to handle more than just user information, it is required to provide users with control over their data and offer privacy and customisation capabilities. This article presents HomeCom, a model for profile management in dynamic groups. It also presents the solutions for making queries, as well as the solutions for privacy and customisation using multiple profiles and an integrated rule engine.

  • 16.
    Hallberg, Josef
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Casati, Fabio
    University of Trento.
    Hedman, Anders
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Plomp, Johan
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Mental Wellbeing for Active Healthy Ageing2014Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Hallberg, Josef
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Kikhia, Basel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Bengtsson, Johan
    InterNIT.
    Sävenstedt, Stefan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing Care.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Reminiscence processes using life-log entities for persons with mild dementia2009In: Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Reminiscence Systems (RSW-2009): Cambridge, UK, 5 September, 2009, 2009, p. 16-21Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present the reminiscence process in a prototype memory support tool for persons with mild dementia. The purpose is to promote autonomy for persons with mild dementia by supporting actualization and maintenance of episodic memories, and real-time access to a context-annotated life log.  The main research challenges are defined with a user scenario, Suitable reminiscence methods and memory entitities to reperesent life logs are described, and a preliminary architecture is presented. Finally an early design of a concrete ReviewClient is shown, to solicit feedback on the reminiscence methods, entitites chosen, architecture and the usability of the proposed interface.

  • 18.
    Hallberg, Josef
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Nilsson, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Positioning with Bluetooth2003In: 10th International Conference on Telecommunications: ICT 2003 ; February 23 - March 1, 2003, Sofitel Coralia Maeva Beach Hotel, Tahiti, Papeete, French Polynesia, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2003, p. 954-958Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an evaluation of Bluetooth positioning in a general positioning platform. Proceeding the evaluation a Bluetooth based positioning system was implemented in order to complement the theoretical evaluation with empirical tests. Three different ways of positioning with Bluetooth have been developed. With a registered positioning service a Bluetooth device has an active role in the positioning task as it sends a position on request. A Bluetooth device can also take a more passive role in a positioning task, where the unique address of the device is used by a connected device to look up respective position in a database. It is also possible to forward a position gained from the positioning platform using the peer to peer characteristics in Bluetooth. This paper does also contain a discussion on the theoretical time requirements for a positioning system based on Bluetooth. Empirical tests show that these requirements hold.

  • 19.
    Hallberg, Josef
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Nugent, Chris D.
    IEEE.
    Davies, Richard J.
    University of Ulster. School of Computing and Mathematics.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Donnelly, Mark P.
    University of Ulster. School of Computing and Mathematics.
    Finlay, Dewar
    University of Ulster. School of Computing and Mathematics.
    Mulvenna, Maurice
    University of Ulster. School of Computing and Mathematics.
    HomeRuleML: a model for the exchange of decision support rules within smart environments2007In: IEEE International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering, 2007: CASE 2007 ; 22 - 25 Sept. 2007, Scottsdale, Arizona, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2007, p. 513-520Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demands for smart environments, which can help to facilitate as well as monitor independent living are increasing. With this comes a desire for decision support rules to process data recorded from such environments. However, testing and evaluating rules can be both time-consuming and indeed stressful for the inhabitants. Within this paper we propose a model, referred to as HomeRuleML, for representing decision support rules for smart environments. The motivating factor behind such a proposal is to provide a widely and freely accessible set of rules which can be openly used and exchanged within the research domain and beyond. This model has the potential to decrease the time required for deployment, and inevitability improve the inhabitants' quality of life. In the paper we explain in detail the structure of adopting this approach and also provide an indication of the typical types of software tools required for its use.

  • 20.
    Hallberg, Josef
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Nugent, Chris
    University of Ulster. School of Computing and Mathematics.
    Davies, Richard
    University of Ulster. School of Computing and Mathematics.
    Donnelly, Mark
    University of Ulster. School of Computing and Mathematics.
    Localisation of forgotten items using RFID technology2009In: 2009 9th International Conference on Information Technology and Applications in Biomedicine: ITAB 2009 ; Larnaka, Cyprus, 4 - 7 November 2009 ; [including workshop papers], Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2009, p. 310-313Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The frequency with which items are misplaced increases with age, leading to increased frustration and anxiety especially for those who develop cognitive impairments such as dementia. Providing ICT support to assist with relocating items can significantly contribute to sustain independent living. In this paper we present a method for locating RFID tagged items throughout a home environment. Specifically, items are located by comparing and analysing signal strength, received from tagged items, with that received from anumber of fixed location reference tags. This paper presents experiments which have been performed within a typical living environment using homogeneous and practical placement of reference tags. This is performed to consider the feasibility of RFID positioning in such environments. Results obtained indicate that the approach provides acceptable location estimation in pervasive environments with sparsely placed reference tags, however, further investigation is required to accurately quantify its value

  • 21.
    Hallberg, Josef
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Svensson, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Enhanced Experience of Sport Events2004Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a system where Internet-enabled sensor technology was integrated into a context information platform to give viewers of sport events an enriched media experience. The system was developed as a proof of concept and was evaluated during real-life use at the Vasaloppet cross-country ski event. Using Bluetooth wireless ad-hoc networking and GPRS technology, sensor data was transmitted from contestants to a context information platform, which in turn presented the sport event viewer with a personalized, context-aware view.

  • 22.
    Hallberg, Josef
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Svensson, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Östmark, Åke
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Enriched media-experience of sport events2004In: Proceedings: Sixth IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications, WMCSA 2004 : 2 - 3 December 2004, Windermere, Cumbria, United Kingdom, Los Alamitos, Calif: IEEE Communications Society, 2004, p. 2-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a system where Internet-enabled sensor technology was integrated into a context-aware platform to give viewers of sport events an enriched media experience. The system was developed as a proof of concept and was evaluated during real-life use at the Vasaloppet cross-country ski event. Using Bluetooth wireless ad-hoc networking and GPRS technology, sensor data was transmitted from contestants to the context-aware platform Alipes, which in turn presented the sport event viewer with a personalized, context-aware view. In this paper we discuss the system architecture and integration of components. The system was evaluated both from technical and user perspectives, where the evaluation results confirm our approach to be technically feasible and that the system provide an enriched media-experience for the majority of viewers.

  • 23.
    Hedemalm, Emil
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Kor, Ah-Lian
    Leeds Beckett University.
    Andersson, Karl
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Pattinson, Colin
    School of Computing, Creative Technologies & Engineering, Leeds Beckett University.
    Promoting green transportation via persuasive games2017In: International SEEDS Conference 2017: Sustainable Ecological Engineering Design for Society – 13th & 14th September 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is now widely accepted that human behaviour accounts for a large portion of total global emissions, and thus influences climate change to a large extent (IPCC, 2014). Changing human behaviour when it comes to mode of transportation is one component which could make a difference in the long term. In order to achieve behavioural change, we investigate the use of a persuasive multiplayer game. Transportation mode recognition is used within the game to provide bonuses and penalties to users based on their daily choices regarding transportation. Preliminary results from testers of the game indicate that using games may be successful in causing positive change in user behaviour.

  • 24.
    Hedman, Anders
    et al.
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Cognitive Endurance for Brain Health: Challenges of Creating an Intelligent Warning System2015In: Künstliche Intelligenz, ISSN 0933-1875, E-ISSN 1610-1987, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 123-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past few years, the market for apps monitoring traditional health and wellbeing parameters such as heart rate, levels of physical activity and sleep patterns has rapidly expanded. In this paper, we articulate how we are currently engineering an early warning system designed to support long-term brain health, termed cognitive endurance, based on such monitoring. It can be thought of as a rudimentary expert system. It will monitor physical and social activity, stress and sleep patterns and signal when these parameters are such that a person’s cognitive endurance might be at risk. The aim of the system is to guide the user to adopt sustainable behavioral patterns from a cognitive endurance perspective. This paper articulates (1) what we mean by cognitive endurance, (2) how cognitive endurance may be enhanced, (3) our cognitive endurance monitoring platform, (4) our approach to calculating cognitive endurance risk, (5) specific challenges related to our approach and (6) what the long term benefits might be of successively monitoring cognitive endurance

  • 25.
    Hedman, Anders
    et al.
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Karvonen, Niklas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Merilahti, Juho
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.
    Designing ICT for Health and Wellbeing2014In: Ambient Assisted Living and Daily Activities: 6th International Work-Conference, IWAAL 2014, Belfast, UK, December 2-5, 2014. Proceedings, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2014, p. 244-251Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We are developing a monitoring and coaching app for health and wellbeing based on (1) an allostatic model of adaption combined with (2) behavioural change theory and (3) user-oriented design. The (1) allostatic model comes from stress research and was introduced to explain how human health and wellbeing can be maintained. It suggests that human health and wellbeing is a complex multidimensional phenomenon that needs to be understood holistically. We have used this model to incorporate the dimensions of human health and wellbeing that are key for stress reduction: physical and social activity and sleep. The allostatic model can allow us to understand human health and wellbeing but it does not tell us how to support the behavioural changes needed in order to reach a healthy state of allostasis. For this we rely on (2) theory of behavioural change. This article describes how we have integrated (1-3) into the system design and reports from an initial workshop with users.

  • 26.
    Hong, Xin
    et al.
    Ulster University.
    Nugent, Chris
    Ulster University.
    Finley, Dewar
    Ulster University.
    Chen, Luke
    Ulster University.
    Davies, Richard
    Ulster University.
    Wang, Haiying
    Ulster University.
    Donnelly, Mark
    Ulster University.
    Zheng, Huiru
    Ulster University.
    Mulvenna, Maurice
    Ulster University.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    OpenHome: Approaches to Constructing Sharable Datasets within Smart Homes2009In: CHI '09: Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, New York: ACM Digital Library, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present our initial efforts to develop approaches for structuring and building openly accessible, scalable, shared home behaviour datasets within smart home communities.

  • 27.
    Karvonen, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Jimenez, Lara Lorna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Gomez Simon, Miguel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Nilsson, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Kikhia, Basel
    Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder 4879 Grimstad, Norway.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Classifier Optimized for Resource-constrained Pervasive Systems and Energy-efficiency2017In: International Journal of Computational Intelligence Systems, ISSN 1875-6891, E-ISSN 1875-6883, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 1272-1279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computational intelligence is often used in smart environment applications in order to determine a user’scontext. Many computational intelligence algorithms are complex and resource-consuming which can beproblematic for implementation devices such as FPGA:s, ASIC:s and low-level microcontrollers. Thesetypes of devices are, however, highly useful in pervasive and mobile computing due to their small size,energy-efficiency and ability to provide fast real-time responses. In this paper, we propose a classi-fier, CORPSE, specifically targeted for implementation in FPGA:s, ASIC:s or low-level microcontrollers.CORPSE has a small memory footprint, is computationally inexpensive, and is suitable for parallel processing.The classifier was evaluated on eight different datasets of various types. Our results show thatCORPSE, despite its simplistic design, has comparable performance to some common machine learningalgorithms. This makes the classifier a viable choice for use in pervasive systems that have limitedresources, requires energy-efficiency, or have the need for fast real-time responses.

  • 28.
    Karvonen, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Kikhia, Basel
    Jimenez, Lara Lorna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Gomez Simon, Miguel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    A Computationally Inexpensive Classifier Merging Cellular Automata and MCP-Neurons2016In: Ubiquitous Computing and Ambient Intelligence: 10th International Conference, UCAmI 2016, San Bartolomé de Tirajana, Gran Canaria, Spain, November 29 – December 2, 2016, Part II / [ed] Carmelo R. García, Pino Caballero-Gil, Mike Burmester, Alexis Quesada-Arencibia, Springer, 2016, Vol. 2, p. 368-379Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing need for personalised and context-aware services in our everyday lives and we rely on mobile and wearable devices to provide such services. Context-aware applications often make use of machine-learning algorithms, but many of these are too complex or resource-consuming for implementation on some devices that are common in pervasive and mobile computing. The algorithm presented in this paper, named CAMP, has been developed to obtain a classifier that is suitable for resource-constrained devices such as FPGA:s, ASIC:s or microcontrollers. The algorithm uses a combination of the McCulloch-Pitts neuron model and Cellular Automata in order to produce a computationally inexpensive classifier with a small memory footprint. The algorithm consists of a sparse binary neural network where neurons are updated using a Cellular Automata rule as the activation function. Output of the classifier is depending on the selected rule and the interconnections between the neurons. Since solving the input-output mapping mathematically can not be performed using traditional optimization algorithms, the classifier is trained using a genetic algorithm. The results of the study show that CAMP, despite its minimalistic structure, has a comparable accuracy to that of more advanced algorithms for the datasets tested containing few classes, while performing poorly on the datasets with a higher amount of classes. CAMP could thus be a viable choice for solving classification problems in environments with extreme demands on low resource consumption

  • 29.
    Kikhia, Basel
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Bengtsson, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Sani, Zaheer ul Hussain
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Creating digital life stories through activity recognition with image filtering2010In: Aging friendly technology for health and independence: 8th International Conference on Smart Homes and Health Telematics, ICOST 2010, Seoul, Korea, June 22-24, 2010 ; proceedings / [ed] Yeunsook Lee, Berlin: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2010, p. 203-210Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents two algorithms that enables the MemoryLane system to support persons with mild dementia through creation of digital life stories. The MemoryLane system consists of a Logging Kit that captures context and image data, and a Review Client that recognizes activities and enables review of the captured data. The image filtering algorithm is based on image characteristics such as brightness, blurriness and similarity, and is a central component of the Logging Kit. The activity recognition algorithm is based on the captured contextual data together with concepts of persons and places. The initial results indicate that the MemoryLane system is technically feasible and that activity-based creation of digital life stories for persons with mild dementia is possible.

  • 30.
    Kikhia, Basel
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Boytsov, Andrey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Sani, Zaheer ul Hussain
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Jonsson, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Structuring and Presenting Lifelogs based on Location Data2014In: Pervasive Computing Paradigms for Mental Health: 4th International Symposium, MindCare 2014, Tokyo, Japan, May 8-9, 2014, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Pietro Cipresso; Alaksandar Matic; Guillaume Lopez, Cham: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2014, p. 133-144Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lifelogging techniques help individuals to log their life and retrieve important events, memories and experiences. Structuring lifelogs is a major challenge in lifelogging systems since the system should present the logs in a concise and meaningful way to the user. In this paper the authors present an approach for structuring lifelogs as places and activities based on location data. The structured lifelogs are achieved using a combination of density-based clustering algorithms and convex hull construction to identify the places of interest. The periods of time where the user lingers at the same place are then identified as possible activities. In addition to structuring lifelogs the authors present an application in which images are associated to the structuring results and presented to the user for reviewing. The system is evaluated through a user study consisting of 12 users, who used the system for 1 day and then answered a survey. The proposed approach in this paper allows automatic inference of information about significant places and activities, which generates structured image-annotated logs of everyday life.

  • 31.
    Kikhia, Basel
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Boytsov, Andrey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Sani, Zaheer ul Hussain
    Jonsson, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Structuring and presenting lifelogs based on location data2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lifelogging techniques help individuals to log their life and retrieve important events, memories and experiences. Structuring lifelogs is a major challenge in lifelogging systems since the system should present the logs in a concise and meaningful way to the user. In this article the authors present a novel approach for structuring lifelogs as places and activities based on location data. The structured lifelogs are achieved using a combination of density-based clustering algorithms and convex hull construction to identify the places of interest. The periods of time where the user lingers at the same place are then identified as possible activities. In addition to structuring lifelogs the authors present an application in which images are associated to the structuring results and presented to the user for reviewing. The proposed approach allows automatic inference of information about significant places and activities, which generates structured image-annotated logs of everyday life.

  • 32.
    Kikhia, Basel
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Visualizing and managing stress through colors and images2013In: Proceeding: SenseCam '13 Proceedings of the 4th International SenseCam & Pervasive Imaging Conference, New York: ACM Digital Library, 2013, p. 78-79Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress is a widespread health problem [1] and technical solutions to manage stress are limited. This abstract presents a novel solution for identifying stressful situations using a sensecam and a skin conductance sensor. The presented system brings awareness to the user about emotional reactions in life that she might not always be aware of, and therefore helps people in managing their life to better maintain their wellbeing

  • 33.
    Kikhia, Basel
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Bengtsson, Johan
    InterNIT.
    Sävenstedt, Stefan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing Care.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Building digital life stories for memory support2010In: International Journal of Computers in Healthcare, ISSN 1755-3199, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 161-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of persons suffering from dementia is increasing, and there is significant human and economic value to gain by enabling them to keep living independently in their homes. The top priority unmet need is for memory support. This paper introduces context-awareness and life-logging in a system using reminiscence therapy methods, embodied as an ICT memory aid for recording past, current and future activities, which can later be recalled. The tool may help build or maintain episodic memories and self-image, although evidence in this area is lacking. It is designed to also give direct and instrumental support in other priority needs areas. A prototype design is described for a system that is by necessity extremely easy to use, with a touch screen computer in the home and mobile devices for data capture and cognitive support. The main life-log entities associated with the logged activities are places, persons, personal items, and recorded media. Privacy, trust and dignity are key ethical issues.

  • 34. Kikhia, Basel
    et al.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Sani, Zaheer ul Hussain
    Context-aware life-logging for persons with mild dementia2009In: 2009 annual international conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society: EMBC 2009 ; Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA, 3 - 6 September 2009, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2009, p. 6183-6186Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demands of introducing technology to support independent living is increasing. This is true also for persons suffering from mild dementia who may have difficulties remembering important information, such as activities, numbers, names, objects, faces, and so on. This paper presents a context-aware life-logging system, called MemoryLane, which can support independent living and improve quality of life for persons with mild dementia. The system offers both real time support as well as possibilities to rehearse and recall activities for building episodic memory. This paper also presents a mobile client to be used in MemoryLane, as well as an evaluation of the importance of different data for the purpose of memory recollection.

  • 35.
    Kikhia, Basel
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Simon, Miguel Gomez
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Jimenez, Lara Lorna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Karvonen, Niklas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Analyzing Body Movements within the Laban Effort Framework using a Single Accelerometer2014In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 5725-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a study on analyzing body movements by using a single accelerometer sensor. The investigated categories of body movements belong to the Laban Effort Framework: Strong - Light, Free – Bound and Sudden - Sustained. All body movements were represented by a set of activities used for data collection. The calculated accuracy of detecting the body movements was based on collecting data from a single wireless tri-axial accelerometer sensor. Ten healthy subjects collected data from three body locations (chest, wrist and thigh) simultaneously in order to analyze the locations comparatively. The data was then processed and analyzed using Machine Learning techniques. The wrist placement was found to be the best single location to record data for detecting (Strong – Light) body movements using the Random Forest classifier. The wrist placement was also the best location for classifying (Bound – Free) body movements using the SVM classifier. However, the data collected from the chest placement yielded the best results for detecting (Sudden – Sustained) body movements using the Random Forest classifier. The study shows that the choice of the accelerometer placement should depend on the targeted type of movement. In addition, the choice of the classifier when processing data should also depend on the chosen location and the target movement.

  • 36.
    Kikhia, Basel
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Stavropoulos, Thanos G.
    Information Technologies Institute, Centre for Research & Technology Hellas.
    Meditskos, Georgios
    Information Technologies Institute, Centre for Research & Technology Hellas.
    Kompatsiaris, Ioannis
    Information Technologies Institute, Centre for Research & Technology Hellas.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Sävenstedt, Stefan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing Care.
    Melander, Catharina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing Care.
    Utilizing ambient and wearable sensors to monitor sleep and stress for people with BPSD in nursing homes2018In: Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing, ISSN 1868-5137, E-ISSN 1868-5145, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 261-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical assessment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in nursing homes is often based on staff member’s observations and the use of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Nursing Home version (NPI-NH) instrument. This requires continuous observation of the person with BPSD, and a lot of effort and manual input from the nursing home staff. This article presents the DemaWare@NH monitoring framework system, which complements traditional methods in measuring patterns of behavior, namely sleep and stress, for people with BPSD in nursing homes. The framework relies on ambient and wearable sensors for observing the users and analytics to assess their conditions. In our proof-of-concept scenario, four residents from two nursing homes were equipped with sleep and skin sensors, whose data is retrieved, processed and analyzed by the framework, detecting and highlighting behavioral problems, and providing relevant, accurate information to clinicians on sleep and stress patterns. The results indicate that structured information from sensors can ease and improve the understanding of behavioral patterns, and, as a consequence, the efficiency of care interventions, yielding a positive impact on the quality of the clinical assessment process for people with BPSD in nursing homes.

  • 37.
    Konstantinidis, Stathis
    et al.
    NORUT Northern research institute.
    Brox, Ellen
    NORUT Northern research institute.
    Kommervold, Per Egil
    NORUT Northern research institute.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Evertsen, Gunn
    NORUT Northern research institute.
    Hirche, Johannes
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Online Social Exergames for Seniors: Pillar of Gamification for Clinical Practice2016In: Handbook of Research on Holistic Perspectives in Gamification for Clinical Practice, IGI Global, 2016, p. 245-276Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The population is getting older, and the resources for care will be even more limited in the future than they are now. There is thus an aim for the society that the seniors can manage themselves as long as possible, while at the same time keeping a high quality of life. Physical activity is important to stay fit, and social contact is important for the quality of life. This chapter aims to provide a state-of-the-art of online social exergames for seniors, providing glimpses of senior users’ opinions and games limitations. The importance of the motivational techniques will be emphasized, as well as the impact that the exergames have to seniors. It will contribute to the book objectives focusing on current state and practice in health games for physical training and rehabilitation and the use of gamification, exploring future opportunities and uses of gamification in eHealth and discussing the respective challenges and limitations.

  • 38.
    Kostenius, Catrine
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Lindqvist, Anna-Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    A slice of the win-win game: Swedish schoolchildren’s ideas on gamification to promote physical activity and cognitive ability2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Kostenius, Catrine
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehabilitation.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Lindqvist, Anna-Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehabilitation.
    Gamification of health education: Schoolchildren’s participation in the development of a serious game to promote health and learning2018In: Health Education, ISSN 0965-4283, E-ISSN 1758-714X, Vol. 118, no 4, p. 354-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The use of modern technology has many challenges and risks. However, by collaborating with schoolchildren, ideas to effectively promote health and learning in school can be identified. This study aimed to examine how a participatory approach can deepen the understanding of how schoolchildren relate to and use gamification as a tool to promote physical activity and learning.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Inspired by the concept and process of empowerment and child participation, the methodological focus of this study was on consulting schoolchildren. During a 2-month period, 18 schoolchildren (10–12-years-old) participated in workshops to create game ideas that would motivate them to be physically active and learn in school.

    Findings

    The phenomenological analysis resulted in one main theme, ‘Playing games for fun to be the best I can be’. This consisted of four themes with two sub-themes each. The findings offer insights on how to increase physical activity and health education opportunities using serious games in school.

    Originality/value

    The knowledge gained provides gamification concepts and combinations of different technological applications to increase health and learning, as well as motivational aspects suggested by the schoolchildren. The findings are discussed with health promotion and health education in mind.

  • 40. Kristiansson, Johan
    et al.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Svensson, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Parnes, Peter
    Supporting automatic media resource selection using context-awareness2005In: The Third International Conference on Advances in Mobile Multimedia: (MoMM2005), September 19-21, 2005, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia / [ed] G. Kotsis, Die Österreichische Computer Gesellschaft, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a world of ubiquitous media resources, such as cameras, displays, microphones, provided by a wide variety of multimedia systems, there is a need for automatic resource selection which seamlessly utilizes the best available communication tool from a user perspective. This paper therefore presents an algorithm which uses context-awareness to support automatic media resource selection. The algorithm takes advantage of an abstract classification of privacy, quality, and cost in order to compare media resources to user’s preferences. As a proof of concept implementation, the algorithm has been incorporated into an e-meeting application called Marratech.

  • 41.
    Lindahl, Olof
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Andersson, Britt
    Centre for Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Umeå University.
    Lundström, Ronnie
    Centre for Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Umeå University.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Development of spin-off companies for health care from biomedical research results2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Lindahl, Olof
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Andersson, Britt M.
    Centre for Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Umeå University.
    Lundström, Ronnie J.I.
    Centre for Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Umeå University.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    A triple-helix model for refining biomedical engineering research into spin-off companies for the health care market2012In: World Congress on Medical Physics and Biological Engineering, May 26-31, 2012, Beijing, China / [ed] Mian Long, Berlin: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2012, p. 2088-2090Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Triple-Helix activities at the centre for biomedical engineering and physics (CMTF) have generated growth both in academia at the universities and in the industry in Northern Sweden. Cooperation was built up between the 26 research projects and about 15 established companies in the field of biomedical engineering. The established researcher - owned company for business development of the research results from the CMTF, CMTF Business Development Co Ltd, has so far launched one spin-off company and has 15 new business leads to business develop. The activities have also increased the interest for commercial and entrepreneurship questions among the scientists in the centre. So far a total of seven spin-off companies have resulted from the CMTF-research since the year 2000

  • 43.
    McDonald, H.A.
    et al.
    University of Ulster. School of Computing and Mathematics.
    Nugent, C.D.
    University of Ulster. School of Computing and Mathematics.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Finlay, D.D.
    University of Ulster. School of Computing and Mathematics.
    Moore, G.
    University of Ulster. School of Computing and Mathematics.
    homeRuleML Version 2.1: a revised and extended version of the homeRuleML concept2013In: XIII Mediterranean Conference on Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing 2013: MEDICON 2013, 25-28 September 2013, Seville, Spain, Wien: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2013, Vol. IX, p. 1262-1265Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a direct result of the changes in global demographics, a significant amount of research has been undertaken in the area of home based support and healthcare provision, particularly in the direction of smart home environments. When applied to data generated within a smart home environment, decision support rules have the potential to recognise an inhabitant’s behaviour and provide suitable support and assistance when required. homeRuleML is an XML-based format for the storage and exchange of decision support rules generated within smart home environments. In our current work we have extended upon the concepts of homeRuleML and have subsequently developed an improved format. The evolution of homeRuleML from version 1.0 to version 2.1 has been documented within this paper.

  • 44.
    McDonald, H.A.
    et al.
    University of Ulster. School of Computing and Mathematics.
    Nugent, C.D.
    University of Ulster. School of Computing and Mathematics.
    Moore, G.
    University of Ulster. School of Computing and Mathematics.
    Finlay, D.D.
    University of Ulster. School of Computing and Mathematics.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    A web based tool for storing and visualising data generated within a smart home2011In: Annual international conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2011: Boston, MA; 30 August -3 September 2011, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2011, p. 5303-5306Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing need to re-assess the current approaches available to researchers for storing and managing heterogeneous data generated within a smart home environment. In our current work we have developed the homeML Application; a web based tool to support researchers engaged in the area of smart home research as they perform experiments. Within this paper the homeML Application is presented which includes the fundamental components of the homeML Repository and the homeML Toolkit. Results from a usability study conducted by 10 computer science researchers are presented; the initial results of which have been positive

  • 45.
    McDonald, Heather A.
    et al.
    University of Ulster. School of Computing and Mathematics.
    Nugent, Chris D.
    University of Ulster. School of Computing and Mathematics.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Finlay, Dewar D.
    University of Ulster. School of Computing and Mathematics.
    Moore, George E.
    University of Ulster. School of Computing and Mathematics.
    An approach for the creation of accessible and shared datasets2012In: Ubiquitous Computing and Ambient Intelligence: 6th International Conference, Ucami 2012, Vitoria-gasteiz, Spain, December 3-5, 2012, Proceedings / [ed] Jose Bravo ; Diego Lp̤ez-de-ipina ; Francisco Moya, New York: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2012, p. 224-232Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the change in global demographics, a significant amount of research is being directed towards developing solutions to monitor and support the ageing as they perform activities of daily living. Research in this area is, however, being limited by the lack of shareable datasets available to support the development and evaluation of data driven activity recognition models. In our current work we have developed a suite of resources in an attempt to establish an openly available data repository where all datasets share a common format for the purposes of data storage. Within this paper the homeML Toolkit and the homeML Repository are presented. Results from a usability study of interactions with the toolkit, conducted by five computer science researchers are presented; the initial findings of which have been encouraging

  • 46.
    McDonald, Heather
    et al.
    University of Ulster.
    Nugent, Chris
    University of Ulster.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Finlay, Dewar
    University of Ulster.
    Moore, George
    University of Ulster.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    The homeML suite: shareable datasets for smart home environments2013In: Health and Technology, ISSN 2190-7188, E-ISSN 2190-7196, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 177-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of a standard format for storing data generated within the smart environments research domain is limiting the opportunity for researchers to compare and share datasets. The opportunity to re-use and share datasets is also being limited due to lack of an online resource available to researchers. In our current work we attempt to resolve these issues through the creation of homeML, a proposed format for storing and sharing data and the development of the homeML Suite as a means of supporting the use of homeML. Within this article the latest version of homeML, version 2.2 is presented, where the 'annotationDetails' element is introduced. An extended evaluation of the homeML Suite is also discussed. A usability and functionality study was conducted by a number of experienced researchers working within the domain of smart environments. The methodology of both studies is discussed in detail. Each participant's interactions with homeML and the suite of tools is presented, the findings of which have been positive. All participants agreed that the homeML Suite would be a useful tool to be available within the research domain and they would recommend it to their fellow researchers.

  • 47.
    McDonald, Heather
    et al.
    University of Ulster.
    Nugent, Chris
    University of Ulster.
    Moore, George
    University of Ulster.
    Burns, William
    University of Ulster.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Assessing the Impact of the homeML Format and the homeML Suite within the Research Community2013In: Journal of universal computer science (Online), ISSN 0948-695X, E-ISSN 0948-6968, Vol. 19, no 17, p. 2559-2576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of a standard format to store data generated within the smart environments research domain is limiting the opportunity for researchers to share and reuse datasets. The opportunity to exchange datasets is further hampered due to the lack of an online resource to facilitate this. In our current work we have attempted to resolve these issues through the development of homeML, a proposed format to support the storage and exchange of data generated within a smart environment and the homeML suite, an online tool to support data exchange and reuse. A usability and functionality study performed by 8 unbiased members of the research community is presented and discussed. All participants in the study agreed that the homeML format could address the need for a standard format within this domain. Participants also agreed that the homeML suite would be a useful tool to be available to researchers as they perform experiments in the area of smart environments.

  • 48.
    Melander-Wikman, Anita
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehabilitation.
    Jansson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Mörtberg, Christina
    Oslo universitet.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehabilitation.
    The lighthouse alarm and locator trial: a pilot study2007In: Technology and Health Care, ISSN 0928-7329, E-ISSN 1878-7401, ISSN 0928-7329, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 203-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important factor for health is the possibility to be active and mobile. To make this possible different kind of support are needed. Integrating geographical information systems technology and user experiences is important in the development of more user-friendly positioning devices. The Lighthouse Alarm and Locator trial aimed to test a new mobile alarm system with additional functionality such as positioning and monitoring of vital signs which can be used regardless of location (in hospital, at home). The system was tested by elderly persons from a pensioner organisation and home care personnel answered up on the alarms. After the tests qualitative interviews were performed with the two groups. The results showed that their experiences of the new mobile alarm system could be described in three main categories: to be supervised, to feel safe and to be mobile. These categories formed a theme: Positioning - an ethical dilemma. The clients' mobility was perceived to increase. The personnel did not think that positioning was ethical but the clients (elderly) did.

  • 49.
    Muuraiskangas, Salla
    et al.
    Digital Health, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Merilahti, Juho
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Digital Health, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Immonen, Milla
    Digital Health, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Hedman, Anders
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH, Media Technology and Interaction design, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Motivational strategy for a cognitive endurance mHealth application2015In: 2015 6th International Conference on Information, Intelligence, Systems and Applications: (IISA 2015), Corfu, 6-8 July 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, article id 7388089Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dementia has become a prevalent problem with our aging population. Dementia is threat to our independence because our independence relies on our cognitive performance. Cognitive performance declines as the years advance but it can and should be nurtured to keep it at sufficient functional level. Even though mobile technology has potential to be the desired low-cost and effective means to healthy living, it requires the driving force, motivation, to actually get the person to the destination. In this paper we present a motivational strategy for mHealth (mobile health) application for cognitive endurance

  • 50.
    Nilsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Bluetooth positioning2002In: CSEE 2002: Second Annual Conference on Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, Luleå, Sweden May 27-28: Conference Proceedings, Luleå tekniska universitet, 2002Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on positioning systems and context-aware applications are being performed in the Alipes project at CDT, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden. An evaluation of Bluetooth as a possible technology for positioning was performed during autumn of 2001 in this project. Proceeding the evaluation a Bluetooth based positioning system was implemented in order to complement the theoretical evaluation with empirical tests. Three different ways of positioning with Bluetooth have been developed for the Alipes project. With a registered positioning service a Bluetooth device has an active role in the positioning task as it sends a position on request. A Bluetooth device can also take a more passive role in a positioning task, which is when the unique address of the device is used by a connected device to look up a position in a database. It is also possible to forward a position gained from a positioning platform like Alipes over Bluetooth. This paper presents a Bluetooth positioning system where the three ways of positioning are implemented. The evaluation and conclusions of Bluetooth as a positioning source and how well Bluetooth performs in such a task are being discussed. To give support to the statements the implementation and tests are also presented.

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